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CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022)


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CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 1

Direction: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

"Productivity isn't everything, but in the long run it is almost everything," wrote Paul Krugman more than 20 years ago. "A country's ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability to raise output per worker." There is a virtuous cycle between productivity and people: Higher levels of productivity allow society to reinvest in human capital (most obviously, though not exclusively, via higher wages), and smart investments result in higher labour productivity.

Unfortunately, this virtuous cycle appears to be broken. Productivity in most developed economies has been anaemic. In the decade between 2005 and 2015, labour productivity in the US as measured by GDP per labour hour was less than 1% for 7 of the 10 years, according to the OECD. And wages are stagnant. US unemployment hit its lowest level in 16 years this past May, yet wage growth has been sluggish compared with similar periods in the past. Of course, low productivity can depress wages, but in recent decades, wages haven't grown as much as expected even during periods of robust economic productivity growth.

All of this raises a chicken-or-egg question: Are we suffering from low productivity because we have underinvested in human capital? Or are we unable to invest in human capital because structural factors are permanently reducing productivity?

The evidence suggests the former: We could improve productivity if we stopped systematically underinvesting in human capital. The most direct and obvious investment is increased wages. Beyond wages, other forms of investment in human capital include education and training, improved healthcare, and other, less obvious investments, such as the time and space to explore new ideas and professional development opportunities.

Higher investment in wages does not need to come at the expense of customers and shareholders. Managed by Q, a cleaning and office services company in New York City, decided to pay employees higher wages than the prevailing market rate. In turn, the company is achieving lower levels of employee and customer churn, and correspondingly lower employee hiring and customer acquisition costs. The compounding and virtuous effects of increasing customer and employee advocacy more than offset the higher cost of wages. At the other end of the size spectrum, Walmart has committed to investing $2.7 billion in its associates through higher wages, better benefits and enhanced training.

Our careless treatment of time represents a shocking level of underinvestment in human capital. For knowledge workers, time is incredibly scarce. Our research suggests that, on average, managers have fewer than seven hours per week of uninterrupted time to do deep versus shallow work. They spend the rest of their time attending meetings, sending e-communications or working in time increments of less than 20 minutes, a practice that makes it difficult to accomplish a specific task and in the worst cases can lead to employee burnout. We know that great ideas that drive breakthroughs in productivity come from human beings with the time, talent and energy to innovate.

Perhaps the most transformational thing a company can do for its workforce is to invest in creating jobs and working environments that unleash intrinsic inspiration. This is the gateway to the discretionary energy that multiplies labour productivity: An inspired employee is more than twice as productive as a satisfied employee and more than three times as productive as a dissatisfied employee. Yet, only one in eight employees are inspired. We measure organizational energy through employee engagement, and despite decades of investment in engagement programs, levels of engagement remain systemically and stubbornly low.

As companies think about how to change this, they should focus on the jobs that will survive into the future. The forces of creative destruction inevitably will continue to eliminate some work through automation, digitalization, or the virtualization of work, but these same forces also create new types of work and jobs.

Robert Gordon, a macroeconomist at Northwestern University, has shown that periods of breakout productivity in the United States were not the result of capital deepening (applying more capital to each hour of labour), but of what economists call total factor productivity, a catch-all measure for the impact of technological innovation. Who has these inspirational ideas and translates them into productivity-driving innovations? People do. This is why we believe that human capital, not financial capital, is often your scarcest resource. Reinvesting in this scarcest resource could unlock new levels of labour productivity for the economies and companies around the world that are sorely in need of it.

Q. Which of the following best describes the tone of the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 1 A is incorrect as the author only briefly gives some suggestions and instructions on how to invest more in human capital, but this is not his tone in the entire passage. C is incorrect as the author cites data in only one paragraph, and so the tone of the entire passage cannot be considered scientific. D is incorrect as the author does not criticise anyone or anything. B is the right answer, as the author seeks to describe the main topic: How productivity reduces when human capital is underinvested in, by means of examples, facts, theories and suggestions. In all, he explores all sides of the issue, so the tone will be descriptive.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 2

Direction: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

"Productivity isn't everything, but in the long run it is almost everything," wrote Paul Krugman more than 20 years ago. "A country's ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability to raise output per worker." There is a virtuous cycle between productivity and people: Higher levels of productivity allow society to reinvest in human capital (most obviously, though not exclusively, via higher wages), and smart investments result in higher labour productivity.

Unfortunately, this virtuous cycle appears to be broken. Productivity in most developed economies has been anaemic. In the decade between 2005 and 2015, labour productivity in the US as measured by GDP per labour hour was less than 1% for 7 of the 10 years, according to the OECD. And wages are stagnant. US unemployment hit its lowest level in 16 years this past May, yet wage growth has been sluggish compared with similar periods in the past. Of course, low productivity can depress wages, but in recent decades, wages haven't grown as much as expected even during periods of robust economic productivity growth.

All of this raises a chicken-or-egg question: Are we suffering from low productivity because we have underinvested in human capital? Or are we unable to invest in human capital because structural factors are permanently reducing productivity?

The evidence suggests the former: We could improve productivity if we stopped systematically underinvesting in human capital. The most direct and obvious investment is increased wages. Beyond wages, other forms of investment in human capital include education and training, improved healthcare, and other, less obvious investments, such as the time and space to explore new ideas and professional development opportunities.

Higher investment in wages does not need to come at the expense of customers and shareholders. Managed by Q, a cleaning and office services company in New York City, decided to pay employees higher wages than the prevailing market rate. In turn, the company is achieving lower levels of employee and customer churn, and correspondingly lower employee hiring and customer acquisition costs. The compounding and virtuous effects of increasing customer and employee advocacy more than offset the higher cost of wages. At the other end of the size spectrum, Walmart has committed to investing $2.7 billion in its associates through higher wages, better benefits and enhanced training.

Our careless treatment of time represents a shocking level of underinvestment in human capital. For knowledge workers, time is incredibly scarce. Our research suggests that, on average, managers have fewer than seven hours per week of uninterrupted time to do deep versus shallow work. They spend the rest of their time attending meetings, sending e-communications or working in time increments of less than 20 minutes, a practice that makes it difficult to accomplish a specific task and in the worst cases can lead to employee burnout. We know that great ideas that drive breakthroughs in productivity come from human beings with the time, talent and energy to innovate.

Perhaps the most transformational thing a company can do for its workforce is to invest in creating jobs and working environments that unleash intrinsic inspiration. This is the gateway to the discretionary energy that multiplies labour productivity: An inspired employee is more than twice as productive as a satisfied employee and more than three times as productive as a dissatisfied employee. Yet, only one in eight employees are inspired. We measure organizational energy through employee engagement, and despite decades of investment in engagement programs, levels of engagement remain systemically and stubbornly low.

As companies think about how to change this, they should focus on the jobs that will survive into the future. The forces of creative destruction inevitably will continue to eliminate some work through automation, digitalization, or the virtualization of work, but these same forces also create new types of work and jobs.

Robert Gordon, a macroeconomist at Northwestern University, has shown that periods of breakout productivity in the United States were not the result of capital deepening (applying more capital to each hour of labour), but of what economists call total factor productivity, a catch-all measure for the impact of technological innovation. Who has these inspirational ideas and translates them into productivity-driving innovations? People do. This is why we believe that human capital, not financial capital, is often your scarcest resource. Reinvesting in this scarcest resource could unlock new levels of labour productivity for the economies and companies around the world that are sorely in need of it.

Q. It can be inferred from the passage that the primary purpose of the author in the sixth paragraph is:

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 2 B is incorrect as the author does not give any instructions to the readers. C is incorrect as the author although talks about how time is treated carelessly, does not seek to criticise this, rather make the reader aware of the importance of time. D is incorrect as the author does not talk about time being the scarcest resource. A is the right answer, as the author in the very first sentence talks about how time has been treated carelessly, and proceeds to tell us negative consequences of mismanaging time. From this we can infer what A says.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 3

Direction: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

"Productivity isn't everything, but in the long run it is almost everything," wrote Paul Krugman more than 20 years ago. "A country's ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability to raise output per worker." There is a virtuous cycle between productivity and people: Higher levels of productivity allow society to reinvest in human capital (most obviously, though not exclusively, via higher wages), and smart investments result in higher labour productivity.

Unfortunately, this virtuous cycle appears to be broken. Productivity in most developed economies has been anaemic. In the decade between 2005 and 2015, labour productivity in the US as measured by GDP per labour hour was less than 1% for 7 of the 10 years, according to the OECD. And wages are stagnant. US unemployment hit its lowest level in 16 years this past May, yet wage growth has been sluggish compared with similar periods in the past. Of course, low productivity can depress wages, but in recent decades, wages haven't grown as much as expected even during periods of robust economic productivity growth.

All of this raises a chicken-or-egg question: Are we suffering from low productivity because we have underinvested in human capital? Or are we unable to invest in human capital because structural factors are permanently reducing productivity?

The evidence suggests the former: We could improve productivity if we stopped systematically underinvesting in human capital. The most direct and obvious investment is increased wages. Beyond wages, other forms of investment in human capital include education and training, improved healthcare, and other, less obvious investments, such as the time and space to explore new ideas and professional development opportunities.

Higher investment in wages does not need to come at the expense of customers and shareholders. Managed by Q, a cleaning and office services company in New York City, decided to pay employees higher wages than the prevailing market rate. In turn, the company is achieving lower levels of employee and customer churn, and correspondingly lower employee hiring and customer acquisition costs. The compounding and virtuous effects of increasing customer and employee advocacy more than offset the higher cost of wages. At the other end of the size spectrum, Walmart has committed to investing $2.7 billion in its associates through higher wages, better benefits and enhanced training.

Our careless treatment of time represents a shocking level of underinvestment in human capital. For knowledge workers, time is incredibly scarce. Our research suggests that, on average, managers have fewer than seven hours per week of uninterrupted time to do deep versus shallow work. They spend the rest of their time attending meetings, sending e-communications or working in time increments of less than 20 minutes, a practice that makes it difficult to accomplish a specific task and in the worst cases can lead to employee burnout. We know that great ideas that drive breakthroughs in productivity come from human beings with the time, talent and energy to innovate.

Perhaps the most transformational thing a company can do for its workforce is to invest in creating jobs and working environments that unleash intrinsic inspiration. This is the gateway to the discretionary energy that multiplies labour productivity: An inspired employee is more than twice as productive as a satisfied employee and more than three times as productive as a dissatisfied employee. Yet, only one in eight employees are inspired. We measure organizational energy through employee engagement, and despite decades of investment in engagement programs, levels of engagement remain systemically and stubbornly low.

As companies think about how to change this, they should focus on the jobs that will survive into the future. The forces of creative destruction inevitably will continue to eliminate some work through automation, digitalization, or the virtualization of work, but these same forces also create new types of work and jobs.

Robert Gordon, a macroeconomist at Northwestern University, has shown that periods of breakout productivity in the United States were not the result of capital deepening (applying more capital to each hour of labour), but of what economists call total factor productivity, a catch-all measure for the impact of technological innovation. Who has these inspirational ideas and translates them into productivity-driving innovations? People do. This is why we believe that human capital, not financial capital, is often your scarcest resource. Reinvesting in this scarcest resource could unlock new levels of labour productivity for the economies and companies around the world that are sorely in need of it.

Q. Which of the following is the most suitable title for the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 3 A is incorrect as it is too general. The author speaks with specific regard to productivity in the workplace, and that too, how it is impacted by low investment in human capital. C is incorrect as the author although highlights the importance of human capital, does not seek to assert it as the main idea. D is incorrect as the author highlights in the passage that it is the other way around: underinvestment in human capital leads to low productivity. B is the right answer, as it best sums up the passage and provides a title for it.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 4

Direction: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

"Productivity isn't everything, but in the long run it is almost everything," wrote Paul Krugman more than 20 years ago. "A country's ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability to raise output per worker." There is a virtuous cycle between productivity and people: Higher levels of productivity allow society to reinvest in human capital (most obviously, though not exclusively, via higher wages), and smart investments result in higher labour productivity.

Unfortunately, this virtuous cycle appears to be broken. Productivity in most developed economies has been anaemic. In the decade between 2005 and 2015, labour productivity in the US as measured by GDP per labour hour was less than 1% for 7 of the 10 years, according to the OECD. And wages are stagnant. US unemployment hit its lowest level in 16 years this past May, yet wage growth has been sluggish compared with similar periods in the past. Of course, low productivity can depress wages, but in recent decades, wages haven't grown as much as expected even during periods of robust economic productivity growth.

All of this raises a chicken-or-egg question: Are we suffering from low productivity because we have underinvested in human capital? Or are we unable to invest in human capital because structural factors are permanently reducing productivity?

The evidence suggests the former: We could improve productivity if we stopped systematically underinvesting in human capital. The most direct and obvious investment is increased wages. Beyond wages, other forms of investment in human capital include education and training, improved healthcare, and other, less obvious investments, such as the time and space to explore new ideas and professional development opportunities.

Higher investment in wages does not need to come at the expense of customers and shareholders. Managed by Q, a cleaning and office services company in New York City, decided to pay employees higher wages than the prevailing market rate. In turn, the company is achieving lower levels of employee and customer churn, and correspondingly lower employee hiring and customer acquisition costs. The compounding and virtuous effects of increasing customer and employee advocacy more than offset the higher cost of wages. At the other end of the size spectrum, Walmart has committed to investing $2.7 billion in its associates through higher wages, better benefits and enhanced training.

Our careless treatment of time represents a shocking level of underinvestment in human capital. For knowledge workers, time is incredibly scarce. Our research suggests that, on average, managers have fewer than seven hours per week of uninterrupted time to do deep versus shallow work. They spend the rest of their time attending meetings, sending e-communications or working in time increments of less than 20 minutes, a practice that makes it difficult to accomplish a specific task and in the worst cases can lead to employee burnout. We know that great ideas that drive breakthroughs in productivity come from human beings with the time, talent and energy to innovate.

Perhaps the most transformational thing a company can do for its workforce is to invest in creating jobs and working environments that unleash intrinsic inspiration. This is the gateway to the discretionary energy that multiplies labour productivity: An inspired employee is more than twice as productive as a satisfied employee and more than three times as productive as a dissatisfied employee. Yet, only one in eight employees are inspired. We measure organizational energy through employee engagement, and despite decades of investment in engagement programs, levels of engagement remain systemically and stubbornly low.

As companies think about how to change this, they should focus on the jobs that will survive into the future. The forces of creative destruction inevitably will continue to eliminate some work through automation, digitalization, or the virtualization of work, but these same forces also create new types of work and jobs.

Robert Gordon, a macroeconomist at Northwestern University, has shown that periods of breakout productivity in the United States were not the result of capital deepening (applying more capital to each hour of labour), but of what economists call total factor productivity, a catch-all measure for the impact of technological innovation. Who has these inspirational ideas and translates them into productivity-driving innovations? People do. This is why we believe that human capital, not financial capital, is often your scarcest resource. Reinvesting in this scarcest resource could unlock new levels of labour productivity for the economies and companies around the world that are sorely in need of it.

Q. What does the author seek to highlight when he gives the example of Robert Gordon's study of total factor productivity?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 4 The author illustrates by means of this example that it is people who have such ideas. This is why human capital is valuable and should be reinvested in, as it is our scarcest resource. A and B are incorrect as the author does not talk about these in detail after giving the example. D is incorrect as the author primarily discusses the importance of human capital, and does not debate whether human capital or financial capital deserves greater investment. C is the right answer.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 5

Direction: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

"Productivity isn't everything, but in the long run it is almost everything," wrote Paul Krugman more than 20 years ago. "A country's ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability to raise output per worker." There is a virtuous cycle between productivity and people: Higher levels of productivity allow society to reinvest in human capital (most obviously, though not exclusively, via higher wages), and smart investments result in higher labour productivity.

Unfortunately, this virtuous cycle appears to be broken. Productivity in most developed economies has been anaemic. In the decade between 2005 and 2015, labour productivity in the US as measured by GDP per labour hour was less than 1% for 7 of the 10 years, according to the OECD. And wages are stagnant. US unemployment hit its lowest level in 16 years this past May, yet wage growth has been sluggish compared with similar periods in the past. Of course, low productivity can depress wages, but in recent decades, wages haven't grown as much as expected even during periods of robust economic productivity growth.

All of this raises a chicken-or-egg question: Are we suffering from low productivity because we have underinvested in human capital? Or are we unable to invest in human capital because structural factors are permanently reducing productivity?

The evidence suggests the former: We could improve productivity if we stopped systematically underinvesting in human capital. The most direct and obvious investment is increased wages. Beyond wages, other forms of investment in human capital include education and training, improved healthcare, and other, less obvious investments, such as the time and space to explore new ideas and professional development opportunities.

Higher investment in wages does not need to come at the expense of customers and shareholders. Managed by Q, a cleaning and office services company in New York City, decided to pay employees higher wages than the prevailing market rate. In turn, the company is achieving lower levels of employee and customer churn, and correspondingly lower employee hiring and customer acquisition costs. The compounding and virtuous effects of increasing customer and employee advocacy more than offset the higher cost of wages. At the other end of the size spectrum, Walmart has committed to investing $2.7 billion in its associates through higher wages, better benefits and enhanced training.

Our careless treatment of time represents a shocking level of underinvestment in human capital. For knowledge workers, time is incredibly scarce. Our research suggests that, on average, managers have fewer than seven hours per week of uninterrupted time to do deep versus shallow work. They spend the rest of their time attending meetings, sending e-communications or working in time increments of less than 20 minutes, a practice that makes it difficult to accomplish a specific task and in the worst cases can lead to employee burnout. We know that great ideas that drive breakthroughs in productivity come from human beings with the time, talent and energy to innovate.

Perhaps the most transformational thing a company can do for its workforce is to invest in creating jobs and working environments that unleash intrinsic inspiration. This is the gateway to the discretionary energy that multiplies labour productivity: An inspired employee is more than twice as productive as a satisfied employee and more than three times as productive as a dissatisfied employee. Yet, only one in eight employees are inspired. We measure organizational energy through employee engagement, and despite decades of investment in engagement programs, levels of engagement remain systemically and stubbornly low.

As companies think about how to change this, they should focus on the jobs that will survive into the future. The forces of creative destruction inevitably will continue to eliminate some work through automation, digitalization, or the virtualization of work, but these same forces also create new types of work and jobs.

Robert Gordon, a macroeconomist at Northwestern University, has shown that periods of breakout productivity in the United States were not the result of capital deepening (applying more capital to each hour of labour), but of what economists call total factor productivity, a catch-all measure for the impact of technological innovation. Who has these inspirational ideas and translates them into productivity-driving innovations? People do. This is why we believe that human capital, not financial capital, is often your scarcest resource. Reinvesting in this scarcest resource could unlock new levels of labour productivity for the economies and companies around the world that are sorely in need of it.

Q. It can be inferred from the passage that the author is likely to agree with all of the following EXCEPT:

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 5 The author will agree with B as he highlights in the seventh paragraph how inspiration is important for achieve good productivity levels. The author will agree with A as he outlines in the last paragraph that human capital, and not financial capital is our scarcest resource, and it is humans who come up with good ideas. The author will agree with C as he highlights in the sixth paragraph how time has been carelessly managed and this can have disastrous impacts on productivity. D is the right answer, as the author does not talk about focus on efficiency in the entire passage, so we cannot say whether the author would agree or disagree with this statement.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 6

Direction: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

"Productivity isn't everything, but in the long run it is almost everything," wrote Paul Krugman more than 20 years ago. "A country's ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability to raise output per worker." There is a virtuous cycle between productivity and people: Higher levels of productivity allow society to reinvest in human capital (most obviously, though not exclusively, via higher wages), and smart investments result in higher labour productivity.

Unfortunately, this virtuous cycle appears to be broken. Productivity in most developed economies has been anaemic. In the decade between 2005 and 2015, labour productivity in the US as measured by GDP per labour hour was less than 1% for 7 of the 10 years, according to the OECD. And wages are stagnant. US unemployment hit its lowest level in 16 years this past May, yet wage growth has been sluggish compared with similar periods in the past. Of course, low productivity can depress wages, but in recent decades, wages haven't grown as much as expected even during periods of robust economic productivity growth.

All of this raises a chicken-or-egg question: Are we suffering from low productivity because we have underinvested in human capital? Or are we unable to invest in human capital because structural factors are permanently reducing productivity?

The evidence suggests the former: We could improve productivity if we stopped systematically underinvesting in human capital. The most direct and obvious investment is increased wages. Beyond wages, other forms of investment in human capital include education and training, improved healthcare, and other, less obvious investments, such as the time and space to explore new ideas and professional development opportunities.

Higher investment in wages does not need to come at the expense of customers and shareholders. Managed by Q, a cleaning and office services company in New York City, decided to pay employees higher wages than the prevailing market rate. In turn, the company is achieving lower levels of employee and customer churn, and correspondingly lower employee hiring and customer acquisition costs. The compounding and virtuous effects of increasing customer and employee advocacy more than offset the higher cost of wages. At the other end of the size spectrum, Walmart has committed to investing $2.7 billion in its associates through higher wages, better benefits and enhanced training.

Our careless treatment of time represents a shocking level of underinvestment in human capital. For knowledge workers, time is incredibly scarce. Our research suggests that, on average, managers have fewer than seven hours per week of uninterrupted time to do deep versus shallow work. They spend the rest of their time attending meetings, sending e-communications or working in time increments of less than 20 minutes, a practice that makes it difficult to accomplish a specific task and in the worst cases can lead to employee burnout. We know that great ideas that drive breakthroughs in productivity come from human beings with the time, talent and energy to innovate.

Perhaps the most transformational thing a company can do for its workforce is to invest in creating jobs and working environments that unleash intrinsic inspiration. This is the gateway to the discretionary energy that multiplies labour productivity: An inspired employee is more than twice as productive as a satisfied employee and more than three times as productive as a dissatisfied employee. Yet, only one in eight employees are inspired. We measure organizational energy through employee engagement, and despite decades of investment in engagement programs, levels of engagement remain systemically and stubbornly low.

As companies think about how to change this, they should focus on the jobs that will survive into the future. The forces of creative destruction inevitably will continue to eliminate some work through automation, digitalization, or the virtualization of work, but these same forces also create new types of work and jobs.

Robert Gordon, a macroeconomist at Northwestern University, has shown that periods of breakout productivity in the United States were not the result of capital deepening (applying more capital to each hour of labour), but of what economists call total factor productivity, a catch-all measure for the impact of technological innovation. Who has these inspirational ideas and translates them into productivity-driving innovations? People do. This is why we believe that human capital, not financial capital, is often your scarcest resource. Reinvesting in this scarcest resource could unlock new levels of labour productivity for the economies and companies around the world that are sorely in need of it.

Q. Which of the following best describes the tone of the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 6 A is incorrect as the author only briefly gives some suggestions and instructions on how to invest more in human capital, but this is not his tone in the entire passage. C is incorrect as the author cites data in only one paragraph, and so the tone of the entire passage cannot be considered scientific. D is incorrect as the author does not criticise anyone or anything. B is the right answer, as the author seeks to describe the main topic: How productivity reduces when human capital is underinvested in, by means of examples, facts, theories and suggestions. In all, he explores all sides of the issue, so the tone will be descriptive.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 7

The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:

  1. Businesses find automation, such as robotic employees, a big asset in terms of productivity and efficiency.

  2. But in recent years, robotics has had increasing impacts on unemployment, not just of manual labour, as computers are rapidly handling some white-collar and service-sector work.

  3. For years politicians have promised workers that they would bring back their jobs by clamping down on trade, offshoring and immigration.

  4. Economists, based on their research, say that the bigger threat to jobs now is not globalisation but automation.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 7 A quick read of the sentences tells us that the paragraph is about the unemployment caused by automation. The passage is best opened by 3, which provides the current state of unemployment. The politicians view globalisation as the factor exacerbating unemployment. 4 contrasts this by saying that expert analysis tells a different story. It is automation that could prove to be a crucial factor. 12 forms a pair, that further elucidate the kind and scope of impact that automation has on jobs. Hence, the correct sequence would be 3412.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 8

The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:

  1. It is regimes of truth that make certain relationships speakable - relationships, like subjectivities, are constituted through discursive formations, which sustain regimes of truth.

  2. Relationships are nothing without the communication that brings them into being; interpersonal communication is connected to knowledge shared by interlocutors, and scholars should attend to relational histories in their analyses.

  3. A Foucauldian approach to relationships goes beyond these conceptions of discourse and history to macrolevel regimes of truth as constituting relationships.

  4. Reconsidering micropractices within relationships that are constituted within and simultaneously contributors to regimes of truth acknowledges the central position of power/knowledge in the constitution of what has come to be considered true and real.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 8 A brief reading of the sentences tells us that the paragraph is about the different conceptions of relationships. 2 explains that communication is an important aspect here, and should be studied properly. 3 mentions a Foucauldian approach, that goes beyond this, and includes macrolevel regimes of truth. 1 then explains why the concept of regimes of truth is relevant here. 4 then aptly concludes the paragraph, implying how the micropractices within the relationships allude the importance of knowledge/power. Thus, the correct sequence would be 2314.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 9

Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph.

Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:

  1. A typical example is Wikipedia, where the overwhelming majority of contributors are male and so the available content is skewed to reflect their interests.

  2. Without diversity of thought and representation, society is left with a distorted picture of future options, which are likely to result in augmenting existing inequalities.

  3. Gross gender inequality in the technology sector is problematic, not only for the industry-wide marginalisation of women, but because technology designs embody the values of their makers.

  4. While redressing unequal representation in the workplace is a step in the right direction, broader social change is needed to address the structural inequalities embedded within the current organisation of work and employment.

  5. If technology merely reflects the perspectives of the male stereotype, then new technologies are unlikely to accommodate the diverse social contexts within which they operate.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 9 A brief reading of the sentences suggests that the paragraph must be about the disparity in the representation of different genders.

Sentences 1,2,3, and 5 are concerned with the problems that arise when the representation of females is less. 4, however, runs tangent to the discussion at hand. It talks about 'structural inequalities'. This sentence, if included in the paragraph, would render it incomplete as all the other sentences talk about gender inequality and not structural inequality. Thus, 4 is out of context here.

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 10

Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph.

Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:

  1. They often include a foundation course on navigating capitalism with Chinese characteristics and have replaced typical cases from US corporates with a focus on how Western theories apply to China’s buzzing local firms.

  2. The best Chinese business schools look like their Western rivals but are now growing distinct in terms of what they teach and the career boost they offer.

  3. Western schools have enhanced their offerings with double degrees, popular with domestic and overseas students alike—and boosted the prestige of their Chinese partners.

  4. For students, a big draw is the chance to rub shoulders with captains of China’s private sector.

  5. Their business courses now largely cater to the growing demand from China Inc which has become more global, richer and ready to recruit from this sinocentric student body.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 10 A brief reading of the sentences tells us that the paragraph is about Chinese business schools and how they stand in comparison to their western counterparts. 2 mentions that thought they have a similar outlook, Chinese business schools have a different curriculum and are also different in what they have to offer. 1, 4, and 5 further talk about the peculiarity of the Chinese schools.

3, however, runs tangent to the discussion. It shifts the focus from Chinese schools and describes western schools. Hence, 3 is out of the context here.

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 11

The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:

  1. Restitution of artefacts to original cultures could face legal obstacles, as many Western museums are legally prohibited from disposing off their collections.

  2. This is in response to countries like Nigeria, which are pressurising European museums to return their precious artefacts looted by colonisers in the past.

  3. Museums in Europe today are struggling to come to terms with their colonial legacy, some taking steps to return artefacts but not wanting to lose their prized collections.

  4. Legal hurdles notwithstanding, politicians and institutions in France and Germany would now like to defuse the colonial time bombs, and are now backing the return of part of their holdings.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 11 A brief reading of the sentences suggests that the paragraph is about restitution of articles that were taken from colonies. 3 introduces the topic at hand: European museums are trying to come to terms with their colonial legacy by returning artefacts. 2 follows 3, providing the reason why this development has taken place. 1 then further describes the current situation: the legal obstacles this action could face. 4 concludes the paragraph by saying that other than these legal obstacles, institutions in France and Germany are seriously backing the move. Hence, the correct arrangement is 3214.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 12

Direction: Read the following passage carefully, and answer the questions that follow.

Looking down at the planet from 200 miles in space, I feel as though I know the Earth in an intimate way most people don't - the coastlines, terrains, mountains, and rivers. Some parts of the world, especially in Asia, are so blanketed by air pollution that they appear sick, in need of treatment or at least a chance to heal. The line of our atmosphere on the horizon looks as thin as a contact lens over an eye, and its fragility seems to demand our protection. One of my favourite views of Earth is of the Bahamas, a large archipelago with a stunning contrast from light to dark colours. The vibrant deep blue of the ocean mixes with a much brighter turquoise, swirled with something almost like gold, where the sun bounces off the shallow sand and reefs. Whenever new crewmates come up to the International Space Station, I always make a point of taking them to the Cupola - a module made entirely of windows looking down on Earth - to see the Bahamas. That sight always reminds me to stop and appreciate the view of Earth I have the privilege of experiencing.

Sometimes when I'm looking out the window it occurs to me that everything that matters to me, every person who has ever lived and died (minus our crew of six) is down there. Other times, of course, I'm aware that the people on the station with me are the whole of humanity for me now. If I'm going to talk to someone in the flesh, look someone in the eye, ask someone for help, share a meal with someone, it will be one of the five people up here with me.

The station is sometimes described as an object: "The International Space Station is the most expensive object ever created." "The ISS is the only object whose components were manufactured by different countries and assembled in space." That much is true. But it doesn't feel like an object to me. It feels like a place, a very specific place with its own personality and its own unique characteristics. It has an inside and an outside and rooms upon rooms, each of which has different purposes, its own equipment and hardware, and its own feeling and smell, distinct from the others. Each module has its own story and its own quirks.

From the outside the ISS looks like a number of giant empty soda cans attached to each other end to end. Roughly the size of a football field, the station is made up of five modules connected the long way - three American and two Russian. More modules, including ones from Europe and Japan as well as the United States, are connected as offshoots to port and starboard, and the Russians have three that are attached "up" and "down" (we call these directions zenith and nadir). Between my first time visiting the space station and this mission, it has grown by seven modules, a significant proportion of its volume. This growth is not haphazard but reflects an assembly sequence that had been planned since the beginning of the space station project in the 1990s.

Dressed and ready for breakfast, I open the door to my quarters. As I push against the back wall to float myself out, I accidentally kick loose a paperback book: Endurance: Shackleton's Incredible Voyage, by Alfred Lansing. I brought this book with me on my previous flight as well, and sometimes I flip through it after a long day on the station and reflect on what these explorers went through almost exactly a hundred years before. They were stranded on ice floes for months at a time, forced to kill their dogs for food, and nearly froze to death in the biting cold. They hiked across mountains that had been considered impassable by explorers who were better equipped and not half-starved. Most remarkable, not a single member of the expedition was lost.

When I try to put myself in their place, I think the uncertainty must have been the worst thing. They must have wondered if they could survive, and that doubt must have been worse than the hunger and the cold. When I read about their experiences, I think about how much harder they had it than I do. Sometimes I'll pick up the book specifically for that reason. If I'm inclined to feel sorry for myself because I miss my family or because I had a frustrating day or because the isolation is getting to me, reading a few pages about the Shackleton expedition reminds me that even if I have it hard up here in some ways, I'm certainly not going through what they did. It's all about perspective. I tuck the book back in with a few other personal items. Maybe I'll read a few pages before I go to sleep tonight.

Q. It can be inferred from the author's description of his book that whenever he reads it, he feels:

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 12 B is incorrect as the author does not express any curiosity about the characters of the book. C is incorrect as the author does not talk about goals in the last two paragraphs in which he describes the book. D is incorrect as the author makes no mention of his future, nor does he express hope about anything. A is the right answer, as the author explicitly says that reading the book reminds him that his situation is better than that of the characters of the book, hence we can infer that the characters inspired him.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 13

Direction: Read the following passage carefully, and answer the questions that follow.

Looking down at the planet from 200 miles in space, I feel as though I know the Earth in an intimate way most people don't - the coastlines, terrains, mountains, and rivers. Some parts of the world, especially in Asia, are so blanketed by air pollution that they appear sick, in need of treatment or at least a chance to heal. The line of our atmosphere on the horizon looks as thin as a contact lens over an eye, and its fragility seems to demand our protection. One of my favourite views of Earth is of the Bahamas, a large archipelago with a stunning contrast from light to dark colours. The vibrant deep blue of the ocean mixes with a much brighter turquoise, swirled with something almost like gold, where the sun bounces off the shallow sand and reefs. Whenever new crewmates come up to the International Space Station, I always make a point of taking them to the Cupola - a module made entirely of windows looking down on Earth - to see the Bahamas. That sight always reminds me to stop and appreciate the view of Earth I have the privilege of experiencing.

Sometimes when I'm looking out the window it occurs to me that everything that matters to me, every person who has ever lived and died (minus our crew of six) is down there. Other times, of course, I'm aware that the people on the station with me are the whole of humanity for me now. If I'm going to talk to someone in the flesh, look someone in the eye, ask someone for help, share a meal with someone, it will be one of the five people up here with me.

The station is sometimes described as an object: "The International Space Station is the most expensive object ever created." "The ISS is the only object whose components were manufactured by different countries and assembled in space." That much is true. But it doesn't feel like an object to me. It feels like a place, a very specific place with its own personality and its own unique characteristics. It has an inside and an outside and rooms upon rooms, each of which has different purposes, its own equipment and hardware, and its own feeling and smell, distinct from the others. Each module has its own story and its own quirks.

From the outside the ISS looks like a number of giant empty soda cans attached to each other end to end. Roughly the size of a football field, the station is made up of five modules connected the long way - three American and two Russian. More modules, including ones from Europe and Japan as well as the United States, are connected as offshoots to port and starboard, and the Russians have three that are attached "up" and "down" (we call these directions zenith and nadir). Between my first time visiting the space station and this mission, it has grown by seven modules, a significant proportion of its volume. This growth is not haphazard but reflects an assembly sequence that had been planned since the beginning of the space station project in the 1990s.

Dressed and ready for breakfast, I open the door to my quarters. As I push against the back wall to float myself out, I accidentally kick loose a paperback book: Endurance: Shackleton's Incredible Voyage, by Alfred Lansing. I brought this book with me on my previous flight as well, and sometimes I flip through it after a long day on the station and reflect on what these explorers went through almost exactly a hundred years before. They were stranded on ice floes for months at a time, forced to kill their dogs for food, and nearly froze to death in the biting cold. They hiked across mountains that had been considered impassable by explorers who were better equipped and not half-starved. Most remarkable, not a single member of the expedition was lost.

When I try to put myself in their place, I think the uncertainty must have been the worst thing. They must have wondered if they could survive, and that doubt must have been worse than the hunger and the cold. When I read about their experiences, I think about how much harder they had it than I do. Sometimes I'll pick up the book specifically for that reason. If I'm inclined to feel sorry for myself because I miss my family or because I had a frustrating day or because the isolation is getting to me, reading a few pages about the Shackleton expedition reminds me that even if I have it hard up here in some ways, I'm certainly not going through what they did. It's all about perspective. I tuck the book back in with a few other personal items. Maybe I'll read a few pages before I go to sleep tonight.

Q. It can be inferred that the passage is an excerpt taken from:

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 13 A is incorrect as the passage only speaks from the astronaut's perspective. Had this been an interview, it would have assumed a question-answer format. B is incorrect as the passage is in first person, i.e. the author himself is narrating his experiences. The passage would have been written in third person had it been a newspaper report. Moreover, the passage does no highlight achievements. D is incorrect as the passage could have been an autobiography, i.e. written by the astronaut himself, but not a biography, i.e. written about the astronaut by someone else. The reason for this is the use of first person. C is the right answer as the passage outlines both experiences, as well as perspectives of the author from his own point of view.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 14

Direction: Read the following passage carefully, and answer the questions that follow.

Looking down at the planet from 200 miles in space, I feel as though I know the Earth in an intimate way most people don't - the coastlines, terrains, mountains, and rivers. Some parts of the world, especially in Asia, are so blanketed by air pollution that they appear sick, in need of treatment or at least a chance to heal. The line of our atmosphere on the horizon looks as thin as a contact lens over an eye, and its fragility seems to demand our protection. One of my favourite views of Earth is of the Bahamas, a large archipelago with a stunning contrast from light to dark colours. The vibrant deep blue of the ocean mixes with a much brighter turquoise, swirled with something almost like gold, where the sun bounces off the shallow sand and reefs. Whenever new crewmates come up to the International Space Station, I always make a point of taking them to the Cupola - a module made entirely of windows looking down on Earth - to see the Bahamas. That sight always reminds me to stop and appreciate the view of Earth I have the privilege of experiencing.

Sometimes when I'm looking out the window it occurs to me that everything that matters to me, every person who has ever lived and died (minus our crew of six) is down there. Other times, of course, I'm aware that the people on the station with me are the whole of humanity for me now. If I'm going to talk to someone in the flesh, look someone in the eye, ask someone for help, share a meal with someone, it will be one of the five people up here with me.

The station is sometimes described as an object: "The International Space Station is the most expensive object ever created." "The ISS is the only object whose components were manufactured by different countries and assembled in space." That much is true. But it doesn't feel like an object to me. It feels like a place, a very specific place with its own personality and its own unique characteristics. It has an inside and an outside and rooms upon rooms, each of which has different purposes, its own equipment and hardware, and its own feeling and smell, distinct from the others. Each module has its own story and its own quirks.

From the outside the ISS looks like a number of giant empty soda cans attached to each other end to end. Roughly the size of a football field, the station is made up of five modules connected the long way - three American and two Russian. More modules, including ones from Europe and Japan as well as the United States, are connected as offshoots to port and starboard, and the Russians have three that are attached "up" and "down" (we call these directions zenith and nadir). Between my first time visiting the space station and this mission, it has grown by seven modules, a significant proportion of its volume. This growth is not haphazard but reflects an assembly sequence that had been planned since the beginning of the space station project in the 1990s.

Dressed and ready for breakfast, I open the door to my quarters. As I push against the back wall to float myself out, I accidentally kick loose a paperback book: Endurance: Shackleton's Incredible Voyage, by Alfred Lansing. I brought this book with me on my previous flight as well, and sometimes I flip through it after a long day on the station and reflect on what these explorers went through almost exactly a hundred years before. They were stranded on ice floes for months at a time, forced to kill their dogs for food, and nearly froze to death in the biting cold. They hiked across mountains that had been considered impassable by explorers who were better equipped and not half-starved. Most remarkable, not a single member of the expedition was lost.

When I try to put myself in their place, I think the uncertainty must have been the worst thing. They must have wondered if they could survive, and that doubt must have been worse than the hunger and the cold. When I read about their experiences, I think about how much harder they had it than I do. Sometimes I'll pick up the book specifically for that reason. If I'm inclined to feel sorry for myself because I miss my family or because I had a frustrating day or because the isolation is getting to me, reading a few pages about the Shackleton expedition reminds me that even if I have it hard up here in some ways, I'm certainly not going through what they did. It's all about perspective. I tuck the book back in with a few other personal items. Maybe I'll read a few pages before I go to sleep tonight.

Q. It can be inferred from the passage that the author feels that the ISS is not an object because:

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 14 Since the author specifically talks about himself and how the ISS feels to him, he probably does not feel it's an object as he has been living in it for quite some time. Since he only talks of himself, B cannot be correct. C is incorrect because the author talks about the growth of the ISS in the next paragraph, not in the one where he says that the ISS does not feel like an object to him. D is incorrect as the author does not compare how the ISS looks from the inside versus the outside. A is the right answer.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 15

Direction: Read the following passage carefully, and answer the questions that follow.

Looking down at the planet from 200 miles in space, I feel as though I know the Earth in an intimate way most people don't - the coastlines, terrains, mountains, and rivers. Some parts of the world, especially in Asia, are so blanketed by air pollution that they appear sick, in need of treatment or at least a chance to heal. The line of our atmosphere on the horizon looks as thin as a contact lens over an eye, and its fragility seems to demand our protection. One of my favourite views of Earth is of the Bahamas, a large archipelago with a stunning contrast from light to dark colours. The vibrant deep blue of the ocean mixes with a much brighter turquoise, swirled with something almost like gold, where the sun bounces off the shallow sand and reefs. Whenever new crewmates come up to the International Space Station, I always make a point of taking them to the Cupola - a module made entirely of windows looking down on Earth - to see the Bahamas. That sight always reminds me to stop and appreciate the view of Earth I have the privilege of experiencing.

Sometimes when I'm looking out the window it occurs to me that everything that matters to me, every person who has ever lived and died (minus our crew of six) is down there. Other times, of course, I'm aware that the people on the station with me are the whole of humanity for me now. If I'm going to talk to someone in the flesh, look someone in the eye, ask someone for help, share a meal with someone, it will be one of the five people up here with me.

The station is sometimes described as an object: "The International Space Station is the most expensive object ever created." "The ISS is the only object whose components were manufactured by different countries and assembled in space." That much is true. But it doesn't feel like an object to me. It feels like a place, a very specific place with its own personality and its own unique characteristics. It has an inside and an outside and rooms upon rooms, each of which has different purposes, its own equipment and hardware, and its own feeling and smell, distinct from the others. Each module has its own story and its own quirks.

From the outside the ISS looks like a number of giant empty soda cans attached to each other end to end. Roughly the size of a football field, the station is made up of five modules connected the long way - three American and two Russian. More modules, including ones from Europe and Japan as well as the United States, are connected as offshoots to port and starboard, and the Russians have three that are attached "up" and "down" (we call these directions zenith and nadir). Between my first time visiting the space station and this mission, it has grown by seven modules, a significant proportion of its volume. This growth is not haphazard but reflects an assembly sequence that had been planned since the beginning of the space station project in the 1990s.

Dressed and ready for breakfast, I open the door to my quarters. As I push against the back wall to float myself out, I accidentally kick loose a paperback book: Endurance: Shackleton's Incredible Voyage, by Alfred Lansing. I brought this book with me on my previous flight as well, and sometimes I flip through it after a long day on the station and reflect on what these explorers went through almost exactly a hundred years before. They were stranded on ice floes for months at a time, forced to kill their dogs for food, and nearly froze to death in the biting cold. They hiked across mountains that had been considered impassable by explorers who were better equipped and not half-starved. Most remarkable, not a single member of the expedition was lost.

When I try to put myself in their place, I think the uncertainty must have been the worst thing. They must have wondered if they could survive, and that doubt must have been worse than the hunger and the cold. When I read about their experiences, I think about how much harder they had it than I do. Sometimes I'll pick up the book specifically for that reason. If I'm inclined to feel sorry for myself because I miss my family or because I had a frustrating day or because the isolation is getting to me, reading a few pages about the Shackleton expedition reminds me that even if I have it hard up here in some ways, I'm certainly not going through what they did. It's all about perspective. I tuck the book back in with a few other personal items. Maybe I'll read a few pages before I go to sleep tonight.

Q. Which of the following best describe the tone of the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 15 A is incorrect as although the author is philosophical, he does not seek to motivate or inspire his readers. Rather he simply narrates his experiences and contemplates them in a philosophical light. C is incorrect as the author neither expresses optimism nor pessimism in the passage, although he is subjective. D is incorrect as although the author's tone is narrative, it is not analytical; he does not analyse anything. B is the right answer, as the author is being both subjective, i.e. talking of his own experiences and views, and contemplative, i.e. thinking deeply about bigger issues.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 16

Direction: Read the following passage carefully, and answer the questions that follow.

Looking down at the planet from 200 miles in space, I feel as though I know the Earth in an intimate way most people don't - the coastlines, terrains, mountains, and rivers. Some parts of the world, especially in Asia, are so blanketed by air pollution that they appear sick, in need of treatment or at least a chance to heal. The line of our atmosphere on the horizon looks as thin as a contact lens over an eye, and its fragility seems to demand our protection. One of my favourite views of Earth is of the Bahamas, a large archipelago with a stunning contrast from light to dark colours. The vibrant deep blue of the ocean mixes with a much brighter turquoise, swirled with something almost like gold, where the sun bounces off the shallow sand and reefs. Whenever new crewmates come up to the International Space Station, I always make a point of taking them to the Cupola - a module made entirely of windows looking down on Earth - to see the Bahamas. That sight always reminds me to stop and appreciate the view of Earth I have the privilege of experiencing.

Sometimes when I'm looking out the window it occurs to me that everything that matters to me, every person who has ever lived and died (minus our crew of six) is down there. Other times, of course, I'm aware that the people on the station with me are the whole of humanity for me now. If I'm going to talk to someone in the flesh, look someone in the eye, ask someone for help, share a meal with someone, it will be one of the five people up here with me.

The station is sometimes described as an object: "The International Space Station is the most expensive object ever created." "The ISS is the only object whose components were manufactured by different countries and assembled in space." That much is true. But it doesn't feel like an object to me. It feels like a place, a very specific place with its own personality and its own unique characteristics. It has an inside and an outside and rooms upon rooms, each of which has different purposes, its own equipment and hardware, and its own feeling and smell, distinct from the others. Each module has its own story and its own quirks.

From the outside the ISS looks like a number of giant empty soda cans attached to each other end to end. Roughly the size of a football field, the station is made up of five modules connected the long way - three American and two Russian. More modules, including ones from Europe and Japan as well as the United States, are connected as offshoots to port and starboard, and the Russians have three that are attached "up" and "down" (we call these directions zenith and nadir). Between my first time visiting the space station and this mission, it has grown by seven modules, a significant proportion of its volume. This growth is not haphazard but reflects an assembly sequence that had been planned since the beginning of the space station project in the 1990s.

Dressed and ready for breakfast, I open the door to my quarters. As I push against the back wall to float myself out, I accidentally kick loose a paperback book: Endurance: Shackleton's Incredible Voyage, by Alfred Lansing. I brought this book with me on my previous flight as well, and sometimes I flip through it after a long day on the station and reflect on what these explorers went through almost exactly a hundred years before. They were stranded on ice floes for months at a time, forced to kill their dogs for food, and nearly froze to death in the biting cold. They hiked across mountains that had been considered impassable by explorers who were better equipped and not half-starved. Most remarkable, not a single member of the expedition was lost.

When I try to put myself in their place, I think the uncertainty must have been the worst thing. They must have wondered if they could survive, and that doubt must have been worse than the hunger and the cold. When I read about their experiences, I think about how much harder they had it than I do. Sometimes I'll pick up the book specifically for that reason. If I'm inclined to feel sorry for myself because I miss my family or because I had a frustrating day or because the isolation is getting to me, reading a few pages about the Shackleton expedition reminds me that even if I have it hard up here in some ways, I'm certainly not going through what they did. It's all about perspective. I tuck the book back in with a few other personal items. Maybe I'll read a few pages before I go to sleep tonight.

Q. It can be inferred from the passage that in the first paragraph of the passage, the author seeks to:

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 16 A is incorrect as the author does not address the reader or discuss about the luck of our human race in possessing such a planet. C is incorrect as the author expresses his sadness about the pollution of the earth but does not urge the readers to protect it. D is incorrect as the author indeed appreciates the beauty of earth, but does not claim to be able to appreciate it better than others. B is the right answer as the author expresses is awe and appreciation of the planet's beauty and tells us how he has the privilege of viewing it from outer space, in all its glory.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 17

Direction: Read the following passage carefully, and answer the questions that follow.

Looking down at the planet from 200 miles in space, I feel as though I know the Earth in an intimate way most people don't - the coastlines, terrains, mountains, and rivers. Some parts of the world, especially in Asia, are so blanketed by air pollution that they appear sick, in need of treatment or at least a chance to heal. The line of our atmosphere on the horizon looks as thin as a contact lens over an eye, and its fragility seems to demand our protection. One of my favourite views of Earth is of the Bahamas, a large archipelago with a stunning contrast from light to dark colours. The vibrant deep blue of the ocean mixes with a much brighter turquoise, swirled with something almost like gold, where the sun bounces off the shallow sand and reefs. Whenever new crewmates come up to the International Space Station, I always make a point of taking them to the Cupola - a module made entirely of windows looking down on Earth - to see the Bahamas. That sight always reminds me to stop and appreciate the view of Earth I have the privilege of experiencing.

Sometimes when I'm looking out the window it occurs to me that everything that matters to me, every person who has ever lived and died (minus our crew of six) is down there. Other times, of course, I'm aware that the people on the station with me are the whole of humanity for me now. If I'm going to talk to someone in the flesh, look someone in the eye, ask someone for help, share a meal with someone, it will be one of the five people up here with me.

The station is sometimes described as an object: "The International Space Station is the most expensive object ever created." "The ISS is the only object whose components were manufactured by different countries and assembled in space." That much is true. But it doesn't feel like an object to me. It feels like a place, a very specific place with its own personality and its own unique characteristics. It has an inside and an outside and rooms upon rooms, each of which has different purposes, its own equipment and hardware, and its own feeling and smell, distinct from the others. Each module has its own story and its own quirks.

From the outside the ISS looks like a number of giant empty soda cans attached to each other end to end. Roughly the size of a football field, the station is made up of five modules connected the long way - three American and two Russian. More modules, including ones from Europe and Japan as well as the United States, are connected as offshoots to port and starboard, and the Russians have three that are attached "up" and "down" (we call these directions zenith and nadir). Between my first time visiting the space station and this mission, it has grown by seven modules, a significant proportion of its volume. This growth is not haphazard but reflects an assembly sequence that had been planned since the beginning of the space station project in the 1990s.

Dressed and ready for breakfast, I open the door to my quarters. As I push against the back wall to float myself out, I accidentally kick loose a paperback book: Endurance: Shackleton's Incredible Voyage, by Alfred Lansing. I brought this book with me on my previous flight as well, and sometimes I flip through it after a long day on the station and reflect on what these explorers went through almost exactly a hundred years before. They were stranded on ice floes for months at a time, forced to kill their dogs for food, and nearly froze to death in the biting cold. They hiked across mountains that had been considered impassable by explorers who were better equipped and not half-starved. Most remarkable, not a single member of the expedition was lost.

When I try to put myself in their place, I think the uncertainty must have been the worst thing. They must have wondered if they could survive, and that doubt must have been worse than the hunger and the cold. When I read about their experiences, I think about how much harder they had it than I do. Sometimes I'll pick up the book specifically for that reason. If I'm inclined to feel sorry for myself because I miss my family or because I had a frustrating day or because the isolation is getting to me, reading a few pages about the Shackleton expedition reminds me that even if I have it hard up here in some ways, I'm certainly not going through what they did. It's all about perspective. I tuck the book back in with a few other personal items. Maybe I'll read a few pages before I go to sleep tonight.

Q. It can be inferred from the second paragraph that the author:

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 17 A is incorrect as although the author does wish to be with his loved ones, he does not talk about being lonely. B is incorrect as the author expresses no wish to quickly complete his mission for any reason whatsoever. C is incorrect as the author does not wonder about his friends or family as to what they might be doing; he just misses them. D is the right answer.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 18

Direction: Read the following passage carefully, and answer the questions that follow.

In a surreal landscape of colours, dominated by luminescent ponds of yellows and greens, boiling hot water bubbles up like a cauldron, whilst poisonous chlorine and sulphur gases choke the air. Known as the "gateway to hell", the Danakil Depression in Ethiopia is scorchingly hot and one of the most alien places on Earth. Yet a recent expedition to the region has found it is teeming with life.

In the heart of the Horn of Africa, the Danakil Depression is one of the most inhospitable and least-studied locations in the world. It lies over 330ft (100m) below sea level in a volcanic area in north-west Ethiopia, close to the border with Eritrea, aptly named "Afar". It is part of the East African Rift System, a place where the Earth's internal forces are currently tearing apart three continental plates, creating new land.

The violent landscape is arguably the hottest place on the planet, and one of the driest. The temperature regularly reaches 45C (113F). It rarely rains, but seas of molten magma ooze just beneath the crust's surface. There are two highly active volcanoes: one of them, Erta Ale, is one of only a handful of volcanoes to have an active, bubbling lava lake at its core. The area is also littered with acid ponds and geysers, and features a deep crater called Dallol. The vibrant colours are a result of rain and seawater from the nearby coast being heated by magma and rising up. The salt from the seawater reacts with the volcanic minerals creating dazzling colours. Sulphur and salt react to form bright yellow chimneys, while copper salts create bright turquoise.

Since 2013, a team of scientists has begun studying the region. Barbara Cavalazzi from the University of Bologna in Italy is part of the team and has been conducting expeditions in Danakil since 2013. "The environment is very extreme," she says. "On average, the temperature over there around lunchtime can reach 48C (118F). One time we measured 55C (131F)."

The first few expeditions in 2013 were simply focused on figuring out how to work in Danakil. "You can't bring a fridge or chemicals to store samples in, so you need to think very hard and plan what you are going to do," says Cavalazzi. In spring 2016, the researchers finally began collecting samples from the hot springs and pools, hoping they would contain life. They also measured the temperatures and pH of the pools. They returned in January 2017 to collect more samples.

In March 2017, Cavalazzi's lab and their colleagues found life in Danakil, after they managed to isolate and extract DNA from bacteria. They found that the bacteria are "polyextremophiles", which means they are adapted to extreme acidity, high temperatures and high salinity all at once. It is the first absolute confirmation of microbial life in the Danakil acidic pools. In as-yet-unpublished research, the team found two separate forms of bacterial life in two separate areas of the site: the salt springs and pools inside the Dallol crater, which are characterised by bright colours, acidity and boiling temperatures; and in a small lake outside the Dallol crater.

Microbes discovered in Yellowstone and other hydrothermal environments have evolved adaptations to help them survive. These include having proteins and enzymes that are more chemically stable at higher temperatures. This can be achieved by having more bonds and connections between amino acids, the building blocks that make up proteins. It may be that the bacteria in the Danakil Depression hot springs have acquired similar adaptations.

Whatever the case, the scientists' findings may help us understand how life could have arisen on other planets and moons. "On Mars, you have mineral deposits and sulphate deposits similar to those seen in the Danakil Depression. You also have active brine flowing periodically," says Cavalazzi.

Cavalazzi suspects we have not exhausted life's ability to endure extremes. She points to "the diversity and versatility of microbial metabolisms" and "the extraordinary physiological capacities of many microorganisms to colonise any habitat". Quite possibly, there are extreme ecosystems on Earth that we have not yet found.

Q. It can be inferred from the passage that the Danakil Depression has been aptly named 'Afar' for which of the following reasons?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 18 The word 'afar' means far off. Since the author says that the place has been aptly named so, we can infer that the area must be one of the most remote locations, which would also explain why the area, as mentioned in the passage is one of the least studied. A and C are incorrect, as although A is mentioned directly, it is not necessarily a reason for the name given, and C is too far-fetched of a conclusion to make. D is a close option, but does not explain a reason for the name given. B is the right answer.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 19

Direction: Read the following passage carefully, and answer the questions that follow.

In a surreal landscape of colours, dominated by luminescent ponds of yellows and greens, boiling hot water bubbles up like a cauldron, whilst poisonous chlorine and sulphur gases choke the air. Known as the "gateway to hell", the Danakil Depression in Ethiopia is scorchingly hot and one of the most alien places on Earth. Yet a recent expedition to the region has found it is teeming with life.

In the heart of the Horn of Africa, the Danakil Depression is one of the most inhospitable and least-studied locations in the world. It lies over 330ft (100m) below sea level in a volcanic area in north-west Ethiopia, close to the border with Eritrea, aptly named "Afar". It is part of the East African Rift System, a place where the Earth's internal forces are currently tearing apart three continental plates, creating new land.

The violent landscape is arguably the hottest place on the planet, and one of the driest. The temperature regularly reaches 45C (113F). It rarely rains, but seas of molten magma ooze just beneath the crust's surface. There are two highly active volcanoes: one of them, Erta Ale, is one of only a handful of volcanoes to have an active, bubbling lava lake at its core. The area is also littered with acid ponds and geysers, and features a deep crater called Dallol. The vibrant colours are a result of rain and seawater from the nearby coast being heated by magma and rising up. The salt from the seawater reacts with the volcanic minerals creating dazzling colours. Sulphur and salt react to form bright yellow chimneys, while copper salts create bright turquoise.

Since 2013, a team of scientists has begun studying the region. Barbara Cavalazzi from the University of Bologna in Italy is part of the team and has been conducting expeditions in Danakil since 2013. "The environment is very extreme," she says. "On average, the temperature over there around lunchtime can reach 48C (118F). One time we measured 55C (131F)."

The first few expeditions in 2013 were simply focused on figuring out how to work in Danakil. "You can't bring a fridge or chemicals to store samples in, so you need to think very hard and plan what you are going to do," says Cavalazzi. In spring 2016, the researchers finally began collecting samples from the hot springs and pools, hoping they would contain life. They also measured the temperatures and pH of the pools. They returned in January 2017 to collect more samples.

In March 2017, Cavalazzi's lab and their colleagues found life in Danakil, after they managed to isolate and extract DNA from bacteria. They found that the bacteria are "polyextremophiles", which means they are adapted to extreme acidity, high temperatures and high salinity all at once. It is the first absolute confirmation of microbial life in the Danakil acidic pools. In as-yet-unpublished research, the team found two separate forms of bacterial life in two separate areas of the site: the salt springs and pools inside the Dallol crater, which are characterised by bright colours, acidity and boiling temperatures; and in a small lake outside the Dallol crater.

Microbes discovered in Yellowstone and other hydrothermal environments have evolved adaptations to help them survive. These include having proteins and enzymes that are more chemically stable at higher temperatures. This can be achieved by having more bonds and connections between amino acids, the building blocks that make up proteins. It may be that the bacteria in the Danakil Depression hot springs have acquired similar adaptations.

Whatever the case, the scientists' findings may help us understand how life could have arisen on other planets and moons. "On Mars, you have mineral deposits and sulphate deposits similar to those seen in the Danakil Depression. You also have active brine flowing periodically," says Cavalazzi.

Cavalazzi suspects we have not exhausted life's ability to endure extremes. She points to "the diversity and versatility of microbial metabolisms" and "the extraordinary physiological capacities of many microorganisms to colonise any habitat". Quite possibly, there are extreme ecosystems on Earth that we have not yet found.

Q. It can be inferred that the 'vibrant colours' referred to by the author in the fourth paragraph are of the:

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 19 A is incorrect as the passage mentions that the lava lake is inside the core of the volcanoes, and this is not a place which would be accessible to the seawater that creates the colours. B is incorrect as the paragraph only talks about the lava lake, the acid ponds and geysers and the crater, so it has to be one of the three. D is incorrect as the crater simply refers to a large cavity in the earth; this cannot have colours. C is the right answer, as this is the most likely to have colours as it has access to the rain, seawater and magma, which is responsible for the colours.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 20

Direction: Read the following passage carefully, and answer the questions that follow.

In a surreal landscape of colours, dominated by luminescent ponds of yellows and greens, boiling hot water bubbles up like a cauldron, whilst poisonous chlorine and sulphur gases choke the air. Known as the "gateway to hell", the Danakil Depression in Ethiopia is scorchingly hot and one of the most alien places on Earth. Yet a recent expedition to the region has found it is teeming with life.

In the heart of the Horn of Africa, the Danakil Depression is one of the most inhospitable and least-studied locations in the world. It lies over 330ft (100m) below sea level in a volcanic area in north-west Ethiopia, close to the border with Eritrea, aptly named "Afar". It is part of the East African Rift System, a place where the Earth's internal forces are currently tearing apart three continental plates, creating new land.

The violent landscape is arguably the hottest place on the planet, and one of the driest. The temperature regularly reaches 45C (113F). It rarely rains, but seas of molten magma ooze just beneath the crust's surface. There are two highly active volcanoes: one of them, Erta Ale, is one of only a handful of volcanoes to have an active, bubbling lava lake at its core. The area is also littered with acid ponds and geysers, and features a deep crater called Dallol. The vibrant colours are a result of rain and seawater from the nearby coast being heated by magma and rising up. The salt from the seawater reacts with the volcanic minerals creating dazzling colours. Sulphur and salt react to form bright yellow chimneys, while copper salts create bright turquoise.

Since 2013, a team of scientists has begun studying the region. Barbara Cavalazzi from the University of Bologna in Italy is part of the team and has been conducting expeditions in Danakil since 2013. "The environment is very extreme," she says. "On average, the temperature over there around lunchtime can reach 48C (118F). One time we measured 55C (131F)."

The first few expeditions in 2013 were simply focused on figuring out how to work in Danakil. "You can't bring a fridge or chemicals to store samples in, so you need to think very hard and plan what you are going to do," says Cavalazzi. In spring 2016, the researchers finally began collecting samples from the hot springs and pools, hoping they would contain life. They also measured the temperatures and pH of the pools. They returned in January 2017 to collect more samples.

In March 2017, Cavalazzi's lab and their colleagues found life in Danakil, after they managed to isolate and extract DNA from bacteria. They found that the bacteria are "polyextremophiles", which means they are adapted to extreme acidity, high temperatures and high salinity all at once. It is the first absolute confirmation of microbial life in the Danakil acidic pools. In as-yet-unpublished research, the team found two separate forms of bacterial life in two separate areas of the site: the salt springs and pools inside the Dallol crater, which are characterised by bright colours, acidity and boiling temperatures; and in a small lake outside the Dallol crater.

Microbes discovered in Yellowstone and other hydrothermal environments have evolved adaptations to help them survive. These include having proteins and enzymes that are more chemically stable at higher temperatures. This can be achieved by having more bonds and connections between amino acids, the building blocks that make up proteins. It may be that the bacteria in the Danakil Depression hot springs have acquired similar adaptations.

Whatever the case, the scientists' findings may help us understand how life could have arisen on other planets and moons. "On Mars, you have mineral deposits and sulphate deposits similar to those seen in the Danakil Depression. You also have active brine flowing periodically," says Cavalazzi.

Cavalazzi suspects we have not exhausted life's ability to endure extremes. She points to "the diversity and versatility of microbial metabolisms" and "the extraordinary physiological capacities of many microorganisms to colonise any habitat". Quite possibly, there are extreme ecosystems on Earth that we have not yet found.

Q. It can be inferred that the passage is most likely to be an excerpt from:

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 20 A is unlikely to be the answer, as the passage does not present information about a possible travel location for tourists. Rather it gives details of a remote and uninhabitable location that is under study. C is incorrect as the passage does not present the author's own research, which would have been the case of a research paper. Rather it gives the study and findings of scientists, and speaks of them as the third person. D is incorrect as the author does not address the audience at any instance in the passage, which would have been the case had it been part of a speech. Moreover, the author does not seem to be an expert in the field himself; he only quotes studies done by other scientists. B is the right answer, as the passage is most likely to be taken from a biology journal that articulates about life in extreme conditions on earth.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 21

Direction: Read the following passage carefully, and answer the questions that follow.

In a surreal landscape of colours, dominated by luminescent ponds of yellows and greens, boiling hot water bubbles up like a cauldron, whilst poisonous chlorine and sulphur gases choke the air. Known as the "gateway to hell", the Danakil Depression in Ethiopia is scorchingly hot and one of the most alien places on Earth. Yet a recent expedition to the region has found it is teeming with life.

In the heart of the Horn of Africa, the Danakil Depression is one of the most inhospitable and least-studied locations in the world. It lies over 330ft (100m) below sea level in a volcanic area in north-west Ethiopia, close to the border with Eritrea, aptly named "Afar". It is part of the East African Rift System, a place where the Earth's internal forces are currently tearing apart three continental plates, creating new land.

The violent landscape is arguably the hottest place on the planet, and one of the driest. The temperature regularly reaches 45C (113F). It rarely rains, but seas of molten magma ooze just beneath the crust's surface. There are two highly active volcanoes: one of them, Erta Ale, is one of only a handful of volcanoes to have an active, bubbling lava lake at its core. The area is also littered with acid ponds and geysers, and features a deep crater called Dallol. The vibrant colours are a result of rain and seawater from the nearby coast being heated by magma and rising up. The salt from the seawater reacts with the volcanic minerals creating dazzling colours. Sulphur and salt react to form bright yellow chimneys, while copper salts create bright turquoise.

Since 2013, a team of scientists has begun studying the region. Barbara Cavalazzi from the University of Bologna in Italy is part of the team and has been conducting expeditions in Danakil since 2013. "The environment is very extreme," she says. "On average, the temperature over there around lunchtime can reach 48C (118F). One time we measured 55C (131F)."

The first few expeditions in 2013 were simply focused on figuring out how to work in Danakil. "You can't bring a fridge or chemicals to store samples in, so you need to think very hard and plan what you are going to do," says Cavalazzi. In spring 2016, the researchers finally began collecting samples from the hot springs and pools, hoping they would contain life. They also measured the temperatures and pH of the pools. They returned in January 2017 to collect more samples.

In March 2017, Cavalazzi's lab and their colleagues found life in Danakil, after they managed to isolate and extract DNA from bacteria. They found that the bacteria are "polyextremophiles", which means they are adapted to extreme acidity, high temperatures and high salinity all at once. It is the first absolute confirmation of microbial life in the Danakil acidic pools. In as-yet-unpublished research, the team found two separate forms of bacterial life in two separate areas of the site: the salt springs and pools inside the Dallol crater, which are characterised by bright colours, acidity and boiling temperatures; and in a small lake outside the Dallol crater.

Microbes discovered in Yellowstone and other hydrothermal environments have evolved adaptations to help them survive. These include having proteins and enzymes that are more chemically stable at higher temperatures. This can be achieved by having more bonds and connections between amino acids, the building blocks that make up proteins. It may be that the bacteria in the Danakil Depression hot springs have acquired similar adaptations.

Whatever the case, the scientists' findings may help us understand how life could have arisen on other planets and moons. "On Mars, you have mineral deposits and sulphate deposits similar to those seen in the Danakil Depression. You also have active brine flowing periodically," says Cavalazzi.

Cavalazzi suspects we have not exhausted life's ability to endure extremes. She points to "the diversity and versatility of microbial metabolisms" and "the extraordinary physiological capacities of many microorganisms to colonise any habitat". Quite possibly, there are extreme ecosystems on Earth that we have not yet found.

Q. It can be inferred from the scientists' findings about the Danakil Depression that:

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 21 B is incorrect as the author does not give info about natural causes that brought into effect the conditions at either Mars or the Danakil Depression. The author merely quotes the scientist who compares the two conditions. C is incorrect as the author only talks about the endurance capacity of life to tolerate extremes. This may not necessarily mean human life. D is incorrect as the author merely tells us that in both locations, microorganisms acquired similar adaptations to the conditions. This does not imply that the strains of microorganisms is the same. A is the right answer as the author tells us in the second to last paragraph, how conditions on Mars and the Danakil Depression are very similar. Since the latter supports life, it may be possible for Mars to do so as well.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 22

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow.

Socialists like Hugo Chavez in Venezuela or Indira Gandhi in India, are famous for nationalizing the largest corporations. But the U.S. government has just taken over three of its biggest corporations within two weeks. Has the United States turned socialist? US right-wingers moan that this is indeed what has happened. Meanwhile, Indian leftists are stunned at nationalizations in a country they view as pitilessly capitalist.

Two of the nationalized corporations, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, are by far the largest mortgage lenders in the world, with $5 trillion of mortgages and loans on their books. To put that in perspective, that's five times the size of India's GDP. The third corporation, AIG, is the largest insurance company in the world. No nationalization in countries that profess to be socialist has ever been so large.

Leftists suspect that the U.S. takeovers are simply aimed at rescuing wealthy shareholders. Not so. The government will acquire 79.9 percent of the shares of these companies at virtually zero cost, pushing the share price down close to zero. So wealthy shareholders have been wiped out, and the bosses of all three corporations have been sacked.

This isn't a rescue of the rich. It's a rescue of ordinary people who need mortgages and a functioning housing market which would have collapsed had Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac gone bust. The takeover of AIG will save millions of insurance policy holders from losing their coverage and annuities. The takeovers aim to prevent financial panic from spreading and dragging down the entire economy, as happened during the Great Depression of the 1930s.

The usual procedure is to let mismanaged companies go bust, penalizing the shareholders and managers, and then provide safety nets to those adversely affected. But when corporations are so large that their collapse would endanger the entire financial system, it's sensible to have a government takeover before they collapse - even from a capitalist point of view. This is a kind of pre-emptive safety net. Moreover, preventing distress wins votes (or at least doesn't lose them), and that's vital in a democracy.

Does this mean the United States is becoming socialist? Let's distinguish between two meanings of the word. For many people, socialism means state ownership of the means of production, as in the Soviet Union and Mao's China. The U.S. isn't going in that direction. But socialism can also imply an activist state that provides basic needs for all people, and creates a safety net for those hit by misfortune, old age and sickness. The United States has long been socialist in this second sense, and it's becoming more so.

Modern capitalist states are all welfare states. Enormous bureaucracies have been created to tax the rich, regulate business, provide subsidies and special schemes to the needy, thwart environmental harm and health hazards, and so on. The list is long and keeps growing.

It couldn't be otherwise in a democracy. Contrary to Marx's assumptions, legislators get elected by catering to the masses, even while taking money from corporations. Legislators constantly create new rules and regulations to protect consumers, retirees and other groups of voters. Hence, the United States has become a land of rising red tape. Between 1970 and 2006, the number of pages in the Federal Register (which lists all regulations) shot up from 20,036 to 78,000. The number of regulators in the service of the federal government rose from 90,000 to 241,000. In the first six years of the George W Bush era (2000-2006), the number of pages of regulations increased by over 10,000, and regulators by over 65,000.

This is galloping socialism, often criticized as bureaucracy run amok. The U.S. is less welfarist than European countries, but isn't too far behind. U.S. legislators have expanded entitlements for the aged and sick so greatly that state spending on social security, Medicare and Medicaid is projected to rise from 7 percent of GDP today to almost 20 percent by 2020. So much for the myth that the United States is a heartless capitalist ogre. In fact, it combines capitalism with welfarism and often tilts toward the latter when the two conflict.

Since US politicians get elected by constantly promising to save citizens from pain, they have now saved citizens from corporate bankruptcies that would threaten the entire economy and throw millions of lives into disarray. This is no more than an extension of the safety-net principle.

This is far different from Indira Gandhi's socialism. Her nationalization was aimed at giving the state a stranglehold on industrial production and seizing the commanding heights of the economy. These measures didn't benefit ordinary folk at all.

The US takeovers, by contrast, are temporary matters, to be followed by re-privatization once the crisis is resolved. The corporations involved will be obliged to sell chunks of their assets to pay off their debts and attain stability. They will then be re-privatized. They will emerge greatly shrunken, and perhaps broken into smaller units.

Nationalization is a misleading word for this process. It would be better to call it forced restructuring by the government, as a pre-emptive safety net. It aims to save citizens from pain, but within the framework of a market economy.

Q. What is the message that is communicated by the author in the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 22 The answer is option (4). The passage gives examples of the countries like the U.S. which follow capitalism but are not afraid to turn to socialism when the economy is in crisis. The passage gives a subtle message that the type of capitalism which turns to socialism, when the economy is in crisis is the best form of capitalism. The point that capitalist countries need not be exploiters of the poor is one of the points made in the passage, but not that capitalist countries need not be exploiters of the poor is one of the points made in the passage, but not the message given by the author in the passage. Option (1) is incorrect. The point that capitalist countries embrace socialism whenever they want to is an assumption as the author gives only the example of the U.S Option (2) is incorrect. The passage says that the US uses socialist policies in times of crisis but reverts back to capitalism once the crisis is resolved, but this is not the message that the author wants to communicate. Option (3) is incorrect. The message of the author is not that capitalists should embrace those aspects of socialism which are beneficial to its citizens. Rather the message that the author wants to communicate is capitalists should embrace socialism when the economy of capitalist countries is in a crisis.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 23

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow.

Socialists like Hugo Chavez in Venezuela or Indira Gandhi in India, are famous for nationalizing the largest corporations. But the U.S. government has just taken over three of its biggest corporations within two weeks. Has the United States turned socialist? US right-wingers moan that this is indeed what has happened. Meanwhile, Indian leftists are stunned at nationalizations in a country they view as pitilessly capitalist.

Two of the nationalized corporations, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, are by far the largest mortgage lenders in the world, with $5 trillion of mortgages and loans on their books. To put that in perspective, that's five times the size of India's GDP. The third corporation, AIG, is the largest insurance company in the world. No nationalization in countries that profess to be socialist has ever been so large.

Leftists suspect that the U.S. takeovers are simply aimed at rescuing wealthy shareholders. Not so. The government will acquire 79.9 percent of the shares of these companies at virtually zero cost, pushing the share price down close to zero. So wealthy shareholders have been wiped out, and the bosses of all three corporations have been sacked.

This isn't a rescue of the rich. It's a rescue of ordinary people who need mortgages and a functioning housing market which would have collapsed had Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac gone bust. The takeover of AIG will save millions of insurance policy holders from losing their coverage and annuities. The takeovers aim to prevent financial panic from spreading and dragging down the entire economy, as happened during the Great Depression of the 1930s.

The usual procedure is to let mismanaged companies go bust, penalizing the shareholders and managers, and then provide safety nets to those adversely affected. But when corporations are so large that their collapse would endanger the entire financial system, it's sensible to have a government takeover before they collapse - even from a capitalist point of view. This is a kind of pre-emptive safety net. Moreover, preventing distress wins votes (or at least doesn't lose them), and that's vital in a democracy.

Does this mean the United States is becoming socialist? Let's distinguish between two meanings of the word. For many people, socialism means state ownership of the means of production, as in the Soviet Union and Mao's China. The U.S. isn't going in that direction. But socialism can also imply an activist state that provides basic needs for all people, and creates a safety net for those hit by misfortune, old age and sickness. The United States has long been socialist in this second sense, and it's becoming more so.

Modern capitalist states are all welfare states. Enormous bureaucracies have been created to tax the rich, regulate business, provide subsidies and special schemes to the needy, thwart environmental harm and health hazards, and so on. The list is long and keeps growing.

It couldn't be otherwise in a democracy. Contrary to Marx's assumptions, legislators get elected by catering to the masses, even while taking money from corporations. Legislators constantly create new rules and regulations to protect consumers, retirees and other groups of voters. Hence, the United States has become a land of rising red tape. Between 1970 and 2006, the number of pages in the Federal Register (which lists all regulations) shot up from 20,036 to 78,000. The number of regulators in the service of the federal government rose from 90,000 to 241,000. In the first six years of the George W Bush era (2000-2006), the number of pages of regulations increased by over 10,000, and regulators by over 65,000.

This is galloping socialism, often criticized as bureaucracy run amok. The U.S. is less welfarist than European countries, but isn't too far behind. U.S. legislators have expanded entitlements for the aged and sick so greatly that state spending on social security, Medicare and Medicaid is projected to rise from 7 percent of GDP today to almost 20 percent by 2020. So much for the myth that the United States is a heartless capitalist ogre. In fact, it combines capitalism with welfarism and often tilts toward the latter when the two conflict.

Since US politicians get elected by constantly promising to save citizens from pain, they have now saved citizens from corporate bankruptcies that would threaten the entire economy and throw millions of lives into disarray. This is no more than an extension of the safety-net principle.

This is far different from Indira Gandhi's socialism. Her nationalization was aimed at giving the state a stranglehold on industrial production and seizing the commanding heights of the economy. These measures didn't benefit ordinary folk at all.

The US takeovers, by contrast, are temporary matters, to be followed by re-privatization once the crisis is resolved. The corporations involved will be obliged to sell chunks of their assets to pay off their debts and attain stability. They will then be re-privatized. They will emerge greatly shrunken, and perhaps broken into smaller units.

Nationalization is a misleading word for this process. It would be better to call it forced restructuring by the government, as a pre-emptive safety net. It aims to save citizens from pain, but within the framework of a market economy.

Q. What is the primary difference between the two meanings of socialism elucidated by the author?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 23 The answer is option (3). The traditional viewpoint of socialism is that socialism means the state ownership of the means of production which is also what the first meaning says about socialism. The second meaning is more holistic and takes all aspects of socialism into account. Option (1) is very general and does not give a clear idea of the difference in meanings. Option (1) is incorrect. Options (2), (4) do not clearly specify and elucidate the difference in meanings. Options (2), (4) are incorrect.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 24

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow.

Socialists like Hugo Chavez in Venezuela or Indira Gandhi in India, are famous for nationalizing the largest corporations. But the U.S. government has just taken over three of its biggest corporations within two weeks. Has the United States turned socialist? US right-wingers moan that this is indeed what has happened. Meanwhile, Indian leftists are stunned at nationalizations in a country they view as pitilessly capitalist.

Two of the nationalized corporations, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, are by far the largest mortgage lenders in the world, with $5 trillion of mortgages and loans on their books. To put that in perspective, that's five times the size of India's GDP. The third corporation, AIG, is the largest insurance company in the world. No nationalization in countries that profess to be socialist has ever been so large.

Leftists suspect that the U.S. takeovers are simply aimed at rescuing wealthy shareholders. Not so. The government will acquire 79.9 percent of the shares of these companies at virtually zero cost, pushing the share price down close to zero. So wealthy shareholders have been wiped out, and the bosses of all three corporations have been sacked.

This isn't a rescue of the rich. It's a rescue of ordinary people who need mortgages and a functioning housing market which would have collapsed had Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac gone bust. The takeover of AIG will save millions of insurance policy holders from losing their coverage and annuities. The takeovers aim to prevent financial panic from spreading and dragging down the entire economy, as happened during the Great Depression of the 1930s.

The usual procedure is to let mismanaged companies go bust, penalizing the shareholders and managers, and then provide safety nets to those adversely affected. But when corporations are so large that their collapse would endanger the entire financial system, it's sensible to have a government takeover before they collapse - even from a capitalist point of view. This is a kind of pre-emptive safety net. Moreover, preventing distress wins votes (or at least doesn't lose them), and that's vital in a democracy.

Does this mean the United States is becoming socialist? Let's distinguish between two meanings of the word. For many people, socialism means state ownership of the means of production, as in the Soviet Union and Mao's China. The U.S. isn't going in that direction. But socialism can also imply an activist state that provides basic needs for all people, and creates a safety net for those hit by misfortune, old age and sickness. The United States has long been socialist in this second sense, and it's becoming more so.

Modern capitalist states are all welfare states. Enormous bureaucracies have been created to tax the rich, regulate business, provide subsidies and special schemes to the needy, thwart environmental harm and health hazards, and so on. The list is long and keeps growing.

It couldn't be otherwise in a democracy. Contrary to Marx's assumptions, legislators get elected by catering to the masses, even while taking money from corporations. Legislators constantly create new rules and regulations to protect consumers, retirees and other groups of voters. Hence, the United States has become a land of rising red tape. Between 1970 and 2006, the number of pages in the Federal Register (which lists all regulations) shot up from 20,036 to 78,000. The number of regulators in the service of the federal government rose from 90,000 to 241,000. In the first six years of the George W Bush era (2000-2006), the number of pages of regulations increased by over 10,000, and regulators by over 65,000.

This is galloping socialism, often criticized as bureaucracy run amok. The U.S. is less welfarist than European countries, but isn't too far behind. U.S. legislators have expanded entitlements for the aged and sick so greatly that state spending on social security, Medicare and Medicaid is projected to rise from 7 percent of GDP today to almost 20 percent by 2020. So much for the myth that the United States is a heartless capitalist ogre. In fact, it combines capitalism with welfarism and often tilts toward the latter when the two conflict.

Since US politicians get elected by constantly promising to save citizens from pain, they have now saved citizens from corporate bankruptcies that would threaten the entire economy and throw millions of lives into disarray. This is no more than an extension of the safety-net principle.

This is far different from Indira Gandhi's socialism. Her nationalization was aimed at giving the state a stranglehold on industrial production and seizing the commanding heights of the economy. These measures didn't benefit ordinary folk at all.

The US takeovers, by contrast, are temporary matters, to be followed by re-privatization once the crisis is resolved. The corporations involved will be obliged to sell chunks of their assets to pay off their debts and attain stability. They will then be re-privatized. They will emerge greatly shrunken, and perhaps broken into smaller units.

Nationalization is a misleading word for this process. It would be better to call it forced restructuring by the government, as a pre-emptive safety net. It aims to save citizens from pain, but within the framework of a market economy.

Q. What is the major flaw in the view of the Indian leftists with regard to capitalism and socialism?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 24 The answer is option (4). The passage says that leftists do not think that capitalism can also embrace aspects of socialism and there is nothing such as 'pure capitalism' or 'pure socialism' (Refer to the second paragraph which says that, "Meanwhile, Indian leftists are stunned at .... Pitilessly capitalist). Option (1) may be a view of the leftists, but it is not the major flaw in their approach towards capitalism and socialism. Moreover the use of the word 'only' makes it an assumption about the views of the leftists. Option (1) is incorrect. Option (2) is vague and does not point out the flaw in the Indian leftist's approach. Option (2) is incorrect. The use of the word 'inferior' is judgmental and cannot be attributed to the leftists. Option (3) is incorrect.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 25

Directions: These questions are based on the given charts.

In which of the following years, was the number of employees of company XYZ, the highest?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 25

Hence, in 2009 the number of employees of company XYZ was highest.

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 26

Directions: These questions are based on the given charts.

The total assets of company XYZ continuously decreased (with respect to the previous year) in the four years from 2007 to 2010 by 20%, 10%, 5%, 10% respectively. Of these four years, in which year, was the ratio of revenue to assets the highest?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 26 From year 2007 to 2010, revenue is highest in year 2009 As assets of the company is continuously decreasing.

∴ Assets in 2009 is lesser than that in 2007 and 2008

∴ Ratio of revenue to assets in 2009 is higher than that in 2007 and 2008 Now in 2010 assets decreased by 10% when compared to 2009 and revenue in 2010 is 442 crores.

Let assets in 2009 be x

Then ratio of revenue to assets

In 2009 = 500/x

In 2010 = 4420.9x = 491.11/x

∴ Ratio is highest in 2009

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 27

Directions: These questions are based on the given charts.

In which year during the period 2007-10 was the ratio of expenses to profit the lowest?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 27 The ratio of expenses to profit

The ratio is lowest in 2007.

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 28

Directions: These questions are based on the given charts.

In how many of the years from 2007 to 2010 (both inclusive) was a rise in profit per employee accompanied by a fall in the total profits or vice-versa (with respect to the previous year)?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 28 Change in profit per employee can be calculated from first bar-chart and change in total

profit can be calculated from second bar-chart.

Change in profit per employee

In 2007 = − 1(–ve)

In 2008 = − 10 (–ve)

In 2009 = 1 (+ve)

In 2010 = 2 (+ve)

Change in total profit

In 2007 = 300 − 217 = 83 crores (+ve)

In 2008 = 112 − 300 = − 188 crores (–ve)

In 2009 = 247 − 112 = 135 crores (+ve)

In 2010 = 263 − 247 = 16 crores (+ve)

There is an opposite trend only in year 2007.

In the year 2009, number of govt. Employees

= 3846 × 1.04 × 1.05 × 1.06 = 4452

Number of private employees

= 0.87 × 3846 × 0.98 × 1 × 0.99

= 3246

Required difference = 4452 − 3246 = 1206

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 29

Directions: The following graph shows the percentage change in number of employees of two sectors. Refer the graph to answer the questions that follow.

If in the year 1999, government employees are twice of private sector employees then what will be the ratio of government employees to private sector employees in the year 2003?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 29 In the year 2003, number of govt. Employees

= 2P × 1.01 × 1 × 1 × 1 = 2.02P

Number of private employees

= P × 0.98 × 0.96 × 0.98 × 0.97

= 0.89 P

Required Ratio = 2.02 P/0.89 P = 2.27

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 30

Directions: The following graph shows the percentage change in number of employees of two sectors. Refer the graph to answer the questions that follow.

If the ratio of total salaries of the government employees to the private employees is 3 : 2 in the year 2004, then what will be the ratio of total salaries of the government employees to the private employees in the year 2009?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 30 In the year 2004

In the year 2009

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 31

Directions: The following graph shows the percentage change in number of employees of two sectors. Refer the graph to answer the questions that follow.

If government employees’ salary is Rs 60 per head and private sector employees’ salary is Rs 75 per head and the total salary of government employees and private sector employees in the year 2010 are Rs 50000 and Rs 70000 respectively, then what is the difference in total salary of government and private employees in the year 2011?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 31 In the year 2010, number of govt. Employees

= 50000/60

= 833.33~− 833

Number of private employees

= 70000/75

= 933.33~− 933

In the year 2011, number of govt. Employees

= 833 × 1.08

= 899.64~− 900

Number of private employees = 933 × 0.99

= 923.67~− 924

Now total salary of govt. employees

= 900 × 60 = Rs 54000

And total salary of private employees

= 924 × 75 = Rs 69300

Required difference = 69300 − 54000

= Rs 15300

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 32

Five students went to a doctor for regular checkup. Doctor asked his assistant to measure the weight of these students. But the problem is that the weighing machine that assistant has measures only those weights which are more than 80kg. So assistant thought to measure weight of 3 students at a time and he weighed all the possible combinations of weight of students. He obtained the measurements as 95kg, 150kg, 125kg, 120kg, 145kg, 175kg, 170kg, 200kg, 195kg & 225kg

What is the weight of the heaviest student?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 32 Let p, q, r, s, t be the weight of 5 students. Let us assume that p < q < r < s < t.

From the information mentioned above.

The three lightest students will have the least weight.

Hence, p + q + r = 95 (i)

The two lightest students and the fourth lightest student will have the second least weight.

p + q + s = 120 (ii)

The three heaviest students will have the highest weight.

r + s + t = 225 (iii)

The two heaviest students and the fourth heaviest student will have the second highest weight.

q + s + t = 200 (iv)

Since the students are weighed in triplets, 10 weightings mean each student is weighed 6 times.

Hence, 6(p + q + r + s + t) = 95 + 150 + 145 + 120 + 145 + 175 + 170 + 200 + 195 + 225 = 1620

⇒ p + q + r + s + t = 270 (v)

(i) + (iii) - (v) ⇒ r = 50

(i) + (iv) - (v) ⇒ q = 25

(ii) + (iii) - (v) ⇒ s = 75

Putting the values of q and r in (i), we get p=20

Putting the values of r and s in (iii), we get t=100

Weight of the heaviest student t = 100kg

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 33

Five students went to a doctor for regular checkup. Doctor asked his assistant to measure the weight of these students. But the problem is that the weighing machine that assistant has measures only those weights which are more than 80kg. So assistant thought to measure weight of 3 students at a time and he weighed all the possible combinations of weight of students. He obtained the measurements as 95kg, 150kg, 125kg, 120kg, 145kg, 175kg, 170kg, 200kg, 195kg & 225kg.

Find the average weight of all the students.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 33 Let p, q, r, s, t be the weight of 5 students. Let us assume that p < q < r < s < t.

From the information mentioned above.The three lightest students will have the least weight.

Hence, p + q + r = 95 (i)

The two lightest students and the fourth lightest student will have the second least weight.

p + q + s = 120 (ii)

The three heaviest students will have the highest weight.

r + s + t = 225 (iii)

The two heaviest students and the fourth heaviest student will have the second highest weight.

q + s + t = 200 (iv)

Since the students are weighed in triplets, 10 weightings mean each student is weighed 6 times.

Hence, 6(p + q + r + s + t) = 95 + 150 + 145 + 120 + 145 + 175 + 170 + 200 + 195 + 225 = 1620

⇒ p + q + r + s + t = 270 (v)

(i) + (iii) - (v) ⇒ r = 50

(i) + (iv) - (v) ⇒ q = 25

(ii) + (iii) - (v) ⇒ s = 75

Putting the values of q and r in (i), we get p=20

Putting the values of r and s in (iii), we get t=100

Average weight of all the students = (p + q + r + s + t)/5 = (20 + 25 + 50 + 75 +100)/5 = 270/5 = 54kg.

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 34

There are four bottles. Each bottle is known to contain only P or only I. They will be considered to be “collectively ready for despatch” if all of them contain only P. In minimum how many tests, is it possible to ascertain whether these four bottles are “collectively ready for despatch”?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 34 The bottles contain either P(pure) or I(impure). The possible cases here are

1- (P, P, P, P), 2-(P,P,P,I), 3-(P,P,I,I), 4-(P,I,I,I), 5-(I,I,I,I).

In the first case if all the four solutions are pure then taking equal volumes of all the four bottles will get the result to dispatch or not to dispatch.

In the second case if 3 bottles are pure and one impure taking equal volumes of all four bottles and testings will confirm the impurity and hence cannot be dispatched.

In the third case if 2 bottles are pure and two are impure taking equal volumes of all four bottles and testing will confirm the impurity and hence cannot be dispatched.

In the fourth case when only one bottle is pure taking equal volumes of all four bottles will confirm the impurity and hence cannot be dispatched.

In the fifth case if all four bottles are impure taking equal volumes of the four bottles will confirm the impurity and hence cannot be dispatched.

In all the cases a single test is enough to determine if the lot is to be dispatched or not.

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 35

There are four bottles. It is known that three of these bottles contain only P, while the remaining one contains 80% P and 20% I.

What is the minimum number of tests required to definitely identify the bottle containing some amount of I?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 35 The percentage concentration of the impure solution is 80 percent.

When equal volumes of all four solutions are mixed.

Considering 10 ml of each we have impurity to be 2ml/40ml. The impurity concentration is less than 10 percent and hence cannot be recognized.

Similarly when equal volumes of one impure and 2 pure solutions are mixed.

The impurity in the solution is 2ml/30ml which is less than 10 percent and hence cannot be recognized.

Hence for detecting the impure solution we must use equal volumes of 2 solutions at a time.

Considering the three pure solutions to be P and the impure solution to be I.

P, P, P, I.

Considering equal volumes of solution from the bottle one bottle of P, and I. Testing this would recognize the impurity.

After this consider one bottle among the other 2 P bottles which are left and test this with one among the previously tested P, I.

If the one considered is I it will detect the impurity and confirms the bottle to be I.

If the one considered is P it will fail to detect the impurity and hence the other bottle will be I.

Hence a minimum of two tests are required to identify the bottle with the impurity.

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 36

The different bars in the diagram above provide information about different orders in various categories (Art, Binders, ….) that were booked in the first two weeks of September of a store for one client. The colour and pattern of a bar denotes the ship mode (First Class / Second Class / Standard Class). The left end point of a bar indicates the booking day of the order, while the right end point indicates the dispatch day of the order. The difference between the dispatch day and the booking day (measured in terms of the number of days) is called the processing time of the order. For the same category, an order is considered for booking only after the previous order of the same category is dispatched. No two consecutive orders of the same category had identical ship mode during this period.

For example, there were only two orders in the furnishing category during this period. The first one was shipped in the Second Class. It was booked on Sep 1 and dispatched on Sep 5. The second order was shipped in the Standard class. It was booked on Sep 5 (although the order might have been placed before that) and dispatched on Sep 12. So the processing times were 4 and 7 days respectively for these orders.

Q. How many days between Sep 1 and Sep 14 (both inclusive) had no booking from this client considering all the above categories?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 36

Note a-b: represents the duration where a is the day when order is booked and b is the day when it is dispatched.

Now No booking days from the table are: September 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 14.

So a total of 6 days.

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 37

The following table shows data of lipsticks, please refer to the table to answer the questions that follow

Average price per unit of Brand ‘A’ lipstick in March 2009 is

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 37 The average price is 1552000/239266 = Rs 6.5
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 38

The following table shows data of lipsticks, please refer to the table to answer the questions that follow

Brand C’s sales in March 2009 account for what percentage of Brand C’s cumulative sales from April 2008 to August 2008?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 38 Brand ‘C’s April, 2008 to August, 2008 sales

= Rs 14850000

March sales are Rs 3137000.

Required percentage = 21%

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 39

The following table shows data of lipsticks, please refer to the table to answer the questions that follow

The total sales of Brand ‘A’ lipstick from April 2008 to August 2008 account for

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 39 Total sales from April, 2008 to August, 2008

= Annual total sales – cummulative sales from Sep, 2008 to March, 2009

12639 – 7636 = 5000 appx.

Rs 5000000 ≈ Rs 5 million appx.

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 40

The following table shows data of lipsticks, please refer to the table to answer the questions that follow

What is the total market sales of brand ‘C’ (in Rs ’000) in March 2009?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 40 Since 5.7% of total market sales = 3137

= 55035 appx.

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 41

Directions: In the following information to answer the questions that follow.

The passengers travelled by an airline during the year 2008, consisted of 45% men, 35% women and the remaining children. Of the children, 40% were female and 60% male. Of the men, 10% were over the age of 60 yr and 25% below the age of 40 yr. Of the women, 20% were over the age of 60 yr and an equal number were under 40 yr of age. The number of men increased by 4% in 2009 and that of women increased by 6%. The number of passengers travelled in 2008 was 2,00,000.

What is the men in the year 2009?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 41 The given data can be summarized as follows

Total passengers in 2008 = 200000

Men = 45% of 2 lakh = 90000

Above 60 yr = 10% of 90000

= 9000 = 4.5%

Less than 40 yr = 25% of 90,000

= 22500 = 11.25%

Women = 35% of 2 lakh = 70000

Less than 40% = 20% of 70000 = 14000 = 7%

Children = 20% of 2 lakh = 40000

Boys = 60% of 40000 = 24000 = 12%

Girls = 40% of 40000 = 16000 = 8%

In the year 2009, percentage increase in male passengers was 4% and female = 6%.

Number of men in 2009

1.04 × 90000 = 93600

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 42

Directions: In the following information to answer the questions that follow.

The passengers travelled by an airline during the year 2008, consisted of 45% men, 35% women and the remaining children. Of the children, 40% were female and 60% male. Of the men, 10% were over the age of 60 yr and 25% below the age of 40 yr. Of the women, 20% were over the age of 60 yr and an equal number were under 40 yr of age. The number of men increased by 4% in 2009 and that of women increased by 6%. The number of passengers travelled in 2008 was 2,00,000.

What percentage of passengers in 2009 consisted of children?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 42 It cannot be determined as we don’t have any data regarding the change in the total passengers or in the number of children.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 43

Directions: In the following information to answer the questions that follow.

The passengers travelled by an airline during the year 2008, consisted of 45% men, 35% women and the remaining children. Of the children, 40% were female and 60% male. Of the men, 10% were over the age of 60 yr and 25% below the age of 40 yr. Of the women, 20% were over the age of 60 yr and an equal number were under 40 yr of age. The number of men increased by 4% in 2009 and that of women increased by 6%. The number of passengers travelled in 2008 was 2,00,000.

What percentage of the passengers in 2008 are women below 40 yr of age?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 43 Percentage of women below 40 yr of age = 20% of 35% of total = 7% of total.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 44

Directions: In the following information to answer the questions that follow.

The passengers travelled by an airline during the year 2008, consisted of 45% men, 35% women and the remaining children. Of the children, 40% were female and 60% male. Of the men, 10% were over the age of 60 yr and 25% below the age of 40 yr. Of the women, 20% were over the age of 60 yr and an equal number were under 40 yr of age. The number of men increased by 4% in 2009 and that of women increased by 6%. The number of passengers travelled in 2008 was 2,00,000.

What was the number of adults above the age of 60 yr in 2008?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 44 Number of men above 60 yr (2008) = 9000

Number of women above 60 yr (2008) = 14000

Thus, total number of adults over 60 yr = 23000

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 45

Find the maximum and minimum value of 8 cos⁡ A + 15 sin ⁡A + 15

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 45 Always look out for Pythagorean triplets, we know that (8,15,17) is one

∴ The expression becomes:

Let there be a angle B for which sin⁡ B = 8/17, cos⁡ B = 15/17

⇒17(sin⁡ B cos ⁡A + cos⁡ B sin ⁡A) + 15

17(sin⁡(A+B+15))

We know that sin⁡(A + B) max = 1

sin⁡(A + B) min = −1

: Max value = 17 × 1 + 15 = 32

Min value = 17 × -1 + 15 = -2

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 46

In some code, letters a,b,c,d and e represent numbers 2,4,5,6 and 10. We just do not know which letter represents which number. Consider the following relationships:

I. a + c = e

II. b − d = d and

III. e + a = b

Which of the following statements is true?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 46 We have a + c = e

so possible summation 6 + 4 = 10 or 4 + 2 = 6

Also b=2d so possible values 4 = 2 × 2 or 10 = 5 × 2

So considering both we have b = 10,d = 5,a = 4,c = 2,e = 6

Hence the correct option is (B)

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 47

If f(y) = x2 + (2p + 1)x + p2 −1 and x is a real number, for what values of ' p′ the function becomes 0?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 47 The function f(y) is a quadratic equation.

It is given that x is real.

So the discriminant of f(y) ≥ 0

i.e. D = b2 − 4ac ≥ 0 or

(2p + 1)2 − 4(p2 − 1) ≥ 0

4p2 + 4p + 1 − 4(p2 − 1) ≥ 0

4p + 5 ≥ 0

Or p ≥ -5/4

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 48

A factory has 80 workers and 3 machines. Each worker knows to operate at least 1 machine. If there are 65 persons who knows to operate machine 1,60 who knows to operate machine 2 and 55 who knows to operate machine 3, what can be the minimum number of persons who knows to operate all the three machines?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 48 Let's start with taking a random value for all three category. So let's first take 40 for the all three category. Now 65 + 60 + 55 = 180, this means there is

an extra count of 180−80=100.

Now as we know that the extra count occurs in the in the exactly two area and the all three area.

So let's try put the extra count in these area.

Trial 1− since 40 is already assumed to be in the all three area, it takes care of extra count of 40 × 2 = 80.

Thus we are left with 20 as extra count which we have to place at the exactly two area.

Thus in the above case our venn diagram will look as:

A close look in the figure tells us that we can further decrease the value of all the three area. A bit of logical thinking will bring us to the value 20. No value less than 20 can satisfy the conditions of the question. As there is no scope left for reallocating numbers left from one area to another in this case.

Hence the final venn diagram will look as:

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 49

Three friends went for a picnic. First brought five apples and the second brought three. The third friend however brought only Rs. 8. What is the share of the first friend?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 49 The number of apples = 8, so the amount eaten by each of the three is 8/3 apples therefore first friend should be paid for 5−(8/3) and second friend should be paid for 3−(8/3) apples. They should distribute the sum of Rs. 8 in ratio 7/3 :1/3, i.e., 7 : 1
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 50

A train 150m long running at 72 kmph crosses a platform in 25 sec. What is the length of the platform?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 50 D = 72 × 5/18 = 25 = 500 - 150 = 350
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 51

A bike costs Rs.48000. Its value depreciates by 30% in the first year and in each subsequent year the depreciation is 20% of the value at the beginning of that year. The value of the bike after 3 years will be


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 51 The required value of the bike after 3 years = 48000 (70/100) (80/100)2= Rs. 21504
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 52

The cost of diamond varies directly as the square of its weight. Once, this diamond broke into four pieces with weights in the ratio 1:2:3:4. When the pieces were sold, the merchant got Rs. 70,000 less. Find the original price of the diamond.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 52 Let the original weight of the diamond be 10x. Hence, its original price will be k(100x2), where k is a constant. The weights of the pieces after breaking are x,2x,3x and 4x. Therefore, their prices will be kx2, 4kx2, 9kx2 and 16kx2. So the total price of the pieces = (1 + 4 + 9 + 16)kx2 = 30kx2

Hence, the difference in the price of the original diamond and its pieces

= 100kx2 − 30kx2 = 70kx2 = 70000. Hence, kx2 = 000 and the original price

= 100kx2 = 100 × 1000 = 100000

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 53

I sell a table for Rs. 24 and thus make a percentage of profit equal to the cost price. What did the table cost me?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 53 Let the cost price and profit be X.

⇒ x2 + 100x − 2400 = 0

hence x = 20

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 54

The number of distinct pairs of integers (m,n), satisfying ∣1+mn∣ < ∣m+n∣ < 5 is

 


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 54

Let us break this up into 2 inequations [ Let us assume x as m and y as n ]

| 1 + mn | < | m + n |

| m + n | < 5

Looking at these expressions, we can clearly tell that the graphs will be symmetrical about the origin.

Let us try out with the first quadrant and extend the results to the other quadrants.

We will also consider the +X and +Y axes along with the quadrant.

So, the first inequality becomes,

1 + mn < m + n

1 + mn - m - n < 0

1 - m + mn - n < 0

(1-m) + n(m-1) < 0

(1-m)(1-n) < 0

(m - 1)(n - 1) < 0

Let us try to plot the graph.

If we consider only mn < 0, then we get 

But, we have (m - 1)(n - 1) < 0, so we need to shift the graphs by one unit towards positive x and positive y.

So, we have,

But, we are only considering the first quadrant and the +X and +Y axes. Hence, if we extend, we get the following region.

So, if we look for only integer values, we get

(0,2), (0,3),.......

(0,-2), (0, -3),......

(2,0), (3,0), ......

(-2,0), (-3,0), .......

Now, let us consider the other inequation as well, in which |x + y| < 5

Since one of the values is always zero, the modulus of the other value is less than or equal to 4.

Hence, we get 

(0,2), (0,3), (0,4)

(0,-2), (0, -3), (0, -4)

(2,0), (3,0), (4,0)

(-2,0), (-3,0), (-4,0)

Hence, a total of 12 values.

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 55

The arithmetic mean of scores of 25 students in an examination is 50. Five of these students top the examination with the same score. If the scores of the other students are distinct integers with the lowest being 30, then the maximum possible score of the toppers is


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 55 Let sum of marks of students be x

Now therefore x = 25 * 50 = 1250

Now to maximize the marks of the toppers

We will minimize the marks of 20 students

so their scores will be (30, 31, 32.....49)

let score of toppers be y

so we get 5y + 20/2 (79) = 1250

we get 5y + 790 =1250

5y = 460 y = 92

So scores of toppers = 92

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 56

Ashish is given Rs. 158 in one-rupee denominations. He has been asked to allocate them into a number of bags such that any amount required between Rs. 1 and Rs. 158 can be given by handing out a certain number of bags without opening them. What is the minimum number of bags required?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 56 The possible arrangements are 1, multiples of 2, remaining. So we have 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 32 + 64 + 31 = 158. Hence minimum no. of bags required is 8.
CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 57

In a APQR, PQ = PR = 11cm and S is a point on QR such that PS = 10cm. If the lengths of QB and SR, when expressed in cm, are integers, then find the length of QR.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 57

By using Pythagoras theorem

hypotenuse=Base×height

pq²=qs²+ps²

11²=qs²+10²

121=qs²+100

qs²=121-100

qs²=21

qs=√21

qs=4.5825

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 58

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 58

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 59

If a,b,c are the roots of x3 − x2 − 1 = 0, what's the value of a/ac + b/ca + c/ab ?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 59 Under the precondition you can write

(x − a)(x − b)(x − c) = 0 = x3 − x2 − 1

Expanding the product on the left gives

x3 −(a + b + c)x2 + (ab + ac + bc)x − abc = x3 − x2 − 1

Now you have to compare/equate the coefficients on both sides of (∗) and get

a + b + c = 1, ab + ac + bc = 0, abc = 1

Using these and the identity (a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2(ab + ac + bc) for evaluation you

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 60

In a class of 345 students, the students who took English, Math and Science are equal in number. There are 30 students who took both English and Math, 26 who took both Math and Science, 28 who took Science and English and 14 who took all the 3 subjects. There are 43 students who didn’t take any of the subjects. Answer the following question according to the data given above. What percent of students did not take Science?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 60 Let total no of students who took English be x

Then students who took math, science will also be x

Now let's draw the Venn diagram

E U M U S = 345 - 43 (Neither of the subjects)

E ∪ M ∪ S = E + M + S − E ∩ M − E ∩ S − S ∩ M + E ∩ M ∩ S

⇒ 302 = 3x − 84 + 14

⇒ 302 + 84 − 14 = 3x

⇒ x = 372/3 = 124

Thus the total no of students who took English as a subject =124

Consequently, the Venn diagram becomes

Again,

The students who has taken only one subject = E U M

∪S − E ∩ M − E ∩ S − S ∩ M − E ∩ M ∩ S

= 302 − 16 − 14 − 14 − 12 = 246

The students who took English and Math but not science = only E+ Only M + E ∩ M

= 80 + 82 + 16 = 178

Percent of students who took English and Math but not science

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 61

In triangle ABC, D is a point on BC. P and Q are points on AB and AC respectively such that DP is perpendicular to AB and DQ is perpendicular to AC. If the altitudes from B to AC and C to AB are 30 cm and 40cm respectively and DO = 6, find DP.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 61

Let the altitudes from B and C be BN and CM

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 62

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 62

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 63

Side AB of a triangle ABC is 80 cm long, whose perimeter is 170cm. If angle ABC = 60 degrees, the shortest side of triangle ABC measures (cm)

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 63 a + b = 90cm. cosine rule gives

Solving a = 17 and b = 73

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 64

In Grand Oberoi hotel, 1160 guests are present currently. The hotel provides the following extra facilities: Gym, Swimming, Fun park, Food. During a regular survey the management team of Oberoi noticed something quite extraordinary about the extra facilities provided by them. They noticed that for every person who uses ‘F’ no. of facilities, there are exactly 3 persons who uses at least (F − 7) no. of facilities, F = 2, 3, 4. They also found that the no. of persons who used no extra facilities is twice the no of person that used all the 4 facilities. Help the management team to find out how many persons used exactly 3 facilities.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 64 since, for every person who uses 'F' no of facilities, there are exactly 3 person who uses atleast (F−1) no. of facilities. If we take the no. of persons who uses all the four facilities to be 'x' then the no. of person who uses atleast 3 facilities will be 3x and so on.

The No. of persons who use exactly 3 facilities = 3x − x = 2x

Thus, the no. of persons who opt for various facilities can be summarized as follows:

We also know that no of person who uses no facilities

= twice of those who uses all the 4 facilities =2x.

So according the above deductions we can clearly

see that the number of person the hotel would be

x + 2x + 6x + 18x + 2x = 29x = 1160

x = 40

Hence the number of person who uses exactly three

science = 2x = 80

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 65

If cos ⁡A + cos2⁡A = 1 and a sin12⁡A + b sin10 ⁡A + c sin8⁡A + d sin6 ⁡A − 1 = 0. Find the value of a + b/c + d

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 65 Given,

cos⁡A = 1 − cos2⁡A

⇒ cos⁡ A = sin2 ⁡A

⇒ cos2⁡A = sin4⁡A

⇒ 1−sin2 ⁡A = sin4 ⁡A

⇒ 1 = sin4⁡A + sin2⁡A

⇒ 13 =(sin4⁡A + sin2⁡A)3

⇒ 1 = sin12⁡A + sin6⁡A + 3 sin8⁡A + 3sin10⁡A

⇒ sin12⁡A + sin6⁡A + 3sin8⁡A + 3sin10⁡A−1 = 0

On comparing,

a = 1, b = 3, c = 3, d = 1

∴ b/c + d = 3

Always look out for Pythagorean triplets, we know that (8, 15, 17) is one

CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 66

If two of the sides of a right triangle are 10cm and 10.5cm and its inradius is 3cm, what is its circumradius?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 (25/09/2022) - Question 66 The hypotenuse is the longest side of a right-angled triangle. Given that two of the sides of a right triangle are 10cm and 10.5cm.

If hypotenuse =10.5cm, then the sides containing the right angle are and But the inradius of the triangle is given as 3cm. The smallest of the sides is more than 6cm long. Therefore, the 10.5cm side is not the hypotenuse. Hence the lengths of the sides containing the right angle are 10cm and 10.5cm. 80, hypotenuse

The circumradius of the right triangle = 14.5/2 = 7.25cm

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