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CAT Mock Test - 12 - CAT MCQ


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66 Questions MCQ Test CAT Mock Test Series 2024 - CAT Mock Test - 12

CAT Mock Test - 12 for CAT 2024 is part of CAT Mock Test Series 2024 preparation. The CAT Mock Test - 12 questions and answers have been prepared according to the CAT exam syllabus.The CAT Mock Test - 12 MCQs are made for CAT 2024 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for CAT Mock Test - 12 below.
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CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 1

Directions: The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

We tend to experience the olfactory realm as a shapeless suffusion, forever shifting, eluding description the way fog eludes the grasp of one's hand. Smell does not produce objects in our minds so much as auras, but these can be the most vivid of our sensory experiences. Smell is the sense most deeply entangled with memory and emotion. It functions as a kind of psychic mortar, binding together all the richness of past experience, such that a familiar scent can instantly overwhelm us with remembrance and feeling. And yet we strain to describe even the simplest odours; we retreat into simile and metaphor, or cadge the terminology of other senses, or designate smells, rather prosaically, by their source. The scent of a rose is "soft," or "rosy," or perhaps "evocative of decorous passion," but none of these descriptions would let you imagine it if you didn't know it already. Nor does smell lend itself to quantification. Sound and light fall along well-defined spectra of wavelength and frequency, but we have no such scale for odour, no metric by which to relate the aroma of cinnamon, say, to that of burnt rubber, or that of old books.
Nor can we say with certainty why anything smells the way it does. Lucretius, the Epicurean polymath, believed that odour was a function of geometry. "You cannot suppose that atoms of the same shape are entering our nostrils when stinking corpses are roasting," he wrote, "as when the stage is freshly sprinkled with saffron of Cilicia and a nearby altar exhales the perfumes of the Orient." A number of alternative theories have since been advanced. Some have imagined odours as chemical reactions between the nose and the molecules that enter it. According to "vibrational" theories, a molecule's scent depends upon its infrared or ultraviolet emissions. Shape-based theories are still the most prevalent, though, and Lucretius is thought to have been basically right, apart from the correlation he imagined between harmoniousness of form and loveliness of smell. The scent of a rose is the combined effect of about 260 volatile compounds, some as jagged as the flower's thorns.
If shape does indeed account for smell, however, we are far from knowing exactly how. Molecules of widely divergent structure can smell nearly identical. Muscone and Helvetolide, for instance, both smell of musk, but one is shaped like a ring, the other a kinked chain. Conversely, molecules of nearly identical structure produce odours that are completely distinct. The compound L-carvone smells of spearmint, while its mirror image, D-carvone, smells of caraway seed. Certain substances have unrelated smells at different concentrations. Gamma-undecalactone generally smells fatty and aversive. Heavily diluted, it smells of ripened peach.
We speak of scent as if it were a property intrinsic to a given substance, but odour is not simply "out there." It is a co-creation of the nose. At the very top of the nasal cavity, up between the eyes, sits mucosal tissue known as the olfactory epithelium. It is dense with neurons, and embedded in these neurons are proteins known as odourant receptors. Odourant receptors bind the volatile compounds we inhale, converting them into electric signals that will, eventually, register in our consciousness as smell. The nature of these receptors—how many kinds there are, which molecules they respond to—is central to our experience of scent. It is also, for the most part, a mystery.

Q. In the phrase 'Lucretius is thought to have been basically right ... and loveliness of smell', which of the following statements is the author trying to imply?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 1

The author is affirmative that form does influence the scent, however, whether the scent is repulsive or not is not stated in the passage to be dependent upon the form. Hence, Lucretius, although was right in determining that form influences the scent, was wrong in determining that a better form leads to a pleasant smell and vice-versa.
Option 1: This includes the extraneous 'repulsiveness' which is not indicated in the passage.
Option 2: This accurately highlights the purpose of the sentence.
Option 3: This is not inferable or implied in the passage.
Option 4: Although stated, it does not help explain the implication of the sentence mentioned.

CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 2

Directions: The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

We tend to experience the olfactory realm as a shapeless suffusion, forever shifting, eluding description the way fog eludes the grasp of one's hand. Smell does not produce objects in our minds so much as auras, but these can be the most vivid of our sensory experiences. Smell is the sense most deeply entangled with memory and emotion. It functions as a kind of psychic mortar, binding together all the richness of past experience, such that a familiar scent can instantly overwhelm us with remembrance and feeling. And yet we strain to describe even the simplest odours; we retreat into simile and metaphor, or cadge the terminology of other senses, or designate smells, rather prosaically, by their source. The scent of a rose is "soft," or "rosy," or perhaps "evocative of decorous passion," but none of these descriptions would let you imagine it if you didn't know it already. Nor does smell lend itself to quantification. Sound and light fall along well-defined spectra of wavelength and frequency, but we have no such scale for odour, no metric by which to relate the aroma of cinnamon, say, to that of burnt rubber, or that of old books.
Nor can we say with certainty why anything smells the way it does. Lucretius, the Epicurean polymath, believed that odour was a function of geometry. "You cannot suppose that atoms of the same shape are entering our nostrils when stinking corpses are roasting," he wrote, "as when the stage is freshly sprinkled with saffron of Cilicia and a nearby altar exhales the perfumes of the Orient." A number of alternative theories have since been advanced. Some have imagined odours as chemical reactions between the nose and the molecules that enter it. According to "vibrational" theories, a molecule's scent depends upon its infrared or ultraviolet emissions. Shape-based theories are still the most prevalent, though, and Lucretius is thought to have been basically right, apart from the correlation he imagined between harmoniousness of form and loveliness of smell. The scent of a rose is the combined effect of about 260 volatile compounds, some as jagged as the flower's thorns.
If shape does indeed account for smell, however, we are far from knowing exactly how. Molecules of widely divergent structure can smell nearly identical. Muscone and Helvetolide, for instance, both smell of musk, but one is shaped like a ring, the other a kinked chain. Conversely, molecules of nearly identical structure produce odours that are completely distinct. The compound L-carvone smells of spearmint, while its mirror image, D-carvone, smells of caraway seed. Certain substances have unrelated smells at different concentrations. Gamma-undecalactone generally smells fatty and aversive. Heavily diluted, it smells of ripened peach.
We speak of scent as if it were a property intrinsic to a given substance, but odour is not simply "out there." It is a co-creation of the nose. At the very top of the nasal cavity, up between the eyes, sits mucosal tissue known as the olfactory epithelium. It is dense with neurons, and embedded in these neurons are proteins known as odourant receptors. Odourant receptors bind the volatile compounds we inhale, converting them into electric signals that will, eventually, register in our consciousness as smell. The nature of these receptors—how many kinds there are, which molecules they respond to—is central to our experience of scent. It is also, for the most part, a mystery.

Q. Which of the following, according to the author, can be inferred as a flaw in the present approaches to understand the concept of smell and scent?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 2

Option 1: Perceiving odour as simply based on form of the object, without any consideration of the nose that perceives such smell, is a one-dimensional view which hinders complete understanding of the concept.
Option 2: Although correct, this does not point out the inherent flaw.
Option 3: This cannot be inferred from the passage. In fact, distinction between shapes is the essence of the present theories. It does not highlight the inherent flaw.
Option 4: This cannot be inferred from the passage. The point of mentioning characteristics of light and sound is not to indicate that the present approaches equate one physical theory with another.

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CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 3

Directions: The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

We tend to experience the olfactory realm as a shapeless suffusion, forever shifting, eluding description the way fog eludes the grasp of one's hand. Smell does not produce objects in our minds so much as auras, but these can be the most vivid of our sensory experiences. Smell is the sense most deeply entangled with memory and emotion. It functions as a kind of psychic mortar, binding together all the richness of past experience, such that a familiar scent can instantly overwhelm us with remembrance and feeling. And yet we strain to describe even the simplest odours; we retreat into simile and metaphor, or cadge the terminology of other senses, or designate smells, rather prosaically, by their source. The scent of a rose is "soft," or "rosy," or perhaps "evocative of decorous passion," but none of these descriptions would let you imagine it if you didn't know it already. Nor does smell lend itself to quantification. Sound and light fall along well-defined spectra of wavelength and frequency, but we have no such scale for odour, no metric by which to relate the aroma of cinnamon, say, to that of burnt rubber, or that of old books.
Nor can we say with certainty why anything smells the way it does. Lucretius, the Epicurean polymath, believed that odour was a function of geometry. "You cannot suppose that atoms of the same shape are entering our nostrils when stinking corpses are roasting," he wrote, "as when the stage is freshly sprinkled with saffron of Cilicia and a nearby altar exhales the perfumes of the Orient." A number of alternative theories have since been advanced. Some have imagined odours as chemical reactions between the nose and the molecules that enter it. According to "vibrational" theories, a molecule's scent depends upon its infrared or ultraviolet emissions. Shape-based theories are still the most prevalent, though, and Lucretius is thought to have been basically right, apart from the correlation he imagined between harmoniousness of form and loveliness of smell. The scent of a rose is the combined effect of about 260 volatile compounds, some as jagged as the flower's thorns.
If shape does indeed account for smell, however, we are far from knowing exactly how. Molecules of widely divergent structure can smell nearly identical. Muscone and Helvetolide, for instance, both smell of musk, but one is shaped like a ring, the other a kinked chain. Conversely, molecules of nearly identical structure produce odours that are completely distinct. The compound L-carvone smells of spearmint, while its mirror image, D-carvone, smells of caraway seed. Certain substances have unrelated smells at different concentrations. Gamma-undecalactone generally smells fatty and aversive. Heavily diluted, it smells of ripened peach.
We speak of scent as if it were a property intrinsic to a given substance, but odour is not simply "out there." It is a co-creation of the nose. At the very top of the nasal cavity, up between the eyes, sits mucosal tissue known as the olfactory epithelium. It is dense with neurons, and embedded in these neurons are proteins known as odourant receptors. Odourant receptors bind the volatile compounds we inhale, converting them into electric signals that will, eventually, register in our consciousness as smell. The nature of these receptors—how many kinds there are, which molecules they respond to—is central to our experience of scent. It is also, for the most part, a mystery.

Q. The author of the passage is most likely to agree with which of the following statements?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 3

Option 1: This cannot be inferred from the passage as the author does not state such a relationship.
Option 2: Although role of nose is important, it cannot be inferred to be more important than the form.
Option 3: This cannot be inferred from the passage as the author does not state why we are unable to relate with a smell.
Option 4: The author implies, through examples, that uniformity of the form of an object does not influence how the odour would be. Refer the lines - "If shape does indeed account for smell, however, we are far from knowing exactly how. Molecules of widely divergent structure can smell nearly identical. Muscone and Helvetolide, for instance, both smell of musk, but one is shaped like a ring, the other a kinked chain. Conversely, molecules of nearly identical structure produce odours that are completely distinct." Hence, this is correct.

CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 4

Directions: The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

We tend to experience the olfactory realm as a shapeless suffusion, forever shifting, eluding description the way fog eludes the grasp of one's hand. Smell does not produce objects in our minds so much as auras, but these can be the most vivid of our sensory experiences. Smell is the sense most deeply entangled with memory and emotion. It functions as a kind of psychic mortar, binding together all the richness of past experience, such that a familiar scent can instantly overwhelm us with remembrance and feeling. And yet we strain to describe even the simplest odours; we retreat into simile and metaphor, or cadge the terminology of other senses, or designate smells, rather prosaically, by their source. The scent of a rose is "soft," or "rosy," or perhaps "evocative of decorous passion," but none of these descriptions would let you imagine it if you didn't know it already. Nor does smell lend itself to quantification. Sound and light fall along well-defined spectra of wavelength and frequency, but we have no such scale for odour, no metric by which to relate the aroma of cinnamon, say, to that of burnt rubber, or that of old books.
Nor can we say with certainty why anything smells the way it does. Lucretius, the Epicurean polymath, believed that odour was a function of geometry. "You cannot suppose that atoms of the same shape are entering our nostrils when stinking corpses are roasting," he wrote, "as when the stage is freshly sprinkled with saffron of Cilicia and a nearby altar exhales the perfumes of the Orient." A number of alternative theories have since been advanced. Some have imagined odours as chemical reactions between the nose and the molecules that enter it. According to "vibrational" theories, a molecule's scent depends upon its infrared or ultraviolet emissions. Shape-based theories are still the most prevalent, though, and Lucretius is thought to have been basically right, apart from the correlation he imagined between harmoniousness of form and loveliness of smell. The scent of a rose is the combined effect of about 260 volatile compounds, some as jagged as the flower's thorns.
If shape does indeed account for smell, however, we are far from knowing exactly how. Molecules of widely divergent structure can smell nearly identical. Muscone and Helvetolide, for instance, both smell of musk, but one is shaped like a ring, the other a kinked chain. Conversely, molecules of nearly identical structure produce odours that are completely distinct. The compound L-carvone smells of spearmint, while its mirror image, D-carvone, smells of caraway seed. Certain substances have unrelated smells at different concentrations. Gamma-undecalactone generally smells fatty and aversive. Heavily diluted, it smells of ripened peach.
We speak of scent as if it were a property intrinsic to a given substance, but odour is not simply "out there." It is a co-creation of the nose. At the very top of the nasal cavity, up between the eyes, sits mucosal tissue known as the olfactory epithelium. It is dense with neurons, and embedded in these neurons are proteins known as odourant receptors. Odourant receptors bind the volatile compounds we inhale, converting them into electric signals that will, eventually, register in our consciousness as smell. The nature of these receptors—how many kinds there are, which molecules they respond to—is central to our experience of scent. It is also, for the most part, a mystery.

Q. '...odour is not simply out there. It is a co-creation of the nose'. It can be inferred from this that the author is trying to imply which of the following?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 4

The author implies that 'odour' as a distinct entity is non-existent. What exists around us are only fumes generated by different things. These fumes, when inhaled through the nose, become odour or smell that our brain then perceives. Hence, not only the form, but also the nose is an important factor in the process of odour perception.
Option 1: This is what author implies; however, it is not the essence of the phrase mentioned. Odour is simply not out there, which can be perceived by the nose.
Option 2: Odour does not persist around us. We experience it in our brain through sensory organs.
Option 3: The statement accurately highlights the implication of the author in the phrase.
Option 4:The statement can be inferred; however, it does not explain the essence of the phrase.

CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 5

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given question.

Claude Lorrain and Carle Vernet are considered by the Impressionists as precursors from the point of view of decorative landscape arrangement, and particularly of the predominance of light in which all objects are bathed. Ruysdael and Poussin are, in their eyes, for the same reasons precursors who observed so frankly the blue colouring of the horizon and the influence of blue upon the landscape. It is known that Turner worshipped Claude for the very same reasons. The Impressionists in their turn consider Turner as one of their mighty geniuses, a visionary. Notably in the famous Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople, the fair woman kneeling in the foreground is painted in accordance with the principles of the division of tones: the nude back is furrowed with blue, green and yellow touches, the juxtaposition of which produces, at a certain distance, an admirable flesh-tone.
And now I must speak at some length of a painter who, together with the luminous and sparkling landscapist Félix Ziem, was the most direct initiator of Impressionist technique. Monticelli is one of those singular men of genius who are not connected with any school, and whose work is an inexhaustible source of applications. He lived at Marseilles, where he was born, made a short appearance at the Salons, and then returned to his native town, where he died poor, ignored, paralysed and mad.
In order to live he sold his small pictures at the cafés, where they fetched ten or twenty francs at the most. Today they sell for considerable prices. The mysterious power of these paintings secures him a fame which is, alas! posthumous. Many Monticellis have been sold by dealers as Diaz's; now they are more eagerly looked for than Diaz, and collectors have made fortunes with these small canvases bought formerly, to use a colloquial expression which is here only too literally true, ''for a piece of bread.''
Monticelli painted landscapes, romantic scenes, and still-life pictures: one could not imagine a more inspired sense of colour than shown by these works which seem to be painted with crushed jewels, with powerful harmony, and beyond all with an unheard-of delicacy in the perception of fine shades. There are tones which nobody had ever invented yet, a richness, a profusion, a subtlety which almost vie with the resources of music. The fairyland atmosphere of these works surrounds a very firm design of charming style, but, to use the words of the artist himself, ''in these canvases the objects are the decoration, the touches are the scales, and the light is the tenor.'' Monticelli has created for himself an entirely personal technique which can only be compared with that of Turner; he painted with a brush so full, fat and rich, that some of the details are often truly modelled in relief, in a substance as precious as enamels, jewels, ceramics - a substance which is a delight in itself. Every picture by Monticelli provokes astonishment; constructed upon one colour as upon a musical theme, it rises to intensities which one would have thought impossible. His pictures are magnificent bouquets, bursts of joy and colour, where nothing is ever crude, and where everything is ruled by a supreme sense of harmony.

Q. According to the passage, in which of the following ways was the work of early Impressionist masters significantly different in style?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 5

1. Correct. Refer to the part: 'particularly of the predominance of light in which all objects are bathed'. They laid emphasis on 'predominance of light' on objects and could achieve it with colours alone on the canvas. Therefore, option 1 is correct.
2. Incorrect. Illumination of paintings with sunlight or artificial light is not what the passage states about their style. This takes meaning of 'light' to mean 'sunlight' which is not what the passage implies. The paintings had their own light through the use of colours.
3. Incorrect. This does not answer the question. Hence, incorrect. If they followed their own pedigree, how will they be 'different' in style?
4. Incorrect. Decorative landscape arrangement cannot be taken to mean that "only" their works used landscapes. Otherwise how will their style be 'different'?

CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 6

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given question.

Claude Lorrain and Carle Vernet are considered by the Impressionists as precursors from the point of view of decorative landscape arrangement, and particularly of the predominance of light in which all objects are bathed. Ruysdael and Poussin are, in their eyes, for the same reasons precursors who observed so frankly the blue colouring of the horizon and the influence of blue upon the landscape. It is known that Turner worshipped Claude for the very same reasons. The Impressionists in their turn consider Turner as one of their mighty geniuses, a visionary. Notably in the famous Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople, the fair woman kneeling in the foreground is painted in accordance with the principles of the division of tones: the nude back is furrowed with blue, green and yellow touches, the juxtaposition of which produces, at a certain distance, an admirable flesh-tone.
And now I must speak at some length of a painter who, together with the luminous and sparkling landscapist Félix Ziem, was the most direct initiator of Impressionist technique. Monticelli is one of those singular men of genius who are not connected with any school, and whose work is an inexhaustible source of applications. He lived at Marseilles, where he was born, made a short appearance at the Salons, and then returned to his native town, where he died poor, ignored, paralysed and mad.
In order to live he sold his small pictures at the cafés, where they fetched ten or twenty francs at the most. Today they sell for considerable prices. The mysterious power of these paintings secures him a fame which is, alas! posthumous. Many Monticellis have been sold by dealers as Diaz's; now they are more eagerly looked for than Diaz, and collectors have made fortunes with these small canvases bought formerly, to use a colloquial expression which is here only too literally true, ''for a piece of bread.''
Monticelli painted landscapes, romantic scenes, and still-life pictures: one could not imagine a more inspired sense of colour than shown by these works which seem to be painted with crushed jewels, with powerful harmony, and beyond all with an unheard-of delicacy in the perception of fine shades. There are tones which nobody had ever invented yet, a richness, a profusion, a subtlety which almost vie with the resources of music. The fairyland atmosphere of these works surrounds a very firm design of charming style, but, to use the words of the artist himself, ''in these canvases the objects are the decoration, the touches are the scales, and the light is the tenor.'' Monticelli has created for himself an entirely personal technique which can only be compared with that of Turner; he painted with a brush so full, fat and rich, that some of the details are often truly modelled in relief, in a substance as precious as enamels, jewels, ceramics - a substance which is a delight in itself. Every picture by Monticelli provokes astonishment; constructed upon one colour as upon a musical theme, it rises to intensities which one would have thought impossible. His pictures are magnificent bouquets, bursts of joy and colour, where nothing is ever crude, and where everything is ruled by a supreme sense of harmony.

Q. From the passage, it can be inferred that the painting 'Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople' is truly symbolic of Impressionist art due to:

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 6

1. Incorrect. The painting is considered as a work of genius at least in part due to its being "in accordance with the principles of the division of tones". "True inspiration" does not catch the idea.
2. Correct. Impressionist is described as decorative art with predominance of light and colour. The last line of the first paragraph which states "the juxtaposition of colors" could achieve "an admirable flesh-tone" leads us to (2) as the answer.
3. Incorrect. Romanticism or sensuality cannot be inferred from what is stated in the passage. Hence, incorrect.
4. Incorrect. Predominance of blue color is only incidental. This does not make it symbolic.

CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 7

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given question.

Claude Lorrain and Carle Vernet are considered by the Impressionists as precursors from the point of view of decorative landscape arrangement, and particularly of the predominance of light in which all objects are bathed. Ruysdael and Poussin are, in their eyes, for the same reasons precursors who observed so frankly the blue colouring of the horizon and the influence of blue upon the landscape. It is known that Turner worshipped Claude for the very same reasons. The Impressionists in their turn consider Turner as one of their mighty geniuses, a visionary. Notably in the famous Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople, the fair woman kneeling in the foreground is painted in accordance with the principles of the division of tones: the nude back is furrowed with blue, green and yellow touches, the juxtaposition of which produces, at a certain distance, an admirable flesh-tone.
And now I must speak at some length of a painter who, together with the luminous and sparkling landscapist Félix Ziem, was the most direct initiator of Impressionist technique. Monticelli is one of those singular men of genius who are not connected with any school, and whose work is an inexhaustible source of applications. He lived at Marseilles, where he was born, made a short appearance at the Salons, and then returned to his native town, where he died poor, ignored, paralysed and mad.
In order to live he sold his small pictures at the cafés, where they fetched ten or twenty francs at the most. Today they sell for considerable prices. The mysterious power of these paintings secures him a fame which is, alas! posthumous. Many Monticellis have been sold by dealers as Diaz's; now they are more eagerly looked for than Diaz, and collectors have made fortunes with these small canvases bought formerly, to use a colloquial expression which is here only too literally true, ''for a piece of bread.''
Monticelli painted landscapes, romantic scenes, and still-life pictures: one could not imagine a more inspired sense of colour than shown by these works which seem to be painted with crushed jewels, with powerful harmony, and beyond all with an unheard-of delicacy in the perception of fine shades. There are tones which nobody had ever invented yet, a richness, a profusion, a subtlety which almost vie with the resources of music. The fairyland atmosphere of these works surrounds a very firm design of charming style, but, to use the words of the artist himself, ''in these canvases the objects are the decoration, the touches are the scales, and the light is the tenor.'' Monticelli has created for himself an entirely personal technique which can only be compared with that of Turner; he painted with a brush so full, fat and rich, that some of the details are often truly modelled in relief, in a substance as precious as enamels, jewels, ceramics - a substance which is a delight in itself. Every picture by Monticelli provokes astonishment; constructed upon one colour as upon a musical theme, it rises to intensities which one would have thought impossible. His pictures are magnificent bouquets, bursts of joy and colour, where nothing is ever crude, and where everything is ruled by a supreme sense of harmony.

Q. Which of the following is stated by the author as Monticelli's contribution to the world of art?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 7

1. Incorrect. "Ultimate" is too far-fetched. "Scenic beauty" does not represent his contribution.
2. Incorrect. "Romance" and "festivity" are both extraneous to the passage.
3. Correct. Lines: "One could not imagine a more inspired sense of color..., with powerful harmony, and beyond all with an unheard-of delicacy in the perception of fine shades", lead us to the answer.
4. Incorrect. "Fantasy" is extraneous to the passage.

CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 8

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given question.

Claude Lorrain and Carle Vernet are considered by the Impressionists as precursors from the point of view of decorative landscape arrangement, and particularly of the predominance of light in which all objects are bathed. Ruysdael and Poussin are, in their eyes, for the same reasons precursors who observed so frankly the blue colouring of the horizon and the influence of blue upon the landscape. It is known that Turner worshipped Claude for the very same reasons. The Impressionists in their turn consider Turner as one of their mighty geniuses, a visionary. Notably in the famous Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople, the fair woman kneeling in the foreground is painted in accordance with the principles of the division of tones: the nude back is furrowed with blue, green and yellow touches, the juxtaposition of which produces, at a certain distance, an admirable flesh-tone.
And now I must speak at some length of a painter who, together with the luminous and sparkling landscapist Félix Ziem, was the most direct initiator of Impressionist technique. Monticelli is one of those singular men of genius who are not connected with any school, and whose work is an inexhaustible source of applications. He lived at Marseilles, where he was born, made a short appearance at the Salons, and then returned to his native town, where he died poor, ignored, paralysed and mad.
In order to live he sold his small pictures at the cafés, where they fetched ten or twenty francs at the most. Today they sell for considerable prices. The mysterious power of these paintings secures him a fame which is, alas! posthumous. Many Monticellis have been sold by dealers as Diaz's; now they are more eagerly looked for than Diaz, and collectors have made fortunes with these small canvases bought formerly, to use a colloquial expression which is here only too literally true, ''for a piece of bread.''
Monticelli painted landscapes, romantic scenes, and still-life pictures: one could not imagine a more inspired sense of colour than shown by these works which seem to be painted with crushed jewels, with powerful harmony, and beyond all with an unheard-of delicacy in the perception of fine shades. There are tones which nobody had ever invented yet, a richness, a profusion, a subtlety which almost vie with the resources of music. The fairyland atmosphere of these works surrounds a very firm design of charming style, but, to use the words of the artist himself, ''in these canvases the objects are the decoration, the touches are the scales, and the light is the tenor.'' Monticelli has created for himself an entirely personal technique which can only be compared with that of Turner; he painted with a brush so full, fat and rich, that some of the details are often truly modelled in relief, in a substance as precious as enamels, jewels, ceramics - a substance which is a delight in itself. Every picture by Monticelli provokes astonishment; constructed upon one colour as upon a musical theme, it rises to intensities which one would have thought impossible. His pictures are magnificent bouquets, bursts of joy and colour, where nothing is ever crude, and where everything is ruled by a supreme sense of harmony.

Q. It can be inferred from the passage that apart from being a great artist, Monticelli led a life that exemplified

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 8

1. Incorrect. 'Precursor of an age' is not an example of the type of life he led. There were many Impressionist artists who came before him.
2. Correct. Refer to the sentences, '...collectors have made fortunes with these small canvases bought formerly, to use a colloquial expression which is here only too literally true, "for a piece of bread".' and '...where he died poor, ignored, paralysed and mad.' This shows that Montacelli lived an uncelebrated life and died in penury. His luck with recognition and fame came after death when his art work gained popularity. An artist's life is often prone to such vicissitudes, which are the difficult times that one goes through.
3. Incorrect. 'Impressionism' is the style of art, not the style of life as the question asks.
4. Incorrect. The artist possibly did not have much of success in the commercial sense during his life. His acts or life could not be an example of 'subtle' salesmanship.

CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 9

Directions: The passage below is followed by a question based on its content. Answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage.

The incisive observations entrenched in Parmenides' Eleatic as we know it may actually have originated in Parmenides' lecture notes, or even those of one of his students. Regardless of the origin, Kepler refers to Eleatic, written prior to 323 B.C., as "one of the most enlightening and dominant books ever produced by the human intellect".
Even though it cannot be disputed that translations of Parmenides' work were available at other places also, no proof exists demonstrating that European scholars had access to it between the fifth and ninth centuries. Parmenides was known in Turkey, and a Nestorian monk of the ninth century translated the Eleatic into Turkish from a complete Greek manuscript that is now lost. The work was translated from the Turkish in Arabic in the year 935; from this translation Altamsh of Kardaba, an Islamic philosopher, fashioned a condensed translation in the 12th century projected to "determine how much of Parmenides' book on poetry is concerned with universal rules common to all nations or to most; for most of what is found in this book consists either of rules proper to their poetry and their usage, or they are found in Arabian poetry, or they are found in other languages." Altamsh replaced Arabic examples for the Greek, possessed no notion of literature being a simulation of life, and failed to realise much of the sense of the treatise. It was, however, Altamsh's translation, translated into Latin by Herart Eledir in the thirteenth century, published in Venice in 1481 and reprinted in 1515, that was the first medium enabling Renaissance scholars to judge the content of Eleatic. This version of Eleatic circulated freely, leaving no signs that it influenced critical literature. The practice of translations into Latin (1498), into Greek by Erasmus in 1532, and into Italian by Guini in 1594 has been documented.
When the Italian Renaissance scholars were able to consider the work of Parmenides, the result was twisted not only by the number of quality of translation, but also by the nature of the Italian Renaissance itself, questions of the wished-for meaning of main words and phrases, and the enveloping influence of Horace and the ancient.
The Italians' particular ardour for form established the groundwork for the propagation of Parmenidian "rules," which evolved from faultily construed principles of the Eleatic and incorporated the add-ons of unity of place, elucidation of "nobility" to denote noticeable nobility, the Quintian five acts, and a subjective segregation of a fourth person in dialogue. In Gihhin Jinthos's work, Parmenides's prerequisite that the poet, in contrast to the historian, relate what could happen is interpreted as a requirement that the poetry represents things as they should occur. Other scholars freely amplified Parmenides' work, completing his statements by adding much of the collection of medieval guidelines and a heavy amount of Christian contemplation.
Parmenides is generally understood to have wanted that the tragic hero be "noble." Italian scholars interpreted that the tragic hero be highly famed and affluent, and the status of the actors became such a significant deliberation in the Renaissance that it was sensed to be the distinctive factor between comedy and tragedy. Other facets of drama – scheme, vista, number of players, and poetry – were caste by this construal.

Q. Which of the following statements best summarises the central idea of the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 9

Choice (1) blankets both the historical background of the passage of Eleatic from oblivion into the Italian Renaissance and the influence it had upon the Italian Renaissance. The passage itself expands upon these two ideas.
Choice (2) ignores the historical passage of Eleatic into Italy and passes a value judgment upon scholars who considered it.
Choice (3) is too general since this passage discusses literary criticism of only one work, Eleatic.
Choice (4) is a good summary of the second half of the passage, but not an accurate summary of the whole passage.

CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 10

Directions: The passage below is followed by a question based on its content. Answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage.

The incisive observations entrenched in Parmenides' Eleatic as we know it may actually have originated in Parmenides' lecture notes, or even those of one of his students. Regardless of the origin, Kepler refers to Eleatic, written prior to 323 B.C., as "one of the most enlightening and dominant books ever produced by the human intellect".
Even though it cannot be disputed that translations of Parmenides' work were available at other places also, no proof exists demonstrating that European scholars had access to it between the fifth and ninth centuries. Parmenides was known in Turkey, and a Nestorian monk of the ninth century translated the Eleatic into Turkish from a complete Greek manuscript that is now lost. The work was translated from the Turkish in Arabic in the year 935; from this translation Altamsh of Kardaba, an Islamic philosopher, fashioned a condensed translation in the 12th century projected to "determine how much of Parmenides' book on poetry is concerned with universal rules common to all nations or to most; for most of what is found in this book consists either of rules proper to their poetry and their usage, or they are found in Arabian poetry, or they are found in other languages." Altamsh replaced Arabic examples for the Greek, possessed no notion of literature being a simulation of life, and failed to realise much of the sense of the treatise. It was, however, Altamsh's translation, translated into Latin by Herart Eledir in the thirteenth century, published in Venice in 1481 and reprinted in 1515, that was the first medium enabling Renaissance scholars to judge the content of Eleatic. This version of Eleatic circulated freely, leaving no signs that it influenced critical literature. The practice of translations into Latin (1498), into Greek by Erasmus in 1532, and into Italian by Guini in 1594 has been documented.
When the Italian Renaissance scholars were able to consider the work of Parmenides, the result was twisted not only by the number of quality of translation, but also by the nature of the Italian Renaissance itself, questions of the wished-for meaning of main words and phrases, and the enveloping influence of Horace and the ancient.
The Italians' particular ardour for form established the groundwork for the propagation of Parmenidian "rules," which evolved from faultily construed principles of the Eleatic and incorporated the add-ons of unity of place, elucidation of "nobility" to denote noticeable nobility, the Quintian five acts, and a subjective segregation of a fourth person in dialogue. In Gihhin Jinthos's work, Parmenides's prerequisite that the poet, in contrast to the historian, relate what could happen is interpreted as a requirement that the poetry represents things as they should occur. Other scholars freely amplified Parmenides' work, completing his statements by adding much of the collection of medieval guidelines and a heavy amount of Christian contemplation.
Parmenides is generally understood to have wanted that the tragic hero be "noble." Italian scholars interpreted that the tragic hero be highly famed and affluent, and the status of the actors became such a significant deliberation in the Renaissance that it was sensed to be the distinctive factor between comedy and tragedy. Other facets of drama – scheme, vista, number of players, and poetry – were caste by this construal.

Q. Which of the following options best states the function of the third paragraph in the overall context of the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 10

The third paragraph is a vehicle designed to enable the author to go on to discuss the skewed consideration of Eleatic during the Italian renaissance. The paragraph establishes that the work of Parmenides did eventually come to the Italian Renaissance (bringing to a close the narrative of second paragraph) and prepares the way for the fourth paragraph.
Option 1 does not clarify the idea of the first paragraph. The first paragraph is about Eleatic, the third is about renaissance. It only connects the second paragraph to the fourth.
Option 2 is irrelevant. "The work of Parmenides ... was twisted" cannot be taken to mean what is stated in option (2).
Option 4 is also incorrect. It is not a paragraph of restatement but it is a paragraph that links the preceding paragraph to the succeeding one smoothly.

CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 11

Directions: The passage below is followed by a question based on its content. Answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage.

The incisive observations entrenched in Parmenides' Eleatic as we know it may actually have originated in Parmenides' lecture notes, or even those of one of his students. Regardless of the origin, Kepler refers to Eleatic, written prior to 323 B.C., as "one of the most enlightening and dominant books ever produced by the human intellect".
Even though it cannot be disputed that translations of Parmenides' work were available at other places also, no proof exists demonstrating that European scholars had access to it between the fifth and ninth centuries. Parmenides was known in Turkey, and a Nestorian monk of the ninth century translated the Eleatic into Turkish from a complete Greek manuscript that is now lost. The work was translated from the Turkish in Arabic in the year 935; from this translation Altamsh of Kardaba, an Islamic philosopher, fashioned a condensed translation in the 12th century projected to "determine how much of Parmenides' book on poetry is concerned with universal rules common to all nations or to most; for most of what is found in this book consists either of rules proper to their poetry and their usage, or they are found in Arabian poetry, or they are found in other languages." Altamsh replaced Arabic examples for the Greek, possessed no notion of literature being a simulation of life, and failed to realise much of the sense of the treatise. It was, however, Altamsh's translation, translated into Latin by Herart Eledir in the thirteenth century, published in Venice in 1481 and reprinted in 1515, that was the first medium enabling Renaissance scholars to judge the content of Eleatic. This version of Eleatic circulated freely, leaving no signs that it influenced critical literature. The practice of translations into Latin (1498), into Greek by Erasmus in 1532, and into Italian by Guini in 1594 has been documented.
When the Italian Renaissance scholars were able to consider the work of Parmenides, the result was twisted not only by the number of quality of translation, but also by the nature of the Italian Renaissance itself, questions of the wished-for meaning of main words and phrases, and the enveloping influence of Horace and the ancient.
The Italians' particular ardour for form established the groundwork for the propagation of Parmenidian "rules," which evolved from faultily construed principles of the Eleatic and incorporated the add-ons of unity of place, elucidation of "nobility" to denote noticeable nobility, the Quintian five acts, and a subjective segregation of a fourth person in dialogue. In Gihhin Jinthos's work, Parmenides's prerequisite that the poet, in contrast to the historian, relate what could happen is interpreted as a requirement that the poetry represents things as they should occur. Other scholars freely amplified Parmenides' work, completing his statements by adding much of the collection of medieval guidelines and a heavy amount of Christian contemplation.
Parmenides is generally understood to have wanted that the tragic hero be "noble." Italian scholars interpreted that the tragic hero be highly famed and affluent, and the status of the actors became such a significant deliberation in the Renaissance that it was sensed to be the distinctive factor between comedy and tragedy. Other facets of drama – scheme, vista, number of players, and poetry – were caste by this construal.

Q. Which of the following had the LEAST influence upon Renaissance's interpretation of Parmenides?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 11

The second paragraph states that there was no evidence that this version influenced the renaissance in Italy - "This version of Eleatic circulated freely, leaving no signs that it influenced critical literature."
The third paragraph lists factors that did influence interpretation, including translations (choice 2), the nature of the Renaissance itself (choice 3), also implied by the discussion of Gihhin Jinthos, and questions of intended meaning. The first sentence of the fourth paragraph mentions the renaissance's regard for form (choice 1).
So the only answer that is not mentioned to have any influence on the interpretation is option 4.

CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 12

Directions: The passage below is followed by a question based on its content. Answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage.

The incisive observations entrenched in Parmenides' Eleatic as we know it may actually have originated in Parmenides' lecture notes, or even those of one of his students. Regardless of the origin, Kepler refers to Eleatic, written prior to 323 B.C., as "one of the most enlightening and dominant books ever produced by the human intellect".
Even though it cannot be disputed that translations of Parmenides' work were available at other places also, no proof exists demonstrating that European scholars had access to it between the fifth and ninth centuries. Parmenides was known in Turkey, and a Nestorian monk of the ninth century translated the Eleatic into Turkish from a complete Greek manuscript that is now lost. The work was translated from the Turkish in Arabic in the year 935; from this translation Altamsh of Kardaba, an Islamic philosopher, fashioned a condensed translation in the 12th century projected to "determine how much of Parmenides' book on poetry is concerned with universal rules common to all nations or to most; for most of what is found in this book consists either of rules proper to their poetry and their usage, or they are found in Arabian poetry, or they are found in other languages." Altamsh replaced Arabic examples for the Greek, possessed no notion of literature being a simulation of life, and failed to realise much of the sense of the treatise. It was, however, Altamsh's translation, translated into Latin by Herart Eledir in the thirteenth century, published in Venice in 1481 and reprinted in 1515, that was the first medium enabling Renaissance scholars to judge the content of Eleatic. This version of Eleatic circulated freely, leaving no signs that it influenced critical literature. The practice of translations into Latin (1498), into Greek by Erasmus in 1532, and into Italian by Guini in 1594 has been documented.
When the Italian Renaissance scholars were able to consider the work of Parmenides, the result was twisted not only by the number of quality of translation, but also by the nature of the Italian Renaissance itself, questions of the wished-for meaning of main words and phrases, and the enveloping influence of Horace and the ancient.
The Italians' particular ardour for form established the groundwork for the propagation of Parmenidian "rules," which evolved from faultily construed principles of the Eleatic and incorporated the add-ons of unity of place, elucidation of "nobility" to denote noticeable nobility, the Quintian five acts, and a subjective segregation of a fourth person in dialogue. In Gihhin Jinthos's work, Parmenides's prerequisite that the poet, in contrast to the historian, relate what could happen is interpreted as a requirement that the poetry represents things as they should occur. Other scholars freely amplified Parmenides' work, completing his statements by adding much of the collection of medieval guidelines and a heavy amount of Christian contemplation.
Parmenides is generally understood to have wanted that the tragic hero be "noble." Italian scholars interpreted that the tragic hero be highly famed and affluent, and the status of the actors became such a significant deliberation in the Renaissance that it was sensed to be the distinctive factor between comedy and tragedy. Other facets of drama – scheme, vista, number of players, and poetry – were caste by this construal.

Q. All of the following statements about Italian Renaissance can be inferred from the passage EXCEPT:

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 12

While no evidence suggests that renaissance scholars were aimlessly drifting without direction, all other answer choices except (2) are directly supported.
Choice (1) is indicated by the number of translations of Parmenides' Eleatic that appeared in the late 1400s and early 1500s, as well as by the fact that literary critics had an interest in studying Parmenides.
Choice (3) is indicated by the particular interpretations (for example, have nobility) and by the Italians' love of form, which inspired them to make rules of Parmenides' work.
Choice (4) can be verified by considering Gihhin Jinthos's interpretation of Parmenides.

CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 13

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Since the dawn of recorded law, Western societies have recognised that some people shouldn't be held liable for their acts because they are non compos mentis – not in their right mind. This exemption from criminal sanctions was seen as an act of mercy required by basic morality. This principle was well-established in the English common law, and from there into the law of the United States. In the scenario of ever-rising criminal instances, the question has always been 'the kind and degree of insanity that would excuse its victim from punishment for an act which if done by a sane person would bring upon him the sanctions of the law', as put in the House of Lords in 1843. Until the 20th century, little was known about mental illness. Judging whether a person was deranged—seriously mentally ill and irrational—was seen as a matter for common knowledge. It was a case of 'I know it when I see it.'
The courts tried to codify and standardise the construct of criminal insanity. By the 18th century, the commonly applied legal test in England was that a man should be found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) if he is 'totally deprived of his understanding and memory, and doth not know what he is doing, no more than an infant, than a brute, or a wild beast, such a one is never the object of punishment'. Animals 'know' what they are doing, of course, but they don't know the moral dimension of it. Courts continued to waiver between holding any person guilty who 'knew' what he was doing, and holding to account only those who were morally aware of the wrongness of their action. The problem with this formula is that we tend to measure the wickedness of an actor by our degree of outrage over the act. This allows room for bias, moral condemnation, and the impulse for retribution to enter the process.
The current legal definition of insanity also has no psychiatric correlate; it is a pure creature of law, owing nothing to psychiatry and the sciences of brain and behaviour. The lack of a psychiatric correlate makes it look like psychiatrists and psychologists are unreliable or that mental illness is purely subjective; the fact is, mental health experts often can't agree on whether a defendant fits into the legal definition of insanity, even though they agree about the defendant's diagnosis and degree of psychiatric impairment.
If jurors don't identify with the defendant, perhaps because of ethnic, racial, gender or demographic (status) differences, and if they fear the defendant's criminal act is one that particularly shocks their conscience, acquittal is unlikely, no matter how mentally ill, delusional or irrational the defendant was at the time of commission of the crime. I believe this accounts in part for defence attorneys' hesitation to raise an insanity defence. Approximately 15 per cent of those incarcerated in US prisons have serious mental health disorders. But only 1 per cent of all felony defendants plead not guilty by reason of insanity, and only a quarter of those are found NGRI, in spite of strong psychiatric evidence. As Nygaard said, the legal definition of insanity is in such 'nebulous and often psychologically meaningless terms', it results in 'almost wholly arbitrary decision[s] as to who knows "right" from "wrong"'. These numbers suggest that, to paraphrase Shakespeare, the insanity defence is more honoured in its breach than in its observance.

Q. Which of the following statements is the author of this passage most likely to agree with?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 13

Option 1 is incorrect. This goes against what the author has stated in lines "... if they fear the defendant's criminal act is one that particularly shocks their conscience, acquittal is unlikely, no matter how mentally ill, delusional or irrational the defendant was at the time of commission of the crime. I believe this accounts in part for defence attorneys' hesitation to raise an insanity defence."
Option 2 is correct; the answer can be inferred from the first two sentences of the passage and the last paragraph of the passage where the author empathises with those who are wrongfully incarcerated in US prisons in spite of the fact that what they did was because they had serious mental disorder. The author explores the history and presents fact in order to make a case for this.
Option 3 is incorrect as this is contradictory to what is stated in the line "if they fear the defendant's criminal act is one that particularly shocks their conscience, acquittal is unlikely, no matter how mentally ill, delusional or irrational the defendant was at the time of commission of the crime."
Option 4 is incorrect as it changes the real reason why the application of insanity defence remains inconsistent. It is not that 'original spirit and intent' of the insanity defence remains unclear, it is that the lack of attribution that the jurors might have with the convict that forces defendents to not raise insanity defence.

CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 14

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Since the dawn of recorded law, Western societies have recognised that some people shouldn't be held liable for their acts because they are non compos mentis – not in their right mind. This exemption from criminal sanctions was seen as an act of mercy required by basic morality. This principle was well-established in the English common law, and from there into the law of the United States. In the scenario of ever-rising criminal instances, the question has always been 'the kind and degree of insanity that would excuse its victim from punishment for an act which if done by a sane person would bring upon him the sanctions of the law', as put in the House of Lords in 1843. Until the 20th century, little was known about mental illness. Judging whether a person was deranged—seriously mentally ill and irrational—was seen as a matter for common knowledge. It was a case of 'I know it when I see it.'
The courts tried to codify and standardise the construct of criminal insanity. By the 18th century, the commonly applied legal test in England was that a man should be found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) if he is 'totally deprived of his understanding and memory, and doth not know what he is doing, no more than an infant, than a brute, or a wild beast, such a one is never the object of punishment'. Animals 'know' what they are doing, of course, but they don't know the moral dimension of it. Courts continued to waiver between holding any person guilty who 'knew' what he was doing, and holding to account only those who were morally aware of the wrongness of their action. The problem with this formula is that we tend to measure the wickedness of an actor by our degree of outrage over the act. This allows room for bias, moral condemnation, and the impulse for retribution to enter the process.
The current legal definition of insanity also has no psychiatric correlate; it is a pure creature of law, owing nothing to psychiatry and the sciences of brain and behaviour. The lack of a psychiatric correlate makes it look like psychiatrists and psychologists are unreliable or that mental illness is purely subjective; the fact is, mental health experts often can't agree on whether a defendant fits into the legal definition of insanity, even though they agree about the defendant's diagnosis and degree of psychiatric impairment.
If jurors don't identify with the defendant, perhaps because of ethnic, racial, gender or demographic (status) differences, and if they fear the defendant's criminal act is one that particularly shocks their conscience, acquittal is unlikely, no matter how mentally ill, delusional or irrational the defendant was at the time of commission of the crime. I believe this accounts in part for defence attorneys' hesitation to raise an insanity defence. Approximately 15 per cent of those incarcerated in US prisons have serious mental health disorders. But only 1 per cent of all felony defendants plead not guilty by reason of insanity, and only a quarter of those are found NGRI, in spite of strong psychiatric evidence. As Nygaard said, the legal definition of insanity is in such 'nebulous and often psychologically meaningless terms', it results in 'almost wholly arbitrary decision[s] as to who knows "right" from "wrong"'. These numbers suggest that, to paraphrase Shakespeare, the insanity defence is more honoured in its breach than in its observance.

Q. Which of the following, if true, would weaken the author's argument for insanity defence on the basis of non compos mentis?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 14

The author argues that some people shouldn't be held liable for their acts because they are not in their right mind (non compos mentis). But he also mentions that criminal cases are ever increasing - 'scenario of ever rising criminal instances'. So, if it is true that punishment can deter even the insane people from criminal acts, the author's argument will be weakened. Option 3 is the best choice.
Option 1 does not weaken the argument of the author. If the propotion of criminal acts done by insane people is negligible as compared to sane people, then the author's case of insanity defence on the basis of non compos mentis is upheld since the criminal act can then be treated as an exception and the insanity defence would work.
Option 2 does not weaken the author's argument. Insane people become fearless because of lack of judgement, but it can not be taken as a ground to oppose the argument that they should be held liable.
Option 4 is also not against the author's argument. It also conveys that morality should be considered when dealing with criminal acts, and so says the author.

CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 15

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Since the dawn of recorded law, Western societies have recognised that some people shouldn't be held liable for their acts because they are non compos mentis – not in their right mind. This exemption from criminal sanctions was seen as an act of mercy required by basic morality. This principle was well-established in the English common law, and from there into the law of the United States. In the scenario of ever-rising criminal instances, the question has always been 'the kind and degree of insanity that would excuse its victim from punishment for an act which if done by a sane person would bring upon him the sanctions of the law', as put in the House of Lords in 1843. Until the 20th century, little was known about mental illness. Judging whether a person was deranged—seriously mentally ill and irrational—was seen as a matter for common knowledge. It was a case of 'I know it when I see it.'
The courts tried to codify and standardise the construct of criminal insanity. By the 18th century, the commonly applied legal test in England was that a man should be found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) if he is 'totally deprived of his understanding and memory, and doth not know what he is doing, no more than an infant, than a brute, or a wild beast, such a one is never the object of punishment'. Animals 'know' what they are doing, of course, but they don't know the moral dimension of it. Courts continued to waiver between holding any person guilty who 'knew' what he was doing, and holding to account only those who were morally aware of the wrongness of their action. The problem with this formula is that we tend to measure the wickedness of an actor by our degree of outrage over the act. This allows room for bias, moral condemnation, and the impulse for retribution to enter the process.
The current legal definition of insanity also has no psychiatric correlate; it is a pure creature of law, owing nothing to psychiatry and the sciences of brain and behaviour. The lack of a psychiatric correlate makes it look like psychiatrists and psychologists are unreliable or that mental illness is purely subjective; the fact is, mental health experts often can't agree on whether a defendant fits into the legal definition of insanity, even though they agree about the defendant's diagnosis and degree of psychiatric impairment.
If jurors don't identify with the defendant, perhaps because of ethnic, racial, gender or demographic (status) differences, and if they fear the defendant's criminal act is one that particularly shocks their conscience, acquittal is unlikely, no matter how mentally ill, delusional or irrational the defendant was at the time of commission of the crime. I believe this accounts in part for defence attorneys' hesitation to raise an insanity defence. Approximately 15 per cent of those incarcerated in US prisons have serious mental health disorders. But only 1 per cent of all felony defendants plead not guilty by reason of insanity, and only a quarter of those are found NGRI, in spite of strong psychiatric evidence. As Nygaard said, the legal definition of insanity is in such 'nebulous and often psychologically meaningless terms', it results in 'almost wholly arbitrary decision[s] as to who knows "right" from "wrong"'. These numbers suggest that, to paraphrase Shakespeare, the insanity defence is more honoured in its breach than in its observance.

Q. Which of the following statements is correct as per the arguments given by the author of the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 15

Option 1 is incorrect. The author states that at times jurors might not identify with the defendant and then they might not return an acquittal "no matter how mentally ill, delusional or irrational the defendant was at the time of commission of the crime". Since this goes against what the author states, this is incorrect.
Option 2 gets support from, "The problem with this formula is that we tend to measure the wickedness of an actor by our degree of outrage over the act. This allows room for bias, moral condemnation, and the impulse for retribution to enter the process' and 'if they fear the defendant's criminal act is one that particularly shocks their conscience, acquittal is unlikely, no matter how mentally ill, delusional or irrational the defendant was at the time of commission of the crime."
Option 3 is incorrect since "mental health experts often can't agree on whether a defendant fits into the legal definition of insanity", not whether the 'insanity defence' is valid or invalid.
Option 4 is incorrect; the words 'unlawful' and 'modern' do not get support from the passage. The text only states "The lack of a psychiatric correlate makes it look like psychiatrists and psychologists are unreliable or that mental illness is purely subjective."

CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 16

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Since the dawn of recorded law, Western societies have recognised that some people shouldn't be held liable for their acts because they are non compos mentis – not in their right mind. This exemption from criminal sanctions was seen as an act of mercy required by basic morality. This principle was well-established in the English common law, and from there into the law of the United States. In the scenario of ever-rising criminal instances, the question has always been 'the kind and degree of insanity that would excuse its victim from punishment for an act which if done by a sane person would bring upon him the sanctions of the law', as put in the House of Lords in 1843. Until the 20th century, little was known about mental illness. Judging whether a person was deranged—seriously mentally ill and irrational—was seen as a matter for common knowledge. It was a case of 'I know it when I see it.'
The courts tried to codify and standardise the construct of criminal insanity. By the 18th century, the commonly applied legal test in England was that a man should be found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) if he is 'totally deprived of his understanding and memory, and doth not know what he is doing, no more than an infant, than a brute, or a wild beast, such a one is never the object of punishment'. Animals 'know' what they are doing, of course, but they don't know the moral dimension of it. Courts continued to waiver between holding any person guilty who 'knew' what he was doing, and holding to account only those who were morally aware of the wrongness of their action. The problem with this formula is that we tend to measure the wickedness of an actor by our degree of outrage over the act. This allows room for bias, moral condemnation, and the impulse for retribution to enter the process.
The current legal definition of insanity also has no psychiatric correlate; it is a pure creature of law, owing nothing to psychiatry and the sciences of brain and behaviour. The lack of a psychiatric correlate makes it look like psychiatrists and psychologists are unreliable or that mental illness is purely subjective; the fact is, mental health experts often can't agree on whether a defendant fits into the legal definition of insanity, even though they agree about the defendant's diagnosis and degree of psychiatric impairment.
If jurors don't identify with the defendant, perhaps because of ethnic, racial, gender or demographic (status) differences, and if they fear the defendant's criminal act is one that particularly shocks their conscience, acquittal is unlikely, no matter how mentally ill, delusional or irrational the defendant was at the time of commission of the crime. I believe this accounts in part for defence attorneys' hesitation to raise an insanity defence. Approximately 15 per cent of those incarcerated in US prisons have serious mental health disorders. But only 1 per cent of all felony defendants plead not guilty by reason of insanity, and only a quarter of those are found NGRI, in spite of strong psychiatric evidence. As Nygaard said, the legal definition of insanity is in such 'nebulous and often psychologically meaningless terms', it results in 'almost wholly arbitrary decision[s] as to who knows "right" from "wrong"'. These numbers suggest that, to paraphrase Shakespeare, the insanity defence is more honoured in its breach than in its observance.

Q. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 16

Option 1 can be inferred from the second-last paragraph, 'The current legal definition of insanity also has no psychiatric correlate ... mental illness is purely subjective.'
Option 2 does not get support from the passage. It, in fact, implies that even the mentally ill are rational which is contradictory to what is stated in the text.
Option 3 cannot be inferred as the author states that it is not because of the erosion of human conscience but the lack of a reliable legal definition of insanity that insanity defence is partly not considered. Also, this option is extreme as it states 'no more considered a moral support'. The author states that '1 per cent of all felony defendants [do] plead not guilty by reason of insanity.'
Option 4 is contrary to what is mentioned in the passage: 'Animals know what they are doing, of course, but they don't know the moral dimension of it.'

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 17

Directions: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentences and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer.

1. It is expected not only to determine the results of an experiment but also to provide some understanding of the physical events that are presumed to underline the observed results.

2. Apart from experimental confirmations, however, something more is generally demanded of a theory.

3. When one seeks information of this kind in the quantum theory, certain conceptual difficulties arise.

4. In other words, a theory should not only give the position of a pointer on dial but also explain why the pointer takes up that position.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 17

All the statements, except 2, start explaining a previous statement. So 2, which starts the topic under discussion - expectations from 'a theory' - comes first. It is followed by statement 1 ('it' in 1 refers to 'theory' in 2), which highlights the importance of explanation of 'results' in theory followed by an example on it which is mentioned in 4. Thus leaving us with 3 as the concluding statement. The sequence is 2143.

CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 18

Directions: There is a sentence that is missing in the paragraph below. Look at the paragraph and decide in which blank (option 1, 2, 3, or 4) the following sentence would best fit.

Sentence: As a person's leadership capabilities grow and opportunities to demonstrate them expand, high-profile, challenging assignments and other organisational endorsements become more likely.

Paragraph: A person asserts leadership by taking purposeful action-such as convening a meeting to revive a dormant project. ___(1)___. Others affirm or resist the action, thus encouraging or discouraging subsequent assertions. These interactions inform the person's sense of self as a leader and communicate how others view his or her fitness for the role. ___(2)___. Such affirmation gives the person the fortitude to step outside a comfort zone and experiment with unfamiliar behaviours and new ways of exercising leadership. ___(3)___. An absence of affirmation, however, diminishes self-confidence and discourages him or her from seeking developmental opportunities or experimenting. ___(4)___. Leadership identity, which begins as a tentative, peripheral aspect of the self, eventually withers away, along with opportunities to grow through new assignments and real achievements.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 18

The sentence fits best blank 2. 'Such affirmation' in the sentence following blank 2 refers to opportunities and organisational 'endorsements' becoming more likely. Option 4 is incorrect as the context of the ending statements of the passage is more about the lack of affirmation than the growth in leadership capabilities. Options 1 and 3 are also incorrect as fitting a sentence in these blanks would distort the flow of the passage.

CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 19

Directions: The passage given below is followed by four alternative summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

Socrates equated knowledge with virtue, which ultimately leads to ethical conduct. He believed that the only life worth living was one that was rigorously examined. He looked for principles and actions that were worth living by, creating an ethical base upon which decisions should be made. Socrates firmly believed that knowledge and understanding of virtue, or 'the good,' was sufficient for someone to be happy. To him, knowledge of the good was almost akin to an enlightened state. He believed that no person could willingly choose to do something harmful or negative if they were fully aware of the value of life.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 19

1. Incorrect. People who mean no harm to others may or may not live a life that is well-lived.
2. Incorrect. The passage does not talk about levels of awareness.
3. Correct. The passage talks about man being 'fully' aware, so 'heightened' awareness is the key.
4. Incorrect. The principles and actions should be good and not 'regarded' good by the individual concerned. The sentence ''He looked for principles and actions that were worth living by…'' meant that these principles were universal and not individualised.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 20

Directions: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentences and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer.

1. Actuaries can work in any environment that involves managing long term liability, as the very business of life insurance is investing funds for the long term.

2. The new areas include general insurance and other businesses in the financial sector that involve putting a current value on long-term liabilities.

3. Global consolidation among insurance companies is reducing opportunities for actuaries.

4. Actuaries are hence looking for pastures outside the realm of life insurance.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 20

3 should start the sequence as it introduces the topic - global consolidation. 3 (reducing opportunities) can be taken as the cause and 4 (hence looking for pastures) is its effect. Also, the word 'actuaries' connects them both. Thus, we have the 3-4 link. And 4 is followed by 2 as 4 suggests to look for areas 'outside the realm of life insurance' and B gives the alternatives of that (new areas include general insurance). Hence, 4-2 is the strong link. Last comes 1; the words 'long term' connect it with 2. The sequence is 3421.

CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 21

Directions: There is a sentence that is missing in the paragraph below. Look at the paragraph and decide in which blank (option 1, 2, 3, or 4) the following sentence would best fit.

Sentence: Due to the expenses associated with maintaining plant equipment, large refineries are often dependent on subsidies to continue performing a job that is critical to the functioning of a nation.

Paragraph: ___(1)___. Petroleum refineries have typically been large pieces of infrastructure, in parts because of the huge demand for oil refining and the costly infrastructure involved. Costs associated with oil refining continue to increase as there have been moves towards legislating fuel composition more heavily, including needing reduced sulfur levels in diesel and higher octane levels in gasoline in road transport fuels. ___(2)___. Crude oil prices have often suffered with great volatility, from stresses on demand to issues with supply due to factors such as accidents involving fires and damages to refineries. ___(3)___. This has, in turn, put pressure on the ability of oil refineries to be economically viable or generate profit. ___(4)___. However, in the face of market price volatility, what happens in countries that cannot necessarily afford to build and maintain such large, but essential, infrastructure and have a rich crude oil source of their own?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 21

The given sentence best fits blank 4. The context is that since a lot of expenses are involved in maintaining plant equipment, refineries are often dependent on subsidies. The statement following blank 4 then poses a question regarding the applicability of this model to countries that do not even have resources to build or maintain such refineries. The sentence fails to fit blank 1 as the introductory statement and serves more as a follow-up statement. Also, placement in blank 2 would be erroneous as there are no linking elements. Nothing about subsidies can be inferred from the previous or the following statements. Option 3 is also incorrect as 'subsidies' are not which have put pressure on ....

CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 22

Directions: The passage given below is followed by four alternative summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

The longing not to die but to persist forever cannot arise in the mind which is locked up in time. Thus it is that man is not limited by time, really speaking. Otherwise, this desire to live long cannot arise in the mind. He is not even limited to space; otherwise, the desire to break the limitations of the world outside and probe into the corners of creation cannot arise in him. The longing to possess the whole world is not possible if it is locked up in a little space.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 22

The author mentions about human mind that is not bound by the physical boundaries of space and is not locked up in time. He states that only this kind of mind can think about the possibilities that are beyond the scope of time and space (persist forever, the desire to break the limitations of the world outside, longing to possess the whole world). Hence, option 2 is the correct answer.
Option 1 is incorrect because a mind with no idea of limits of time is not removed, instead he has the idea to surpass time and space.

CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 23

Directions: The passage given below is followed by four alternative summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

When one starts an institution, opens up an organisation, has followers, conducts conferences, writes books, meets people and does various things, it is very easy for the mind to miss its main purpose in the background and be carried away by the books that are written, the glory that comes as a consequence of one's importance, the largeness of the institution, the number of the followers, and the facilities or comforts which are provided to the body and to the ego. No one loves anything more than comfort. Physical, psychological and social comfort is what we seek. It is very easy to interpret comfort in a very convenient manner, going on a tangent and totally missing the point, and in a way deceiving oneself. This is something one has to guard against, especially when one takes to a spiritual path and a religious life, and regards oneself as a spiritual seeker, a humble disciple of a great Master or perhaps a servant of God.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 23

1. It is not the social interactions but the comforts that come from specific roles that can create hindrances to spiritual goals.
2. The author is cautioning the reader that he might misconstrue comfort (physical, psychological and social comfort) and thus deviate from spiritual path.
3. This is what the author intends.
4. This is not the essence of the passage; words 'lead to ego' weaken the option.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 24

Directions: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentences and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer.

1. And how it is given makes all the difference.

2. She has discovered that her criticisms are usually welcome and her suggestions are accepted courteously.

3. There are times when adverse criticism is justified.

4. I know of a woman who speaks out when she is dissatisfied, but prefaces her complaint with recognition of some worthwhile achievement.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 24

Statements 3 and 4 are independent ones and can start the sequence, but if we use 4, we find that the sequence formed is not logical. Thus we start with 3, a general statement, followed by 1 because it is dependent on statement 3 ('it' in A refers to 'adverse criticism' in 3). Then we give an example in 4 for the topic under discussion and forming 314 as the strong link. 2 is the concluding statement. 'She' in 2 refers to 'woman' in 4. The sequence is 3142.

CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 25

Directions: These questions are based on the given charts.

In which of the following years, was the number of employees of company XYZ, the highest?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 25

Hence, in 2009 the number of employees of company XYZ was highest.

CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 26

Directions: These questions are based on the given charts.

The total assets of company XYZ continuously decreased (with respect to the previous year) in the four years from 2007 to 2010 by 20%, 10%, 5%, 10% respectively. Of these four years, in which year, was the ratio of revenue to assets the highest?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 26
From year 2007 to 2010, revenue is highest in year 2009 As assets of the company is continuously decreasing.

∴ Assets in 2009 is lesser than that in 2007 and 2008

∴ Ratio of revenue to assets in 2009 is higher than that in 2007 and 2008 Now in 2010 assets decreased by 10% when compared to 2009 and revenue in 2010 is 442 crores.

Let assets in 2009 be x

Then ratio of revenue to assets

In 2009 = 500/x

In 2010 = 4420.9x = 491.11/x

∴ Ratio is highest in 2009

CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 27

Directions: These questions are based on the given charts.

In which year during the period 2007-10 was the ratio of expenses to profit the lowest?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 27
The ratio of expenses to profit

The ratio is lowest in 2007.

CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 28

Directions: These questions are based on the given charts.

In how many of the years from 2007 to 2010 (both inclusive) was a rise in profit per employee accompanied by a fall in the total profits or vice-versa (with respect to the previous year)?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 28
Change in profit per employee can be calculated from first bar-chart and change in total

profit can be calculated from second bar-chart.

Change in profit per employee

In 2007 = − 1(–ve)

In 2008 = − 10 (–ve)

In 2009 = 1 (+ve)

In 2010 = 2 (+ve)

Change in total profit

In 2007 = 300 − 217 = 83 crores (+ve)

In 2008 = 112 − 300 = − 188 crores (–ve)

In 2009 = 247 − 112 = 135 crores (+ve)

In 2010 = 263 − 247 = 16 crores (+ve)

There is an opposite trend only in year 2007.

In the year 2009, number of govt. Employees

= 3846 × 1.04 × 1.05 × 1.06 = 4452

Number of private employees

= 0.87 × 3846 × 0.98 × 1 × 0.99

= 3246

Required difference = 4452 − 3246 = 1206

CAT Mock Test - 12 - Question 29

The following table shows data of lipsticks, please refer to the table to answer the questions that follow

Average price per unit of Brand ‘A’ lipstick in March 2009 is