CAT Mock Test - 12 (New Pattern)


75 Questions MCQ Test CAT Mock Test Series | CAT Mock Test - 12 (New Pattern)


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This mock test of CAT Mock Test - 12 (New Pattern) for CAT helps you for every CAT entrance exam. This contains 75 Multiple Choice Questions for CAT CAT Mock Test - 12 (New Pattern) (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this CAT Mock Test - 12 (New Pattern) quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. CAT students definitely take this CAT Mock Test - 12 (New Pattern) exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other CAT Mock Test - 12 (New Pattern) extra questions, long questions & short questions for CAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

In the technological economy of the twenty-first century, growth and prosperity are the consequences of a virtuous cycle between innovation and demand. Innovation is how we solve problems and raise living standards, while consumer demand is how markets distribute and incentivize innovation. It is social, civic, and economic inclusion—the full, robust participation of as many people as possible—that drives both innovation and demand. And inclusion requires policies that secure a thriving middle class.

The trickle-down theory—the one that lionizes the rich as “job creators”—insists that the American middle class is a consequence of growth, and that only if and when we have growth can we afford to include more people in our economy. But trickle-down has it exactly backwards: Properly understood, the middle class is the source of all growth and prosperity in a modern technological economy, and economic security is the essential feature of what it means to be included in the middle class.

Economic security is what frees us from the fear that one job loss, one illness—one economic downturn amidst a business cycle guaranteed to produce economic downturns—could cost us our home, our car, our family, and our social status. It’s what grants us permission to invest in ourselves and in our children, and to purchase the non-subsistence goods and experiences that make our lives healthier, happier, and more fulfilling. It gives us the confidence to live our lives with the realistic expectation of a more prosperous and stable economic future, and to take the entrepreneurial risks that are the lifeblood of a vibrant market economy. A secure middle class is the cause of growth, not its effect; in fact, our economy cannot reach its full potential without it. And a middle class that lives in constant fear of falling out of the middle class isn’t truly middle class at all.

From 1950 through 1980, during the heyday of the Great American Middle Class, a combination of New Deal programs, a corporate culture of civic responsibility, and a powerful labor movement provided a majority of American workers with health insurance, unemployment insurance, workers’ compensation insurance, pensions, job security, rising wages, overtime pay, paid vacation, paid sick days, a 40-hour workweek, and access to affordable, high-quality education. These are the benefits that provide the economic security of a decent and dignified life that defines what it means to be middle class, and that led to an unprecedented increase in living standards and economic growth. And under the old economy, they were, and still are, largely provided by one’s employer.

But in transforming the traditional relationship between employer and employee, the new economy is quickly stripping away these benefits. That is why it is essential that we imagine and adopt new policies that guarantee all workers the basic level of economic security necessary to sustain and grow the American middle class, and with it, the economy as a whole. We must acknowledge the radically different needs of a new generation of Americans—many of whom already have more employers in a week than their parents had in a lifetime—by adopting a new “Shared Security System” designed to fit the flexible employment relationships of the “sharing economy.”

Q. It can be inferred from the passage that the author of the passage would agree with all of the statements except:

Solution:

Option 3 is incorrect. The view expressed in option 3 is of the ‘trickle-down theory’, something the author does not agree with.

Option 1 can be derived from the lines: A secure middle class is the cause of growth, not its effect; in fact, our economy cannot reach its full potential without it.

Option 2 can be derived from the lines: From 1950 through 1980, during the heyday of the Great American Middle Class, a combination of New Deal programs, a corporate culture of civic responsibility, and a powerful labor movement provided a majority of American workers with health insurance, unemployment insurance, workers’ compensation insurance, pensions, job security, rising wages, overtime pay, paid vacation, paid sick days, a 40-hour workweek, and access to affordable, high-quality education.

Option 4 can be derived from the lines: But in transforming the traditional relationship between employer and employee, the new economy is quickly stripping away these benefits. That is why it is essential that we imagine and adopt new policies that guarantee all workers the basic level of economic security necessary to sustain and grow the American middle class, and with it, the economy as a whole.

QUESTION: 2

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

In the technological economy of the twenty-first century, growth and prosperity are the consequences of a virtuous cycle between innovation and demand. Innovation is how we solve problems and raise living standards, while consumer demand is how markets distribute and incentivize innovation. It is social, civic, and economic inclusion—the full, robust participation of as many people as possible—that drives both innovation and demand. And inclusion requires policies that secure a thriving middle class.

The trickle-down theory—the one that lionizes the rich as “job creators”—insists that the American middle class is a consequence of growth, and that only if and when we have growth can we afford to include more people in our economy. But trickle-down has it exactly backwards: Properly understood, the middle class is the source of all growth and prosperity in a modern technological economy, and economic security is the essential feature of what it means to be included in the middle class.

Economic security is what frees us from the fear that one job loss, one illness—one economic downturn amidst a business cycle guaranteed to produce economic downturns—could cost us our home, our car, our family, and our social status. It’s what grants us permission to invest in ourselves and in our children, and to purchase the non-subsistence goods and experiences that make our lives healthier, happier, and more fulfilling. It gives us the confidence to live our lives with the realistic expectation of a more prosperous and stable economic future, and to take the entrepreneurial risks that are the lifeblood of a vibrant market economy. A secure middle class is the cause of growth, not its effect; in fact, our economy cannot reach its full potential without it. And a middle class that lives in constant fear of falling out of the middle class isn’t truly middle class at all.

From 1950 through 1980, during the heyday of the Great American Middle Class, a combination of New Deal programs, a corporate culture of civic responsibility, and a powerful labor movement provided a majority of American workers with health insurance, unemployment insurance, workers’ compensation insurance, pensions, job security, rising wages, overtime pay, paid vacation, paid sick days, a 40-hour workweek, and access to affordable, high-quality education. These are the benefits that provide the economic security of a decent and dignified life that defines what it means to be middle class, and that led to an unprecedented increase in living standards and economic growth. And under the old economy, they were, and still are, largely provided by one’s employer.

But in transforming the traditional relationship between employer and employee, the new economy is quickly stripping away these benefits. That is why it is essential that we imagine and adopt new policies that guarantee all workers the basic level of economic security necessary to sustain and grow the American middle class, and with it, the economy as a whole. We must acknowledge the radically different needs of a new generation of Americans—many of whom already have more employers in a week than their parents had in a lifetime—by adopting a new “Shared Security System” designed to fit the flexible employment relationships of the “sharing economy.”

Q. As per the information given in the passage, it can be deduced that:

I. Economic security provides freedom for the fear of job loss.
II. Economic security provides us the ability to fight economic downturns and plan for the future.
III. Economic security enables individuals to take risks and start their own business venture.

Solution:

Statement I can be derived from the lines: Economic security is what frees us from the fear that one job loss.

Statement II can be derived from the lines: one illness—one economic downturn amidst a business cycle guaranteed to produce economic downturns—could cost us our home, our car, our family, and our social status. It’s what grants us permission to invest in ourselves and in our children, and to purchase the non-subsistence goods and experiences that make our lives healthier, happier, and more fulfilling.

Statement III can be derived from the lines: It gives us the confidence to live our lives with the realistic expectation of a more prosperous and stable economic future, and to take the entrepreneurial risks that are the lifeblood of a vibrant market economy.

QUESTION: 3

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

In the technological economy of the twenty-first century, growth and prosperity are the consequences of a virtuous cycle between innovation and demand. Innovation is how we solve problems and raise living standards, while consumer demand is how markets distribute and incentivize innovation. It is social, civic, and economic inclusion—the full, robust participation of as many people as possible—that drives both innovation and demand. And inclusion requires policies that secure a thriving middle class.

The trickle-down theory—the one that lionizes the rich as “job creators”—insists that the American middle class is a consequence of growth, and that only if and when we have growth can we afford to include more people in our economy. But trickle-down has it exactly backwards: Properly understood, the middle class is the source of all growth and prosperity in a modern technological economy, and economic security is the essential feature of what it means to be included in the middle class.

Economic security is what frees us from the fear that one job loss, one illness—one economic downturn amidst a business cycle guaranteed to produce economic downturns—could cost us our home, our car, our family, and our social status. It’s what grants us permission to invest in ourselves and in our children, and to purchase the non-subsistence goods and experiences that make our lives healthier, happier, and more fulfilling. It gives us the confidence to live our lives with the realistic expectation of a more prosperous and stable economic future, and to take the entrepreneurial risks that are the lifeblood of a vibrant market economy. A secure middle class is the cause of growth, not its effect; in fact, our economy cannot reach its full potential without it. And a middle class that lives in constant fear of falling out of the middle class isn’t truly middle class at all.

From 1950 through 1980, during the heyday of the Great American Middle Class, a combination of New Deal programs, a corporate culture of civic responsibility, and a powerful labor movement provided a majority of American workers with health insurance, unemployment insurance, workers’ compensation insurance, pensions, job security, rising wages, overtime pay, paid vacation, paid sick days, a 40-hour workweek, and access to affordable, high-quality education. These are the benefits that provide the economic security of a decent and dignified life that defines what it means to be middle class, and that led to an unprecedented increase in living standards and economic growth. And under the old economy, they were, and still are, largely provided by one’s employer.

But in transforming the traditional relationship between employer and employee, the new economy is quickly stripping away these benefits. That is why it is essential that we imagine and adopt new policies that guarantee all workers the basic level of economic security necessary to sustain and grow the American middle class, and with it, the economy as a whole. We must acknowledge the radically different needs of a new generation of Americans—many of whom already have more employers in a week than their parents had in a lifetime—by adopting a new “Shared Security System” designed to fit the flexible employment relationships of the “sharing economy.”

Q. According to the author of the passage, innovation and demand are:

Solution:

Refer to the lines: In the technological economy of the twenty-first century, growth and prosperity are the consequences of a virtuous cycle between innovation and demand. Innovation is how we solve problems and raise living standards, while consumer demand is how markets distribute and incentivize innovation. It is social, civic, and economic inclusion—the full, robust participation of as many people as possible—that drives both innovation and demand. And inclusion requires policies that secure a thriving middle class.

►The sentiment of the passage is best captured by option 2.

Option 1, though partially correct, does not capture the exact sentiment of the author of the passage.

Option 3 is ruled out as innovation and demand are not mutually exclusive.
Option 4 is ruled out as innovation and demand are not two sides of the same coin.

QUESTION: 4

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

In the technological economy of the twenty-first century, growth and prosperity are the consequences of a virtuous cycle between innovation and demand. Innovation is how we solve problems and raise living standards, while consumer demand is how markets distribute and incentivize innovation. It is social, civic, and economic inclusion—the full, robust participation of as many people as possible—that drives both innovation and demand. And inclusion requires policies that secure a thriving middle class.

The trickle-down theory—the one that lionizes the rich as “job creators”—insists that the American middle class is a consequence of growth, and that only if and when we have growth can we afford to include more people in our economy. But trickle-down has it exactly backwards: Properly understood, the middle class is the source of all growth and prosperity in a modern technological economy, and economic security is the essential feature of what it means to be included in the middle class.

Economic security is what frees us from the fear that one job loss, one illness—one economic downturn amidst a business cycle guaranteed to produce economic downturns—could cost us our home, our car, our family, and our social status. It’s what grants us permission to invest in ourselves and in our children, and to purchase the non-subsistence goods and experiences that make our lives healthier, happier, and more fulfilling. It gives us the confidence to live our lives with the realistic expectation of a more prosperous and stable economic future, and to take the entrepreneurial risks that are the lifeblood of a vibrant market economy. A secure middle class is the cause of growth, not its effect; in fact, our economy cannot reach its full potential without it. And a middle class that lives in constant fear of falling out of the middle class isn’t truly middle class at all.

From 1950 through 1980, during the heyday of the Great American Middle Class, a combination of New Deal programs, a corporate culture of civic responsibility, and a powerful labor movement provided a majority of American workers with health insurance, unemployment insurance, workers’ compensation insurance, pensions, job security, rising wages, overtime pay, paid vacation, paid sick days, a 40-hour workweek, and access to affordable, high-quality education. These are the benefits that provide the economic security of a decent and dignified life that defines what it means to be middle class, and that led to an unprecedented increase in living standards and economic growth. And under the old economy, they were, and still are, largely provided by one’s employer.

But in transforming the traditional relationship between employer and employee, the new economy is quickly stripping away these benefits. That is why it is essential that we imagine and adopt new policies that guarantee all workers the basic level of economic security necessary to sustain and grow the American middle class, and with it, the economy as a whole. We must acknowledge the radically different needs of a new generation of Americans—many of whom already have more employers in a week than their parents had in a lifetime—by adopting a new “Shared Security System” designed to fit the flexible employment relationships of the “sharing economy.”

Q. As per the views of the author of the passage, 'the trickle down' theory:

I. Inverts the role of middle class in society.
II. Essentially treats the middle class an outcome of growth
III. Assumes that the middle class lives in a constant fear of failing.

Solution:

Statements I and II can be derived from the passage: But trickle-down has it exactly backwards: Properly understood, the middle class is the source of all growth and prosperity in a modern technological economy, and economic security is the essential feature of what it means to be included in the middle class.

► Statement III is not related to the 'trickle down' theory and the passage does not state that the theory makes any such assumption.

QUESTION: 5

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

We are beginning to witness a paradox at the heart of capitalism, one that has propelled it to greatness but is now threatening its future: The inherent dynamism of competitive markets is bringing costs so far down that many goods and services are becoming nearly free, abundant, and no longer subject to market forces. While economists have always welcomed a reduction in marginal cost, they never anticipated the possibility of a technological revolution that might bring those costs to near zero.

Industry watchers acknowledge the creeping reality of a zero-marginal-cost economy, but argue that free products and services will entice a sufficient number of consumers to purchase higher-end goods and specialized services, ensuring large enough profit margins to allow the capitalist market to continue to grow. But the number of people willing to pay for additional premium goods and services is limited.

The unresolved question is, how will this economy of the future function when millions of people can make and share goods and services nearly free? The answer lies in the civil society, which consists of non-profit organizations that attend to the things in life we make and share as a community. What makes this social commons more relevant today is that we are constructing an Internet of Things infrastructure that optimizes collaboration, universal access and inclusion, all of which are critical to the creation of social capital and the ushering in of a sharing economy.

This zero marginal cost phenomenon is having the highest impact on the labor market, where workerless factories and offices, virtual retailing and automated logistics and transport networks are becoming more prevalent. Not surprisingly, the new employment opportunities lie in the collaborative commons in fields that tend to be nonprofit and strengthen social infrastructure. Many economists argue that the nonprofit sector is not a self-sufficient economic force but rather a parasite, dependent on government entitlements and private philanthropy. Quite the contrary. A recent study revealed that approximately 50 percent of the aggregate revenue of the nonprofit sectors of 34 countries comes from fees, while government support accounts for 36 percent of the revenues and private philanthropy for 14 percent.

As for the capitalist system, it is likely to remain with us far into the future, albeit in a more streamlined role, primarily as an aggregator of network services and solutions, allowing it to thrive as a powerful niche player in the coming era. We are, however, entering a world partly beyond markets, where we are learning how to live together in an increasingly interdependent, collaborative, global commons.

Q. What forecast does the author of the passage have for the capitalist economy?

Solution:

Refer last para: ‘As for the capitalist system, it is likely to remain with us far into the future, albeit in a more streamlined role, primarily as an aggregator of network services and solutions, allowing it to thrive as a powerful niche player in the coming era.

►We are, however, entering a world partly beyond markets, where we are learning how to live together in an increasingly interdependent, collaborative, global commons."

QUESTION: 6

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

We are beginning to witness a paradox at the heart of capitalism, one that has propelled it to greatness but is now threatening its future: The inherent dynamism of competitive markets is bringing costs so far down that many goods and services are becoming nearly free, abundant, and no longer subject to market forces. While economists have always welcomed a reduction in marginal cost, they never anticipated the possibility of a technological revolution that might bring those costs to near zero.

Industry watchers acknowledge the creeping reality of a zero-marginal-cost economy, but argue that free products and services will entice a sufficient number of consumers to purchase higher-end goods and specialized services, ensuring large enough profit margins to allow the capitalist market to continue to grow. But the number of people willing to pay for additional premium goods and services is limited.

The unresolved question is, how will this economy of the future function when millions of people can make and share goods and services nearly free? The answer lies in the civil society, which consists of non-profit organizations that attend to the things in life we make and share as a community. What makes this social commons more relevant today is that we are constructing an Internet of Things infrastructure that optimizes collaboration, universal access and inclusion, all of which are critical to the creation of social capital and the ushering in of a sharing economy.

This zero marginal cost phenomenon is having the highest impact on the labor market, where workerless factories and offices, virtual retailing and automated logistics and transport networks are becoming more prevalent. Not surprisingly, the new employment opportunities lie in the collaborative commons in fields that tend to be nonprofit and strengthen social infrastructure. Many economists argue that the nonprofit sector is not a self-sufficient economic force but rather a parasite, dependent on government entitlements and private philanthropy. Quite the contrary. A recent study revealed that approximately 50 percent of the aggregate revenue of the nonprofit sectors of 34 countries comes from fees, while government support accounts for 36 percent of the revenues and private philanthropy for 14 percent.

As for the capitalist system, it is likely to remain with us far into the future, albeit in a more streamlined role, primarily as an aggregator of network services and solutions, allowing it to thrive as a powerful niche player in the coming era. We are, however, entering a world partly beyond markets, where we are learning how to live together in an increasingly interdependent, collaborative, global commons.

Q. What does the phrase ‘collaborative commons’ refer to?

Solution:

Refer second last para: ‘Not surprisingly, the new employment opportunities lie in the collaborative commons in fields that tend to be nonprofit and strengthen social infrastructure.’

Statement 1 – Is the definition of creative commons

Statement 3 - Is the definition of copyright

Statement 4 - Is the definition of socialism / communism

QUESTION: 7

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

We are beginning to witness a paradox at the heart of capitalism, one that has propelled it to greatness but is now threatening its future: The inherent dynamism of competitive markets is bringing costs so far down that many goods and services are becoming nearly free, abundant, and no longer subject to market forces. While economists have always welcomed a reduction in marginal cost, they never anticipated the possibility of a technological revolution that might bring those costs to near zero.

Industry watchers acknowledge the creeping reality of a zero-marginal-cost economy, but argue that free products and services will entice a sufficient number of consumers to purchase higher-end goods and specialized services, ensuring large enough profit margins to allow the capitalist market to continue to grow. But the number of people willing to pay for additional premium goods and services is limited.

The unresolved question is, how will this economy of the future function when millions of people can make and share goods and services nearly free? The answer lies in the civil society, which consists of non-profit organizations that attend to the things in life we make and share as a community. What makes this social commons more relevant today is that we are constructing an Internet of Things infrastructure that optimizes collaboration, universal access and inclusion, all of which are critical to the creation of social capital and the ushering in of a sharing economy.

This zero marginal cost phenomenon is having the highest impact on the labor market, where workerless factories and offices, virtual retailing and automated logistics and transport networks are becoming more prevalent. Not surprisingly, the new employment opportunities lie in the collaborative commons in fields that tend to be nonprofit and strengthen social infrastructure. Many economists argue that the nonprofit sector is not a self-sufficient economic force but rather a parasite, dependent on government entitlements and private philanthropy. Quite the contrary. A recent study revealed that approximately 50 percent of the aggregate revenue of the nonprofit sectors of 34 countries comes from fees, while government support accounts for 36 percent of the revenues and private philanthropy for 14 percent.

As for the capitalist system, it is likely to remain with us far into the future, albeit in a more streamlined role, primarily as an aggregator of network services and solutions, allowing it to thrive as a powerful niche player in the coming era. We are, however, entering a world partly beyond markets, where we are learning how to live together in an increasingly interdependent, collaborative, global commons.

Q. What is the significant difference between a free service and one that has a zero marginal cost?

Solution:

►Marginal cost is defined as the cost of producing one extra unit.

A classical example of zero marginal cost is software. It takes a lot of effort to produce the first copy – but all the remaining are almost at zero cost. The effort required to produce the first copy is what is fixed cost.

Statement 2 – Capitalism’s absence will only mean a change of ownership of the means of production.

Statement 3 – This is defining a free service, but is not talking of zero marginal cost.

Statement 4 – They are not the same thing, as a free service will incur cost, which may not be a zero marginal cost.

QUESTION: 8

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

We are beginning to witness a paradox at the heart of capitalism, one that has propelled it to greatness but is now threatening its future: The inherent dynamism of competitive markets is bringing costs so far down that many goods and services are becoming nearly free, abundant, and no longer subject to market forces. While economists have always welcomed a reduction in marginal cost, they never anticipated the possibility of a technological revolution that might bring those costs to near zero.

Industry watchers acknowledge the creeping reality of a zero-marginal-cost economy, but argue that free products and services will entice a sufficient number of consumers to purchase higher-end goods and specialized services, ensuring large enough profit margins to allow the capitalist market to continue to grow. But the number of people willing to pay for additional premium goods and services is limited.

The unresolved question is, how will this economy of the future function when millions of people can make and share goods and services nearly free? The answer lies in the civil society, which consists of non-profit organizations that attend to the things in life we make and share as a community. What makes this social commons more relevant today is that we are constructing an Internet of Things infrastructure that optimizes collaboration, universal access and inclusion, all of which are critical to the creation of social capital and the ushering in of a sharing economy.

This zero marginal cost phenomenon is having the highest impact on the labor market, where workerless factories and offices, virtual retailing and automated logistics and transport networks are becoming more prevalent. Not surprisingly, the new employment opportunities lie in the collaborative commons in fields that tend to be nonprofit and strengthen social infrastructure. Many economists argue that the nonprofit sector is not a self-sufficient economic force but rather a parasite, dependent on government entitlements and private philanthropy. Quite the contrary. A recent study revealed that approximately 50 percent of the aggregate revenue of the nonprofit sectors of 34 countries comes from fees, while government support accounts for 36 percent of the revenues and private philanthropy for 14 percent.

As for the capitalist system, it is likely to remain with us far into the future, albeit in a more streamlined role, primarily as an aggregator of network services and solutions, allowing it to thrive as a powerful niche player in the coming era. We are, however, entering a world partly beyond markets, where we are learning how to live together in an increasingly interdependent, collaborative, global commons.

Q. As can be inferred from the passage, all of the following industries are threatening to move away from the ambit of market forces, except.

Solution:

The first 3 options are industries which have zero marginal costs.
Apparel industry does not have zero marginal cost.

QUESTION: 9

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

If the man to perpetuate whose memory we have this day raised a statue had been asked on what part of his busy life's work he set the highest value, he would undoubtedly have pointed to his voluminous contributions to theology. In season and out of season, he was the steadfast champion of that hypothesis respecting the Divine nature which is termed Unitarianism by its friends and Socinianism by its foes. Regardless of odds, he was ready to do battle with all comers in that cause; and if no adversaries entered the lists, he would sally forth to seek them.

To this, his highest ideal of duty, Joseph Priestley sacrificed the vulgar prizes of life, which, assuredly, were within easy reach of a man of his singular energy and varied abilities. For this object he put aside, as of secondary importance, those scientific investigations which he loved so well, and in which he showed himself so competent to enlarge the boundaries of natural knowledge and to win fame. In this cause he not only cheerfully suffered obloquy from the bigoted and the unthinking, and came within sight of martyrdom; but bore with that which is much harder to be borne than all these, the unfeigned astonishment and hardly disguised contempt of a brilliant society, composed of men whose sympathy and esteem must have been most dear to him, and to whom it was simply incomprehensible that a philosopher should seriously occupy himself with any form of Christianity.

It appears to me that the man who, setting before himself such an ideal of life, acted up to it consistently, is worthy of the deepest respect, whatever opinion may be entertained as to the real value of the tenets which he so zealously propagated and defended. But I am sure that I speak not only for myself, but for all this assemblage, when I say that our purpose to-day is to do honour, not to Priestley, the Unitarian divine, but to Priestley, the fearless defender of rational freedom in thought and in action: to Priestley, the philosophic thinker; to that Priestley who held a foremost place among "the swift runners who hand over the lamp of life," and transmit from one generation to another the fire kindled, in the childhood of the world, at the Promethean altar of Science.

The main incidents of Priestley's life are so well known that I need dwell upon them at no great length. Born in 1733, at Fieldhead, near Leeds, and brought up among Calvinists of the straitest orthodoxy, the boy's striking natural ability led to his being devoted to the profession of a minister of religion; and, in 1752, he was sent to the Dissenting Academy at Daventry--an institution which authority left undisturbed, though its existence contravened the law. The teachers under whose instruction and influence the young man came at Daventry, carried out to the letter the injunction to "try all things: hold fast that which is good," and encouraged the discussion of every imaginable proposition with complete freedom, the leading professors taking opposite sides; a discipline which, admirable as it may be from a purely scientific point of view, would seem to be calculated to make acute, rather than sound, divines. Priestley tells us, in his "Autobiography," that he generally found himself on the unorthodox side: and, as he grew older, and his faculties attained their maturity, this native tendency towards heterodoxy grew with his growth and strengthened with his strength. He passed from Calvinism to Arianism; and finally, in middle life, landed in that very broad form of Unitarianism by which his craving after a credible and consistent theory of things was satisfied.

Q. What can be inferred from the passage about the early life of Priestly?

Solution:

► Option 1 is incorrect on two counts: ''incongruous'' does not fit in the given context and we cannot say that Priestley''s early life had a significant impact on him.

► Option 2 is again rejected as it is too strong an option.

► Option 3 is correct as it aptly mentions that his childhood experience had a contributory role, something which cannot be denied.

► Option 4 is incorrect as the passage does not mention that Priestley took up any dedicated early work in unorthodox ways

QUESTION: 10

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

If the man to perpetuate whose memory we have this day raised a statue had been asked on what part of his busy life's work he set the highest value, he would undoubtedly have pointed to his voluminous contributions to theology. In season and out of season, he was the steadfast champion of that hypothesis respecting the Divine nature which is termed Unitarianism by its friends and Socinianism by its foes. Regardless of odds, he was ready to do battle with all comers in that cause; and if no adversaries entered the lists, he would sally forth to seek them.

To this, his highest ideal of duty, Joseph Priestley sacrificed the vulgar prizes of life, which, assuredly, were within easy reach of a man of his singular energy and varied abilities. For this object he put aside, as of secondary importance, those scientific investigations which he loved so well, and in which he showed himself so competent to enlarge the boundaries of natural knowledge and to win fame. In this cause he not only cheerfully suffered obloquy from the bigoted and the unthinking, and came within sight of martyrdom; but bore with that which is much harder to be borne than all these, the unfeigned astonishment and hardly disguised contempt of a brilliant society, composed of men whose sympathy and esteem must have been most dear to him, and to whom it was simply incomprehensible that a philosopher should seriously occupy himself with any form of Christianity.

It appears to me that the man who, setting before himself such an ideal of life, acted up to it consistently, is worthy of the deepest respect, whatever opinion may be entertained as to the real value of the tenets which he so zealously propagated and defended. But I am sure that I speak not only for myself, but for all this assemblage, when I say that our purpose to-day is to do honour, not to Priestley, the Unitarian divine, but to Priestley, the fearless defender of rational freedom in thought and in action: to Priestley, the philosophic thinker; to that Priestley who held a foremost place among "the swift runners who hand over the lamp of life," and transmit from one generation to another the fire kindled, in the childhood of the world, at the Promethean altar of Science.

The main incidents of Priestley's life are so well known that I need dwell upon them at no great length. Born in 1733, at Fieldhead, near Leeds, and brought up among Calvinists of the straitest orthodoxy, the boy's striking natural ability led to his being devoted to the profession of a minister of religion; and, in 1752, he was sent to the Dissenting Academy at Daventry--an institution which authority left undisturbed, though its existence contravened the law. The teachers under whose instruction and influence the young man came at Daventry, carried out to the letter the injunction to "try all things: hold fast that which is good," and encouraged the discussion of every imaginable proposition with complete freedom, the leading professors taking opposite sides; a discipline which, admirable as it may be from a purely scientific point of view, would seem to be calculated to make acute, rather than sound, divines. Priestley tells us, in his "Autobiography," that he generally found himself on the unorthodox side: and, as he grew older, and his faculties attained their maturity, this native tendency towards heterodoxy grew with his growth and strengthened with his strength. He passed from Calvinism to Arianism; and finally, in middle life, landed in that very broad form of Unitarianism by which his craving after a credible and consistent theory of things was satisfied.

Q. The author of the passage would agree with the statement:

Solution:

Refer to the following lines

►"In season and out of season, he was the steadfast champion of that hypothesis respecting the Divine nature which is termed Unitarianism by its friends and Socinianism by its foes. Regardless of odds, he was ready to do battle with all comers in that cause; and if no adversaries entered the lists, he would sally forth to seek them."

►From these lines, it can clearly be seen that one thing that can be said about the work of Priestley is that it was widely debated (it had its supporters and its opponents).

►Considering thing, we find option 4 the apt answer for the given question. None of the other options can be conclusively proven in the given context. Option 1 essentially means that his views were objective (which means factual) in nature. This is something we cannot conclude in the given context.

QUESTION: 11

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

If the man to perpetuate whose memory we have this day raised a statue had been asked on what part of his busy life's work he set the highest value, he would undoubtedly have pointed to his voluminous contributions to theology. In season and out of season, he was the steadfast champion of that hypothesis respecting the Divine nature which is termed Unitarianism by its friends and Socinianism by its foes. Regardless of odds, he was ready to do battle with all comers in that cause; and if no adversaries entered the lists, he would sally forth to seek them.

To this, his highest ideal of duty, Joseph Priestley sacrificed the vulgar prizes of life, which, assuredly, were within easy reach of a man of his singular energy and varied abilities. For this object he put aside, as of secondary importance, those scientific investigations which he loved so well, and in which he showed himself so competent to enlarge the boundaries of natural knowledge and to win fame. In this cause he not only cheerfully suffered obloquy from the bigoted and the unthinking, and came within sight of martyrdom; but bore with that which is much harder to be borne than all these, the unfeigned astonishment and hardly disguised contempt of a brilliant society, composed of men whose sympathy and esteem must have been most dear to him, and to whom it was simply incomprehensible that a philosopher should seriously occupy himself with any form of Christianity.

It appears to me that the man who, setting before himself such an ideal of life, acted up to it consistently, is worthy of the deepest respect, whatever opinion may be entertained as to the real value of the tenets which he so zealously propagated and defended. But I am sure that I speak not only for myself, but for all this assemblage, when I say that our purpose to-day is to do honour, not to Priestley, the Unitarian divine, but to Priestley, the fearless defender of rational freedom in thought and in action: to Priestley, the philosophic thinker; to that Priestley who held a foremost place among "the swift runners who hand over the lamp of life," and transmit from one generation to another the fire kindled, in the childhood of the world, at the Promethean altar of Science.

The main incidents of Priestley's life are so well known that I need dwell upon them at no great length. Born in 1733, at Fieldhead, near Leeds, and brought up among Calvinists of the straitest orthodoxy, the boy's striking natural ability led to his being devoted to the profession of a minister of religion; and, in 1752, he was sent to the Dissenting Academy at Daventry--an institution which authority left undisturbed, though its existence contravened the law. The teachers under whose instruction and influence the young man came at Daventry, carried out to the letter the injunction to "try all things: hold fast that which is good," and encouraged the discussion of every imaginable proposition with complete freedom, the leading professors taking opposite sides; a discipline which, admirable as it may be from a purely scientific point of view, would seem to be calculated to make acute, rather than sound, divines. Priestley tells us, in his "Autobiography," that he generally found himself on the unorthodox side: and, as he grew older, and his faculties attained their maturity, this native tendency towards heterodoxy grew with his growth and strengthened with his strength. He passed from Calvinism to Arianism; and finally, in middle life, landed in that very broad form of Unitarianism by which his craving after a credible and consistent theory of things was satisfied.

Q. It can be said that the author of the passage is trying to:

Solution:

One simple question for you: can you provide a one line summary for the passage? What exactly is the author of the passage doing in the passage? In this passage, he highlights the positives of Priestley and goes on to explain how he deserves to be remembered and honoured. Considering this, option 2 is the best answer in the given case.

QUESTION: 12

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

If the man to perpetuate whose memory we have this day raised a statue had been asked on what part of his busy life's work he set the highest value, he would undoubtedly have pointed to his voluminous contributions to theology. In season and out of season, he was the steadfast champion of that hypothesis respecting the Divine nature which is termed Unitarianism by its friends and Socinianism by its foes. Regardless of odds, he was ready to do battle with all comers in that cause; and if no adversaries entered the lists, he would sally forth to seek them.

To this, his highest ideal of duty, Joseph Priestley sacrificed the vulgar prizes of life, which, assuredly, were within easy reach of a man of his singular energy and varied abilities. For this object he put aside, as of secondary importance, those scientific investigations which he loved so well, and in which he showed himself so competent to enlarge the boundaries of natural knowledge and to win fame. In this cause he not only cheerfully suffered obloquy from the bigoted and the unthinking, and came within sight of martyrdom; but bore with that which is much harder to be borne than all these, the unfeigned astonishment and hardly disguised contempt of a brilliant society, composed of men whose sympathy and esteem must have been most dear to him, and to whom it was simply incomprehensible that a philosopher should seriously occupy himself with any form of Christianity.

It appears to me that the man who, setting before himself such an ideal of life, acted up to it consistently, is worthy of the deepest respect, whatever opinion may be entertained as to the real value of the tenets which he so zealously propagated and defended. But I am sure that I speak not only for myself, but for all this assemblage, when I say that our purpose to-day is to do honour, not to Priestley, the Unitarian divine, but to Priestley, the fearless defender of rational freedom in thought and in action: to Priestley, the philosophic thinker; to that Priestley who held a foremost place among "the swift runners who hand over the lamp of life," and transmit from one generation to another the fire kindled, in the childhood of the world, at the Promethean altar of Science.

The main incidents of Priestley's life are so well known that I need dwell upon them at no great length. Born in 1733, at Fieldhead, near Leeds, and brought up among Calvinists of the straitest orthodoxy, the boy's striking natural ability led to his being devoted to the profession of a minister of religion; and, in 1752, he was sent to the Dissenting Academy at Daventry--an institution which authority left undisturbed, though its existence contravened the law. The teachers under whose instruction and influence the young man came at Daventry, carried out to the letter the injunction to "try all things: hold fast that which is good," and encouraged the discussion of every imaginable proposition with complete freedom, the leading professors taking opposite sides; a discipline which, admirable as it may be from a purely scientific point of view, would seem to be calculated to make acute, rather than sound, divines. Priestley tells us, in his "Autobiography," that he generally found himself on the unorthodox side: and, as he grew older, and his faculties attained their maturity, this native tendency towards heterodoxy grew with his growth and strengthened with his strength. He passed from Calvinism to Arianism; and finally, in middle life, landed in that very broad form of Unitarianism by which his craving after a credible and consistent theory of things was satisfied.

Q. From the information provided in the passage, it can be inferred that Unitarianism would imply:

Solution:

►The inference in this question has to be derived from a combination of lines extracted from the passage: In season and out of season, he was the steadfast champion of that hypothesis respecting the Divine nature which is termed Unitarianism by its friends and Socinianism by its foes and to whom it was simply incomprehensible that a philosopher should seriously occupy himself with any form of Christianity. But I am sure that I speak not only for myself, but for all this assemblage, when I say that our purpose to-day is to do honour, not to Priestley, the Unitarian divine, but to Priestley, the fearless defender of rational freedom in thought and in action.

►Unitarianism is defined as the Christian doctrine that stresses individual freedom of belief and rejects the Trinity.

►The one good thing in the question is that each option is related to Christianity and this means our answer is related to this topic as well. From the context, we can see that option 3 is the best fit in the given case.

QUESTION: 13

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Citizens of the United States are quite taken with the vocabulary of liberal democracy, with words such as ‘freedom’ and ‘democracy’, which conjure key democratic values and distance the nation from the Old World taint of oligarchy and aristocracy. It is much less clear, however, that Americans are guided by democratic ideals. Or that ideology and propaganda play a crucial role in concealing the large gap between rhetoric and reality.
In truth, the Old World systems have proved extremely difficult to shrug off. In their 2014 paper, Martin Gilens and Benjamin Page argue that, as in an oligarchy, ordinary US citizens have no ‘substantial power over policy decisions [and] little or no independent influence on policy at all’.

Moreover, the US regularly subscribes to a form of managerial aristocracy. In the current presidential race, Hillary Clinton advertises her managerial expertise via the language of policy, while Donald Trump parades his via the language of business. Neither language is democratic. Neither invites self-governance.
Why is there no outcry about these oligarchical and aristocratic methods? Is it because plutocrats have power over the mechanisms of representation and repression? Is it, in short, about power? In my view, power can’t explain why voters are so enthusiastically voting for the very people who promise the least democratic outcomes. Nor are Americans knowingly rejecting democratic ideals. Instead, I see an anti-democratic ideology at work, inverting the meaning of democratic vocabulary and transforming it into propaganda.

Consider the example of mass incarceration in the US. Black Americans make up around 13 per cent of the population, but around 40 per cent of country’s ballooning prison population. Even if we assume, falsely, that black American crime rates justify this disparity, why is the state so punitive? Shouldn’t citizens instead be motivated to address the underlying socio-economic conditions that lead to such dramatic differences in behaviour between equals?

In The New Jim Crow (2010), Michelle Alexander argues that a national rhetoric of law and order has long justified mass incarceration. President Richard Nixon used it to crack down on black Americans under the cover of an epidemic of heroin use; this continued in the 1980s, as a merciless ‘war on drugs’ whose victims were all too often black men. In the US, the ideology of anti-black racism takes the view that blacks are violent and lazy, thereby masking the misapplication of the ideals of law and order.

Compare the ‘war on drugs’ to the current heroin crisis among middle-class white Americans, which has led to a national discussion of the socio-economic distress facing this class. Law and order doesn’t come into it. ‘The new face of heroin’ is new because, unlike the old face, it calls out for an empathetic response, rather than a punitive one.

But what is the flawed ideology masking the misapplication of democratic ideals? Let’s bring it out by exploring the most cherished US democratic ideal, the ideal of freedom – popularly embodied in attacks on ‘big government’. Voters are repeatedly told that ‘big government’ is the primary source of coercion that limits freedom, which it certainly sometimes does, as the Patriot Act reminds us. But corporations also limit civic freedom in significant ways.

For example, corporations are leading direct attacks on the freedom to collectively bargain. Via outsourcing, free trade agreements allow corporations to move jobs to countries where labour is cheap; meanwhile, as a result of pressure from the conservative non-profit Citizens United, corporations can fund political candidates, thereby increasing corporate control of government. The weaker a government is, the more power corporations have over it.
Voters concerned about government – as opposed to corporate – constraints on freedom are under the grip of what I will call a free market ideology. According to that ideology, the world of capital is by its nature free. All other substantial freedoms, including political freedom and personal freedom, are made possible by the freedom of markets.

Why do citizens who cherish freedom as an ideal vote to constrain their own freedoms by increasing the power of corporations? It’s because free market ideology masks the ways in which corporations deploy undemocratic modes of coercion. When a corporation bans employees from expressing, outside of work, opinions it disapproves of, this is seen as a legitimate protection of its economic interests. If workers have to sign non-disclosure contracts that silence them after they are employed elsewhere, it’s accepted as the cost of doing business.

The contradictions here are telling. If our most basic freedoms are self-expression and choiceful action, then corporations frequently limit our most basic freedoms. In liberal democratic theory, it is government that is regarded as the protector of such rights. But it’s precisely because government is attacked in the name of freedom that corporations have vastly greater power to constrain and shape it.

Q. A suitable title for the passage is:

Solution:

The meanings of these two words:

Pervert: Change the inherent purpose or function of something/Practice sophistry; change the meaning of or be vague about in order to mislead or deceive

Adjunct: Something added to another thing but not an essential part of it

►We can clearly see that pervert fits the given negative context of the passage.

►Also, the primary subject of the passage is free market and how it is impacting democracy.
This makes option 1 the correct answer.

QUESTION: 14

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Citizens of the United States are quite taken with the vocabulary of liberal democracy, with words such as ‘freedom’ and ‘democracy’, which conjure key democratic values and distance the nation from the Old World taint of oligarchy and aristocracy. It is much less clear, however, that Americans are guided by democratic ideals. Or that ideology and propaganda play a crucial role in concealing the large gap between rhetoric and reality.
In truth, the Old World systems have proved extremely difficult to shrug off. In their 2014 paper, Martin Gilens and Benjamin Page argue that, as in an oligarchy, ordinary US citizens have no ‘substantial power over policy decisions [and] little or no independent influence on policy at all’.

Moreover, the US regularly subscribes to a form of managerial aristocracy. In the current presidential race, Hillary Clinton advertises her managerial expertise via the language of policy, while Donald Trump parades his via the language of business. Neither language is democratic. Neither invites self-governance.
Why is there no outcry about these oligarchical and aristocratic methods? Is it because plutocrats have power over the mechanisms of representation and repression? Is it, in short, about power? In my view, power can’t explain why voters are so enthusiastically voting for the very people who promise the least democratic outcomes. Nor are Americans knowingly rejecting democratic ideals. Instead, I see an anti-democratic ideology at work, inverting the meaning of democratic vocabulary and transforming it into propaganda.

Consider the example of mass incarceration in the US. Black Americans make up around 13 per cent of the population, but around 40 per cent of country’s ballooning prison population. Even if we assume, falsely, that black American crime rates justify this disparity, why is the state so punitive? Shouldn’t citizens instead be motivated to address the underlying socio-economic conditions that lead to such dramatic differences in behaviour between equals?

In The New Jim Crow (2010), Michelle Alexander argues that a national rhetoric of law and order has long justified mass incarceration. President Richard Nixon used it to crack down on black Americans under the cover of an epidemic of heroin use; this continued in the 1980s, as a merciless ‘war on drugs’ whose victims were all too often black men. In the US, the ideology of anti-black racism takes the view that blacks are violent and lazy, thereby masking the misapplication of the ideals of law and order.

Compare the ‘war on drugs’ to the current heroin crisis among middle-class white Americans, which has led to a national discussion of the socio-economic distress facing this class. Law and order doesn’t come into it. ‘The new face of heroin’ is new because, unlike the old face, it calls out for an empathetic response, rather than a punitive one.

But what is the flawed ideology masking the misapplication of democratic ideals? Let’s bring it out by exploring the most cherished US democratic ideal, the ideal of freedom – popularly embodied in attacks on ‘big government’. Voters are repeatedly told that ‘big government’ is the primary source of coercion that limits freedom, which it certainly sometimes does, as the Patriot Act reminds us. But corporations also limit civic freedom in significant ways.

For example, corporations are leading direct attacks on the freedom to collectively bargain. Via outsourcing, free trade agreements allow corporations to move jobs to countries where labour is cheap; meanwhile, as a result of pressure from the conservative non-profit Citizens United, corporations can fund political candidates, thereby increasing corporate control of government. The weaker a government is, the more power corporations have over it.
Voters concerned about government – as opposed to corporate – constraints on freedom are under the grip of what I will call a free market ideology. According to that ideology, the world of capital is by its nature free. All other substantial freedoms, including political freedom and personal freedom, are made possible by the freedom of markets.

Why do citizens who cherish freedom as an ideal vote to constrain their own freedoms by increasing the power of corporations? It’s because free market ideology masks the ways in which corporations deploy undemocratic modes of coercion. When a corporation bans employees from expressing, outside of work, opinions it disapproves of, this is seen as a legitimate protection of its economic interests. If workers have to sign non-disclosure contracts that silence them after they are employed elsewhere, it’s accepted as the cost of doing business.

The contradictions here are telling. If our most basic freedoms are self-expression and choiceful action, then corporations frequently limit our most basic freedoms. In liberal democratic theory, it is government that is regarded as the protector of such rights. But it’s precisely because government is attacked in the name of freedom that corporations have vastly greater power to constrain and shape it.

Q. The author of the passage, at some point or the other in the passage, has been critical of:
I. Governments
II. Corporations
III. Political leaders

Solution:

►The author of the passage criticizes all of the above stakeholders in the passage. Remember, the question quotes: at some point or the other. This essentially means that there has to be at least one point of criticism in the passage. One point of criticism for each of the above can be easily found. 

Criticizing political leaders:

►"In the current presidential race, Hillary Clinton advertises her managerial expertise via the language of policy, while Donald Trump parades his via the language of business. Neither language is democratic."

►"President Richard Nixon used it to crack down on black Americans under the cover of an epidemic of heroin use; this continued in the 1980s, as a merciless ‘war on drugs’ whose victims were all too often black men. In the US, the ideology of anti-black racism takes the view that blacks are violent and lazy, thereby masking the misapplication of the ideals of law and order."

►Criticizing govt "Voters are repeatedly told that ‘big government’ is the primary source of coercion that limits freedom, which it certainly sometimes does, as the Patriot Act reminds us"

►Criticizing corporations "But corporations also limit civic freedom in significant ways. 

►For example, corporations are leading direct attacks on the freedom to collectively bargain. Via outsourcing, free trade agreements allow corporations to move jobs to countries where labour is cheap; meanwhile, as a result of pressure from the conservative non-profit Citizens United, corporations can fund political candidates, thereby increasing corporate control of government.

►The weaker a government is, the more power corporations have over it."

QUESTION: 15

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Citizens of the United States are quite taken with the vocabulary of liberal democracy, with words such as ‘freedom’ and ‘democracy’, which conjure key democratic values and distance the nation from the Old World taint of oligarchy and aristocracy. It is much less clear, however, that Americans are guided by democratic ideals. Or that ideology and propaganda play a crucial role in concealing the large gap between rhetoric and reality.

In truth, the Old World systems have proved extremely difficult to shrug off. In their 2014 paper, Martin Gilens and Benjamin Page argue that, as in an oligarchy, ordinary US citizens have no ‘substantial power over policy decisions [and] little or no independent influence on policy at all’.

Moreover, the US regularly subscribes to a form of managerial aristocracy. In the current presidential race, Hillary Clinton advertises her managerial expertise via the language of policy, while Donald Trump parades his via the language of business. Neither language is democratic. Neither invites self-governance.

Why is there no outcry about these oligarchical and aristocratic methods? Is it because plutocrats have power over the mechanisms of representation and repression? Is it, in short, about power? In my view, power can’t explain why voters are so enthusiastically voting for the very people who promise the least democratic outcomes. Nor are Americans knowingly rejecting democratic ideals. Instead, I see an anti-democratic ideology at work, inverting the meaning of democratic vocabulary and transforming it into propaganda.

Consider the example of mass incarceration in the US. Black Americans make up around 13 per cent of the population, but around 40 per cent of country’s ballooning prison population. Even if we assume, falsely, that black American crime rates justify this disparity, why is the state so punitive? Shouldn’t citizens instead be motivated to address the underlying socio-economic conditions that lead to such dramatic differences in behaviour between equals?

In The New Jim Crow (2010), Michelle Alexander argues that a national rhetoric of law and order has long justified mass incarceration. President Richard Nixon used it to crack down on black Americans under the cover of an epidemic of heroin use; this continued in the 1980s, as a merciless ‘war on drugs’ whose victims were all too often black men. In the US, the ideology of anti-black racism takes the view that blacks are violent and lazy, thereby masking the misapplication of the ideals of law and order.

Compare the ‘war on drugs’ to the current heroin crisis among middle-class white Americans, which has led to a national discussion of the socio-economic distress facing this class. Law and order doesn’t come into it. ‘The new face of heroin’ is new because, unlike the old face, it calls out for an empathetic response, rather than a punitive one.

But what is the flawed ideology masking the misapplication of democratic ideals? Let’s bring it out by exploring the most cherished US democratic ideal, the ideal of freedom – popularly embodied in attacks on ‘big government’. Voters are repeatedly told that ‘big government’ is the primary source of coercion that limits freedom, which it certainly sometimes does, as the Patriot Act reminds us. But corporations also limit civic freedom in significant ways.

For example, corporations are leading direct attacks on the freedom to collectively bargain. Via outsourcing, free trade agreements allow corporations to move jobs to countries where labour is cheap; meanwhile, as a result of pressure from the conservative non-profit Citizens United, corporations can fund political candidates, thereby increasing corporate control of government. The weaker a government is, the more power corporations have over it.

Voters concerned about government – as opposed to corporate – constraints on freedom are under the grip of what I will call a free market ideology. According to that ideology, the world of capital is by its nature free. All other substantial freedoms, including political freedom and personal freedom, are made possible by the freedom of markets.

Why do citizens who cherish freedom as an ideal vote to constrain their own freedoms by increasing the power of corporations? It’s because free market ideology masks the ways in which corporations deploy undemocratic modes of coercion. When a corporation bans employees from expressing, outside of work, opinions it disapproves of, this is seen as a legitimate protection of its economic interests. If workers have to sign non-disclosure contracts that silence them after they are employed elsewhere, it’s accepted as the cost of doing business.

The contradictions here are telling. If our most basic freedoms are self-expression and choiceful action, then corporations frequently limit our most basic freedoms. In liberal democratic theory, it is government that is regarded as the protector of such rights. But it’s precisely because government is attacked in the name of freedom that corporations have vastly greater power to constrain and shape it.

Q. The words 'rhetoric' and 'punitive' mean (in the respective order given):

Solution:

►In the given case, the options are synonymous with the given words but the issue is that you need to identify the meaning in the given context.

►Here, rhetoric refers to the language designed to have a persuasive or impressive effect, but which is often regarded as lacking in sincerity or meaningful content.

Punitive refers to unfair punishment.

►Keeping these sentiments in mind, option B is the best answer in the given case.

►Penal in option B is better than burdensome in option A and crippling in option C is in context "Black Americans make up around 13 per cent of the population, but around 40 per cent of country’s ballooning prison population. Even if we assume, falsely, that black American crime rates justify this disparity, why is the state so punitive?"

QUESTION: 16

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Citizens of the United States are quite taken with the vocabulary of liberal democracy, with words such as ‘freedom’ and ‘democracy’, which conjure key democratic values and distance the nation from the Old World taint of oligarchy and aristocracy. It is much less clear, however, that Americans are guided by democratic ideals. Or that ideology and propaganda play a crucial role in concealing the large gap between rhetoric and reality.

In truth, the Old World systems have proved extremely difficult to shrug off. In their 2014 paper, Martin Gilens and Benjamin Page argue that, as in an oligarchy, ordinary US citizens have no ‘substantial power over policy decisions [and] little or no independent influence on policy at all’.

Moreover, the US regularly subscribes to a form of managerial aristocracy. In the current presidential race, Hillary Clinton advertises her managerial expertise via the language of policy, while Donald Trump parades his via the language of business. Neither language is democratic. Neither invites self-governance.

Why is there no outcry about these oligarchical and aristocratic methods? Is it because plutocrats have power over the mechanisms of representation and repression? Is it, in short, about power? In my view, power can’t explain why voters are so enthusiastically voting for the very people who promise the least democratic outcomes. Nor are Americans knowingly rejecting democratic ideals. Instead, I see an anti-democratic ideology at work, inverting the meaning of democratic vocabulary and transforming it into propaganda.

Consider the example of mass incarceration in the US. Black Americans make up around 13 per cent of the population, but around 40 per cent of country’s ballooning prison population. Even if we assume, falsely, that black American crime rates justify this disparity, why is the state so punitive? Shouldn’t citizens instead be motivated to address the underlying socio-economic conditions that lead to such dramatic differences in behaviour between equals?

In The New Jim Crow (2010), Michelle Alexander argues that a national rhetoric of law and order has long justified mass incarceration. President Richard Nixon used it to crack down on black Americans under the cover of an epidemic of heroin use; this continued in the 1980s, as a merciless ‘war on drugs’ whose victims were all too often black men. In the US, the ideology of anti-black racism takes the view that blacks are violent and lazy, thereby masking the misapplication of the ideals of law and order.

Compare the ‘war on drugs’ to the current heroin crisis among middle-class white Americans, which has led to a national discussion of the socio-economic distress facing this class. Law and order doesn’t come into it. ‘The new face of heroin’ is new because, unlike the old face, it calls out for an empathetic response, rather than a punitive one.

But what is the flawed ideology masking the misapplication of democratic ideals? Let’s bring it out by exploring the most cherished US democratic ideal, the ideal of freedom – popularly embodied in attacks on ‘big government’. Voters are repeatedly told that ‘big government’ is the primary source of coercion that limits freedom, which it certainly sometimes does, as the Patriot Act reminds us. But corporations also limit civic freedom in significant ways.

For example, corporations are leading direct attacks on the freedom to collectively bargain. Via outsourcing, free trade agreements allow corporations to move jobs to countries where labour is cheap; meanwhile, as a result of pressure from the conservative non-profit Citizens United, corporations can fund political candidates, thereby increasing corporate control of government. The weaker a government is, the more power corporations have over it.

Voters concerned about government – as opposed to corporate – constraints on freedom are under the grip of what I will call a free market ideology. According to that ideology, the world of capital is by its nature free. All other substantial freedoms, including political freedom and personal freedom, are made possible by the freedom of markets.

Why do citizens who cherish freedom as an ideal vote to constrain their own freedoms by increasing the power of corporations? It’s because free market ideology masks the ways in which corporations deploy undemocratic modes of coercion. When a corporation bans employees from expressing, outside of work, opinions it disapproves of, this is seen as a legitimate protection of its economic interests. If workers have to sign non-disclosure contracts that silence them after they are employed elsewhere, it’s accepted as the cost of doing business.

The contradictions here are telling. If our most basic freedoms are self-expression and choiceful action, then corporations frequently limit our most basic freedoms. In liberal democratic theory, it is government that is regarded as the protector of such rights. But it’s precisely because government is attacked in the name of freedom that corporations have vastly greater power to constrain and shape it.

Q. According to the author of the passage, the relationship between the strength of corporations and governments is:

Solution:

The answer can be derived from the lines: The weaker a government is, the more power corporations have over it.

QUESTION: 17

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Citizens of the United States are quite taken with the vocabulary of liberal democracy, with words such as ‘freedom’ and ‘democracy’, which conjure key democratic values and distance the nation from the Old World taint of oligarchy and aristocracy. It is much less clear, however, that Americans are guided by democratic ideals. Or that ideology and propaganda play a crucial role in concealing the large gap between rhetoric and reality.

In truth, the Old World systems have proved extremely difficult to shrug off. In their 2014 paper, Martin Gilens and Benjamin Page argue that, as in an oligarchy, ordinary US citizens have no ‘substantial power over policy decisions [and] little or no independent influence on policy at all’.

Moreover, the US regularly subscribes to a form of managerial aristocracy. In the current presidential race, Hillary Clinton advertises her managerial expertise via the language of policy, while Donald Trump parades his via the language of business. Neither language is democratic. Neither invites self-governance.

Why is there no outcry about these oligarchical and aristocratic methods? Is it because plutocrats have power over the mechanisms of representation and repression? Is it, in short, about power? In my view, power can’t explain why voters are so enthusiastically voting for the very people who promise the least democratic outcomes. Nor are Americans knowingly rejecting democratic ideals. Instead, I see an anti-democratic ideology at work, inverting the meaning of democratic vocabulary and transforming it into propaganda.

Consider the example of mass incarceration in the US. Black Americans make up around 13 per cent of the population, but around 40 per cent of country’s ballooning prison population. Even if we assume, falsely, that black American crime rates justify this disparity, why is the state so punitive? Shouldn’t citizens instead be motivated to address the underlying socio-economic conditions that lead to such dramatic differences in behaviour between equals?

In The New Jim Crow (2010), Michelle Alexander argues that a national rhetoric of law and order has long justified mass incarceration. President Richard Nixon used it to crack down on black Americans under the cover of an epidemic of heroin use; this continued in the 1980s, as a merciless ‘war on drugs’ whose victims were all too often black men. In the US, the ideology of anti-black racism takes the view that blacks are violent and lazy, thereby masking the misapplication of the ideals of law and order.

Compare the ‘war on drugs’ to the current heroin crisis among middle-class white Americans, which has led to a national discussion of the socio-economic distress facing this class. Law and order doesn’t come into it. ‘The new face of heroin’ is new because, unlike the old face, it calls out for an empathetic response, rather than a punitive one.

But what is the flawed ideology masking the misapplication of democratic ideals? Let’s bring it out by exploring the most cherished US democratic ideal, the ideal of freedom – popularly embodied in attacks on ‘big government’. Voters are repeatedly told that ‘big government’ is the primary source of coercion that limits freedom, which it certainly sometimes does, as the Patriot Act reminds us. But corporations also limit civic freedom in significant ways.

For example, corporations are leading direct attacks on the freedom to collectively bargain. Via outsourcing, free trade agreements allow corporations to move jobs to countries where labour is cheap; meanwhile, as a result of pressure from the conservative non-profit Citizens United, corporations can fund political candidates, thereby increasing corporate control of government. The weaker a government is, the more power corporations have over it.

Voters concerned about government – as opposed to corporate – constraints on freedom are under the grip of what I will call a free market ideology. According to that ideology, the world of capital is by its nature free. All other substantial freedoms, including political freedom and personal freedom, are made possible by the freedom of markets.

Why do citizens who cherish freedom as an ideal vote to constrain their own freedoms by increasing the power of corporations? It’s because free market ideology masks the ways in which corporations deploy undemocratic modes of coercion. When a corporation bans employees from expressing, outside of work, opinions it disapproves of, this is seen as a legitimate protection of its economic interests. If workers have to sign non-disclosure contracts that silence them after they are employed elsewhere, it’s accepted as the cost of doing business.

The contradictions here are telling. If our most basic freedoms are self-expression and choiceful action, then corporations frequently limit our most basic freedoms. In liberal democratic theory, it is government that is regarded as the protector of such rights. But it’s precisely because government is attacked in the name of freedom that corporations have vastly greater power to constrain and shape it.

Q. According to the author of the passage:

Solution:

In this case, you just need to understand the meanings of the given options.

►Refer to the lines: Voters concerned about government – as opposed to corporate – constraints on freedom are under the grip of what I will call a free market ideology.

►According to that ideology, the world of capital is by its nature free. All other substantial freedoms, including political freedom and personal freedom, are made possible by the freedom of markets.

►The author clearly points out how the free markets are actually impacting personal freedom. This makes option 2 the correct answer in the given case.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 18

DIRECTIONS for the question: The five sentences (labelled 1,2,3,4, and 5) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentence and key in this sequence of five numbers as your answer.

1. The primitive man, unable to understand his being, much less the unity of all life, felt himself absolutely dependent on blind, hidden forces ever ready to mock and taunt him.
2. Again and again, the same recurrent theme -- man is nothing, the powers are everything i.e. man can bask in all the glories of the earth, but he must not become conscious of himself, an idea echoed by the State, society, and moral laws.
3. Out of that attitude grew the religious concepts of man as a mere speck of dust dependent on superior powers so high, which can only be appeased by complete surrender.
4. All the early sagas rest on that idea, which continues to be the leitmotif of the biblical tales dealing with the relation of man to God, to the State, to society.
5. The explanation of the storm raging within the individual, and between him and his surroundings, is not far to seek.


Solution:

►5 makes for a good opening line as it introduces the topic, taken further by 1, which explains the idea.

►''that attitude'' in 3 connects with the attitude of man stated in 1. Thus 1,3 is a good, logical pairing. 

►''That idea'' in 4 continues the same logical thread, which finds a repetition in the words same, recurrent theme in 2.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 19

DIRECTIONS for the question: The five sentences (labelled 1,2,3,4, and 5) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentence and key in this sequence of five numbers as your answer.

1. It seems doubtful that sugar-free Milanos will save us, but, maybe a new way of thinking among food researchers can.
2. The question of what to eat, when viewed through the lens of diet books and magazine weight-loss tips, can look frivolous, but in reality the stakes are high : we are raising the first generation of Americans likely to have shorter lives than their parents.
3. "For decades we've been asking the wrong question," says Gardner, associate professor of medicine at Stanford's Prevention Research Center. "It's not 'What's the best diet?' It's 'What's the best diet for each unique person?' "
4. By 2030, experts predict, obesity could be the norm, which means that the toddler squirming around in Hanover's shopping cart-who by this time had put tooth marks in the foil seal of one of the yogurt cups- is more likely than not to be obese by the time he turns 19.
5. Nutrition researcher Christopher Gardner thinks our present confusion has a lot to do with an assumption that scientists made early on: There is a single healthy diet that's right for everyone.


Solution:

►3 and 5 are comments by the same person Gardner and we realise that 3 has to follow 5 because the 3 asks a question which is related to the point discussed in 5, that is , the assumption earlier that a single diet is right for everyone.

►The paragraph is talking about how what we eat can be very important. Sentence 2, begins with the idea and 4 continues, stating that obesity may be the norm and that sugar free Milanos will not save us, but may be a different way of looking at food.

►The 3 and 5 give the researcher Christopher Gardner''s views.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 20

DIRECTIONS for question: Four sentences related to a topic are given below. Three of them can be put together  to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.

1. This is probably the first time in history that young readers themselves are demanding protection from the disturbing content of their course texts, yet reading has been seen as a threat to mental health for thousands of years.
2. Some contend that Virginia Woolf’s novel Mrs Dalloway (1925), in which a suicide has taken place, could trigger suicidal thoughts among those disposed to self-harm.
3. At universities around the world, students are claiming that reading books can unsettle them to the point of becoming depressed, traumatised or even suicidal.
4. Others insist that F Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby (1925), with its undercurrent of spousal violence, might trigger painful memories of domestic abuse.
(in numerical value)


Solution:

►In this case, the set of statements, 3-2-4, provides us with the information with regards to the nature of the paragraph.

►Statement 3 is the opening sentence and statements 2 and 4 are examples for statement 3.

►Statement 1 does not fit in the given context as it diverges from the introductory nature of the other 3 statements.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 21

DIRECTIONS for the question: The five sentences (labelled 1,2,3,4, and 5) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentence and key in this sequence of five numbers as your answer.

1. I have bad news for you.
2. You’re an imperialist.
3. While I’m at it, let me offend you completely. Your foreign policy is an attempt “To veil the threat of terror / And check the show of pride.” You’ve vowed to “Send forth the best ye breed—Go bind your sons to exile / To serve your captives’ need.”
4. I realize that for a man like you, educated in the highest circles of modern academia, what I’ve said is a grave insult.
5. The result of all this will be to—I’ll bet you a second term—“Watch Sloth and heathen Folly / Bring all your hope to naught.”


Solution:

►Statements 4 & 3 form a mandatory pair.

►Refer to the context in statement 4 ‘...what i’ve said is a grave insult’.

►Further, in statement 3 the author goes ahead and says ‘...let me offend you completely’, which is in continuation with author calling ‘someone’ an imperialist.

►Statement 2 would precede statements 3 & 4 as it carries the insult of being called an ‘an imperialist’.

►Statement 5 would obviously come in the end.

QUESTION: 22

Identify the most appropriate summary for the paragraph.

Exhaustion is a vague and forgiving concept. Celebrities say they're suffering from it when they go to rehab and don't want to admit to depression or addiction. You can attribute your low mood or your short temper to exhaustion, and it can mean anything from "had a couple of bad nights' sleep" to "about to have a nervous breakdown". It also seems like a peculiarly modern affliction. Relentless email, chattering social media, never-ending images of violence and suffering in the news, the lingering effects of the financial crisis, and looming environmental catastrophe: Who's going to blame you if you confess to having had enough of it all? Anna Katharina Schaffner's Exhaustion: A History opens with the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI in 2013. He cited deteriorating physical and mental strength as a major factor in his decision to step down, and Schaffner teasingly holds him up as an emblem of our age, exhausted by the demands placed upon him.

Solution:

►The two close answer options in this case are options 1 and 4.

Options 2 and 3 are clearly irrelevant in this case and are twist the context of the given paragraph.

Option 1 is too harsh in its nature and only focuses on the negative aspect.

►The author does wish to highlight how the term exhaustion has been abused but option 1 is too extreme in nature and therefore, ruled out.

Option 4, on the other hand, does a balanced job of representing the given condition.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 23

DIRECTIONS for question: Four sentences related to a topic are given below. Three of them can be put together  to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.

1. This is the true synthesis of sciences. The humanistic or social sciences are supposed to take cognizance of these personal relations.
2. The physical sciences also forget their relation to man and their human origin.
3. Facts are related to our Personality and our Personalities are related to the Perfect Personality.
4. The relation between groups of facts established by persons and progressing towards the Absolute Self is the corrective principle of science.


Solution:

►The true synthesis of science mentioned in 1 is that mentioned in 3, which is that facts and personality are related and our personalities are related to Perfect Personality.

►There is no mention in the other 3 sentences given about what is forgotten by the physical sciences.

►The word also in statement 2 indicates that there has to be a mention before.

►The missing sentence before the 2nd sentence is "The humanistic or social sciences are supposed to take cognizance of these personal relations.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 24

DIRECTIONS for the question: The five sentences (labelled 1,2,3,4, and 5) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentence and key in this sequence of five numbers as your answer.

1. Entrepreneurs are crucial to the creation and development of every industry.
2. Amongst entrepreneurs, often the most successful and most innovative are the so-called “serial entrepreneurs,” individuals who have started multiple businesses across their careers.
3. Research from the social sciences has variously attributed the success of these individuals to risk-taking, aggression, and sociability.
4. Examining  the frequencies of three genotypes previously associated with risk-taking, aggression and social gregariousness, we find that serial entrepreneurs are distinguished more by their sociability than their aggression or risk-taking.
5. These results are the first to demonstrate a genetic basis of serial entrepreneurship, representing a new approach for understanding this class of entrepreneurs and the driving force behind their innovations.


Solution:

►The Paragraph talks about entrepreneurs as introduced in 1 and then about serial entrepreneurs, who are often the most successful and the most innovative, as introduced in 2.

►Trying to find a link between serial entrepreneurs and abilities or characteristics and the three genotypes, sentence 3 initiated the discussion and then in 4 states the researchers found that the serial entrepreneurs are more sociable than aggressive or risk-taking.

►The sentences are in the correct sequence.

QUESTION: 25

DIRECTIONS for the question: Identify the most appropriate summary for the paragraph.

I burst into laughter
whenever I hear
that the fish is thirsty in water.

Without the knowledge of Self
people just wander to Mathura or to Kashi
like the musk-deer unaware
of the scent in his navel,
goes on running forest to forest.

In water is the lotus plant
and the plant bears flowers
and on the flowers are the bees buzzing.
Likewise all yogis and mendicants
and all those who have renounced comforts,
are on here and hereafter and the nether world -
contemplating.

Friend, the Supreme Indestructible Being,
on whom thousands of sages meditate
and even Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh,
really resides within one's self.

Though He is near, He appears far away -
and that is what makes one disturbed;
says Kabir, listen, O wise one,
by Guru alone is the confusion curbed.

Q. Which of the following is the best summary of the poem above?

Solution:

►1 – is too vague

►3 -  There are two things the poet states first - that one tries to find God without when he is within, two – in order to understand this and find yourself, you need the help of the guru.

QUESTION: 26

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

A multi-storeyed building has eight empty office spaces ; two on the 11th floor, two on the 12th floor, one on  the 13th floor, two on the 14th floor and one on the 15th floor. The owner of the building has to assign office space to three Insurance Companies – Tata AIG, Max New York Life and Birla Sunlife; and to three Banks – HDFC Bank, ICICI Bank and Axis Bank. Also the owner must follow the following rules in assigning office space.

1. Tata AIG may not be on the 11th floor or 15th floor.
2. No floor may remain completely unoccupied.
3. Birla Sunlife and HDFC Bank both must be on the same floor.
4. No two Insurance companies may be on the same floor.
5. Two Bank offices may not be on adjacently numbered floors.

Q. Which of the following statements could be true about the arrangement of offices in the building?

Solution:

►The rules provided do not give enough information to allow a complete diagram of the office spaces, so the best approach is to check each of the options to see which one must be false.

►1st option is false because no two Insurance companies may be on the same floor.

►2nd option is false because HDFC Bank must be paired with Birla Sun Life and therefore, it cannot be paired with Axis Bank.

►3rd option is correct because there is not enough information to suggest that Max New York Life and Birla Sun Life may not be on adjacent floors.

►4th option is false because placing the Bank offices on the even numbered floors only would require Birla Sun Life and HDFC Bank to share one floor, and ICICI Bank and Axis Bank to share the other floor. Only two other companies remain, with three vacant floors.Since no floor may remain vacant, this arrangement is impossible.
Hence the answer is option C

QUESTION: 27

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

A multi-storeyed building has eight empty office spaces ; two on the 11th floor, two on the 12th floor, one on  the 13th floor, two on the 14th floor and one on the 15th floor. The owner of the building has to assign office space to three Insurance Companies – Tata AIG, Max New York Life and Birla Sunlife; and to three Banks – HDFC Bank, ICICI Bank and Axis Bank. Also the owner must follow the following rules in assigning office space.

1. Tata AIG may not be on the 11th floor or 15th floor.
2. No floor may remain completely unoccupied.
3. Birla Sunlife and HDFC Bank both must be on the same floor.
4. No two Insurance companies may be on the same floor.
5. Two Bank offices may not be on adjacently numbered floors.
 
Q. Which of the following companies could share a floor with Axis Bank?

I. ICICI Bank
II. Max New York Life
III. Tata AIG

Solution:

Axis Bank may not share a floor with any other office. If Axis Bank shared a floor with any other office, and considering that Birla Sun Life and HDFC Bank must share a floor, then only two other companies would remain to fill up three vacant floors and it cannot happen due to the second condition.

Hence answer is option D

QUESTION: 28

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

A multi-storeyed building has eight empty office spaces ; two on the 11th floor, two on the 12th floor, one on  the 13th floor, two on the 14th floor and one on the 15th floor. The owner of the building has to assign office space to three Insurance Companies – Tata AIG, Max New York Life and Birla Sunlife; and to three Banks – HDFC Bank, ICICI Bank and Axis Bank. Also the owner must follow the following rules in assigning office space.

1. Tata AIG may not be on the 11th floor or 15th floor.
2. No floor may remain completely unoccupied.
3. Birla Sunlife and HDFC Bank both must be on the same floor.
4. No two Insurance companies may be on the same floor.
5. Two Bank offices may not be on adjacently numbered floors.

Q. If Birla Sunlife is on the 11th floor, which of the following must be false?

Solution:

►If Birla Sun Life is on the 11th floor, then HDFC Bank must also be on the 11th floor. Because the Bank offices may not be on adjacent floors, and because the remaining floors 12 to 15 will each have exactly one company, then the Bank offices will have to be on the odd-numbered floors and the remaining two Insurance companies will have to be on the even-numbered floors.

►So 1st option, placing a bank office on an even numbered floor must be false and is the correct answer. The other answers are all possibly true.

QUESTION: 29

Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The bars in the graph below show the rate of gold (per 10 grams), the value of gold sold (in ₹ lakh) and the value of gold and silver sold (in ₹ lakh) while the line graph shows the quantity of silver sold (in kg) for the period January 2012 to December 2012.

Q. What is the average monthly growth rate of the value of gold and silver sold from January 2012 to December 2012 approximately ?

Solution:

The value of gold and silver sold in January 2012 was around Rs. 19500 lakh and that in December 2012 was around Rs. 21000 lakh.

Over the 12-month period, the value has gone up by (21000 – 19500)/19500 = 1500/19500 = 7.6 %.

Since a 12-month period will have 11 growth periods, this is an average monthly growth of 7.6/11 = 0.69 % ≈ 0.7%.

QUESTION: 30

Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The bars in the graph below show the rate of gold (per 10 grams), the value of gold sold (in ₹ lakh) and the value of gold and silver sold (in ₹ lakh) while the line graph shows the quantity of silver sold (in kg) for the period January 2012 to December 2012.

Q. In July 2012, the rate of gold per kg was how many times the rate of silver per kg (approximately)?

Solution:

In July 2012, the value of gold and silver sold was around Rs. 8100 lakh while the value of gold sold was around Rs. 7500 lakh.

So the value of the 2300 kg of silver sold in July 2012 was around Rs. 600 lakh.

The rate of silver was, therefore, approximately 600 × 105/2300 = Rs. 26000/kg.

The rate of gold in July 2012 was Rs. 26.3 lakh/kg.

So, the rate of gold was approximately 100 times the rate of silver.

The best answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 31

Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The bars in the graph below show the rate of gold (per 10 grams), the value of gold sold (in ₹ lakh) and the value of gold and silver sold (in ₹ lakh) while the line graph shows the quantity of silver sold (in kg) for the period January 2012 to December 2012.

Q. What is the difference between the percentage increase in the rate of silver per kg from January 2012 to December 2012 and the percentage increase in the rate of gold per kg from January 2012 to December 2012?

Solution:

The value of the 6150 kg of silver sold in January 2012 was around 19500 – 18600 = Rs. 900 lakh.

So the rate of silver per kg in January 2012 was around 900 × 105/ 6150 = Rs. 14700.

The value of the 1635 kg of silver sold in December 2012 was around 20800 – 20300 = Rs. 500 lakh.

So the rate of silver per kg in December 2012 was around 500 × 105/ 1635 = Rs. 30600.

So the rate of silver per kg has increased by around (30600 – 14700)*100/14700 = 15900*100/14700 = 108 %.

The rate of gold has increased from January 2012 to December 2012 by around
(27800 – 22000)*100/22000 = 5800*100/22000 = 26 %.

The required difference is 108 – 26 = 82.

The best answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 32

Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The bars in the graph below show the rate of gold (per 10 grams), the value of gold sold (in ₹ lakh) and the value of gold and silver sold (in ₹ lakh) while the line graph shows the quantity of silver sold (in kg) for the period January 2012 to December 2012.

Q. What is the percentage increase in the quantity of gold sold from January 2012 to December 2012?

Solution:

The rate of gold in January 2012 was Rs. 22 lakh / kg.

Since the value of gold sold in January 2012 was around Rs. 18600 lakh, the quantity of gold sold in January 2012 was around 18600/22 = 845 kg.

The rate of gold in December 2012 was Rs. 27.8 lakh / kg.

Since the value of gold sold in December 2012 was around Rs. 20300 lakh, the quantity of gold sold in December 2012 was around 20300/27.8 = 730 kg.

Since the quantity of gold sold in December 2012 has decreased as compared to the quantity of gold sold in January 2012, the best answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 33

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

The RMAG Bank issues “Life Time Free” Platinum credit cards to customers, subject to the following conditions:

  • The statement is generated on the 15th of each month and the total amount on the statement is due on the 30th of each month.
  • Customers have an option of paying the entire amount mentioned in the statement or a minimum amount of 10% of the total or Rs. 1000, whichever is higher.
  • A flat late fee of Rs. 500 is levied if the minimum payment for each statement is not paid.
  • In case the entire amount mentioned in the statement is not paid on or before the due date, the balance attracts interest of 3% per month from the date of transaction in the first statement and from the previous statement date for subsequent statements.
  • There is a service tax of 12.5% on any late fees or interest charged.
  • The last payment must include the interest upto the date of payment.

The bank calculates its profit as the sum of all late fees and interest charged till the total amount has been paid off. For the purpose of the following questions, assume each month to be made up of 30 days.

Q. Harshawardhan bought a laptop for ₹ 40,000 on 1st June on his RMAG Bank Platinum credit card. When he received his credit card statement, he paid ₹ 10,000 on the due date and another ₹ 20,000 on the next due date. If Harshawardhan has not made any other purchases on this credit card, how much should he pay (rounded off to the nearest hundred) on the next due date in order to clear the outstanding amount?

Solution:

Harshawardhan purchased the laptop for ₹ 40,000 on 1st June.
His statement is generated on 15th June and the amount of ₹ 40,000 is due on 30th June.
Since he pays only ₹ 10,000, there is a balance of ₹ 30,000.
This balance will attract an interest of 3% for 1 ½ months in the next statement (1st June to 15th July).
The interest charged is 4.5% of 30,000 = ₹ 1350.
There is a service tax of 12.5% on 1350 = ₹ 168.75.
So, the statement generated on 15th July will have an outstanding amount of 30000 + 1350 + 168.75 = ₹ 31518.75. Harshawardhan now pays  20,000 on 30th July.
There is a balance of ₹ 11518.75 on his card.

Since he plans on clearing off the remaining amount on 30th August, he will have to bear an interest on this balance for 1 ½ months (15th July to 30th August).

The interest charged is 4.5% of 11518.75 = ₹ 518.34 and the service tax will be 12.5% of 518.34 = ₹ 64.79.
So, the total amount he should pay on 30th August is 11518.75 + 518.34 + 64.79 = ₹ 12101.88 ⇒ ₹ 12100.

QUESTION: 34

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

The RMAG Bank issues “Life Time Free” Platinum credit cards to customers, subject to the following conditions:

  • The statement is generated on the 15th of each month and the total amount on the statement is due on the 30th of each month.
  • Customers have an option of paying the entire amount mentioned in the statement or a minimum amount of 10% of the total or Rs. 1000, whichever is higher.
  • A flat late fee of Rs. 500 is levied if the minimum payment for each statement is not paid.
  • In case the entire amount mentioned in the statement is not paid on or before the due date, the balance attracts interest of 3% per month from the date of transaction in the first statement and from the previous statement date for subsequent statements.
  • There is a service tax of 12.5% on any late fees or interest charged.
  • The last payment must include the interest upto the date of payment.

The bank calculates its profit as the sum of all late fees and interest charged till the total amount has been paid off. For the purpose of the following questions, assume each month to be made up of 30 days.

Q. Sarang bought a cellphone worth ₹ 25,000 on his RMAG Bank Platinum credit card on 15th July. If he paid ₹ 10,000 on each of the first two due dates and cleared all outstanding amounts on the third due date, what was the profit earned by the bank on these transactions?

Solution:

► After paying ₹ 10,000 on 30th July, the balance is ₹ 15,000.

► This will attract an interest of 3% for 1 month till the next statement date of 15th August.

► The interest charged is 3% of 15000 = ₹ 450 and the applicable service tax is 12.5% of 450 =  56.25.

► So, the amount due on 30th August is 15000 + 450 + 56.25 = ₹ 15,506.25.

► Sarang pays another ₹ 10,000 on 30th August, and there is a balance of  ₹ 5506.25.

► Since he clears all outstanding amounts on 30th September, he pays interest on this balance for the period 15th August to 30th September.

► The interest paid is 4.5% of 5506.25 = ₹ 247.78. Thus the profit earned by the bank is the total interest paid = 450 + 247.78 =  ₹ 697.78.

The best answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 35

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

The RMAG Bank issues “Life Time Free” Platinum credit cards to customers, subject to the following conditions:

  • The statement is generated on the 15th of each month and the total amount on the statement is due on the 30th of each month.
  • Customers have an option of paying the entire amount mentioned in the statement or a minimum amount of 10% of the total or Rs. 1000, whichever is higher.
  • A flat late fee of Rs. 500 is levied if the minimum payment for each statement is not paid.
  • In case the entire amount mentioned in the statement is not paid on or before the due date, the balance attracts interest of 3% per month from the date of transaction in the first statement and from the previous statement date for subsequent statements.
  • There is a service tax of 12.5% on any late fees or interest charged.
  • The last payment must include the interest upto the date of payment.

The bank calculates its profit as the sum of all late fees and interest charged till the total amount has been paid off. For the purpose of the following questions, assume each month to be made up of 30 days.

Q. Amol bought a Macbook worth ₹ 75,000 on his RMAG Bank Platinum credit card on 1st March. If he paid  ₹ 25,000 on 15th April and cleared all outstanding amounts on 30th April, approximately how much more did he end up spending for the Macbook?

Solution:

► Since Amol did not make any payment on 30th March, he has to pay interest of 3% on  75000 for 1 ½ months (1st March to 15th April) = ₹ 3375 and a service tax of 12.5% on 3375 =  ₹ 421.875.

► So, the statement on 15th April will show an outstanding amount of 75000 + 3375 + 421.875 = ₹ 78796.875.

► Since he pays  25,000 after the due date, he still has to pay  53796.875.
This will attract an interest of 3% for ½ a month = ₹ 806.95.

► Since he has paid after the due date, he has to pay a late fee of  500.
He also has to pay service tax of 12.5% on (806.95 + 500) = ₹ 163.36.
So, his final payment is for ₹ 55,267.18.

► Since he paid a total of 25000 + 55267 = ₹ 80,267 for a Macbook costing  75,000, he ended up paying ₹ 5,267 more.

The best answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 36

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

The RMAG Bank issues “Life Time Free” Platinum credit cards to customers, subject to the following conditions:

  • The statement is generated on the 15th of each month and the total amount on the statement is due on the 30th of each month.
  • Customers have an option of paying the entire amount mentioned in the statement or a minimum amount of 10% of the total or Rs. 1000, whichever is higher.
  • A flat late fee of Rs. 500 is levied if the minimum payment for each statement is not paid.
  • In case the entire amount mentioned in the statement is not paid on or before the due date, the balance attracts interest of 3% per month from the date of transaction in the first statement and from the previous statement date for subsequent statements.
  • There is a service tax of 12.5% on any late fees or interest charged.
  • The last payment must include the interest upto the date of payment.

The bank calculates its profit as the sum of all late fees and interest charged till the total amount has been paid off. For the purpose of the following questions, assume each month to be made up of 30 days.

Q. Ravi bought a phone worth ₹ 45,000 on his RMAG Bank Platinum credit card and called the bank to convert the transaction to 3 installments since there was no service tax applicable on the installment scheme. The bank charges a flat fee of 3% of transaction value as processing fees that is paid up front. The value of the transaction is divided into 3 equal parts due after 1, 2 and 3 months respectively. Each of these parts attracts simple interest of 3% per month till the date of payment. How much more did Ravi pay for his phone?

Solution:

He pays 3% of 45000 = ₹ 1,350 up front as processing fees.

The original transaction of ₹ 45,000 is divided into 3 parts of ₹ 15,000 each.
These 3 parts will attract an interest of 3% per month for 1, 2 and 3 months respectively.

So, the interest is effectively 3% on ₹ 15,000 for 6 months = ₹ 2,700.
So, Ravi pays 1350 + 2700 = ₹ 4,050.
Thus he pays 4050/45000 = 9% more

QUESTION: 37

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

Tara has decided to- tutor biology for the summer and is trying to plan her schedule. She can meet with up to two students a day, Monday 'through Friday, and has three students, Anu, Bhupesh, and Chirag. She needs to arrange her schedule according to the following constraints:

I. Each student meets with Tara twice a week.
II. No student meets with Tara twice in the same day.
III. Anu refuses to meet with Tara on Fridays.
IV. Chirag will never meet with Tara the day after Bhupesh has a lesson.
V. Anu and Chirag meet with Tara on the same day exactly once a week.
VI. If Anu meets with Tara on Monday, so does Bhupesh.

Q. If Anu meets with Tara on Monday and Wednesday, on what day-must Chirag meet with her?

Solution:

Since Anu and Chirag meet exactly once in a week on the same day and each student can meet Tara only twice in a week so both of them meet on Wednesday.

QUESTION: 38

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

Tara has decided to- tutor biology for the summer and is trying to plan her schedule. She can meet with up to two students a day, Monday 'through Friday, and has three students, Anu, Bhupesh, and Chirag. She needs to arrange her schedule according to the following constraints:

I. Each student meets with Tara twice a week.
II. No student meets with Tara twice in the same day.
III. Anu refuses to meet with Tara on Fridays.
IV. Chirag will never meet with Tara the day after Bhupesh has a lesson.
V. Anu and Chirag meet with Tara on the same day exactly once a week.
VI. If Anu meets with Tara on Monday, so does Bhupesh.

Q. If Bhupesh is the only student to meet with Tara on a Wednesday and he also meets Tara on Thursday, on what days must Anu meet with her?

Solution:

Since Anu and Chirag meet at least once in a week with Tara on the same day, so the answer is Tuesday and Thursday., since all the other options violate the conditions VI

QUESTION: 39

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

Tara has decided to- tutor biology for the summer and is trying to plan her schedule. She can meet with up to two students a day, Monday 'through Friday, and has three students, Anu, Bhupesh, and Chirag. She needs to arrange her schedule according to the following constraints:

I. Each student meets with Tara twice a week.
II. No student meets with Tara twice in the same day.
III. Anu refuses to meet with Tara on Fridays.
IV. Chirag will never meet with Tara the day after Bhupesh has a lesson.
V. Anu and Chirag meet with Tara on the same day exactly once a week.
VI. If Anu meets with Tara on Monday, so does Bhupesh.

Q. If Anu is the only student to meet with Tara on Tuesday and no one meets with her on Friday, who meets with her on Wednesday?

Solution:

The only option that satisfies is 4th option because if Chirag comes on Wednesday then Anu is bound to come on Wednesday and so Bhupesh can attend anywhere between Monday and Thursday, and Chirag on wednesday or Thursday.

QUESTION: 40

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

Tara has decided to- tutor biology for the summer and is trying to plan her schedule. She can meet with up to two students a day, Monday 'through Friday, and has three students, Anu, Bhupesh, and Chirag. She needs to arrange her schedule according to the following constraints:

I. Each student meets with Tara twice a week.
II. No student meets with Tara twice in the same day.
III. Anu refuses to meet with Tara on Fridays.
IV. Chirag will never meet with Tara the day after Bhupesh has a lesson.
V. Anu and Chirag meet with Tara on the same day exactly once a week.
VI. If Anu meets with Tara on Monday, so does Bhupesh.

Q. If Bhupesh is allowed to meet with Tara three times one week, on what days could he meet with her?

Solution:

If Bhupesh Comes on Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, then Chirag can not come on Thursday and Friday but can come with Anu on Tuesdays and alone on Monday and Anu can come anywhere in between Wednesday and Thursday. Hence 4th is the correct Option.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 41

Solve the following question and fill the answer.

Of 500 candidates who were interviewed for admission, 106 got offers from at least one of three colleges, X, Y and Z. The number of candidates who got offers from colleges X only, Y only and Z only were in the ratio 1 : 3 : 4. The number of candidates who got offers from colleges X and Z only, X and Y only and Y and Z only were in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3. Twice as many candidates received offers from college Y only as received offers from all three colleges. Of the candidates who got offers from college Z, half received offers from at least one other college.

Q. How many candidates received offers from all three colleges?(numerical value)


Solution:

Suppose the number of candidates getting offers from colleges X only, Y only and Z only are 2a, 6a and 8a respectively and the number of candidates getting calls from colleges X and Z only, X and Y only and Y and Z only are b, 2b and 3b.
Consider the following Venn diagram.

The number of candidates getting calls from all 3 colleges will be 3a. Since half the number of candidates who got calls from college Z also got calls from at least one other college, we know that the number of candidates who got calls from college Z only is half the number of candidates who got calls from college Z. So, 8a = 3a + 4b, which gives us 5a = 4b. The total number of candidates is 19a + 6b = 106. Solving these expressions simultaneously, we get a = 4 and b = 5. Substituting these values, we get the following Venn diagram.

Thus 12 candidates received calls from all three colleges.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 42

Solve the following question and fill the answer.

Of 500 candidates who were interviewed for admission, 106 got offers from at least one of three colleges, X, Y and Z. The number of candidates who got offers from colleges X only, Y only and Z only were in the ratio 1 : 3 : 4. The number of candidates who got offers from colleges X and Z only, X and Y only and Y and Z only were in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3. Twice as many candidates received offers from college Y only as received offers from all three colleges. Of the candidates who got offers from college Z, half received offers from at least one other college.

Q. How many candidates received offers from exactly two colleges?(numerical value)


Solution:

Suppose the number of candidates getting offers from colleges X only, Y only and Z only are 2a, 6a and 8a respectively and the number of candidates getting calls from colleges X and Z only, X and Y only and Y and Z only are b, 2b and 3b.
Consider the following Venn diagram.

The number of candidates getting calls from all 3 colleges will be 3a. Since half the number of candidates who got calls from college Z also got calls from at least one other college, we know that the number of candidates who got calls from college Z only is half the number of candidates who got calls from college Z. So, 8a = 3a + 4b, which gives us 5a = 4b. The total number of candidates is 19a + 6b = 106. Solving these expressions simultaneously, we get a = 4 and b = 5. Substituting these values, we get the following Venn diagram.

5 candidates received calls from colleges X and Z only; 10 candidates received calls from colleges X and Y only; 15 candidates received calls from colleges Y and Z only. Thus 5 + 10 + 15 = 30 candidates received calls from exactly two of the three colleges.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 43

Solve the following question and fill the answer.

Of 500 candidates who were interviewed for admission, 106 got offers from at least one of three colleges, X, Y and Z. The number of candidates who got offers from colleges X only, Y only and Z only were in the ratio 1 : 3 : 4. The number of candidates who got offers from colleges X and Z only, X and Y only and Y and Z only were in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3. Twice as many candidates received offers from college Y only as received offers from all three colleges. Of the candidates who got offers from college Z, half received offers from at least one other college.

Q. What was the total number of offers made by the three colleges?(numerical value)


Solution:

Suppose the number of candidates getting offers from colleges X only, Y only and Z only are 2a, 6a and 8a respectively and the number of candidates getting calls from colleges X and Z only, X and Y only and Y and Z only are b, 2b and 3b.
Consider the following Venn diagram.

The number of candidates getting calls from all 3 colleges will be 3a. Since half the number of candidates who got calls from college Z also got calls from at least one other college, we know that the number of candidates who got calls from college Z only is half the number of candidates who got calls from college Z. So, 8a = 3a + 4b, which gives us 5a = 4b. The total number of candidates is 19a + 6b = 106. Solving these expressions simultaneously, we get a = 4 and b = 5. Substituting these values, we get the following Venn diagram.

35 candidates received calls from college X; 61 candidates received calls from college Y; 64 candidates received calls from college Z. Thus the total number of offers made is 35 + 61 + 64 = 160.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 44

Solve the following question and fill the answer.

Of 500 candidates who were interviewed for admission, 106 got offers from at least one of three colleges, X, Y and Z. The number of candidates who got offers from colleges X only, Y only and Z only were in the ratio 1 : 3 : 4. The number of candidates who got offers from colleges X and Z only, X and Y only and Y and Z only were in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3. Twice as many candidates received offers from college Y only as received offers from all three colleges. Of the candidates who got offers from college Z, half received offers from at least one other college.

Q. How many more candidates received offers from exactly one college than received offers from at least two colleges?(numerical value)


Solution:

Suppose the number of candidates getting offers from colleges X only, Y only and Z only are 2a, 6a and 8a respectively and the number of candidates getting calls from colleges X and Z only, X and Y only and Y and Z only are b, 2b and 3b.

Consider the following Venn diagram.

The number of candidates getting calls from all 3 colleges will be 3a. Since half the number of candidates who got calls from college Z also got calls from at least one other college, we know that the number of candidates who got calls from college Z only is half the number of candidates who got calls from college Z. So, 8a = 3a + 4b, which gives us 5a = 4b. The total number of candidates is 19a + 6b = 106. Solving these expressions simultaneously, we get a = 4 and b = 5. Substituting these values, we get the following Venn diagram.

The number of candidates who received calls from exactly one college is 8 + 24 + 32 = 64. The number of candidates who received calls from at least two colleges is 106 – 64 = 42. Thus, 64 – 42 = 22 more candidates received calls from exactly one college as received calls from at least two colleges.

QUESTION: 45

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

There are five integers a to e, such that a < b < c < d < e. Their sum in pairs is a list of ten values, a +b, a + c, a + d, a + e, b +c, b + d, b + e, c + d, c + e and d + e. The list has the numbers 18, 29, 75 and 84 and no other number in this list is less than 30 or more than 75.
 
Q. What is the value of a + c?

Solution:

Since a < b < c < d < e, we know that the smallest sum in pairs is (a + b) = 18, the second smallest sum in pairs is (a + c) = 29, the largest sum in pairs is (d + e) = 84 and the second largest sum in pairs is (c + e) = 75.
Hence (a + c) = 29.

QUESTION: 46

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

There are five integers a to e, such that a < b < c < d < e. Their sum in pairs is a list of ten values, a +b, a + c, a + d, a + e, b +c, b + d, b + e, c + d, c + e and d + e. The list has the numbers 18, 29, 75 and 84 and no other number in this list is less than 30 or more than 75.

Q. What is the value of b + e?

Solution:

Since a < b < c < d < e, we know that the smallest sum in pairs is (a + b) = 18, the second smallest sum in pairs is (a + c) = 29, the largest sum in pairs is (d + e) = 84 and the second largest sum in pairs is (c + e) = 75.
Adding these four equations, we get 2a + b + 2c + d + 2e = 206. Rewriting this expression as 2(a + c) + (d + e) + (b + e) = 2(29) + 84 + (b + e) = 206 yields (b + e) = 206 – 142 = 64.

QUESTION: 47

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

There are five integers a to e, such that a < b < c < d < e. Their sum in pairs is a list of ten values, a +b, a + c, a + d, a + e, b +c, b + d, b + e, c + d, c + e and d + e. The list has the numbers 18, 29, 75 and 84 and no other number in this list is less than 30 or more than 75.
 
Q. What is the value of a + d?

Solution:

Since a < b < c < d < e, we know that the smallest sum in pairs is (a + b) = 18, the second smallest sum in pairs is (a + c) = 29, the largest sum in pairs is (d + e) = 84 and the second largest sum in pairs is (c + e) = 75.

Adding these four equations, we get 2a + b + 2c + d + 2e = 206. Rewriting this expression as 2(a + c) + (d + e) + (b + e) = 2(29) + 84 + (b + e) = 206 yields (b + e) = 206 – 142 = 64.

The same expression can be rewritten as (a + d) + (a + c) + (b + e) + (c + e) = (a + d) + 29 + 64 + 75 = 206 which yields (a + d) = 206 – 168 = 38.

QUESTION: 48

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

There are five integers a to e, such that a < b < c < d < e. Their sum in pairs is a list of ten values, a +b, a + c, a + d, a + e, b +c, b + d, b + e, c + d, c + e and d + e. The list has the numbers 18, 29, 75 and 84 and no other number in this list is less than 30 or more than 75.

Q. If b + d = 42, then e =?

Solution:

Since a < b < c < d < e, we know that the smallest sum in pairs is (a + b) = 18, the second smallest sum in pairs is (a + c) = 29, the largest sum in pairs is (d + e) = 84 and the second largest sum in pairs is (c + e) = 75.

Adding these four equations, we get 2a + b + 2c + d + 2e = 206. Rewriting this expression as 2(a + c) + (d + e) + (b + e) = 2(29) + 84 + (b + e) = 206 yields (b + e) = 206 – 142 = 64.

Now, (d + e) + (b + e) = 84 + 64 = 148. Rewriting this expression as (b + d) + 2e = 42 + 2e = 148, we get 2e = 148 – 42 = 106 or e = 53.

QUESTION: 49

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

Mr. Babu recently redecorated his house by coordinating Red and three other colours for the walls, carpets and curtains of four different rooms. From the information below, determine the colours of the carpet, walls and curtains for each of the room and answer the following questions:

1. Blue was the only colour used in all the four rooms. It was used at least once for walls, carpets and curtains.
2. Three different colours were used in each room but only the dining room and the bedroom were decorated in the same three colours.
3. The same colour was chosen for the curtains in the bedroom, the carpet in the living room and the walls in the dining room. That colour was not used at all in the study room.
4. The only room with both Purple and Pink in its colour scheme had carpet of the same colour as in the dining room.
5. Pink was the only colour used exactly twice – both times for curtains.
6. The study room walls were painted the same colour as the living room walls.

Q. Which of the following rooms had Red curtains and Purple walls?

Solution:

Pink was the only colour used exactly twice for curtains and the colours used in bedroom and dining room are same. Also the colour of curtains in bedroom was same as carpet in living room, so pink was not used in bedroom & dining room.

Hence curtains of living and study room are of pink colour. The room with purple and pink colour scheme is not living room as in this case the carpet of living room will be of same colour as in dining room. This is not possible as the carpet of living room is of the same colour as the walls in dining room. Hence the room with purple and pink colour scheme is study room. Since the study room walls were painted the same colour as the living room walls, so the carpet of study room as well as of dining room is of purple colour. Now the colour mentioned in 3rd point is not used in study room, hence this colour is red. Now based on this information we can make the following table

His bedroom has red curtains and purple walls.

QUESTION: 50

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

Mr. Babu recently redecorated his house by coordinating Red and three other colours for the walls, carpets and curtains of four different rooms. From the information below, determine the colours of the carpet, walls and curtains for each of the room and answer the following questions:

1. Blue was the only colour used in all the four rooms. It was used at least once for walls, carpets and curtains.
2. Three different colours were used in each room but only the dining room and the bedroom were decorated in the same three colours.
3. The same colour was chosen for the curtains in the bedroom, the carpet in the living room and the walls in the dining room. That colour was not used at all in the study room.
4. The only room with both Purple and Pink in its colour scheme had carpet of the same colour as in the dining room.
5. Pink was the only colour used exactly twice – both times for curtains.
6. The study room walls were painted the same colour as the living room walls.

Q. Which of the two rooms had Purple carpets?

Solution:

Pink was the only colour used exactly twice for curtains and the colours used in bedroom and dining room are same. Also the colour of curtains in bedroom was same as carpet in living room, so pink was not used in bedroom & dining room.

Hence curtains of living and study room are of pink colour. The room with purple and pink colour scheme is not living room as in this case the carpet of living room will be of same colour as in dining room. This is not possible as the carpet of living room is of the same colour as the walls in dining room. Hence the room with purple and pink colour scheme is study room. Since the study room walls were painted the same colour as the living room walls, so the carpet of study room as well as of dining room is of purple colour. Now the colour mentioned in 3rd point is not used in study room, hence this colour is red. Now based on this information we can make the following table.

The dining and study rooms have purple carpets.

QUESTION: 51

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

How much chicory at Rs. 4 a kg should be added to 15kg of coffee at Rs. 10 a kg so that the mixture be worth Rs. 6.50 per kg?

Solution:

Using allegation, we get the ratio to be;

Chicory  :  Coffee  = 3.5 : 2.5  = 7 : 5
If coffee mixed is 15 kg the chicory mixed is (7 × 3) i.e. 21 kg

QUESTION: 52

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

In a triangle ABC, D is a point on the side BC and a line is drawn joining A & D. M, N are the lengths of perpendicular dropped on line AD from the vertices B and C respectively.

(a) AB > AC
(b) BD < DC
 
Q. What is the relation between M and N?

Solution:

AB > AC gives us no idea; just imagine a few figures and you will know this. Look at the other statement it says BD < DC, then we have the following diagram

If BP and CQ are the perpendiculars then, ΔBDP and ΔCDQ are similar. So BD/DC = BP/CQ

Since BD < DC 
hence, M/N < 1 ⇒ M < N

QUESTION: 53

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

A can buy goods at the rate of Rs. 20 per piece. A sells the first good for Rs. 2, second one for Rs. 4, third for Rs. 6…and so on. If he wants to make an overall profit of at least 40%, what is the minimum number of goods he should sell?

Solution:

Let us assume he buys n goods.
Total CP = 20n
Total SP = 2 + 4 + 6 + 8 ….n terms
Total SP should be at least 40% more than total CP

► 2 + 4 + 6 + 8 ….n terms ≥ 1.4 ×20 n
► 2 (1 + 2 + 3 + ….n terms) ≥ 28n
► n(n + 1) ≥ 28n
► n2 + n ≥ 28n
► n2 - 27n ≥ 0
► n ≥ 27

He should sell a minimum of 27 goods.

QUESTION: 54

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

log5X = a and log20X = b. What is logx10?

Solution:

► log5x = a
► log20x = b
► logx5 = 1/a
► logx20 = 1/b
► logx100/5 =1/b
► logx100 – logx5 = 1/b
► 2logx10 – 1/a = 1/b
► logx10 = ½(1/a+1/b)
► logx10 = (a+b) / 2ab

QUESTION: 55

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

In a convex polygon, all internal angles are distinct integers (in degree measure). The largest angle is 110°. The number of sides of the polygon can be

Solution:

Since greatest internal angle is 110º so, least external angle = 180º - 110º = 70º for the polygon to have the maximum no. of sides, the angles must be as close as possible. Also, sum of external angles = 360º

So, external angles can be, 70º , 71º, 72º, 73º, 74º polygon can have max 5 sides

So, choice 4.

QUESTION: 56

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

The average marks of the students in four sections A, B, C and D together are 60%. The average marks of the students of A, B, C and D individually are 45%, 50%, 72% and 80% respectively. If the average marks of the students of sections A and B together are 48% and that of the students of B and C together are 60%. What is the ratio of number of students in sections A and D?

Solution:

Using above alligations we get;
A:B:C = 4 : 5 :6

Applying weighted average for all the four classes.

Ratio of students of A and D = 4:3

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 57

Solve the following question.

Aman has 9 friends (4 boys and 5 girls). In how many ways can he invite them, if there have to be exactly 3 girls in the invitees? (in numerical value)


Solution:

The 3 girls can be chosen in 5C3 = 10 ways.

Of the 4 boys, he has a choice of inviting any number from 0 to all 4 in 24 ways.

Thus, the total number of choices is 10 x 24 = 160.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 58

Solve the following question.

A group of 8 men and 12 boys can complete a piece of work in 12 days. In how many days can a group of 40 men and 45 boys complete a piece of work three times as great, if 16 men can complete as much work in 8 hours as 12 boys can complete in 24 hours? (in days)


Solution:

The work done by 16 men in 8 hours can be completed by 16 × 8 men in 1 hour. Similarly, the work done by 12 boys in 24 hours can be completed by 12 × 24 boys in 1 hour. Comparing these values, we realise that 4 men are equivalent to 9 boys.

Now, 8 men and 12 boys is equivalent to 30 boys who can complete the work in 12 days. Similarly, 40 men and 45 boys are equivalent to 135 boys. In n days, these 135 boys must complete a piece of work equivalent to the work done by 30 boys in 36 days. So, 135n = 30 * 36, which yields n = 8 days.

QUESTION: 59

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

solve the system of inequations

Solution:

The given system of in equations is 


Now,

⇒ x ∈(-∞, -1/2) ∪[1/2, ∞)

Thus the sol. set of inequations (1) is (-∞, -1/2) ∪[1/2, ∞)  ...... (3)
and


Thus the sol. set of inequation (2) is (-1/8, 1/4) from (3) and (4)
we see that the intersection of solution sets is a null set.
Hence the given system of inequations has no solution.

QUESTION: 60

Answer the following question as per the best of your judgment.

People Tree school holds a painting competition. The seventh standard decides to paint a VIBGYOR rainbow theme. There is a big canvas and the first student comes and paints a 1 m wide stripe of Violet. The second student comes in and paints a ½ m stripe of Indigo. The third student comes in and paints a ¼ m stripe of Blue. After all the 35 students have painted their stripes, what percentage of the canvas would be covered with yellow paint?

Solution:

VIBGYOR – Width of the first yellow strip would be ½4 m.

Total width would be a GP = 1 + ½ + ½2 +…. ½6.

The second violet strip would be ½7 = 1/128 – which is less than 1% - so we can afford to neglect whatever happens beyond the first set, and still not lose out too much on accuracy.  

As an approximation (If it was an infinite series) total width would be 1 / (1 – ½) = 2 m.

So answer is[ (1/16)/2] = 1/32 = 3 %

So option C.

QUESTION: 61

Answer the question independently of any other question.

The first term of a sequence is 1 and the second term is 5. From the third term onwards, each term is the average of all the preceding terms. What is the difference between the 30th and 25th terms of this sequence?

Solution:

The 3rd term is (1 + 5)/2 = 6/2 = 3, the 4th term is (6 + 3)/3 = 9/3 = 3, the 5th term is (9 + 3)/4 = 12/4 = 3.

Since each of the remaining terms is 3, the 25th and 30th terms are also 3.

The difference is 0.

QUESTION: 62

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

if f(x + y) = f(x)f(y) and f(1) = 3, then find the positive integral value of 'a' for which 

Solution:

Given f(1) = 3, f(x+y) = f(x) f(y)
f(2) = f(1) f(1) = 32
f(3) = f(2) f(1) = 33 i.e., f(a) = 3a
now,

= f(a) [f(1) + f(2) + ........ + f(n)]
= f(a) [3+32+33 + ...... + 3n]


Given,

= f(a) × 3 (3n – 1) = 34 (3n – 1)
f(a) = 33 ⇒ a = 3

Alternate solution:
Given f(1) = 3
f(x+y) = f(x) f(y)

⇒ f(2) = f(1) f(1) = 32
⇒ f(3) = f(2) f(1) = 33 and so on
⇒ f(a) = 3a

Now,

This is true for any value of n
So let n = 1
∴ f(a+1) = 1/2(35-34)
⇒ 3a+1 = 1/2(34(3-1))

⇒ 3a+1 = 34
⇒a = 3

QUESTION: 63

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

X, Y and Z can do a piece of work in 30 days. They all three worked for 4 days and then X left. Y and Z continued the work and worked for 20 more days when Y left. Z worked for another 80 days and completed the work. In how many days can X alone complete the work if Z can complete it in 150 days?

Solution:

Assume the total work to be 1200 units. (LCM of all the numbers)
Then Z’s 1 day work = 8 units.

⇒ (X + Y + Z)’s 1 day work = 40 units.

X, Y, Z work together in the first 4 days

⇒Work done in the first 4 days = 40 × 4 = 160 units

Z alone works during the last 80 days

⇒Work done in the last 80 days = 80 × 8 = 640 units

Remaining work = 1200 – (160 + 640) = 400 units
This work is done by Y and Z in 20 days.

⇒ (Y + Z)’s 1 day work = 20 units

⇒X’s 1 day work = (X + Y + Z)’s 1 day work – (Y + Z)’s 1 day work = 40 units – 20 units = 20 units

⇒X can do the work of 1200 units in 60 days.

QUESTION: 64

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

For x. y, z ≥ 0, find the number of integral solutions for the equation 3x + y + z = 30.

Solution:

Given 3x + y + z = 30,
If x = 0; y + z = 30, Number of Solutions = 31

x = 1, y + z = 27, Number of solutions = 28

x = 2, y + z = 24, Number of solutions = 25

x = 3, y + z = 21, Number of solutions = 22
------
------
x = 9; y + z = 3, Number of solutions = 4

x = 10; y + z = 0, Number of solutions = 1

∴ total number of solutions = 1 + 4 + 7 + …. + 31
= 11/2[1 + 31] = 176

QUESTION: 65

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Water flows at a speed of 4 cm/sec from a pipe of square cross-section of side 3 cm into an empty tank and fills the entire tank in 60 minutes in the absence of any leaks. A leak at the bottom of the tank can empty a full tank at the rate of 12 cm3/sec. In how much time does the empty tank get filled in the presence of the leak?

Solution:

Rate at which water flows from the pipe into the tank = speed of flow × area of cross-section = 4 cm/sec × 9 cm2 = 36 cm3/sec. Capacity of the tank = 36 cm3/sec × 60 × 60 seconds. In the presence of the leak, rate of filling = 36 – 12 = 24 cm3/sec

∴ Time take to fill the tank  = (36 x 60 x 60)/24 = 5400 seconds = 90 minutes

QUESTION: 66

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

What is the 100th term of the series 2, 4, 8, 14, 22, 32, ….?

Solution:

The differences between sucessive terms are 2,4,6,8,10 ... and so on. These difference for an AP with 1st term 2 and common difference 2. So the difference between the 100th and the 99th terms of the series will be 99 x 2 = 198. The 2nd term of the series can be calclated as 2+2 = 4, the 3rd term of the series can be calculated as 2+2+4=8, the 4th term of the series can be calculated as 2+2+4+6 = 14, and so on.

So, the 100th term of the series can be calculated as 2+2+4+6+8...+198.

= 2 + (2+4+6+8+...+198) = 2 + (99/2)(2+ 198) = 9902

Hence answer is option B

QUESTION: 67

Answer the following question as per the best of your ability.

Viraj Mehta bought 100 shares each of 4 different companies. The purchase prices of the shares are Rs.20, Rs.19.50, Rs.27.50 and Rs.26.00 per share on a certain date. In due course of time he sold off all the shares of all the 4 companies, but the transactions took place on different dates. The sale transactions fetched him Rs.12.3, Rs.37.4, Rs.28.6 and Rs.21.7 per share, but it is not known which company's shares were sold when. What is his net profit or loss?

Solution:

The total cost price of the 100 shares of each company is 2000 + 1950 + 2750 + 2600 = 9300.

The total selling price of the 100 shares of each company is 1230 + 3740 + 2170 + 2860 = 10000.

So, profit of Rs. 700.
Hence the answer is option C

QUESTION: 68

One test tube contains some acid and another test tube contains an equal quantity of water. To prepare a solution, 20 grams of the acid is poured into the second test tube. Then, two-thirds of the so-formed solution is poured from the second tube into the first. If the fluid in the first test tube is four times that in the second, what quantity of water was taken initially?

Solution:

Let the quantity of water and acid initially be x gms each

Therefore, when 20gms of acid of poured into the test tube containing water, the new solution is: Acid: x - 20  water: x + 20

When two-third of the water solution is poured into the acid, the new solution is:
Acid: (x - 20) + (x + 20) 2/3  water: (x + 20)/3

As the final ratio of acid: water is 4:1 i.e., (x - 20) + (x +20) 2/3 = 4(x+20)/3  ⇒x = 100gm

QUESTION: 69

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Two numbers are selected at random without replacement from amongst the first six natural numbers. What is the probability that the minimum of the two is less than 4?

Solution:

The total number of ways of selecting the two numbers is 6 × 5 = 30.

We want that the minimum of the two numbers is less than 4.

If the smaller number is 1, then the other number can be any of the remaining 5 numbers from 2 to 6.

If the smaller number is 2, then the other number can be any of the remaining 4 numbers from 3 to 6.

If the smaller number is 3, then the other number can be any of the remaining 3 numbers from 4 to 6.

These are 12 cases.

Since the numbers can be interchanged, the toal number of favourable outcomes is 2 × 12 = 24.
Thus the required probability is 24/30 = 4/5

QUESTION: 70

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

What is the sum of the series 

Solution:

The given series is the sum of 3 GPs with common ratio 1/4, 1/5 and 1/6 respectively

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 71

Solve the following question.

If |a+3| = 8 and |b-6| = 9. What is the minimum possible value of a × b? (in numerical value)


Solution:

► |a + 3| = 8

a+3 = 8 or a+3 = -8
a = 5 or a = -11

► |b - 6| = 9

b - 6 = 9 or b - 6 = -9
b = 15 or b = - 3

∴ Minimum value of a × b = -11 × 15 = -165.

QUESTION: 72

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

In a month, Rohan goes to market for n times, all these days are decided by a rule that he will not go on same day again unless he covers all other days of a week. Also the difference between the days of his any two outings is never same. If 1st of July is Sunday, then what is the maximum value of n?

Solution:

For n to be maximum we have to arrange days will minimum difference between them. Now total day in July are 31.

Let ‘|’ denotes the days on which Rohan goes to market then | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | = 29 days.

The number between ‘|’ represents the difference in days between two visits.

Hence, maximum days are 8. Note since we have to follow the first rule, the difference has to be arranged in different way and we can use 7 and 8 instead of 5 and 6 difference or any such combination as the total days are 31

One solution of this is 1, 9, 14, 17, 18, 20, 26, 29 or 30. Note multiple solutions are possible but in all case you cannot arrange them in such way that n > 8, as then numbers of days he does not go to market + number of days he goes to market > 31

QUESTION: 73

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

A reduction of 20% in the price of rice enables a customer to purchase 12.5 kg more for Rs. 800. The original price of rice per kg is

Solution:

Let the price of rice is Rs x / kg
As per the question = 800/ 0.8x - 800 / x = 12.5
160/0.8x = 12.5
x = 16
Original price of rice is Rs16 per kg.
So,ans is option B.

QUESTION: 74

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

In a randomly chosen month of a year, there are three Mondays with an even date. What day is the 15th of the month?

Solution:

If we know the date of the first Monday, we can obtain the date of the next Monday by adding 7 to the current date. Since we are adding an odd number, we know that alternate dates will be odd and even. Since there are three Mondays with an even date, this is possible only when the month has 5 Mondays. The first Monday will fall on an even date so that there are 3 even Mondays and 2 odd Mondays. The only possible dates are 2, 9, 16, 23, 30.
Thus the 15th of the month will be a Sunday.

QUESTION: 75

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

A sum of money, deposited at some rate per cent per annum of compound interest, doubles itself in 4 years. In how many years will it become 16 times of itself at the same rate (in years)?

Solution:

When amount doubles itself i.e

Let us assume that after x year, the amount becomes 16 times i.e

Substituting the value from first equation, we get
16 = 2x/4 ⇒ 2⇒ 2x/4 ⇒ 4 = x/4 ⇒x = 16 yrs.

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