CAT Mock Test - 10 (New Pattern)


75 Questions MCQ Test CAT Mock Test Series | CAT Mock Test - 10 (New Pattern)


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This mock test of CAT Mock Test - 10 (New Pattern) for CAT helps you for every CAT entrance exam. This contains 75 Multiple Choice Questions for CAT CAT Mock Test - 10 (New Pattern) (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this CAT Mock Test - 10 (New Pattern) quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. CAT students definitely take this CAT Mock Test - 10 (New Pattern) exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other CAT Mock Test - 10 (New Pattern) extra questions, long questions & short questions for CAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

A man is hiking in the countryside when he suddenly sees a toddler about to fall into an abandoned well. What will he do? Many people will instinctively run toward the toddler to save him. However, some people will simply panic, freezing in the moment of crisis. A handful of people might start to move toward the child, but then stop, because they realise that the crumbling old well could collapse under their weight. Their initial impulse to save the child competes with their desire for self-preservation.

This thought experiment was formulated by the ancient Confucian Mengzi, who uses it to argue that, contrary to egoists, and to those who believe that human psychology is a tabula rasa, human nature is hard-wired with an incipient tendency toward compassion for the suffering of others.

Mengzi also argues that humans have a sense of shame that can at least compete with our self-interested motivations. He does not naively assume that all humans are fully virtuous. He acknowledges that our innate compassion and sense of shame are only incipient. We often fail to have compassion for those we should, or fail to be ashamed of what is genuinely despicable. Menzi compares our innate dispositions toward virtue as ‘sprouts’. The sprout of a peach tree cannot bear fruit, but it has an active tendency to develop into a mature, fruit-bearing tree if given good soil, the right amounts of sun and rain, and the weeding of a prudent gardener. Similarly, the ‘sprout of benevolence’ – manifested in our spontaneous feeling of alarm and compassion for the child about to fall into a well – and the ‘sprout of righteousness’ – manifested in a beggar’s disdain to accept a handout given with contempt – are not fully formed, but can develop into genuine virtues given the right environment and cultivation.

How do we make sure that our moral sprouts bloom into actual virtues? Aristotle said that human nature is neither good nor evil, but it allows us to be habituated to virtue. However, Aristotle emphasised that virtue requires doing the right thing out of the right motivation. In contrast, Plato argued that our souls innately love the good, and retain a dim knowledge of the transcendent truths they were exposed to before they were embodied. The way to purify the soul and recover the knowledge of these truths, Plato claimed, is by the study of pure mathematics and philosophy. This theory of cultivation as recollection explains how we can act with the right motivations from the very beginning of moral cultivation. But Platonic ethical cultivation involves giving up our ordinary attachments to our family and an almost ascetic indifference to our physical bodies. In contrast, Mengzi’s suggestion that the path of ethical cultivation is through rich commitments to family, friends and other individuals in our community provides a much more appealing view of the goal of human life.

Mengzi recognised that humans are partly responsible for their own ethical development, but (like Plato and Aristotle) he held that society should create an environment conducive to virtue. He advised rulers that their first task is to make sure that the common people’s physical needs are met. To punish the people when they steal out of hunger is no different from setting traps for them.  He asked one ruler what he would do if one of his subordinates was bad at his job. The ruler replied: ‘Discharge him.’ Mengzi then asked what should be done if his own kingdom were in disorder. The ruler, clearly seeing what this implied, abruptly changed the topic. Once the people’s basic needs were met, Mengzi suggested that they should be ethically educated.

Mengzi claimed that humans are endowed with ‘four hearts’ of benevolence, righteousness, ritual propriety, and wisdom. Mengzi emphasises Wisdom because it is crucial for any virtuous person to be able to engage in deliberation about the best means to achieve the ends provided by the other ‘hearts’.
Excerpt from the article “The second sage” by Bryan W Van Norden

Q. All of the following are true as per the passage, EXCEPT

Solution:

Mengzi believed that man was partly responsible for ethical development. "Mengzi recognised that humans are partly responsible for their own ethical development, but (like Plato and Aristotle) he held that society should create an environment conducive to virtue."

QUESTION: 2

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

A man is hiking in the countryside when he suddenly sees a toddler about to fall into an abandoned well. What will he do? Many people will instinctively run toward the toddler to save him. However, some people will simply panic, freezing in the moment of crisis. A handful of people might start to move toward the child, but then stop, because they realise that the crumbling old well could collapse under their weight. Their initial impulse to save the child competes with their desire for self-preservation.

This thought experiment was formulated by the ancient Confucian Mengzi, who uses it to argue that, contrary to egoists, and to those who believe that human psychology is a tabula rasa, human nature is hard-wired with an incipient tendency toward compassion for the suffering of others.

Mengzi also argues that humans have a sense of shame that can at least compete with our self-interested motivations. He does not naively assume that all humans are fully virtuous. He acknowledges that our innate compassion and sense of shame are only incipient. We often fail to have compassion for those we should, or fail to be ashamed of what is genuinely despicable. Menzi compares our innate dispositions toward virtue as ‘sprouts’. The sprout of a peach tree cannot bear fruit, but it has an active tendency to develop into a mature, fruit-bearing tree if given good soil, the right amounts of sun and rain, and the weeding of a prudent gardener. Similarly, the ‘sprout of benevolence’ – manifested in our spontaneous feeling of alarm and compassion for the child about to fall into a well – and the ‘sprout of righteousness’ – manifested in a beggar’s disdain to accept a handout given with contempt – are not fully formed, but can develop into genuine virtues given the right environment and cultivation.

How do we make sure that our moral sprouts bloom into actual virtues? Aristotle said that human nature is neither good nor evil, but it allows us to be habituated to virtue. However, Aristotle emphasised that virtue requires doing the right thing out of the right motivation. In contrast, Plato argued that our souls innately love the good, and retain a dim knowledge of the transcendent truths they were exposed to before they were embodied. The way to purify the soul and recover the knowledge of these truths, Plato claimed, is by the study of pure mathematics and philosophy. This theory of cultivation as recollection explains how we can act with the right motivations from the very beginning of moral cultivation. But Platonic ethical cultivation involves giving up our ordinary attachments to our family and an almost ascetic indifference to our physical bodies. In contrast, Mengzi’s suggestion that the path of ethical cultivation is through rich commitments to family, friends and other individuals in our community provides a much more appealing view of the goal of human life.

Mengzi recognised that humans are partly responsible for their own ethical development, but (like Plato and Aristotle) he held that society should create an environment conducive to virtue. He advised rulers that their first task is to make sure that the common people’s physical needs are met. To punish the people when they steal out of hunger is no different from setting traps for them.  He asked one ruler what he would do if one of his subordinates was bad at his job. The ruler replied: ‘Discharge him.’ Mengzi then asked what should be done if his own kingdom were in disorder. The ruler, clearly seeing what this implied, abruptly changed the topic. Once the people’s basic needs were met, Mengzi suggested that they should be ethically educated.

Mengzi claimed that humans are endowed with ‘four hearts’ of benevolence, righteousness, ritual propriety, and wisdom. Mengzi emphasises Wisdom because it is crucial for any virtuous person to be able to engage in deliberation about the best means to achieve the ends provided by the other ‘hearts’.
Excerpt from the article “The second sage” by Bryan W Van Norden


Q. Which of the following can be inferred from the story of the Child-at-the well?

Solution:

We do feel sorry or compassion for other humans and that’s why even when we do not know the child we move forward to save him." Many people will instinctively run toward the toddler to save him. "human nature is hard-wired with an incipient tendency toward compassion for the suffering of others."

This also makes option B incorrect
Option A is incorrect as it's an extreme option. it implies self-preservation always stops us which isn't the case 

Option D too is extreme because of the use of the word ''always'' "A handful of people might start to move toward the child, but then stop, because they realize that the crumbling old well could collapse under their weight. Their initial impulse to save the child competes with their desire for self-preservation." 

QUESTION: 3

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

A man is hiking in the countryside when he suddenly sees a toddler about to fall into an abandoned well. What will he do? Many people will instinctively run toward the toddler to save him. However, some people will simply panic, freezing in the moment of crisis. A handful of people might start to move toward the child, but then stop, because they realise that the crumbling old well could collapse under their weight. Their initial impulse to save the child competes with their desire for self-preservation.

This thought experiment was formulated by the ancient Confucian Mengzi, who uses it to argue that, contrary to egoists, and to those who believe that human psychology is a tabula rasa, human nature is hard-wired with an incipient tendency toward compassion for the suffering of others.

Mengzi also argues that humans have a sense of shame that can at least compete with our self-interested motivations. He does not naively assume that all humans are fully virtuous. He acknowledges that our innate compassion and sense of shame are only incipient. We often fail to have compassion for those we should, or fail to be ashamed of what is genuinely despicable. Menzi compares our innate dispositions toward virtue as ‘sprouts’. The sprout of a peach tree cannot bear fruit, but it has an active tendency to develop into a mature, fruit-bearing tree if given good soil, the right amounts of sun and rain, and the weeding of a prudent gardener. Similarly, the ‘sprout of benevolence’ – manifested in our spontaneous feeling of alarm and compassion for the child about to fall into a well – and the ‘sprout of righteousness’ – manifested in a beggar’s disdain to accept a handout given with contempt – are not fully formed, but can develop into genuine virtues given the right environment and cultivation.

How do we make sure that our moral sprouts bloom into actual virtues? Aristotle said that human nature is neither good nor evil, but it allows us to be habituated to virtue. However, Aristotle emphasised that virtue requires doing the right thing out of the right motivation. In contrast, Plato argued that our souls innately love the good, and retain a dim knowledge of the transcendent truths they were exposed to before they were embodied. The way to purify the soul and recover the knowledge of these truths, Plato claimed, is by the study of pure mathematics and philosophy. This theory of cultivation as recollection explains how we can act with the right motivations from the very beginning of moral cultivation. But Platonic ethical cultivation involves giving up our ordinary attachments to our family and an almost ascetic indifference to our physical bodies. In contrast, Mengzi’s suggestion that the path of ethical cultivation is through rich commitments to family, friends and other individuals in our community provides a much more appealing view of the goal of human life.

Mengzi recognised that humans are partly responsible for their own ethical development, but (like Plato and Aristotle) he held that society should create an environment conducive to virtue. He advised rulers that their first task is to make sure that the common people’s physical needs are met. To punish the people when they steal out of hunger is no different from setting traps for them.  He asked one ruler what he would do if one of his subordinates was bad at his job. The ruler replied: ‘Discharge him.’ Mengzi then asked what should be done if his own kingdom were in disorder. The ruler, clearly seeing what this implied, abruptly changed the topic. Once the people’s basic needs were met, Mengzi suggested that they should be ethically educated.

Mengzi claimed that humans are endowed with ‘four hearts’ of benevolence, righteousness, ritual propriety, and wisdom. Mengzi emphasises Wisdom because it is crucial for any virtuous person to be able to engage in deliberation about the best means to achieve the ends provided by the other ‘hearts’.
Excerpt from the article “The second sage” by Bryan W Van Norden

Q. What did Mengzi want to show from the question he asked one ruler?

Solution:

From the question, he wants to show that a ruler can claim authority only when is responsible for the people over who he claims so.

Option D is incorrect as the ''self-growth'' of the ruler hasn't been talked about in the passage.

"Mengzi recognised that humans are partly responsible for their own ethical development, but (like Plato and Aristotle) he held that society should create an environment conducive to virtue. He advised rulers that their first task is to make sure that the common people’s physical needs are met. To punish the people when they steal out of hunger is no different from setting traps for them.  He asked one ruler what he would do if one of his subordinates was bad at his job. The ruler replied: ‘Discharge him.’ Mengzi then asked what should be done if his own kingdom were in disorder. The ruler, clearly seeing what this implied, abruptly changed the topic. Once the people’s basic needs were met, Mengzi suggested that they should be ethically educated."

Mengzi then asked what should be done if his own kingdom were in disorder.  Disorder here can't be taken to mean lack of just food, clothing and shelter(which makes option A incorrect). The author does talk about these 3 but in context of and to set up an environment conducive to virtue and if the king can't set up a conducive environment, if his kingdom is in disorder he has no legitimate claim to authority "what he would do if one of his subordinates was bad at his job. The ruler replied: ‘Discharge him."

QUESTION: 4

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

A man is hiking in the countryside when he suddenly sees a toddler about to fall into an abandoned well. What will he do? Many people will instinctively run toward the toddler to save him. However, some people will simply panic, freezing in the moment of crisis. A handful of people might start to move toward the child, but then stop, because they realise that the crumbling old well could collapse under their weight. Their initial impulse to save the child competes with their desire for self-preservation.

This thought experiment was formulated by the ancient Confucian Mengzi, who uses it to argue that, contrary to egoists, and to those who believe that human psychology is a tabula rasa, human nature is hard-wired with an incipient tendency toward compassion for the suffering of others.

Mengzi also argues that humans have a sense of shame that can at least compete with our self-interested motivations. He does not naively assume that all humans are fully virtuous. He acknowledges that our innate compassion and sense of shame are only incipient. We often fail to have compassion for those we should, or fail to be ashamed of what is genuinely despicable. Menzi compares our innate dispositions toward virtue as ‘sprouts’. The sprout of a peach tree cannot bear fruit, but it has an active tendency to develop into a mature, fruit-bearing tree if given good soil, the right amounts of sun and rain, and the weeding of a prudent gardener. Similarly, the ‘sprout of benevolence’ – manifested in our spontaneous feeling of alarm and compassion for the child about to fall into a well – and the ‘sprout of righteousness’ – manifested in a beggar’s disdain to accept a handout given with contempt – are not fully formed, but can develop into genuine virtues given the right environment and cultivation.

How do we make sure that our moral sprouts bloom into actual virtues? Aristotle said that human nature is neither good nor evil, but it allows us to be habituated to virtue. However, Aristotle emphasised that virtue requires doing the right thing out of the right motivation. In contrast, Plato argued that our souls innately love the good, and retain a dim knowledge of the transcendent truths they were exposed to before they were embodied. The way to purify the soul and recover the knowledge of these truths, Plato claimed, is by the study of pure mathematics and philosophy. This theory of cultivation as recollection explains how we can act with the right motivations from the very beginning of moral cultivation. But Platonic ethical cultivation involves giving up our ordinary attachments to our family and an almost ascetic indifference to our physical bodies. In contrast, Mengzi’s suggestion that the path of ethical cultivation is through rich commitments to family, friends and other individuals in our community provides a much more appealing view of the goal of human life.

Mengzi recognised that humans are partly responsible for their own ethical development, but (like Plato and Aristotle) he held that society should create an environment conducive to virtue. He advised rulers that their first task is to make sure that the common people’s physical needs are met. To punish the people when they steal out of hunger is no different from setting traps for them.  He asked one ruler what he would do if one of his subordinates was bad at his job. The ruler replied: ‘Discharge him.’ Mengzi then asked what should be done if his own kingdom were in disorder. The ruler, clearly seeing what this implied, abruptly changed the topic. Once the people’s basic needs were met, Mengzi suggested that they should be ethically educated.

Mengzi claimed that humans are endowed with ‘four hearts’ of benevolence, righteousness, ritual propriety, and wisdom. Mengzi emphasises Wisdom because it is crucial for any virtuous person to be able to engage in deliberation about the best means to achieve the ends provided by the other ‘hearts’.
Excerpt from the article “The second sage” by Bryan W Van Norden

Q. Which of the following is not mentioned by Mengzi as one of the four hearts?

Solution:

In the last paragraph all the others are mentioned except objectivism - benevolence(generosity), ritual propriety(Disdain to do what is shameful), and wisdom(sagacity).

QUESTION: 5

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

A man is hiking in the countryside when he suddenly sees a toddler about to fall into an abandoned well. What will he do? Many people will instinctively run toward the toddler to save him. However, some people will simply panic, freezing in the moment of crisis. A handful of people might start to move toward the child, but then stop, because they realise that the crumbling old well could collapse under their weight. Their initial impulse to save the child competes with their desire for self-preservation.

This thought experiment was formulated by the ancient Confucian Mengzi, who uses it to argue that, contrary to egoists, and to those who believe that human psychology is a tabula rasa, human nature is hard-wired with an incipient tendency toward compassion for the suffering of others.

Mengzi also argues that humans have a sense of shame that can at least compete with our self-interested motivations. He does not naively assume that all humans are fully virtuous. He acknowledges that our innate compassion and sense of shame are only incipient. We often fail to have compassion for those we should, or fail to be ashamed of what is genuinely despicable. Menzi compares our innate dispositions toward virtue as ‘sprouts’. The sprout of a peach tree cannot bear fruit, but it has an active tendency to develop into a mature, fruit-bearing tree if given good soil, the right amounts of sun and rain, and the weeding of a prudent gardener. Similarly, the ‘sprout of benevolence’ – manifested in our spontaneous feeling of alarm and compassion for the child about to fall into a well – and the ‘sprout of righteousness’ – manifested in a beggar’s disdain to accept a handout given with contempt – are not fully formed, but can develop into genuine virtues given the right environment and cultivation.

How do we make sure that our moral sprouts bloom into actual virtues? Aristotle said that human nature is neither good nor evil, but it allows us to be habituated to virtue. However, Aristotle emphasised that virtue requires doing the right thing out of the right motivation. In contrast, Plato argued that our souls innately love the good, and retain a dim knowledge of the transcendent truths they were exposed to before they were embodied. The way to purify the soul and recover the knowledge of these truths, Plato claimed, is by the study of pure mathematics and philosophy. This theory of cultivation as recollection explains how we can act with the right motivations from the very beginning of moral cultivation. But Platonic ethical cultivation involves giving up our ordinary attachments to our family and an almost ascetic indifference to our physical bodies. In contrast, Mengzi’s suggestion that the path of ethical cultivation is through rich commitments to family, friends and other individuals in our community provides a much more appealing view of the goal of human life.

Mengzi recognised that humans are partly responsible for their own ethical development, but (like Plato and Aristotle) he held that society should create an environment conducive to virtue. He advised rulers that their first task is to make sure that the common people’s physical needs are met. To punish the people when they steal out of hunger is no different from setting traps for them.  He asked one ruler what he would do if one of his subordinates was bad at his job. The ruler replied: ‘Discharge him.’ Mengzi then asked what should be done if his own kingdom were in disorder. The ruler, clearly seeing what this implied, abruptly changed the topic. Once the people’s basic needs were met, Mengzi suggested that they should be ethically educated.

Mengzi claimed that humans are endowed with ‘four hearts’ of benevolence, righteousness, ritual propriety, and wisdom. Mengzi emphasises Wisdom because it is crucial for any virtuous person to be able to engage in deliberation about the best means to achieve the ends provided by the other ‘hearts’.
Excerpt from the article “The second sage” by Bryan W Van Norden

Q. What would the words tabula rasa mean?

Solution:

Refer to the lines “ Mengzi, who uses it to argue that, contrary to egoists, and to those who believe that human psychology is a tabula rasa, human nature is hard-wired with an incipient tendency toward compassion for the suffering of others..”

► 3 stands are being talked about here.

►1 according to egoists.

►2 according to those who believe that human psychology is a tabula rasa.

►and 3 according to Mengzi - human nature is hard-wired with an incipient tendency toward compassion for the suffering of others.

►1 and 2 are contrary to Mengzi. hence opposite of ''human nature is hard-wired with an incipient tendency toward compassion for the suffering of others..” is option 2.

QUESTION: 6

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Last fall, Toby Young did something ironic. Toby is the son of Michael Young, the British sociologist and Labour life peer whose 1958 satire The Rise of the Meritocracy has been credited with coining the term. In September, he published an 8,000-word reconsideration of his father's signature concept in an Australian monthly. The old man was right that meritocracy would gradually create a stratified and immobile society, he wrote, but wrong that abolishing selective education was the cure. Unlike my father, I'm not an egalitarian, Young wrote. If meritocracy creates a new caste system, the answer is more meritocracy. To restore equality of opportunity, he suggested subsidies for intelligence-maximizing embryo selection for poor parents,with below-average IQs. The irony lay in the implication that Young, because of who his father was, has special insight into the ideology that holds that it shouldn't matter who your father is.

His outlandish resort to eugenics suggests that Toby Young found himself at a loss for solutions, as all modern critics of meritocracy seem to do. The problems they describe are fundamental, but none of their remedies are more than tweaks to make the system more efficient or less prejudicial to the poor. For instance, in Excellent Sheep, William Deresiewicz accuses the Ivy League of imposing a malignant ruling class on the country, then meekly suggests that elite universities might solve the problem by giving greater weight in admissions to socioeconomic disadvantage and less to resum-stuffing. In The Tyranny of the Meritocracy, Lani Guinier belies the harsh terms of her title by advising that we simply learn to reward "democratic rather than testocratic merit". Christopher Hayes subtitled his debut book Twilight of the Elites "America after Meritocracy", but the remedies he prescribes are all meant to preserve meritocracy by making it more effective. In his latest book, Our Kids, Robert Putnam proves that American social mobility is in crisis, then reposes his hopes in such predictable nostrums as housing vouchers and universal pre-kindergarten.

When an author caps two hundred pages of rhetorical fire with fifteen pages of platitudes or utopian fantasy, that is called "the last chapter problem". When every author who takes up a question finds himself equally at a loss, that is something else. In this case, our authors fail as critics of meritocracy because they cannot get their heads outside of it. They are incapable of imagining what it would be like not to believe in it. They assume the validity of the very thing they should be questioning.

Meritocracy began by destroying an aristocracy; it has ended in creating a new one. Nearly every book in the American anti-meritocracy literature makes this charge, in what is usually its most empirically reinforced chapter.  But the solutions on offer never rise to the scale of the problem. Authors attack the meritocratic machine with screwdrivers, not sledgehammers, and differ only in which valve they want to adjust. Some think the solution is to tip more disadvantaged kids over the lip of the intake funnel, which would probably make things worse. If more people start competing for a finite number of slots, slim advantages like those that come from having grown up with two meritocrats for parents will only loom larger.  Others favor the slightly more radical solution of redefining our idea of merit, usually in a way that downplays what Guinier calls "pseudoscientific measures of excellence". She even has a replacement in mind, the Bial-Dale College Adaptability Index, the testing of which involves Legos. (Why are you laughing? It is backed by a study.)

My solution is quite different. The meritocracy is hardening into an aristocracy"so let it. Every society in history has had an elite, and what is an aristocracy but an elite that has put some care into making itself presentable? Allow the social forces that created this aristocracy to continue their work, and embrace the label. By all means this caste should admit as many worthy newcomers as is compatible with their sense of continuity. New brains, like new money, have been necessary to every ruling class, meritocratic or not. If ethnic balance is important to meritocrats, they should engineer it into the system. If geographic diversity strikes them as important, they should ensure that it exists, ideally while keeping an eye on the danger of hoovering up all of the native talent from regional America. But they must give up any illusion that such tinkering will make them representative of the country over which they preside. They are separate, parochial in their values, unique in their responsibilities. That is what makes them aristocratic.

Q. From the context of the passage, the meaning of the word 'meritocracy' can be derived to be:

Solution:

A meritocracy is defined as: a society governed by people selected according to merit.
In the given context, option 2 is closest to the given meaning.

QUESTION: 7

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Last fall, Toby Young did something ironic. Toby is the son of Michael Young, the British sociologist and Labour life peer whose 1958 satire The Rise of the Meritocracy has been credited with coining the term. In September, he published an 8,000-word reconsideration of his father's signature concept in an Australian monthly. The old man was right that meritocracy would gradually create a stratified and immobile society, he wrote, but wrong that abolishing selective education was the cure. Unlike my father, I'm not an egalitarian, Young wrote. If meritocracy creates a new caste system, the answer is more meritocracy. To restore equality of opportunity, he suggested subsidies for intelligence-maximizing embryo selection for poor parents,with below-average IQs. The irony lay in the implication that Young, because of who his father was, has special insight into the ideology that holds that it shouldn't matter who your father is.

His outlandish resort to eugenics suggests that Toby Young found himself at a loss for solutions, as all modern critics of meritocracy seem to do. The problems they describe are fundamental, but none of their remedies are more than tweaks to make the system more efficient or less prejudicial to the poor. For instance, in Excellent Sheep, William Deresiewicz accuses the Ivy League of imposing a malignant ruling class on the country, then meekly suggests that elite universities might solve the problem by giving greater weight in admissions to socioeconomic disadvantage and less to resum-stuffing. In The Tyranny of the Meritocracy, Lani Guinier belies the harsh terms of her title by advising that we simply learn to reward "democratic rather than testocratic merit". Christopher Hayes subtitled his debut book Twilight of the Elites "America after Meritocracy", but the remedies he prescribes are all meant to preserve meritocracy by making it more effective. In his latest book, Our Kids, Robert Putnam proves that American social mobility is in crisis, then reposes his hopes in such predictable nostrums as housing vouchers and universal pre-kindergarten.

When an author caps two hundred pages of rhetorical fire with fifteen pages of platitudes or utopian fantasy, that is called "the last chapter problem". When every author who takes up a question finds himself equally at a loss, that is something else. In this case, our authors fail as critics of meritocracy because they cannot get their heads outside of it. They are incapable of imagining what it would be like not to believe in it. They assume the validity of the very thing they should be questioning.

Meritocracy began by destroying an aristocracy; it has ended in creating a new one. Nearly every book in the American anti-meritocracy literature makes this charge, in what is usually its most empirically reinforced chapter.  But the solutions on offer never rise to the scale of the problem. Authors attack the meritocratic machine with screwdrivers, not sledgehammers, and differ only in which valve they want to adjust. Some think the solution is to tip more disadvantaged kids over the lip of the intake funnel, which would probably make things worse. If more people start competing for a finite number of slots, slim advantages like those that come from having grown up with two meritocrats for parents will only loom larger.  Others favor the slightly more radical solution of redefining our idea of merit, usually in a way that downplays what Guinier calls "pseudoscientific measures of excellence". She even has a replacement in mind, the Bial-Dale College Adaptability Index, the testing of which involves Legos. (Why are you laughing? It is backed by a study.)

My solution is quite different. The meritocracy is hardening into an aristocracy"so let it. Every society in history has had an elite, and what is an aristocracy but an elite that has put some care into making itself presentable? Allow the social forces that created this aristocracy to continue their work, and embrace the label. By all means this caste should admit as many worthy newcomers as is compatible with their sense of continuity. New brains, like new money, have been necessary to every ruling class, meritocratic or not. If ethnic balance is important to meritocrats, they should engineer it into the system. If geographic diversity strikes them as important, they should ensure that it exists, ideally while keeping an eye on the danger of hoovering up all of the native talent from regional America. But they must give up any illusion that such tinkering will make them representative of the country over which they preside. They are separate, parochial in their values, unique in their responsibilities. That is what makes them aristocratic.

Q. What is ironic in Toby Young's solution for meritocracy?

Solution:

Refer to the lines: The irony lay in the implication that Young, because of who his father was, has special insight into the ideology that holds that it shouldn't matter who your father is.

Why is Toby Young making the suggestion he is? Because he is the son of Michael Young. He is the product of meritocracy and yet, he is suggesting against the same. This is the irony being pointed out in the given case.

QUESTION: 8

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Last fall, Toby Young did something ironic. Toby is the son of Michael Young, the British sociologist and Labour life peer whose 1958 satire The Rise of the Meritocracy has been credited with coining the term. In September, he published an 8,000-word reconsideration of his father's signature concept in an Australian monthly. The old man was right that meritocracy would gradually create a stratified and immobile society, he wrote, but wrong that abolishing selective education was the cure. Unlike my father, I'm not an egalitarian, Young wrote. If meritocracy creates a new caste system, the answer is more meritocracy. To restore equality of opportunity, he suggested subsidies for intelligence-maximizing embryo selection for poor parents,with below-average IQs. The irony lay in the implication that Young, because of who his father was, has special insight into the ideology that holds that it shouldn't matter who your father is.

His outlandish resort to eugenics suggests that Toby Young found himself at a loss for solutions, as all modern critics of meritocracy seem to do. The problems they describe are fundamental, but none of their remedies are more than tweaks to make the system more efficient or less prejudicial to the poor. For instance, in Excellent Sheep, William Deresiewicz accuses the Ivy League of imposing a malignant ruling class on the country, then meekly suggests that elite universities might solve the problem by giving greater weight in admissions to socioeconomic disadvantage and less to resum-stuffing. In The Tyranny of the Meritocracy, Lani Guinier belies the harsh terms of her title by advising that we simply learn to reward "democratic rather than testocratic merit". Christopher Hayes subtitled his debut book Twilight of the Elites "America after Meritocracy", but the remedies he prescribes are all meant to preserve meritocracy by making it more effective. In his latest book, Our Kids, Robert Putnam proves that American social mobility is in crisis, then reposes his hopes in such predictable nostrums as housing vouchers and universal pre-kindergarten.

When an author caps two hundred pages of rhetorical fire with fifteen pages of platitudes or utopian fantasy, that is called "the last chapter problem". When every author who takes up a question finds himself equally at a loss, that is something else. In this case, our authors fail as critics of meritocracy because they cannot get their heads outside of it. They are incapable of imagining what it would be like not to believe in it. They assume the validity of the very thing they should be questioning.

Meritocracy began by destroying an aristocracy; it has ended in creating a new one. Nearly every book in the American anti-meritocracy literature makes this charge, in what is usually its most empirically reinforced chapter.  But the solutions on offer never rise to the scale of the problem. Authors attack the meritocratic machine with screwdrivers, not sledgehammers, and differ only in which valve they want to adjust. Some think the solution is to tip more disadvantaged kids over the lip of the intake funnel, which would probably make things worse. If more people start competing for a finite number of slots, slim advantages like those that come from having grown up with two meritocrats for parents will only loom larger.  Others favor the slightly more radical solution of redefining our idea of merit, usually in a way that downplays what Guinier calls "pseudoscientific measures of excellence". She even has a replacement in mind, the Bial-Dale College Adaptability Index, the testing of which involves Legos. (Why are you laughing? It is backed by a study.)

My solution is quite different. The meritocracy is hardening into an aristocracy"so let it. Every society in history has had an elite, and what is an aristocracy but an elite that has put some care into making itself presentable? Allow the social forces that created this aristocracy to continue their work, and embrace the label. By all means this caste should admit as many worthy newcomers as is compatible with their sense of continuity. New brains, like new money, have been necessary to every ruling class, meritocratic or not. If ethnic balance is important to meritocrats, they should engineer it into the system. If geographic diversity strikes them as important, they should ensure that it exists, ideally while keeping an eye on the danger of hoovering up all of the native talent from regional America. But they must give up any illusion that such tinkering will make them representative of the country over which they preside. They are separate, parochial in their values, unique in their responsibilities. That is what makes them aristocratic.

Q. The tone of the author of the passage can be said to be:

Solution:

In the given passage, the author of the passage is criticizing with regards to other authors and researchers, especially with respect to their views on Meritocracy. He then goes on to provide his own analysis and solution for the same problem. This approach of the author is best represented by option 4.
Lines where author is criticizing

"His outlandish resort to eugenics suggests that Toby Young found himself at a loss for solutions, as all modern critics of meritocracy seem to do. "

"In this case, our authors fail as critics of meritocracy because they cannot get their heads outside of it. They are incapable of imagining what it would be like not to believe in it. They assume the validity of the very thing they should be questioning."

"But the solutions on offer never rise to the scale of the problem. "

Option 3 is incorrect as author gives his opinions throughout the passage. Hence, can't be called Objective

​► Option 2 is incorrect as author can't be called Unbiased (neutral). Author very clearly expresses his opinions

​► Option 1 is close choice but Prejudiced(having or showing a dislike or distrust that is derived from the prejudice-preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience.) isn't the best to describe the author

Also analytical is a much better word than thoughtful(absorbed in or involving thought.)

QUESTION: 9

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Last fall, Toby Young did something ironic. Toby is the son of Michael Young, the British sociologist and Labour life peer whose 1958 satire The Rise of the Meritocracy has been credited with coining the term. In September, he published an 8,000-word reconsideration of his father's signature concept in an Australian monthly. The old man was right that meritocracy would gradually create a stratified and immobile society, he wrote, but wrong that abolishing selective education was the cure. Unlike my father, I'm not an egalitarian, Young wrote. If meritocracy creates a new caste system, the answer is more meritocracy. To restore equality of opportunity, he suggested subsidies for intelligence-maximizing embryo selection for poor parents,with below-average IQs. The irony lay in the implication that Young, because of who his father was, has special insight into the ideology that holds that it shouldn't matter who your father is.

His outlandish resort to eugenics suggests that Toby Young found himself at a loss for solutions, as all modern critics of meritocracy seem to do. The problems they describe are fundamental, but none of their remedies are more than tweaks to make the system more efficient or less prejudicial to the poor. For instance, in Excellent Sheep, William Deresiewicz accuses the Ivy League of imposing a malignant ruling class on the country, then meekly suggests that elite universities might solve the problem by giving greater weight in admissions to socioeconomic disadvantage and less to resum-stuffing. In The Tyranny of the Meritocracy, Lani Guinier belies the harsh terms of her title by advising that we simply learn to reward "democratic rather than testocratic merit". Christopher Hayes subtitled his debut book Twilight of the Elites "America after Meritocracy", but the remedies he prescribes are all meant to preserve meritocracy by making it more effective. In his latest book, Our Kids, Robert Putnam proves that American social mobility is in crisis, then reposes his hopes in such predictable nostrums as housing vouchers and universal pre-kindergarten.

When an author caps two hundred pages of rhetorical fire with fifteen pages of platitudes or utopian fantasy, that is called "the last chapter problem". When every author who takes up a question finds himself equally at a loss, that is something else. In this case, our authors fail as critics of meritocracy because they cannot get their heads outside of it. They are incapable of imagining what it would be like not to believe in it. They assume the validity of the very thing they should be questioning.

Meritocracy began by destroying an aristocracy; it has ended in creating a new one. Nearly every book in the American anti-meritocracy literature makes this charge, in what is usually its most empirically reinforced chapter.  But the solutions on offer never rise to the scale of the problem. Authors attack the meritocratic machine with screwdrivers, not sledgehammers, and differ only in which valve they want to adjust. Some think the solution is to tip more disadvantaged kids over the lip of the intake funnel, which would probably make things worse. If more people start competing for a finite number of slots, slim advantages like those that come from having grown up with two meritocrats for parents will only loom larger.  Others favor the slightly more radical solution of redefining our idea of merit, usually in a way that downplays what Guinier calls "pseudoscientific measures of excellence". She even has a replacement in mind, the Bial-Dale College Adaptability Index, the testing of which involves Legos. (Why are you laughing? It is backed by a study.)

My solution is quite different. The meritocracy is hardening into an aristocracy"so let it. Every society in history has had an elite, and what is an aristocracy but an elite that has put some care into making itself presentable? Allow the social forces that created this aristocracy to continue their work, and embrace the label. By all means this caste should admit as many worthy newcomers as is compatible with their sense of continuity. New brains, like new money, have been necessary to every ruling class, meritocratic or not. If ethnic balance is important to meritocrats, they should engineer it into the system. If geographic diversity strikes them as important, they should ensure that it exists, ideally while keeping an eye on the danger of hoovering up all of the native talent from regional America. But they must give up any illusion that such tinkering will make them representative of the country over which they preside. They are separate, parochial in their values, unique in their responsibilities. That is what makes them aristocratic.

Q. According to the author of the passage, "the last chapter problem" implies:

Solution:

Refer to the lines: When an author caps two hundred pages of rhetorical fire with fifteen pages of platitudes or utopian fantasy, that is called "the last chapter problem".

Utopia refers to an imagined place or state of things in which everything is perfect.

Bromides means platitudes (which, in turn, means a trite or obvious remark).
Using this information, we can see that option 3 is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 10

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Last fall, Toby Young did something ironic. Toby is the son of Michael Young, the British sociologist and Labour life peer whose 1958 satire The Rise of the Meritocracy has been credited with coining the term. In September, he published an 8,000-word reconsideration of his father's signature concept in an Australian monthly. The old man was right that meritocracy would gradually create a stratified and immobile society, he wrote, but wrong that abolishing selective education was the cure. Unlike my father, I'm not an egalitarian, Young wrote. If meritocracy creates a new caste system, the answer is more meritocracy. To restore equality of opportunity, he suggested subsidies for intelligence-maximizing embryo selection for poor parents,with below-average IQs. The irony lay in the implication that Young, because of who his father was, has special insight into the ideology that holds that it shouldn't matter who your father is.

His outlandish resort to eugenics suggests that Toby Young found himself at a loss for solutions, as all modern critics of meritocracy seem to do. The problems they describe are fundamental, but none of their remedies are more than tweaks to make the system more efficient or less prejudicial to the poor. For instance, in Excellent Sheep, William Deresiewicz accuses the Ivy League of imposing a malignant ruling class on the country, then meekly suggests that elite universities might solve the problem by giving greater weight in admissions to socioeconomic disadvantage and less to resum-stuffing. In The Tyranny of the Meritocracy, Lani Guinier belies the harsh terms of her title by advising that we simply learn to reward "democratic rather than testocratic merit". Christopher Hayes subtitled his debut book Twilight of the Elites "America after Meritocracy", but the remedies he prescribes are all meant to preserve meritocracy by making it more effective. In his latest book, Our Kids, Robert Putnam proves that American social mobility is in crisis, then reposes his hopes in such predictable nostrums as housing vouchers and universal pre-kindergarten.

When an author caps two hundred pages of rhetorical fire with fifteen pages of platitudes or utopian fantasy, that is called "the last chapter problem". When every author who takes up a question finds himself equally at a loss, that is something else. In this case, our authors fail as critics of meritocracy because they cannot get their heads outside of it. They are incapable of imagining what it would be like not to believe in it. They assume the validity of the very thing they should be questioning.

Meritocracy began by destroying an aristocracy; it has ended in creating a new one. Nearly every book in the American anti-meritocracy literature makes this charge, in what is usually its most empirically reinforced chapter.  But the solutions on offer never rise to the scale of the problem. Authors attack the meritocratic machine with screwdrivers, not sledgehammers, and differ only in which valve they want to adjust. Some think the solution is to tip more disadvantaged kids over the lip of the intake funnel, which would probably make things worse. If more people start competing for a finite number of slots, slim advantages like those that come from having grown up with two meritocrats for parents will only loom larger.  Others favor the slightly more radical solution of redefining our idea of merit, usually in a way that downplays what Guinier calls "pseudoscientific measures of excellence". She even has a replacement in mind, the Bial-Dale College Adaptability Index, the testing of which involves Legos. (Why are you laughing? It is backed by a study.)

My solution is quite different. The meritocracy is hardening into an aristocracy"so let it. Every society in history has had an elite, and what is an aristocracy but an elite that has put some care into making itself presentable? Allow the social forces that created this aristocracy to continue their work, and embrace the label. By all means this caste should admit as many worthy newcomers as is compatible with their sense of continuity. New brains, like new money, have been necessary to every ruling class, meritocratic or not. If ethnic balance is important to meritocrats, they should engineer it into the system. If geographic diversity strikes them as important, they should ensure that it exists, ideally while keeping an eye on the danger of hoovering up all of the native talent from regional America. But they must give up any illusion that such tinkering will make them representative of the country over which they preside. They are separate, parochial in their values, unique in their responsibilities. That is what makes them aristocratic.

Q. According to the author of the passage:

I. the solutions to the problems of meritocracy primarily suggest tinkering with the system rather than abolishing it.
II. the solutions for the problems posed by meritocracy are not just not strong enough to question the very validity of the system and break its very foundations.
III. solutions for meritocracy, such as the one that involve re-defining merit, miss the mark by making suggestions that are laughable in themselves.

Solution:

Each of the statements can be derived from the lines: But the solutions on offer never rise to the scale of the problem. Authors attack the meritocratic machine with screwdrivers, not sledgehammers, and differ only in which valve they want to adjust.......Others favor the slightly more radical solution of redefining our idea of merit, usually in a way that downplays what Guinier calls "pseudoscientific measures of excellence". She even has a replacement in mind, the Bial-Dale College Adaptability Index, the testing of which involves Legos. (Why are you laughing? It is backed by a study.)

QUESTION: 11

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Let us consider a very simple example. Some earth-moving job has to be done in an area of high unemployment. There is a wide choice of technologies, ranging from the most modern earth- moving equipment to purely manual work without tools of any kind. The 'output' is fixed by the nature of the job, and it is quite clear that the capital / output ratio will be highest, if the input of 'capital' is kept lowest. If the job were done without any tools, the capital/output ratio would be infinitely large, but the productivity per man would be exceedingly low. If the job were done at the highest level of modern technology, the capital/output ratio would be low and the productivity per man very high.

Neither of these extremes is desirable, and a middle way has to be found. Assume some of the unemployed men were first set to work to make a variety of tools, including wheel-barrows and the like, while others were made to produce various 'wages goods'. Each of these lines of production in turn could be based on a wide range of different technologies, from the simplest to the most sophisticated. The task in every case would be to find an intermediate technology which obtains a fair level of productivity without having to resort to the purchase of expensive and sophisticated equipment. The outcome of the whole venture would be an economic development going far beyond the completion of the initial earth-moving Project. With a total input of 'capital' from outside which might be much smaller than would have been involved in the acquisition of the most modern earth-moving equipment, and an input of (previously unemployed) labour much greater than the 'modern' method would have demanded, not only a given project would have been completed, but a whole community would have been set on the path of development.

I say, therefore, that the dynamic approach to development, which treats the choice of appropriate, intermediate technologies as the central issue, opens up avenues of constructive action, which the static, econometric approach totally fails to recognise. This leads to the next objection which has been raised against the idea of intermediate technology. It is argued that all this might be quite promising if it were not for a notorious shortage of entrepreneurial ability in the under-developed countries. This scarce resource should therefore be utilised in the most concentrated way, in places where it has the best chances of success and should be endowed with the finest capital equipment the world can offer. Industry, it is thus argued, should be established in or near the big cities, in large integrated units, and on the highest possible level of capitalisation per workplace.

The argument hinges on the assumption that 'entrepreneurial ability' is a fixed and given quantity, and thus again betrays a purely static point of view. It is, of course, neither fixed nor given, being largely a function of the technology to be employed. Men, quite incapable of acting as entrepreneurs on the level of modern technology, may nonetheless be fully capable of making a success of a small-scale enterprise set up on the basis of intermediate technology - for reasons already explained above. In fact, it seems to me, that the apparent shortage of entrepreneurs in many developing countries today is precisely the result of the 'negative demonstration effect' of a sophisticated technology infiltrated into an unsophisticated environment. The introduction of an appropriate, intermediate technology would not be likely to founder on any shortage of entrepreneurial ability. Nor would it diminish the supply of entrepreneurs for enterprises in the modem sector; on the contrary, by spreading familiarity with systematic, technical modes of production over the entire population it would undoubtedly help to increase the supply of the required talent.

Q. Which of the following is in consonance with author's opinions?

Solution:

Refer the following lines from the passage
"The task in every case would be to find an intermediate technology which obtains a fair level of productivity without having to resort to the purchase of expensive and sophisticated equipment. The outcome of the whole venture would be an economic development going far beyond the completion of the initial earth-moving Project. With a total input of ''capital'' from outside which might be much smaller than would have been involved in the acquisition of the most modern earth-moving equipment, and an input of (previously unemployed) labour much greater than the ''modern'' method would have demanded, not only a given project would have been completed, but a whole community would have been set on the path of development."

These lines tell us why Option 1 is incorrect and also why option D is correct 

Option 3 is incorrect as it is negated by the author in the following para. Refer lines "The argument hinges on the assumption that ''entrepreneurial ability'' is a fixed and given quantity, and thus again betrays a purely static point of view. It is, of course, neither fixed nor given, being largely a function of the technology to be employed. Men, quite incapable of acting as entrepreneurs on the level of modern technology, may nonetheless be fully capable of making a success of a small-scale enterprise set up on the basis of intermediate technology - for reasons already explained above. "

Refer to the following lines from para 3 "I say, therefore, that the dynamic approach to development, which treats the choice of appropriate, intermediate technologies as the central issue, opens up avenues of constructive action, which the static, econometric approach totally fails to recognise. " Author here says the dynamic approach opens up avenues of constructive action recommends use of intermediate technologies at which static econometric approach fails.
Hence, it can be inferred that econometric approach doesn't favor intermediate technologies, which makes option 2 incorrect

QUESTION: 12

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Let us consider a very simple example. Some earth-moving job has to be done in an area of high unemployment. There is a wide choice of technologies, ranging from the most modern earth- moving equipment to purely manual work without tools of any kind. The 'output' is fixed by the nature of the job, and it is quite clear that the capital / output ratio will be highest, if the input of 'capital' is kept lowest. If the job were done without any tools, the capital/output ratio would be infinitely large, but the productivity per man would be exceedingly low. If the job were done at the highest level of modern technology, the capital/output ratio would be low and the productivity per man very high.

Neither of these extremes is desirable, and a middle way has to be found. Assume some of the unemployed men were first set to work to make a variety of tools, including wheel-barrows and the like, while others were made to produce various 'wages goods'. Each of these lines of production in turn could be based on a wide range of different technologies, from the simplest to the most sophisticated. The task in every case would be to find an intermediate technology which obtains a fair level of productivity without having to resort to the purchase of expensive and sophisticated equipment. The outcome of the whole venture would be an economic development going far beyond the completion of the initial earth-moving Project. With a total input of 'capital' from outside which might be much smaller than would have been involved in the acquisition of the most modern earth-moving equipment, and an input of (previously unemployed) labour much greater than the 'modern' method would have demanded, not only a given project would have been completed, but a whole community would have been set on the path of development.

I say, therefore, that the dynamic approach to development, which treats the choice of appropriate, intermediate technologies as the central issue, opens up avenues of constructive action, which the static, econometric approach totally fails to recognise. This leads to the next objection which has been raised against the idea of intermediate technology. It is argued that all this might be quite promising if it were not for a notorious shortage of entrepreneurial ability in the under-developed countries. This scarce resource should therefore be utilised in the most concentrated way, in places where it has the best chances of success and should be endowed with the finest capital equipment the world can offer. Industry, it is thus argued, should be established in or near the big cities, in large integrated units, and on the highest possible level of capitalisation per workplace.

The argument hinges on the assumption that 'entrepreneurial ability' is a fixed and given quantity, and thus again betrays a purely static point of view. It is, of course, neither fixed nor given, being largely a function of the technology to be employed. Men, quite incapable of acting as entrepreneurs on the level of modern technology, may nonetheless be fully capable of making a success of a small-scale enterprise set up on the basis of intermediate technology - for reasons already explained above. In fact, it seems to me, that the apparent shortage of entrepreneurs in many developing countries today is precisely the result of the 'negative demonstration effect' of a sophisticated technology infiltrated into an unsophisticated environment. The introduction of an appropriate, intermediate technology would not be likely to founder on any shortage of entrepreneurial ability. Nor would it diminish the supply of entrepreneurs for enterprises in the modem sector; on the contrary, by spreading familiarity with systematic, technical modes of production over the entire population it would undoubtedly help to increase the supply of the required talent.

Q. As used in the last paragraph, which of the following would be an appropriate example of a ‘demonstration effect’?

A. Ethics and value systems of a society influence the level of entrepreneurship.
B. Parents taking care of their parents.
C. Odisha adopting the Bihar model for economic policies.
D. The American War of Independence influencing the French Revolution.

Solution:

Demonstration effects are effects on the behavior of individuals caused by observation of the actions of others and their consequences. In the context of the passage, it is said that many members of society are discouraged to become entrepreneurs, when they look at existing successful ones who have had to make huge investments to become entrepreneurs.
What we are looking at is an observation which models behaviour.

In statement B, parents are trying to serve as role models – indicating to their kids that they should also take care of them when the parents grow old.

► In statement C, Bihar has been successful in growing economically – and Odisha wants to follow in its footsteps.

 In statement D, the French saw the success of the Americans against the British monarchy, and went on to be influenced enough to overthrow their own king.

► Statement A – although this option discusses entrepreneurship – which is one of the key themes of the passage – it does not have imitative behaviour modeling. Hence ruled out.

QUESTION: 13

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Let us consider a very simple example. Some earth-moving job has to be done in an area of high unemployment. There is a wide choice of technologies, ranging from the most modern earth- moving equipment to purely manual work without tools of any kind. The 'output' is fixed by the nature of the job, and it is quite clear that the capital / output ratio will be highest, if the input of 'capital' is kept lowest. If the job were done without any tools, the capital/output ratio would be infinitely large, but the productivity per man would be exceedingly low. If the job were done at the highest level of modern technology, the capital/output ratio would be low and the productivity per man very high.

Neither of these extremes is desirable, and a middle way has to be found. Assume some of the unemployed men were first set to work to make a variety of tools, including wheel-barrows and the like, while others were made to produce various 'wages goods'. Each of these lines of production in turn could be based on a wide range of different technologies, from the simplest to the most sophisticated. The task in every case would be to find an intermediate technology which obtains a fair level of productivity without having to resort to the purchase of expensive and sophisticated equipment. The outcome of the whole venture would be an economic development going far beyond the completion of the initial earth-moving Project. With a total input of 'capital' from outside which might be much smaller than would have been involved in the acquisition of the most modern earth-moving equipment, and an input of (previously unemployed) labour much greater than the 'modern' method would have demanded, not only a given project would have been completed, but a whole community would have been set on the path of development.

I say, therefore, that the dynamic approach to development, which treats the choice of appropriate, intermediate technologies as the central issue, opens up avenues of constructive action, which the static, econometric approach totally fails to recognise. This leads to the next objection which has been raised against the idea of intermediate technology. It is argued that all this might be quite promising if it were not for a notorious shortage of entrepreneurial ability in the under-developed countries. This scarce resource should therefore be utilised in the most concentrated way, in places where it has the best chances of success and should be endowed with the finest capital equipment the world can offer. Industry, it is thus argued, should be established in or near the big cities, in large integrated units, and on the highest possible level of capitalisation per workplace.

The argument hinges on the assumption that 'entrepreneurial ability' is a fixed and given quantity, and thus again betrays a purely static point of view. It is, of course, neither fixed nor given, being largely a function of the technology to be employed. Men, quite incapable of acting as entrepreneurs on the level of modern technology, may nonetheless be fully capable of making a success of a small-scale enterprise set up on the basis of intermediate technology - for reasons already explained above. In fact, it seems to me, that the apparent shortage of entrepreneurs in many developing countries today is precisely the result of the 'negative demonstration effect' of a sophisticated technology infiltrated into an unsophisticated environment. The introduction of an appropriate, intermediate technology would not be likely to founder on any shortage of entrepreneurial ability. Nor would it diminish the supply of entrepreneurs for enterprises in the modem sector; on the contrary, by spreading familiarity with systematic, technical modes of production over the entire population it would undoubtedly help to increase the supply of the required talent.

Q. As per the passage, what is the correlation between technology and entrepreneurial ability?

Solution:

"Men, quite incapable of acting as entrepreneurs on the level of modern technology, may nonetheless be fully capable of making a success of a small-scale enterprise set up on the basis of intermediate technology - for reasons already explained above. In fact, it seems to me, that the apparent shortage of entrepreneurs in many developing countries today is precisely the result of the ''negative demonstration effect'' of a sophisticated technology infiltrated into an unsophisticated environment." The more modern the technology, the less the entrepreneurial ability. Hence we can say that the correlation is negative.

► Option 3 – Zero correlation means that both are independent of each other.

► Option 4 – The passage does not supply any data that allows us to judge the non-linearity of the relationship.

QUESTION: 14

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Let us consider a very simple example. Some earth-moving job has to be done in an area of high unemployment. There is a wide choice of technologies, ranging from the most modern earth- moving equipment to purely manual work without tools of any kind. The 'output' is fixed by the nature of the job, and it is quite clear that the capital / output ratio will be highest, if the input of 'capital' is kept lowest. If the job were done without any tools, the capital/output ratio would be infinitely large, but the productivity per man would be exceedingly low. If the job were done at the highest level of modern technology, the capital/output ratio would be low and the productivity per man very high.

Neither of these extremes is desirable, and a middle way has to be found. Assume some of the unemployed men were first set to work to make a variety of tools, including wheel-barrows and the like, while others were made to produce various 'wages goods'. Each of these lines of production in turn could be based on a wide range of different technologies, from the simplest to the most sophisticated. The task in every case would be to find an intermediate technology which obtains a fair level of productivity without having to resort to the purchase of expensive and sophisticated equipment. The outcome of the whole venture would be an economic development going far beyond the completion of the initial earth-moving Project. With a total input of 'capital' from outside which might be much smaller than would have been involved in the acquisition of the most modern earth-moving equipment, and an input of (previously unemployed) labour much greater than the 'modern' method would have demanded, not only a given project would have been completed, but a whole community would have been set on the path of development.

I say, therefore, that the dynamic approach to development, which treats the choice of appropriate, intermediate technologies as the central issue, opens up avenues of constructive action, which the static, econometric approach totally fails to recognise. This leads to the next objection which has been raised against the idea of intermediate technology. It is argued that all this might be quite promising if it were not for a notorious shortage of entrepreneurial ability in the under-developed countries. This scarce resource should therefore be utilised in the most concentrated way, in places where it has the best chances of success and should be endowed with the finest capital equipment the world can offer. Industry, it is thus argued, should be established in or near the big cities, in large integrated units, and on the highest possible level of capitalisation per workplace.

The argument hinges on the assumption that 'entrepreneurial ability' is a fixed and given quantity, and thus again betrays a purely static point of view. It is, of course, neither fixed nor given, being largely a function of the technology to be employed. Men, quite incapable of acting as entrepreneurs on the level of modern technology, may nonetheless be fully capable of making a success of a small-scale enterprise set up on the basis of intermediate technology - for reasons already explained above. In fact, it seems to me, that the apparent shortage of entrepreneurs in many developing countries today is precisely the result of the 'negative demonstration effect' of a sophisticated technology infiltrated into an unsophisticated environment. The introduction of an appropriate, intermediate technology would not be likely to founder on any shortage of entrepreneurial ability. Nor would it diminish the supply of entrepreneurs for enterprises in the modem sector; on the contrary, by spreading familiarity with systematic, technical modes of production over the entire population it would undoubtedly help to increase the supply of the required talent.

Q. ‘Wages goods’, as used in the second paragraph, refer to consumer goods. Which of the following would be an example of wages goods?

A. Wheel barrow
B. Grinding machine
C. Gear shaper
D. Dining Table

Solution:

The characteristic of wages goods that we come to know from passage it can''t be a tool "Assume some of the unemployed men were first set to work to make a variety of tools, including wheel-barrows and the like, while others were made to produce various ''wages goods''.

► A – The second paragraph states: Assume some of the unemployed men were first set to work to make a variety of tools, including wheel-barrows and the like, while others were made to produce various ''wages goods''. This rules out wheel-barrows being wages goods.

► B and C are tools too.
► It is only D which isn't a tool.

QUESTION: 15

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Let us consider a very simple example. Some earth-moving job has to be done in an area of high unemployment. There is a wide choice of technologies, ranging from the most modern earth- moving equipment to purely manual work without tools of any kind. The 'output' is fixed by the nature of the job, and it is quite clear that the capital / output ratio will be highest, if the input of 'capital' is kept lowest. If the job were done without any tools, the capital/output ratio would be infinitely large, but the productivity per man would be exceedingly low. If the job were done at the highest level of modern technology, the capital/output ratio would be low and the productivity per man very high.

Neither of these extremes is desirable, and a middle way has to be found. Assume some of the unemployed men were first set to work to make a variety of tools, including wheel-barrows and the like, while others were made to produce various 'wages goods'. Each of these lines of production in turn could be based on a wide range of different technologies, from the simplest to the most sophisticated. The task in every case would be to find an intermediate technology which obtains a fair level of productivity without having to resort to the purchase of expensive and sophisticated equipment. The outcome of the whole venture would be an economic development going far beyond the completion of the initial earth-moving Project. With a total input of 'capital' from outside which might be much smaller than would have been involved in the acquisition of the most modern earth-moving equipment, and an input of (previously unemployed) labour much greater than the 'modern' method would have demanded, not only a given project would have been completed, but a whole community would have been set on the path of development.

I say, therefore, that the dynamic approach to development, which treats the choice of appropriate, intermediate technologies as the central issue, opens up avenues of constructive action, which the static, econometric approach totally fails to recognise. This leads to the next objection which has been raised against the idea of intermediate technology. It is argued that all this might be quite promising if it were not for a notorious shortage of entrepreneurial ability in the under-developed countries. This scarce resource should therefore be utilised in the most concentrated way, in places where it has the best chances of success and should be endowed with the finest capital equipment the world can offer. Industry, it is thus argued, should be established in or near the big cities, in large integrated units, and on the highest possible level of capitalisation per workplace.

The argument hinges on the assumption that 'entrepreneurial ability' is a fixed and given quantity, and thus again betrays a purely static point of view. It is, of course, neither fixed nor given, being largely a function of the technology to be employed. Men, quite incapable of acting as entrepreneurs on the level of modern technology, may nonetheless be fully capable of making a success of a small-scale enterprise set up on the basis of intermediate technology - for reasons already explained above. In fact, it seems to me, that the apparent shortage of entrepreneurs in many developing countries today is precisely the result of the 'negative demonstration effect' of a sophisticated technology infiltrated into an unsophisticated environment. The introduction of an appropriate, intermediate technology would not be likely to founder on any shortage of entrepreneurial ability. Nor would it diminish the supply of entrepreneurs for enterprises in the modem sector; on the contrary, by spreading familiarity with systematic, technical modes of production over the entire population it would undoubtedly help to increase the supply of the required talent.

Q. What is the primary purpose of the passage?

Solution:

Option 1 is incorrect- It is narrow in scope as the objections raised against intermediate technology are just supporting ideas given but not the primary purpose. Amongst the points that this option leaves out are -
"not only a given project would have been completed, but a whole community would have been set on the path of development."

"I say, therefore, that the dynamic approach to development, which treats the choice of appropriate, intermediate technologies as the central issue, opens up avenues of constructive action, which the static, econometric approach totally fails to recognise. "

► Option 2 is incorrect- It is one of the aims to encourage entrepreneurship but not the central idea.

► Option 3 is incorrect- The passage does not discuss where all the intermediate technology can be applied.

► Option 4 is correct- The passage focuses on broader economic development. Refer lines..” The task in every case would be to find an intermediate technology …….. The outcome of the whole venture would be an economic development going far beyond the completion of the initial earth-moving Project. 

QUESTION: 16

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Let us consider a very simple example. Some earth-moving job has to be done in an area of high unemployment. There is a wide choice of technologies, ranging from the most modern earth- moving equipment to purely manual work without tools of any kind. The 'output' is fixed by the nature of the job, and it is quite clear that the capital / output ratio will be highest, if the input of 'capital' is kept lowest. If the job were done without any tools, the capital/output ratio would be infinitely large, but the productivity per man would be exceedingly low. If the job were done at the highest level of modern technology, the capital/output ratio would be low and the productivity per man very high.

Neither of these extremes is desirable, and a middle way has to be found. Assume some of the unemployed men were first set to work to make a variety of tools, including wheel-barrows and the like, while others were made to produce various 'wages goods'. Each of these lines of production in turn could be based on a wide range of different technologies, from the simplest to the most sophisticated. The task in every case would be to find an intermediate technology which obtains a fair level of productivity without having to resort to the purchase of expensive and sophisticated equipment. The outcome of the whole venture would be an economic development going far beyond the completion of the initial earth-moving Project. With a total input of 'capital' from outside which might be much smaller than would have been involved in the acquisition of the most modern earth-moving equipment, and an input of (previously unemployed) labour much greater than the 'modern' method would have demanded, not only a given project would have been completed, but a whole community would have been set on the path of development.

I say, therefore, that the dynamic approach to development, which treats the choice of appropriate, intermediate technologies as the central issue, opens up avenues of constructive action, which the static, econometric approach totally fails to recognise. This leads to the next objection which has been raised against the idea of intermediate technology. It is argued that all this might be quite promising if it were not for a notorious shortage of entrepreneurial ability in the under-developed countries. This scarce resource should therefore be utilised in the most concentrated way, in places where it has the best chances of success and should be endowed with the finest capital equipment the world can offer. Industry, it is thus argued, should be established in or near the big cities, in large integrated units, and on the highest possible level of capitalisation per workplace.

The argument hinges on the assumption that 'entrepreneurial ability' is a fixed and given quantity, and thus again betrays a purely static point of view. It is, of course, neither fixed nor given, being largely a function of the technology to be employed. Men, quite incapable of acting as entrepreneurs on the level of modern technology, may nonetheless be fully capable of making a success of a small-scale enterprise set up on the basis of intermediate technology - for reasons already explained above. In fact, it seems to me, that the apparent shortage of entrepreneurs in many developing countries today is precisely the result of the 'negative demonstration effect' of a sophisticated technology infiltrated into an unsophisticated environment. The introduction of an appropriate, intermediate technology would not be likely to founder on any shortage of entrepreneurial ability. Nor would it diminish the supply of entrepreneurs for enterprises in the modem sector; on the contrary, by spreading familiarity with systematic, technical modes of production over the entire population it would undoubtedly help to increase the supply of the required talent.

Q. Which of the following cannot be inferred from the passage?

Solution:

Option 3 is an assumption not an inference. hence, it is the correct answer 

► Option 4. This can be inferred . As it says that” With a total input of ''capital'' from outside which might be much smaller than would have been involved in the acquisition of the most modern earth-moving equipment, and an input of (previously unemployed) labour much greater than the ''modern'' method would have demanded, not only a given project would have been completed, but a whole community would have been set on the path of development. 

I sa, therefore, that the dynamic approach to development, which treats the choice of appropriate, intermediate technologies as the central issue, opens up avenues of constructive action," Hence for overall  development creation of work opportunities is important.

► Option 1 can be inferred from first 2 paras

► Option 2 can be inferred from lines "The introduction of an appropriate, intermediate technology would ...... by spreading familiarity with systematic, technical modes of production over the entire population it would undoubtedly help to increase the supply of the required talent."

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 17

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.

1. Walmart is betting on the future growth it can unlock from this full-frontal entry into a market that has proved difficult despite its best attempts for over a decade.
2. Most importantly, it is time to nuance the debates that have dominated India’s retail FDI policy — big versus small, local versus foreign — to create a truly level playing field where all can compete, without artificial safeguards that can be overcome via such deals.
3. The company had entered India in 2007 but exited the joint venture with the Bharti group and restricted its operations to cash-and-carry stores, in the face of strict curbs on foreign direct investment (FDI) in the multi-brand retail sector.
4. Facing heat at home from Amazon, which is now moving from online-only to a brick-and-mortar plus e-tail model, this is a vital time for Walmart to get into India’s business-to-consumer segment.
5. These restrictions, ostensibly to protect smaller retailers, have remained in place under the NDA government, belying expectations of a reset. 


Solution:

The remaining four are all about Walmart.
1-3-5-4

''the company'' in 3 refers to ''walmart'' in 1

''strict curbs on foreign direct investment (FDI)'' in 3 are ''These restrictions'' in 5
4 concludes the para

QUESTION: 18

DIRECTIONS for the question: Identify the most appropriate summary for the paragraph.

It takes more fossil fuel to produce lamb in the UK than in New Zealand, which has a longer grassy season and more hydroelectric power, and this should be weighted against emissions from transport. The green Britisher’s choice of British over Spanish tomatoes is also certainly misguided: the carbon dioxide emitted by road-hauling them from Spain is utterly outweighed by the fact that Spain is sunny, whereas British tomatoes need heated greenhouses. As for avoiding Chilean wine, shipping wine halfway around the world adds only about 5 per cent to the greenhouse gas emissions involved in making it in the first place. 

Solution:

The main point that the passage makes is to not just look at fuel consumed in transport of food, but also in its growing. If we do that – Option 3 makes sense, and can be seen to be the conclusion.

► Option 1 – trendy, but not fitting in. No connection to global thinking.

►Option 2 – is a message, but does not talk of the practices which will minimise fossil fuel use.

►Option 4 – is over reaching. Maybe UK can grow its own potatoes – which thrive in cold weather.

QUESTION: 19

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Identify the most appropriate summary for the paragraph.

Do animals have free will? Probably, the answer to that question would be agreed by most people to be a fairly obvious “no.” The concept of free will is traditionally bound up with such things as our capacity to choose our own values, the sorts of lives we want to lead, the sorts of people we want to be, etc. and it seems obvious that no non-human animal lives the kind of life which could make sense of the attribution to it of such powers as these. But in thinking about free will, it is essential, nevertheless, to consider the capacities of animals. Even if animals cannot be said to have full-blown free will, animal powers of various sorts provide a kind of essential underpinning for free will which philosophers who focus too exclusively on the human phenomenon are forever in danger of ignoring. And these simpler capacities are interesting enough to raise many philosophical issues all by themselves; indeed, I would argue that they raise the most discussed problem in this area of philosophy all by themselves. For they are, in my view, hard to accommodate within certain conceptions of the universe in which we live – what might be called mechanistic or deterministic conceptions of that universe. This makes it very useful and important to think about the simpler capacities from a philosophical perspective. Instead of asking, as philosophers constantly do, whether free will is compatible with determinism, we should first ask ourselves whether even the simpler powers which constitute what I call animal agency are consistent with it.

Solution:

In this case, options 1 and 2 are way off track and do not relate with the subject of the paragraph. Option 4 is close to the actual gist of the paragraph but commits the mistake of quoting that there is an urgent need in philosophy to go over the issue. This is something that has not been stated in the given case and this makes this an incorrect answer option in the given case.

QUESTION: 20

DIRECTIONS for the question: Identify the most appropriate summary for the paragraph.

The abortive fate of The Prince makes you wonder why some of the great utopian texts of our tradition have had much more effect on reality itself, like The Republic of Plato, or Rousseau’s peculiar form of utopianism, which was so important for the French Revolution. Christianity itself— its imagination of another world beyond the so-called real world—completely transformed the real politics of Europe. Or Karl Marx, for that matter. It’s not the realism of the Marxian analysis, it’s not his critique of capitalism’s unsustainable systemic contradictions—it’s more his utopian projection of a future communist state that inspired socialist movements and led to political revolutions throughout the world.

Solution:

The para talks about theauthor wondering why some utopian texts had more influence than others. The option that comes closest is 4th

► Option 1 gives an impression that all writings which influenced people had utopia as the common thread while para talks about why certain Utopian texts had more influence than Prince

Option 2 misses out on main point of the extent of influence, utopian thoughts influence but the main  Also it gives an impresssion that all Utopian thoughts influence reality while the para talks about "some of the great utopian texts".

► Option 3 misses out on utopia

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 21

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Four sentences related to a topic are given below. Three of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.

1. Jefferson’s words were accurate, and it’s tempting to call them prophetic, but they weren’t: Jefferson’s nightmare had in fact come true before she wrote her article, even before “the night Jimi died.”

2. The article’s most striking moment arrived in its penultimate paragraph: The night Jimi died I dreamed this was the latest step in a plot being designed to eliminate blacks from rock music so that it may be recorded in history as a creation of whites. Future generations, my dream ran, will be taught that while rock may have had its beginnings among blacks, it had its true flowering among whites. The best black artists will thus be studied as remarkable primitives who unconsciously foreshadowed future developments.

3. The piece was partly a broad historical overview of white appropriations of black musical forms, from blackface minstrel pioneer T.D. Rice through the current day, and partly a more personal lament over what Jefferson, a black critic, had come to see as an endless cycle of cultural plunder.

4. In January of 1973—the same month that the Rolling Stones were banned from touring Japan due to prior drug convictions, the same month that a band called Kiss played its first gig in Queens, and the same month that a young New Jerseyan named Bruce Springsteen released his debut album on Columbia Records—Harper’s magazine published an essay by future Pulitzer Prize winner Margo Jefferson titled “Ripping Off Black Music.”


Solution:

This is a tough question on a couple of accounts:

► 1. the excessive amount of text in each of the statements.

► 2. you need to use some logic to identify the odd one out.

► Statements 4-3-2 form the connected set of statements in the given case. How do you identify this set? These three statements are descriptive in nature and are simply providing details for a certain essay and the lament of a critic.

► Statement 1 is an opinion on the other hand. This helps us rule out statement 1 as the odd one out (even though it is based on the same subject).

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 22

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.

1. That particular burger coalesced in a substrate of foetal calf serum, but the goal is to develop an equally effective plant-based solution so that a relatively small amount of animal cells can serve as the initial foundation for glistening mounds of brainless flesh in vats meat without the slaughter.

2. Three years ago, a televised taste test of a lab-grown burger proved it was possible to grow a tiny amount of edible meat in a lab.

3. For many cultured-meat advocates, a major motive is the reduction of animal suffering.

4. By avoiding all the good aspects of subjective experience, growing faceless flesh in vats also escapes this objection

5. This flesh was never linked to any central nervous system, and so there was none of the pain, boredom and fear that usually plague animals unlucky enough to be born onto our farms.


Solution:

► Statements 2-5-1-3 form he connected set in this case. They talk about a common subject in the given case.

► Statement 4 is the odd one out as "this objection" talked about in 4 hasn't been talked about anywhere else.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 23

DIRECTIONS for the question: Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.

1. Yes, it’s taken for granted that creating is hard, but also that it’s somehow fundamentally unserious.

2. In the popular imagination, artists tend to exist either at the pinnacle of fame and luxury or in the depths of penury and obscurity — rarely in the middle, where most of the rest of us toil and dream.

3. But the elevation of the amateur over the professional trivializes artistic accomplishment and helps to undermine the already precarious living standards that artists have been able to enjoy.

4. They are subject to admiration, envy, resentment and contempt, but it is odd how seldom their efforts are understood as work.

5. Schoolchildren may be encouraged, at least rhetorically, to pursue their passions and cultivate their talents, but as they grow up, they are warned away from artistic careers. 


Solution:

► 2-4-1-5, statement 2 introduces the topic - artists and how they are perceived by people.
► 4 follows 2 as ''they'' in 4 refers to artists in 2
► 4-1-5 is mandatory triplet. "how seldom their efforts are understood as work." in 4 is linked with "Yes, it’s taken for granted that creating is hard"
► "fundamentally unserious." in 1 is linked to "warned away from artistic careers." in 5
► The paragraph talks about artists and how they are perceived by people. Statement 3 talks about the amateur and professional which though related to the same topic does not go with the other four sentences.

QUESTION: 24

DIRECTIONS for the question: Identify the most appropriate summary for the paragraph.

For much of human history, horses have been our travelling companions, our weapons of war, our industrial machines, our shoe leather, and our dog food. They have influenced human society around the world, including what it meant to be a man during the 17th and 18th centuries. At that time, Britain was known for the English Civil Wars and the rise of the British Empire. It was also an age in which, for many men, horses were indivisible from their masculinity, their ability to govern successfully and their personal identity. While the practice of horsemanship changes over the period, equestrian skill and the ability to present oneself as a unified being with a mount was a central component, for many, of what it meant to be a man.

Solution:

The passage talks about, how horses have been a constant companion and source of help to various human endeavors, and how later on, the horses were the symbol of masculinity. All this is best captured in option C. Options A,B and D miss out on how horses have been useful to humans as given in first lines of the para.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 25

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Five sentences related to a topic are given below. The correct sequence in which they'll make a meaningful sentence will be:

1. The strange thing is that these moments of love and loss are not the place where language finds its truest expression of meaning but are in fact the place where meaning itself starts to break down, where language as a whole reveals its incapacities.

2. Greeting cards present themselves at some of the most important, and often difficult, events of our lives: the loss of a family member or a friend, an outpouring of love and devotion, or even the simple recognition of time’s passing.

3. A cliché is a marker, or a stand-in, for something we aren’t sure how to express. 

4. Whether the message is pre-printed or one we resort to writing ourselves, clichés appear where words fail.

5. In this way, greeting cards function as material testament to the lack of articulation at the heart of human experience, drawing attention to the gap between language and life


Solution:

Contextually the paragraph begins with statement 2, as it introduces the idea that ‘greeting cards presenting themselves at most important moments in our lives’. Refer to ‘these moments’ in statement 1, which refer to the moments mentioned in statement 2. Followed  by statement 3, as it brings in ‘cliche’, as a marker of events where we aren’t sure how to express ourselves linked with following words in stt1 "where language as a whole reveals its incapacities.".

Followed by statement 4 and 5 in that order, as 4 continues the thought "clichés appear where words fail." and , concluding with statement 5 "greeting cards function as material testament to the lack of articulation" alludes to use of cliches in greeting cards

QUESTION: 26

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Study the following Graph & table given below and answer the question that follows.
The following table shows the exchange rates and interest rates of currency of various countries.



CAFECAFE Ltd., takes a loan of 0.1 million BRL (Brazilian Real) on 2nd March 2003 for one year from Brazil. It then purchases the coffee seeds from the local market at the rate of 4 BRL per kg of all the borrowed amount, spends US$ 1000 on transportation and refines the seeds in a plant in United States. It gets 0.8 kg of refined coffee for each kg of coffee seed. Refining costs US$ 3 per kg of coffee seed. The Company then sells the refined coffee in the market all over the world.

Q. Which of the following conclusion/s is/are not valid with respect to the table given?

I.The value of one Pound is equal to 1.91 Dollars (approximately).
II.Poland has the maximum percentage change in the currency unit per $ from 2nd March 2003 to 2nd  March 2004.

Solution:

For all the given countries the value of £ on 2nd March 2004 is 1.91 times of the value of $ on 2nd March 2004.

Hence, conclusion I is valid. 

The maximum percentage change is for Venezuela which is -22.6% approximately.

Hence, conclusion II is not valid.

QUESTION: 27

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Study the following Graph & table given below and answer the question that follows.
The following table shows the exchange rates and interest rates of currency of various countries.



CAFECAFE Ltd., takes a loan of 0.1 million BRL (Brazilian Real) on 2nd March 2003 for one year from Brazil. It then purchases the coffee seeds from the local market at the rate of 4 BRL per kg of all the borrowed amount, spends US$ 1000 on transportation and refines the seeds in a plant in United States. It gets 0.8 kg of refined coffee for each kg of coffee seed. Refining costs US$ 3 per kg of coffee seed. The Company then sells the refined coffee in the market all over the world.

Q. If in India, China, Mexico and Egypt the rate of coffee per kg respectively is Rs 80, CNY(Chinese Yuan) 11, MXN 20 and EGP 15 and the company sells 25% of the refined coffee produced each to India, China, Mexico and Egypt, then  what will be the total sales of the company in Mar 04?

Solution:

The total volume of refined coffee = 
By selling 25% coffee each to India, China, Mexico and Egypt, the company will get

= US$ 0.03775 million = US$ 37, 700.

QUESTION: 28

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Study the following Graph & table given below and answer the question that follows.
The following table shows the exchange rates and interest rates of currency of various countries.



CAFECAFE Ltd., takes a loan of 0.1 million BRL (Brazilian Real) on 2nd March 2003 for one year from Brazil. It then purchases the coffee seeds from the local market at the rate of 4 BRL per kg of all the borrowed amount, spends US$ 1000 on transportation and refines the seeds in a plant in United States. It gets 0.8 kg of refined coffee for each kg of coffee seed. Refining costs US$ 3 per kg of coffee seed. The Company then sells the refined coffee in the market all over the world.

Q. Which of the following transactions gives the maximum profit? (Use the currency rates and interest rates as on 2nd March 2004)

1. Take a loan of 0.05 million NIS(New Sheqel) from Israel then change half the amount to MXN(Mexican Peso)and invest it at the rate of 5% per annum for one year in Mexico and change the  rest amount to HUF(Hungarian Forint) and invest it at the rate of 7% per annum for one year in Hungary.

2. Take a loan of 0.05 million EGP(Egyptian Pound) from Egypt change in INR(Indian Rupees) and invest it at the rate of 19.9% per annum for one year in India.

3. Take a loan of 0.05 million KRW(South Korean Won) and invest the amount in 5 equal parts in Indonesia, Taiwan, Venezuela, Russia and Turkey at the rate of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% respectively.

Solution:

Transaction I: 
Loan + Interest given (in NIS)
= 0,05 x 1.o1
= 0.0505 million NIS
= US$ (O. 0505/4.33) million
Now. 0.025 million NIS
= US$ (0,025/4.33) million
= (0.025 x 11.1)/4.33 million MXN
Output from Mexico
= (0.025 X 11.1 x 1.05)/4.33 million MXN
= US$ (0.025 * 1.05)/4.33 million.
Now, 0.025 million NIS
= US$ (0.025/4.33) million
= (0.025x 1.84)/4.33 million
HUF Output from Hungary
= (0.025 x 184 x 1.07)/4.33 million HUF
= US$ (0.025 x 1.07)/4.33 million

Transaction II:
Loan + Interest given (in EGP)
= 0.05 x 1.009
= 0.05495 million EGP
=US$ (0.05495/5.81) million
= (0.05 *43.6) / 5.8l million INR
Output from India = (0.05 x 43.6 x 1.199 )/5.81 million INR = (0.05 x 1.199)/5.81 = US$(0.05995/5.81) million.

Transaction III:
Loan + Interest given (in KRW)
= 0.05 x 1.0355 
= 0.051775 million KRW
= US$ (0.051775/1008) million
0.01 million KRW
= US$ (0.0l/l008) million
= (0.01 x 9284)/1008 million IDR
Output from Indonesia
= (0.01 x 9284 x 1.01)/1008 million IDR
=US$( 0.0101/1008)
Again 0.01 million KRW
= US$ (0.01/1008) million
= (0.01 x 30.8)/1008 million TWD
Output from Taiwan
= (0.01 x 30.8 x 1.02)/1008 million TWD
= (0.01 x1.02)/1008= US$ (0.0102/1008) million
Similarly output from Venezuela
= US$ (0.0103/1008) million
Output from Russia = US$ (0.0104/1008) million and Turkey = US$ (0.0105/1008) million.

Total output = US$ (0.0515/1008)

Here the total output is less than the total of Loan and Interest, so this transaction will yield a loss. 
So transaction II gives maximum profit.

QUESTION: 29

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Study the following Graph & table given below and answer the question that follows.
The following table shows the exchange rates and interest rates of currency of various countries.



CAFECAFE Ltd., takes a loan of 0.1 million BRL (Brazilian Real) on 2nd March 2003 for one year from Brazil. It then purchases the coffee seeds from the local market at the rate of 4 BRL per kg of all the borrowed amount, spends US$ 1000 on transportation and refines the seeds in a plant in United States. It gets 0.8 kg of refined coffee for each kg of coffee seed. Refining costs US$ 3 per kg of coffee seed. The Company then sells the refined coffee in the market all over the world.

Q. What will be the combined value of 120 SGD(Singapore Dollar), 60 PLN(Zloty) and 180 ARS(Argentine Peso), in pound sterling terms on 2nd March 2004?

Solution:

The required value 

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 30

DIRECTIONS for the question: Go through the graph and the information given below and answer the question that follows.

In a factory there are six polishing machines - A, B, C, D, E and F. The factory produces item X. Polishing is the last step of manufacturing process. Each of the machines A, B, C, D, E and F takes 3, 2, 3, 1, 2 and 4 hours respectively to polish one unit of X, which is called one polish time. After polishing each unit the machines need a rest of 3, 1, 1, 2, 2 and 2 hours respectively. Every machine starts polishing at 6.00 a.m. and no machine works after 4.00 p.m. Each unit of item X needs to be polished exactly thrice. These three polishing should be done on three different machines. There should be a time gap of at least two hours between two successive polishings of a unit. The total time taken for an item to be polished is the time taken from the starting of the first polish to the end of the third polish. No polish time has any break in between. No machine takes more or less time than the stipulated rest time between two consecutive polishings in a day.

In how many different ways can an item be polished by any three different machines, within a day? (in numerical value)


Solution:

Let us first make a list of the timings in a day when a particular machine works. The letters in each box represents the time period.
If an item started being polished at 6:00 am, then in the following ways the polishing can be completed within that day.

(i) c → g → k
(ii) c → m → k
(iii) h → d → n
(iv) l → g → k

∴ There are four possible ways.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 31

DIRECTIONS for the question: Go through the graph and the information given below and answer the question that follows.

In a factory there are six polishing machines - A, B, C, D, E and F. The factory produces item X. Polishing is the last step of manufacturing process. Each of the machines A, B, C, D, E and F takes 3, 2, 3, 1, 2 and 4 hours respectively to polish one unit of X, which is called one polish time. After polishing each unit the machines need a rest of 3, 1, 1, 2, 2 and 2 hours respectively. Every machine starts polishing at 6.00 a.m. and no machine works after 4.00 p.m. Each unit of item X needs to be polished exactly thrice. These three polishing should be done on three different machines. There should be a time gap of at least two hours between two successive polishings of a unit. The total time taken for an item to be polished is the time taken from the starting of the first polish to the end of the third polish. No polish time has any break in between. No machine takes more or less time than the stipulated rest time between two consecutive polishings in a day.

If the total time taken for completion of polishing an item is the minimum possible, then what can be maximum possible value (in hours) of the sum of the time gaps between any two successive polishings? (in numerical value)


Solution:

Let us first make a list of the timings in a day when a particular machine works. The letters in each box represents the time period.

For each of the cases referred earlier the sum of the time gaps are as follows.

(i) 4 hours
(ii) 5 hours
(iii) 5 hours
(iv) 4 hours

∴ Maximum value of the sum of the time gaps is 5 hours

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 32

DIRECTIONS for the question: Go through the graph and the information given below and answer the question that follows.

In a factory there are six polishing machines - A, B, C, D, E and F. The factory produces item X. Polishing is the last step of manufacturing process. Each of the machines A, B, C, D, E and F takes 3, 2, 3, 1, 2 and 4 hours respectively to polish one unit of X, which is called one polish time. After polishing each unit the machines need a rest of 3, 1, 1, 2, 2 and 2 hours respectively. Every machine starts polishing at 6.00 a.m. and no machine works after 4.00 p.m. Each unit of item X needs to be polished exactly thrice. These three polishing should be done on three different machines. There should be a time gap of at least two hours between two successive polishings of a unit. The total time taken for an item to be polished is the time taken from the starting of the first polish to the end of the third polish. No polish time has any break in between. No machine takes more or less time than the stipulated rest time between two consecutive polishings in a day.

If, due to bad weather, a time gap of at least three hours is needed between every two successive polishings of an item, then what is the least total time required for polishing of the item? (in hours, in numerical value)


Solution:

Let us first make a list of the timings in a day when a particular machine works. The letters in each box represents the time period.

In this case, the sum of the time gaps is at least 6 hours, hence it cannot be completed in a single day. So we have to complete two polishings in a single day. If the polishings is started at 10:00 am i.e., m and followed by k, two polishing will be completed.

Next day morning in period ''c'' one more polishing can be completed. The total time is 22 hours.

QUESTION: 33

DIRECTIONS for the question: Go through the graph and the information given below and answer the question that follows.

In a factory there are six polishing machines - A, B, C, D, E and F. The factory produces item X. Polishing is the last step of manufacturing process. Each of the machines A, B, C, D, E and F takes 3, 2, 3, 1, 2 and 4 hours respectively to polish one unit of X, which is called one polish time. After polishing each unit the machines need a rest of 3, 1, 1, 2, 2 and 2 hours respectively. Every machine starts polishing at 6.00 a.m. and no machine works after 4.00 p.m. Each unit of item X needs to be polished exactly thrice. These three polishing should be done on three different machines. There should be a time gap of at least two hours between two successive polishings of a unit. The total time taken for an item to be polished is the time taken from the starting of the first polish to the end of the third polish. No polish time has any break in between. No machine takes more or less time than the stipulated rest time between two consecutive polishings in a day.

Q. If the polishing of an item is started at 9:00 am on a day, then what is the earliest time by which the polishing will be completed?

Solution:

Let us first make a list of the timings in a day when a particular machine works. The letters in each box represents the time period.

The polishing will be completed by the earliest time. If the sequence in d → n → h, in which case, it will be completed by 7:00 am on the next day.

QUESTION: 34

DIRECTIONS for the question: Go through the graph and the information given below and answer the question that follows.

A rectangular area of 60 acres is divided into 5 parts (i.e. 1,2,3,4 and 5) to grow 5 types of crops- P, Q , R, S and T respectively. The configuration of crops grown in the farm for the two years period is shown below.


Between 1990-1991 and 1991-1992 prices of  all crops rise by 10%. Production of P, R and T decrease by 20% while that of Q and S increase by 10%. Value coefficient of crop is defined as value-wise yield of crops produced per acre.

Q. How many kgs per acre can be produced on an average in 1991-1992?

Solution:


Total yield during 1991-1992 = 8 x 12 + 19.8 × 24 + 2 x 16 + 10 x 13.2 + 16x 8 = 863.2 kg.

∴ Yield per acre = 863.2/60 =14.39 kg.  

QUESTION: 35

DIRECTIONS for the question: Go through the graph and the information given below and answer the question that follows.

A rectangular area of 60 acres is divided into 5 parts (i.e. 1,2,3,4 and 5) to grow 5 types of crops- P, Q , R, S and T respectively. The configuration of crops grown in the farm for the two years period is shown below.


Between 1990-1991 and 1991-1992 prices of  all crops rise by 10%. Production of P, R and T decrease by 20% while that of Q and S increase by 10%. Value coefficient of crop is defined as value-wise yield of crops produced per acre.

Q. What was the total yield (value-wise) during 1990-1991 ?

Solution:

Total yield (value wise) during 1990-1991 = (6 x 15 x 8)+(21 x 18 x 7.5)+(3 x 20 x 6)+(12 x 12 x 11)+(18 x 10 x 14)= Rs.8019.

Hence (2)

QUESTION: 36

DIRECTIONS for the question: Go through the graph and the information given below and answer the question that follows.

A rectangular area of 60 acres is divided into 5 parts (i.e. 1,2,3,4 and 5) to grow 5 types of crops- P, Q , R, S and T respectively. The configuration of crops grown in the farm for the two years period is shown below.


Between 1990-1991 and 1991-1992 prices of  all crops rise by 10%. Production of P, R and T decrease by 20% while that of Q and S increase by 10%. Value coefficient of crop is defined as value-wise yield of crops produced per acre.

Q. Which crop has the lowest value coefficient during 1990-1991?

Solution:


► For crop P, required value = (15 × 8)/6 = 20

► For crop Q, required value = (18 × 7.5)/21 = 6.43

► For crop R, required value is (20 × 6)/3 = 40

► For crop S, required value is (12 × 11)/12 = 11

► For crop T, required value is (10 × 14)/18 = 7.78

Hence it is lowest for crop Q. 

QUESTION: 37

DIRECTIONS for the question: Go through the graph and the information given below and answer the question that follows.

A rectangular area of 60 acres is divided into 5 parts (i.e. 1,2,3,4 and 5) to grow 5 types of crops- P, Q , R, S and T respectively. The configuration of crops grown in the farm for the two years period is shown below.


Between 1990-1991 and 1991-1992 prices of  all crops rise by 10%. Production of P, R and T decrease by 20% while that of Q and S increase by 10%. Value coefficient of crop is defined as value-wise yield of crops produced per acre.

Q. To maximise the value- wise yield during 1991-1992, how many areas of crops should have been swapped among themselves?

Solution:

To maximize the valuewise yield, crops with higher value coefficient should be cultivated under larger area. In 1991-1992

∴ Only areas under S and T should have been swapped to maximize the valuewise yield.

Hence (2)

QUESTION: 38

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

5 people, A, B, C, D and E, stay on different floors in a 3-storied building, with one of them staying on the ground floor and two each staying on the first floor and the second floor. Each of them has exactly one pet from amongst a cow, a dog, a horse, a rabbit and a parrot.

  • D stays on the second floor and neither he nor his neighbour own the dog.
  • The person staying on the ground floor, who is not A, owns the cow.
  • B owns the parrot and his neighbour owns neither the horse nor the rabbit.
  • C, who is not a neighbour of either B or E, does not own either the cow or the dog, and his neighbour does not own the horse.

Q. Who stays on the first floor?

Solution:

We know that D stays on the 2nd floor and he and his neighbour does not own the dog. The person who owns the cow, stays on the ground floor. Now, C does not own the cow, nor is he neighbours with B or E. This tells us that C must stay on the 2nd floor and is a neighbour of D, who does not own the horse. It is given that the person staying on the ground floor is not A and B owns the parrot. So, the person staying on the ground floor must be E so that A and B stay on the 1st floor. B’s neighbour A, does not own the cow, the horse or the rabbit. So, A must own the dog. Since C’s neighbour does not own the horse, we can conclude that D owns the rabbit and C owns the horse. We have matched the information as follows:
Ground Floor: E – Cow
First Floor: B – Parrot, A – Dog
Second Floor: D – Rabbit, C – Horse

QUESTION: 39

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

5 people, A, B, C, D and E, stay on different floors in a 3-storied building, with one of them staying on the ground floor and two each staying on the first floor and the second floor. Each of them has exactly one pet from amongst a cow, a dog, a horse, a rabbit and a parrot.

  • D stays on the second floor and neither he nor his neighbour own the dog.
  • The person staying on the ground floor, who is not A, owns the cow.
  • B owns the parrot and his neighbour owns neither the horse nor the rabbit.
  • C, who is not a neighbour of either B or E, does not own either the cow or the dog, and his neighbour does not own the horse.

Q. Who owns the cow?

Solution:

We know that D stays on the 2nd floor and he and his neighbour does not own the dog. The person who owns the cow, stays on the ground floor. Now, C does not own the cow, nor is he neighbours with B or E. This tells us that C must stay on the 2nd floor and is a neighbour of D, who does not own the horse. It is given that the person staying on the ground floor is not A and B owns the parrot. So, the person staying on the ground floor must be E so that A and B stay on the 1st floor. B’s neighbour A, does not own the cow, the horse or the rabbit. So, A must own the dog. Since C’s neighbour does not own the horse, we can conclude that D owns the rabbit and C owns the horse.

We have matched the information as follows:
Ground Floor: E – Cow
First Floor: B – Parrot, A – Dog
Second Floor: D – Rabbit, C – Horse

QUESTION: 40

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

5 people, A, B, C, D and E, stay on different floors in a 3-storied building, with one of them staying on the ground floor and two each staying on the first floor and the second floor. Each of them has exactly one pet from amongst a cow, a dog, a horse, a rabbit and a parrot.

  • D stays on the second floor and neither he nor his neighbour own the dog.
  • The person staying on the ground floor, who is not A, owns the cow.
  • B owns the parrot and his neighbour owns neither the horse nor the rabbit.
  • C, who is not a neighbour of either B or E, does not own either the cow or the dog, and his neighbour does not own the horse.

Q. Who owns the horse?

Solution:

We know that D stays on the 2nd floor and he and his neighbour does not own the dog. The person who owns the cow, stays on the ground floor. Now, C does not own the cow, nor is he neighbours with B or E. This tells us that C must stay on the 2nd floor and is a neighbour of D, who does not own the horse. It is given that the person staying on the ground floor is not A and B owns the parrot. So, the person staying on the ground floor must be E so that A and B stay on the 1st floor. B’s neighbour A, does not own the cow, the horse or the rabbit. So, A must own the dog. Since C’s neighbour does not own the horse, we can conclude that D owns the rabbit and C owns the horse.

We have matched the information as follows:
Ground Floor: E – Cow
First Floor: B – Parrot, A – Dog
Second Floor: D – Rabbit, C – Horse

QUESTION: 41

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

5 people, A, B, C, D and E, stay on different floors in a 3-storied building, with one of them staying on the ground floor and two each staying on the first floor and the second floor. Each of them has exactly one pet from amongst a cow, a dog, a horse, a rabbit and a parrot.

  • D stays on the second floor and neither he nor his neighbour own the dog.
  • The person staying on the ground floor, who is not A, owns the cow.
  • B owns the parrot and his neighbour owns neither the horse nor the rabbit.
  • C, who is not a neighbour of either B or E, does not own either the cow or the dog, and his neighbour does not own the horse.

Q. Who is E’s neighbour?

Solution:

We know that D stays on the 2nd floor and he and his neighbour does not own the dog. The person who owns the cow, stays on the ground floor. Now, C does not own the cow, nor is he neighbours with B or E. This tells us that C must stay on the 2nd floor and is a neighbour of D, who does not own the horse. It is given that the person staying on the ground floor is not A and B owns the parrot. So, the person staying on the ground floor must be E so that A and B stay on the 1st floor. B’s neighbour A, does not own the cow, the horse or the rabbit. So, A must own the dog. Since C’s neighbour does not own the horse, we can conclude that D owns the rabbit and C owns the horse.

We have matched the information as follows:
Ground Floor: E – Cow
First Floor: B – Parrot, A – Dog
Second Floor: D – Rabbit, C – Horse

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 42

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

A deck of cards has 52 cards, 13 each belonging to four different sets (called suits) viz.; Spades (♠), Hearts (♥), Clubs (♣) and Diamonds (♦). Each card in a set has face value of either one of the numbers 2 to 9 or A or J or Q or K written on it. A is equivalent to number 1, J to 11, Q to 12 and K to 13. The following shows the distribution of the 52 cards among 4 players seated at a table. We name the players North (N), East (E), West (W) and South (S).

Q. A trio is defined as a set of three cards with a single person having the same face value written on each of them. How many trios do West, East and South have? (in numerical value)


Solution:

Remaining cards are with South. So, South has ♠ 2 4 5 6 7, ♥ 5 8, ♣  K A 10, ♦ K Q 2

West has ♠ J ♣ J  ♦ J, East has ♥ 9 ♣ 9 ♦ 9 and South has no trio.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 43

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

A deck of cards has 52 cards, 13 each belonging to four different sets (called suits) viz.; Spades (♠), Hearts (♥), Clubs (♣) and Diamonds (♦). Each card in a set has face value of either one of the numbers 2 to 9 or A or J or Q or K written on it. A is equivalent to number 1, J to 11, Q to 12 and K to 13. The following shows the distribution of the 52 cards among 4 players seated at a table. We name the players North (N), East (E), West (W) and South (S).


Q. How many pure sequences do the players have? (A pure sequence is a set of four cards of the same suit, that a single person has, the face values in the sequence being consecutive). (in numerical value)


Solution:

Remaining cards are with South. So, South has ♠ 2 4 5 6 7, ♥ 5 8, ♣  K A 10, ♦ K Q 2

North has ♥ K Q J 10 and South has ♠ 7 6 5 4.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 44

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

A deck of cards has 52 cards, 13 each belonging to four different sets (called suits) viz.; Spades (♠), Hearts (♥), Clubs (♣) and Diamonds (♦). Each card in a set has face value of either one of the numbers 2 to 9 or A or J or Q or K written on it. A is equivalent to number 1, J to 11, Q to 12 and K to 13. The following shows the distribution of the 52 cards among 4 players seated at a table. We name the players North (N), East (E), West (W) and South (S).


Q. How many sequences exist with North, West and East? (A sequence is a set of three cards of the same suit that a single person has, the face values in the sequence being consecutive). Note: Three of the four cards of a pure sequence should not be counted as a sequence. (in numerical value)


Solution:

Remaining cards are with South. So, South has ♠ 2 4 5 6 7, ♥ 5 8, ♣  K A 10, ♦ K Q 2

West has ♥ A 2 3, North has ♠ 10 9 8, ♦ 8 7 6 and East has ♣ 7 6 5.

QUESTION: 45

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

India played a total of five matches with Pakistan, of which two matches were played in India and three in Pakistan. India scored a different number of goals in each match among 1, 4, 5, 6 and 8 and conceded  a different number of goals among 0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 in the five matches, not necessarily in that order. It is also known that

I. Pakistan scored 4 goals in one of the matches in Pakistan.
II. Compared to one of the other matches, the number of goals scored by India in the 4th match is half of that scored in the other match and the number of goals conceded by India in the 4th match is also half of that conceded in other match.
III. The number of goals India conceded in one of the matches is thrice that it conceded in the match in which it scored 4 goals.
IV. India won the match in which it scored only one goal and it was played in Pakistan but it was not the 4th match.
V. The 3rd match is played in India, and the 4th match is played in Pakistan.
VI. Compared to the 1st match, in the 2nd match the number of goals scored by India is 2 less but the number of goals conceded is 2 more.

Q. Which of the following combinations is true of the goals scored by Pakistan?

Solution:

From (iii), the score in one of the matches is India – Pakistan is 4 – 2.
From (iv), the score of one of the matches is 1 – 0.
From (ii) and (iii), by looking at the number of goals scored by India, the only possibility of score in 4th match is 4 – 2. In one match the score is 8 – 4. And from (vi) the score of 2nd match is 6 – 6. The score in the first match will be 8 – 4.
As 3rd match is played in India, 1-0 must be the score of the match in Pakistan i.e. the 5th match and 5 – 1 is the score of the 3rd match.

From the table it is clear that Pakistan scored 1 goal in 3rd match.

QUESTION: 46

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

India played a total of five matches with Pakistan, of which two matches were played in India and three in Pakistan. India scored a different number of goals in each match among 1, 4, 5, 6 and 8 and conceded  a different number of goals among 0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 in the five matches, not necessarily in that order. It is also known that

I. Pakistan scored 4 goals in one of the matches in Pakistan.
II. Compared to one of the other matches, the number of goals scored by India in the 4th match is half of that scored in the other match and the number of goals conceded by India in the 4th match is also half of that conceded in other match.
III. The number of goals India conceded in one of the matches is thrice that it conceded in the match in which it scored 4 goals.
IV. India won the match in which it scored only one goal and it was played in Pakistan but it was not the 4th match.
V. The 3rd match is played in India, and the 4th match is played in Pakistan.
VI. Compared to the 1st match, in the 2nd match the number of goals scored by India is 2 less but the number of goals conceded is 2 more.

Q. How many goals did India score in the first match?

Solution:

From (iii), the score in one of the matches is India – Pakistan is 4 – 2.
From (iv), the score of one of the matches is 1 – 0.
From (ii) and (iii), by looking at the number of goals scored by India, the only possibility of score in 4th match is 4 – 2. In one match the score is 8 – 4. And from (vi) the score of 2nd match is 6 – 6. The score in the first match will be 8 – 4.
As 3rd match is played in India, 1-0 must be the score of the match in Pakistan i.e. the 5th match and 5 – 1 is the score of the 3rd match.

India scored 8 goals in the first match.

QUESTION: 47

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

India played a total of five matches with Pakistan, of which two matches were played in India and three in Pakistan. India scored a different number of goals in each match among 1, 4, 5, 6 and 8 and conceded  a different number of goals among 0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 in the five matches, not necessarily in that order. It is also known that

I. Pakistan scored 4 goals in one of the matches in Pakistan.
II. Compared to one of the other matches, the number of goals scored by India in the 4th match is half of that scored in the other match and the number of goals conceded by India in the 4th match is also half of that conceded in other match.
III. The number of goals India conceded in one of the matches is thrice that it conceded in the match in which it scored 4 goals.
IV. India won the match in which it scored only one goal and it was played in Pakistan but it was not the 4th match.
V. The 3rd match is played in India, and the 4th match is played in Pakistan.
VI. Compared to the 1st match, in the 2nd match the number of goals scored by India is 2 less but the number of goals conceded is 2 more.

Q. The matches that are played in India are the 

Solution:

From (iii), the score in one of the matches is India – Pakistan is 4 – 2.
From (iv), the score of one of the matches is 1 – 0.
From (ii) and (iii), by looking at the number of goals scored by India, the only possibility of score in 4th match is 4 – 2. In one match the score is 8 – 4. And from (vi) the score of 2nd match is 6 – 6. The score in the first match will be 8 – 4.
As 3rd match is played in India, 1-0 must be the score of the match in Pakistan i.e. the 5th match and 5 – 1 is the score of the 3rd match.

The 2nd & 3rd matches are played in India.

QUESTION: 48

DIRECTIONS for the question: Go through the pie chart/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The pie charts represent the quantity of ice cream produced and the amount earned by selling them in the year 2012 by six companies respectively. These 6 companies control the complete market.


Q. What is the approximate average selling price of ice cream per ton (in millions Rs.) of all the six companies taken together?

Solution:

Total sales of all the six companies taken together = Rs.64 billion or Rs.64000 million
Average selling price (in million Rs.) per ton = 64000/3500 = Rs.18.3 million.

QUESTION: 49

DIRECTIONS for the question: Go through the pie chart/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The pie charts represent the quantity of ice cream produced and the amount earned by selling them in the year 2012 by six companies respectively. These 6 companies control the complete market.


Q. The expenditure incurred in ice cream production by Dairy Queen was Rs.10.54 million per ton in the year 2012. What is the approximate percentage profit (as the percentage of expenditure) that Dairy Queen has earned?

Solution:

Quantity of ice cream sold by Dairy Queen in the year 2012 = (15 × 3500)/100 = 525 tons
Total expenditure incurred (in million Rs.) by Dairy Queen = 10.54 × 525 = 5533.5

Total sales achieved by Dairy Queen = (11 × 64000)/100 = Rs. 7040 million
Dairy Queen‘s profits in the year 2012 = 7040 – 5533.5 = Rs. 1506.5 million 

So, approximate profit percentage = (1506.5 × 100) / 5533.5 = 27.2 %

QUESTION: 50

DIRECTIONS for the question: Go through the pie chart/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The pie charts represent the quantity of ice cream produced and the amount earned by selling them in the year 2012 by six companies respectively. These 6 companies control the complete market.


Q. What is the approximate marked price (in million Rs.) per ton of Dippin Dots, if the discount per ton of Dippin Dots is 10% of the selling price?

Solution:

Marked price = Selling price + Discount
Quantity of the ice cream sold by Dippin Dots = (21 × 3500)/100 = 735 tons
Total sales of Dippin Dots = (29 × 64000)/100 = Rs.18560 million

Now, per ton selling price of Dippin Dots'' ice cream = 18560 / 735 = Rs. 25.25 million 
⇒ So 25.25 = 0.9 (Marked Price)
⇒ So, Marked price = Rs. 28.05 million or Rs.28.1 (approx.).

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 51

Solve the following question

A man had a 10-gallon keg of wine and a jug.  One day, he drew off a jugful of wine and filled up the keg with water. Later on, when the wine and water had got thoroughly mixed, he drew off another jugful and again filled up the keg with water. The keg then contained equal quantities of wine and water.  What was the approximate capacity of the jug? (ans in gallons, nearest integer)


Solution:

Let x be the size of the jug. 
After the man drew off his first jugful of wine, the keg contained 10 - gallons of wine. 

When he filled up the keg with water, the proportion of wine was reduced to (10 - x)/10. 

The man''s second jugful contained x(10 - x)/10 gallons of wine, so the keg''s wine content was reduced to 10 - x - x(10 - x)/10 gallons of wine.

Since the keg now contains equal quantities of wine and water, 10 - x(10 - x)/10 = 5. 
Now just solve for x.
10 - x - x(10 - x)/10 =5
100 - 10x - (10x - x2)=50
x- 20+ 50 = 0

Of these two values , 10 + √50 is greater than 10, so it can''t be the capacity of the jug in this story.  So = 10 - √50, which is about 2.93 gallons.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 52

Solve the following question 

What is the smallest positive value of positive integer n so that 20! ÷ 6n is not an integer? (in numerical value)


Solution:

Since 6n = (2 ×3)n, we need to find the highest power of 6 that will divide 20!. Checking highest power for 3 in 20! is 8,   So the highest power of 6 that divides 20!  is 8. Thus the smallest value of positive integer n so that 20! ÷ 6n is not an integer is 9.

QUESTION: 53

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Three circles with centres A, B and C and radii 1 cm, 2 cm and 3 cm respectively are drawn tangent to each other. The common tangents through points of contact L, M and N intersect in point P. What is the difference between the circum-radius and the in-radius of the triangle formed by joining the centres of these three circles?

Solution:

► If we join the centres of the circles, we get ABC with sides 3, 4 and 5.
► This means that ABC is right-angled.
► The circum-centre of ABC will be the mid-point of the hypotenuse.
► So, the circum-radius, R, is 5/2 = 2.5 cm.
► The area of ABC = 1/2 ×  3 × 4 = 6.
► The semi-perimeter is (3 + 4 + 5) / 2 = 6.
► Since r = A/s where A is the area, s is semi perimeter and r is inradius, so 6 = 6r r = 1.
► Thus the required difference is R -  r = 2.5 - 1 = 1.5 cm.

QUESTION: 54

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

A student was asked to find the average of the first n natural numbers. By mistake he forgot to add one number somewhere in between. He found the average of the remaining numbers as  Find the number he forgot to add.

Q. All of the following are true as per the passage, EXCEPT

Solution:

The average of (n -1) numbers is calculated as 30.17. Since we are calculating the average of the 1st n natural numbers, we know that the average will be the middle number if n is odd and the average will be the average of the middle 2 numbers if n is even. As the given average is 30.17, so the original average of n numbers is either 30 or 30.5.

If the average is 30, n = 59 and if the average is 30.5, n = 60.
if n = 59 and the missing number is x, then

Solving the equation gives x = 20. If n = 60 and the missing number is 
x,  then

 Solving this equation gives x = 49.82. Since x is a natural number, the missing number is 20.

QUESTION: 55

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Chhavi had a collection of pencils, but did not have any pens. She exchanges 5 pencils for 3 pens with her sister Simran and thus amasses as many pens as she can. After the exchanges are done Chhavi is left with 25 writing instruments. What is the maximum number of pencils Chhavi could have had at the start?

Solution:

If Chhavi has amassed as many pens as she can, then the maximum number of pens she has at the end will be 24 and 25th writing instrument will be a pencil. Since 5 pencils are exchanged for 3 pens, she will have to exchange 

 pencils for 24 pens. Thus she had 40 + 1 = 41 pencils at the start.

QUESTION: 56

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

A car leaves city A for city B at 3:00 p.m. At 4:15 p.m., it develops engine trouble and has to reduce its speed to 5/6th of the original speed. It thus arrives at city B at 9:57 p.m. Had the engine trouble developed 45 km further, the car would have arrived at city B at 9:48 p.m. What is the original speed of the car and the distance between cities A and B?

Solution:

The difference in arrival times of 9 minutes is because 45 km is travelled once at normal speed and once at 5/6th of normal speed.

Let the speed of the car is 'x' km/hr. So

The distance travelled by the car from 3:00 p.m. to 4:15 p.m. at 60 kmph is 75 km. The distance travelled by the car from 4:15 p.m. to 9:57 p.m. at 50 kmph is 285 km. Thus the total distance is 75 + 285 = 360 km.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 57

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question.

Arun lends Rs. 20,000 to two of his friends for one year. He gives Rs. 12,000 to the first at 8% p.a. simple interest. Arun wants to make a profit of 10% on the whole. The simple interest rate at which he should lend the remaining sum of money to the second friend is (in percentage, in numerical value)


Solution:

QUESTION: 58

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Four points, A(0, –4), B(3, 4), C(3, –1) and D(6, 1.5) are marked on the co-ordinate plane. Which of the following statements is true?

Solution:

From the figure, we see that side BC is a common base to both triangles. Also, BC is part of the line x = 3 and parallel to the Y-axis. Since the x-coordinate of A is 0, the altitude of ABC from A on to BC will be 3. Similarly, since the x-coordinate of D is 6, the altitude of DBC from D on to BC is 3. Since both triangles have the same base and equal altitudes, their will be equal.
Or the coordinate formula for areas can be applied.

Applying the above formula also, you can find the area of both the triangles to be same.

QUESTION: 59

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

A trader mixes three varieties of sugar costing Rs 34.50 / kg, Rs 36.50 / kg and Rs 41.2 / kg. He sells the mixture for Rs 46.20 / kg and gains 22.22%. In what ratio did he mix the three varieties of sugar respectively?

Solution:

The trader makes of profit of 2/9th when he sells the mixture for Rs 46.20 / kg.
So the cost of the mixture is (46.2 × 9) / 11= Rs 37.80 / kg.

Suppose he mixes xy and z kg of these respectively. Then, 34.5x + 36.5y + 41.2z = 37.8(x + y + z).

Simplifying this equation, we get 3.3x + 1.3y = 3.4z.

From the answer choices, the only set of values satisfying this equation is 5 : 3 : 6.

QUESTION: 60

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

After a tiring day at her office, Arushri decided to soak in her tub. She turned on the Hot water tap to 75% and the Cold water tap to 25% of their capacities and returned 5 minutes before the tub should have been full. She then turned off the Hot tap and fully opened the Cold tap. If both taps have equal capacities, what is the volume of the tub (in litres)?

Solution:

Since we do not know the time taken to fill the tank or the capacities of the taps or the required distribution of hot and cold water, it is not possible to determine the volume of the tank.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 61

Solve the following question

5 metals Zinc, Aluminium, Iron, Copper and Lead are melted in the ratio 1 : 2 : 5 : 4 : 3 to form an alloy. The cost of 1 kg of Zinc is Rs. 20, cost of 1 kg Lead is 25% more than Zinc, cost of 1 kg Aluminium is five times the cost of lead and cost of Copper is four times that of Zinc. Find the cost of 1 kg Iron, if the total cost of alloy is Rs. 95 per kg? (in Rs.,in numerical value)


Solution:

Let the cost per kg of Iron be Rs ‘y’.



Total quantity of the alloy = x + 2x + 5x + 4x + 3x = 15x kg.
Since the cost of alloy is Rs. 95 per kg, total cost of the alloy = 15x × 95.
Also

► 15x × 95 = 20x + 250x + 5xy + 320x + 75x
► 1425x = 665x + 5xy
►  760x = 5xy
►  y = 152 Rs.

Thus the cost of 1 kg iron is Rs. 152.

QUESTION: 62

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

What is the percentage profit on the sale of a tablet at Rs.11000, after discount?

(i) The margin percentage on sales price is 10%.
(ii) A discount of 20% was offered on the market price.
(iii) Mark-up percentage was 50% over the cost price.

Question can be answered by

Solution:

Statement (i):
Since we can find the cost price as 9900 or [11000-(11000x10/100)]
Percentage profit= 1100/9900 x 100 = 11.11 %
So, Statement (i) alone is sufficient.

► Statement (ii):
Since we cannot find the cost price, so statement (ii) alone is not sufficient.
But from this we can find MP = 11000/0.8 = 13750

► Statement (iii):
Since we can not find the cost price, so statement (iii) alone is not sufficient.
But if we combine it with statement (ii), we get CP = 13750/1.5 = Rs. 9166.67
So Profit percentage = (11000 – 9166.67)/9166.67 × 100 = 20%

QUESTION: 63

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

3 circles with centres A, B and C and radii R1, R2 and R3 respectively are tangent to each other. If the in-radius of "ABC is 4", what is the ratio of the product of the radii to the sum of the radii?

Solution:

In Δ ABC, AB = R1 + R3, AC = R1 + R2 and
BC = R2 + R3.
Area of Δ ABC = rs,where r, the in radius = 4 and s, the semi-perimeter = R1 + R2 +R3.

So, the area of ΔABC = 4(R1 + R2 + R3).

The area of ΔABC can also be calculated by using Heron's formula. So, the area will be  

Equating the areas, we get
4(R1 + R2 + R3) = 
 Squaring both sides, we get

Alternate solution:
Take a case where all radii are equal and then solve.
You get the ratio 16:1.

QUESTION: 64

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

What are the positive values of x that satisfy 

Solution:

We can rewrite the expression as

We need to consider values of x > 0 so that the above expression is less than 2/3.

From the denominator, it is obvious that x cannot be equal to 1 or 6.
In the range 0 < x < 1, the numerator will always be negative while the denominator will always be positive and the value of the expression will always be less than 2/3.

In the range 1 < x < 4, the numerator and the denominator are both negative, but the absolute value of the numerator will be greater than that of the denominator and the value of the expression will always be greater than 2/3.

In the range 4 < x < 5, the numerator and the denominator are both negative, but the absolute value of the numerator will be less than that of the denominator and the value of the expression will always be less than 2/3. 

In the range 5 < x < 6, the numerator is always positive while the denominator is always negative so that the value of the expression is always negative and therefore is always less than 2/3. 
In the range x > 6, the numerator and the denominator are positive and the numerator is greater than the denominator so that the value of the expression is always greater than 2/3.
Comparing this with the answer choices, the best answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 65

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

r is a positive integer such that f(r) = 1 + 2+ 3+ …..+ r. If m and n are two positive integers, what is the value of f(m + n) – f(m) – f(n)?

Solution:

Since f(r) is the sum of the first r natural numbers, we know that f(r) = r(r + 1)/2. So, f(m + n) – f(m) – f(n) = (m + n)(m + n + 1)/2 – m(m + 1)/1 – n(n + 1)/2.

After multiplying, we get

QUESTION: 66

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Find the remainder when 327 327 327 ......upto (165 digits) is divided by 36?

Solution:

Let N = 327327 …….. (165 digits)
165/3 = 55 blocks of 327
Reminder of N by 4 = 27/4 ~ 3
Remainder of N by 9 = (3 + 2 + 7)55 = 3 x 1 = 3

N is a number which when divided by 4 & 9, remainder is 3 always.

So, by applying LCM, N will leave a remainder of 3 when divided by 36.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 67

Solve the following question

10 friends are planning to travel to Alibag in 2 cars, a Santro and a Swift. If the Swift and the Santro can accommodate 6 and 5 people respectively, in how many ways can the friends travel? (in numerical value)


Solution:

If 6 friends travel in the Swift and 4 travel in the Santro, they can do this in 10C6 = 210 ways.

If 5 friends travel in the Swift and 5 travel in the Santro, they can do this in 10C5 = 252 ways.

Thus the total number of ways is 210 + 252 = 462.

QUESTION: 68

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

A beaker contained V litres of a mixture of milk and water with milk and water ratio of 3 : 2. The volume of liquid in the mixture was increased by 60% by adding water. Next 38.4 litres of the solution in the beaker was replaced by water. If the final ratio of milk and water in the beaker is 3 : 7, then find the value of V. (in litres)

Solution:

Initial ratio of milk to total volume = M/T = 3/5

The ratio of milk to total volume when the volume of liquid in the beaker is increased by 60% = 3/5(1.6) = 3/8

Next 38.4litres of solution was replaced with water resulting in ratio of milk to water as 3 : 7.

∴ Ratio of milk to total volume in the beaker  = 3/10

when 38.4 liters of solution was removed, volume of milk removed = 3/8 = 14.4 liters

∴ If the volume of the milk before replacement was 3x and total volume was 8x, then 

Hence, before addition of 60% of water, total volume = 5x = 5 x 24 =120 litres

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 69

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question.

Road A and road B are two concentric circular roads. A man starts running at 12 km/hr from a point P on the outer road B along a path tangential to road A and takes 50 minutes to reach point Q on road B. If the radii of the two roads are integers, what is the diameter of road B? (ans in km, in numerical value)


Solution:

The length of PQ is 12 x (50/60) = 10 km.

In the figure, if O is the centre, then OR ⊥ PQ ⇒ QR = 5 km and ΔORQ is a right triangle. Since OR and OQ are radii of the two circular roads and take integer values, the only possibility is that the sides of ΔORQ are 5, 12 and 13. So the diameter of the outer road is 2 x 13 = 26 km.

QUESTION: 70

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

As per the National Family Health Survey, Telangana tops the list of States in terms of caesarean section rate (CSR). While the overall rate is stated to be 58 per cent, which is almost six times higher than the 10 percent prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO), private hospitals are doing almost 75 per cent of the deliveries as C-Sections. C-Sections in government hospitals too are way beyond the limit, at 40.6 per cent of the deliveries.
What percentage of deliveries in Telangana happen in government hospitals?

Solution:

Let’s say 100 babies were born in Telangana.
58 of them were delivered by C section.
Let x be the total number of deliveries at govt hospitals.
So C sections at govt hospitals is 0.406x
In private hospitals, number of deliveries is 100 – x
Number of C sections there would be
► (100 – x) × 0.75 = 75 – 0.75x
Adding both we get
► 0.406x + 75 – 0.75x = 58
► 17 = 0.344x
x = 49.4

So percentage of deliveries at govt hospitals is  49.4 percent.

QUESTION: 71

DIRECTIONS for the question: Answer the following question as per the best of your ability.

A boy goes from his house to his school daily by a motorbike. He rides the motorbike at three different speeds, S m/min, 2.5 S m/min and 4S m/min for three different durations during the journey. He knows the time intervals for which he should ride his motorbike at each of these speeds so as to reach the school on time.On one particular day, he started 20 minutes late from his house and rode his motorbike at 2.5S m/min for 6 minutes longer than usual. For how much longer than usual should he ride at 4S m/min so that he reaches school on time?

Solution:

Suppose the time for which he rides at S, 2.5S and 4S m/min are T1, T2 and T3 minutes respectively.

The distance between his house and the school is ST1 + 2.5ST2 + 4ST3.

Since he started 30 min late, he has T1 + T2 + T3 - 20 minutes left to reach school.

Suppose the times for which he rode at 2.5S abd 4S m/min are (6 +T2) and (T3 + x) minutes respectively.

The time for which he rode at S m/min is now
T1 - 20 - x - 6 minutes. ⇒ ST1 + 2.5ST+ 4ST3

= S(T1-20 - x -6) + 2.5S(6 + T2) + 4S(T3+x)

Solving this equation gives x = 11/3 minutes.

QUESTION: 72

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Find the smallest positive integer k such that k (33+43+53+63)=afor some positive integers a and n with n >1.

Solution:

► K(33+43+53+63)=an
► K×432=an
Do prime factorization of 432
► K×24×33=an
for K×24×33 to be perfect power the least value of K=3 so that it becomes 64.

QUESTION: 73

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Two functions, f(x) and g(x), are defined for all non-negative x as f(x) = |6 – x| and g(x) = ½ x. The graphs of f(x) and g(x) intersect in the points A and B. Which of the following represents the equation of AB and the coordinates of the mid-point of AB respectively?

Solution:

The points of intersection will satisfy both the functions. So, 6 - x = (1/2)x gives x = 4 and y = 2 and x - 6 = (1/2)x gives x = 12 and y = 6. Thus, the mid-point of A(4, 2) and B(12, 6) must be (8, 4)
Using the 2-points form, the equation of AB is 

⇒ 8y - 16 = 4x - 16
⇒ 4x = 8y ⇒ x - 2y = 0

QUESTION: 74

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

If the difference between S.I. and C.I. for 2 years on a sum of money lent at 5% is Rs. 6, then the sum is (ans in Rs.)

Solution:

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 75

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question.

Consider the set X = {1, 2, 3, ..., 9, 10}. A and B are two non-empty disjoint subsets of X such that A ∪ B = X. The products of all the elements in A and B are represented by prod(A) and prod(B) respectively. If prod(A) is a multiple of prod(B), and quotient is the smallest possible integer, then  what is the minimum difference between the sum of all elements in A and the sum of all elements in B? (in numerical value)


Solution:

The prime factors of the numbers in set {1, 2, 3, ..., 9, 10} are 2, 3, 5 and 7. Now, 7 is the only number in X which has a prime factor 7 and therefore, it cannot appear in B (otherwise the 7 in the denominator would not get canceled). So, 7 must be in A. From this, we now know that prod(A) / prod(B) ≥ 7.

The numbers having prime factor 3 are 3, 6 and 9. Since we want the quotient to be as small as possible, 3 and 6 are in A and 9 is in B. Similarly, since 5 divides 5 and 10, 5 is in A and 10 is in B. Extending this logic, we can take 1, 2 and 4 in A and 8 in B. So, the two sets are A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} and B = {8, 9, 10} so that prod(A) = 7! = 5040 and prod(B) = 720 so that prod(A) / prod(B) is a minimum of 7. The sum of the elements in A is 28 and the sum of the elements in B is 27. Thus the requried difference is 1.

Note: the 1 can also be moved to set B in which case sum of elements in A is 27 and the sum of elements in B is 28. The difference would still be 1.

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