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CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022)


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CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 1

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Recognising our feelings of grief is important, not only because we cannot mourn our losses if we do not acknowledge them, but also because the literature and science of grief offer guidance for how to respond to this pandemic in ways that make psychological healing possible. In his 2008 book, The New Black: Mourning, Melancholia and Depression, the psychoanalyst Darian Leader argues that British society has lost a vital connection to grief, preferring to interpret the pain of unacknowledged or unresolved loss and separation medically, as depression, and opting for what he calls “mental hygiene” - the management of troublesome, superficial symptoms - over the deeper, harder work of mourning. We do not find it easy, in this culture of self-optimisation and life-hacks, to accept that grief is not something you can “get over”, that there is no cure for pain. The act of mourning is not to recover from loss, Leader argues, but rather to find a way to accommodate and live with it. And, if we put off or bypass the work of mourning, the pain of our losses will return to torment us, often in disruptive or unexpected ways.

The anthropologist Geoffrey Gorer argued that the mass deaths of the First World War so overwhelmed British communities that people began to abandon traditional mourning rituals, something that served to transform grief from a communal experience to a private emotion. The pandemic might be accelerating this process, as people are left to mourn alone in lockdown and to pay their final respects over Zoom. And yet, Darian Leader contends that we cannot properly mourn in isolation; mourning is a social task. “A loss, after all, always requires some kind of recognition, some sense that it has been witnessed and made real,” Leader writes. This is why we have such an elemental need to feel heard, why we make the effort to commemorate past conflicts, why post-conflict truth and reconciliation commissions are less about punishment than recognising the crimes. The demands for a public inquiry into the British government’s pandemic response speaks to this need, and to another dimension of pandemic grief. 

Leader argues that public displays of grief help facilitate individual mourning. In his view, it is through public ceremonies that people are able to access their own, personal grief. This is the function performed by traditions of hiring professional mourners to keen at funerals, and it helps explain why celebrity deaths sometimes unleash an outpouring of grief. The near-hysterical response to the death of Princess Diana in 1997 was not, as some newspapers contended, a mark of “mourning sickness” or “crocodile tears”. Rather, the public mood provided people with a way to access their grief over other, unrelated losses.

Those who study grief often point to the inevitability of pain. When people put off the business of mourning, the pain of loss and separation finds a way to reassert itself. Leader describes the phenomenon of “anniversary symptoms”, the findings that adult hospitalisation dates coincide remarkably with anniversaries of childhood losses, or that GP surgery records reveal that people often return to doctors in the same week or month as their previous visit. “Rather than access their memories, the body commemorates them,” Leader writes.

 

Q. Darian Leader argues that British society has lost a vital connection to grief because

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 1

The author states the following in the passage-

{In his 2008 book, The New Black: Mourning, Melancholia and Depression, the psychoanalyst Darian Leader argues that British society has lost a vital connection to grief, preferring to interpret the pain of unacknowledged or unresolved loss and separation medically, as depression and opting for what he calls “mental hygiene” - the management of troublesome, superficial symptoms - over the deeper, harder work of mourning.}

So Leader asserts that society tags the pain associated with unresolved loss and separation as depression and takes the "mental hygiene" route, focussing on superficial symptoms to tackle these issues rather than focussing on mourning.

Comparing the options, Option C conveys this inference and is the answer. 

Options A and D are close. Option A, however, does not discuss the need for mourning. Option D, on the other hand, claims that society refuses to acknowledge the benefits of mourning, which has not been implied in the passage. Society refuses to traverse that path because it's hard work, according to Leader.

Option B contradicts the discussion in the passage. Society is actually concerned about depression, though the definition may be faulty. 

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 2

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Recognising our feelings of grief is important, not only because we cannot mourn our losses if we do not acknowledge them, but also because the literature and science of grief offer guidance for how to respond to this pandemic in ways that make psychological healing possible. In his 2008 book, The New Black: Mourning, Melancholia and Depression, the psychoanalyst Darian Leader argues that British society has lost a vital connection to grief, preferring to interpret the pain of unacknowledged or unresolved loss and separation medically, as depression, and opting for what he calls “mental hygiene” - the management of troublesome, superficial symptoms - over the deeper, harder work of mourning. We do not find it easy, in this culture of self-optimisation and life-hacks, to accept that grief is not something you can “get over”, that there is no cure for pain. The act of mourning is not to recover from loss, Leader argues, but rather to find a way to accommodate and live with it. And, if we put off or bypass the work of mourning, the pain of our losses will return to torment us, often in disruptive or unexpected ways.

The anthropologist Geoffrey Gorer argued that the mass deaths of the First World War so overwhelmed British communities that people began to abandon traditional mourning rituals, something that served to transform grief from a communal experience to a private emotion. The pandemic might be accelerating this process, as people are left to mourn alone in lockdown and to pay their final respects over Zoom. And yet, Darian Leader contends that we cannot properly mourn in isolation; mourning is a social task. “A loss, after all, always requires some kind of recognition, some sense that it has been witnessed and made real,” Leader writes. This is why we have such an elemental need to feel heard, why we make the effort to commemorate past conflicts, why post-conflict truth and reconciliation commissions are less about punishment than recognising the crimes. The demands for a public inquiry into the British government’s pandemic response speaks to this need, and to another dimension of pandemic grief. 

Leader argues that public displays of grief help facilitate individual mourning. In his view, it is through public ceremonies that people are able to access their own, personal grief. This is the function performed by traditions of hiring professional mourners to keen at funerals, and it helps explain why celebrity deaths sometimes unleash an outpouring of grief. The near-hysterical response to the death of Princess Diana in 1997 was not, as some newspapers contended, a mark of “mourning sickness” or “crocodile tears”. Rather, the public mood provided people with a way to access their grief over other, unrelated losses.

Those who study grief often point to the inevitability of pain. When people put off the business of mourning, the pain of loss and separation finds a way to reassert itself. Leader describes the phenomenon of “anniversary symptoms”, the findings that adult hospitalisation dates coincide remarkably with anniversaries of childhood losses, or that GP surgery records reveal that people often return to doctors in the same week or month as their previous visit. “Rather than access their memories, the body commemorates them,” Leader writes.

 

Q. Which of the following statements is Leader least likely to agree with?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 2

{The act of mourning is not to recover from loss, Leader argues, but rather to find a way to accommodate and live with it.} Option A can be inferred from this.

In the last paragraph, the author mentions the following-

{When people put off the business of mourning, the pain of loss and separation finds a way to reassert itself. Leader describes the phenomenon of “anniversary symptoms”, the findings that adult hospitalisation dates coincide remarkably with anniversaries of childhood losses, or that GP surgery records reveal that people often return to doctors in the same week or month as their previous visit. “Rather than access their memories, the body commemorates them,” Leader writes}

When the business of mourning is put off, the pain of loss and separation finds a way to resurface. And anniversary symptoms are examples of this. Leader would agree with option B.

{The pandemic might be accelerating this process, as people are left to mourn alone in lockdown and to pay their final respects over Zoom. And yet, Darian Leader contends that we cannot properly mourn in isolation; mourning is a social task. “A loss, after all, always requires some kind of recognition, some sense that it has been witnessed and made real,” Leader writes.} In the third paragraph,  Leader asserts, "The act of mourning is not to recover from loss, Leader argues, but rather to find a way to accommodate and live with it." And we know, according to Leader, mourning helps in accommodating the loss and live with it. Hence, mourning in isolation, which is not proper mourning according to Leader, may not help a person find a way to accommodate the loss and live with it. Option C is also likely to receive Leader's approval.

This leaves us with option D, which is least likely to receive Leader's approval. In the penultimate paragraph, Leader argues that public displays of grief help facilitate individual mourning. So, he believes that individual mourning is possible. Hence, option D is the answer.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 3

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Recognising our feelings of grief is important, not only because we cannot mourn our losses if we do not acknowledge them, but also because the literature and science of grief offer guidance for how to respond to this pandemic in ways that make psychological healing possible. In his 2008 book, The New Black: Mourning, Melancholia and Depression, the psychoanalyst Darian Leader argues that British society has lost a vital connection to grief, preferring to interpret the pain of unacknowledged or unresolved loss and separation medically, as depression, and opting for what he calls “mental hygiene” - the management of troublesome, superficial symptoms - over the deeper, harder work of mourning. We do not find it easy, in this culture of self-optimisation and life-hacks, to accept that grief is not something you can “get over”, that there is no cure for pain. The act of mourning is not to recover from loss, Leader argues, but rather to find a way to accommodate and live with it. And, if we put off or bypass the work of mourning, the pain of our losses will return to torment us, often in disruptive or unexpected ways.

The anthropologist Geoffrey Gorer argued that the mass deaths of the First World War so overwhelmed British communities that people began to abandon traditional mourning rituals, something that served to transform grief from a communal experience to a private emotion. The pandemic might be accelerating this process, as people are left to mourn alone in lockdown and to pay their final respects over Zoom. And yet, Darian Leader contends that we cannot properly mourn in isolation; mourning is a social task. “A loss, after all, always requires some kind of recognition, some sense that it has been witnessed and made real,” Leader writes. This is why we have such an elemental need to feel heard, why we make the effort to commemorate past conflicts, why post-conflict truth and reconciliation commissions are less about punishment than recognising the crimes. The demands for a public inquiry into the British government’s pandemic response speaks to this need, and to another dimension of pandemic grief. 

Leader argues that public displays of grief help facilitate individual mourning. In his view, it is through public ceremonies that people are able to access their own, personal grief. This is the function performed by traditions of hiring professional mourners to keen at funerals, and it helps explain why celebrity deaths sometimes unleash an outpouring of grief. The near-hysterical response to the death of Princess Diana in 1997 was not, as some newspapers contended, a mark of “mourning sickness” or “crocodile tears”. Rather, the public mood provided people with a way to access their grief over other, unrelated losses.

Those who study grief often point to the inevitability of pain. When people put off the business of mourning, the pain of loss and separation finds a way to reassert itself. Leader describes the phenomenon of “anniversary symptoms”, the findings that adult hospitalisation dates coincide remarkably with anniversaries of childhood losses, or that GP surgery records reveal that people often return to doctors in the same week or month as their previous visit. “Rather than access their memories, the body commemorates them,” Leader writes.

 

Q. Which of the following statements cannot be inferred from the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 3

In the second paragraph, the author makes the following observation-

{The anthropologist Geoffrey Gorer argued that the mass deaths of the First World War so overwhelmed British communities that people began to abandon traditional mourning rituals, something that served to transform grief from a communal experience to a private emotion. The pandemic might be accelerating this process, as people are left to mourn alone in lockdown and to pay their final respects over Zoom.}

However, the statement in option A is a general statement. It is not possible to conclude that all events that result in mass deaths force people to favor individual mourning over communal mourning, from the above information alone. Option A cannot be inferred, and is the answer. 

{Recognising our feelings of grief is important, not only because we cannot mourn our losses if we do not acknowledge them} Option B can be inferred from this phrase.

{The near-hysterical response to the death of Princess Diana in 1997 was not, as some newspapers contended, a mark of “mourning sickness” or “crocodile tears”. Rather, the public mood provided people with a way to access their grief over other, unrelated losses.} Option C can be inferred from the above example. People are capable of accessing personal grief over unrelated losses.

{Leader argues that public displays of grief help facilitate individual mourning. In his view, it is through public ceremonies that people are able to access their own, personal grief.}  Option D can be inferred from this line.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 4

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Recognising our feelings of grief is important, not only because we cannot mourn our losses if we do not acknowledge them, but also because the literature and science of grief offer guidance for how to respond to this pandemic in ways that make psychological healing possible. In his 2008 book, The New Black: Mourning, Melancholia and Depression, the psychoanalyst Darian Leader argues that British society has lost a vital connection to grief, preferring to interpret the pain of unacknowledged or unresolved loss and separation medically, as depression, and opting for what he calls “mental hygiene” - the management of troublesome, superficial symptoms - over the deeper, harder work of mourning. We do not find it easy, in this culture of self-optimisation and life-hacks, to accept that grief is not something you can “get over”, that there is no cure for pain. The act of mourning is not to recover from loss, Leader argues, but rather to find a way to accommodate and live with it. And, if we put off or bypass the work of mourning, the pain of our losses will return to torment us, often in disruptive or unexpected ways.

The anthropologist Geoffrey Gorer argued that the mass deaths of the First World War so overwhelmed British communities that people began to abandon traditional mourning rituals, something that served to transform grief from a communal experience to a private emotion. The pandemic might be accelerating this process, as people are left to mourn alone in lockdown and to pay their final respects over Zoom. And yet, Darian Leader contends that we cannot properly mourn in isolation; mourning is a social task. “A loss, after all, always requires some kind of recognition, some sense that it has been witnessed and made real,” Leader writes. This is why we have such an elemental need to feel heard, why we make the effort to commemorate past conflicts, why post-conflict truth and reconciliation commissions are less about punishment than recognising the crimes. The demands for a public inquiry into the British government’s pandemic response speaks to this need, and to another dimension of pandemic grief. 

Leader argues that public displays of grief help facilitate individual mourning. In his view, it is through public ceremonies that people are able to access their own, personal grief. This is the function performed by traditions of hiring professional mourners to keen at funerals, and it helps explain why celebrity deaths sometimes unleash an outpouring of grief. The near-hysterical response to the death of Princess Diana in 1997 was not, as some newspapers contended, a mark of “mourning sickness” or “crocodile tears”. Rather, the public mood provided people with a way to access their grief over other, unrelated losses.

Those who study grief often point to the inevitability of pain. When people put off the business of mourning, the pain of loss and separation finds a way to reassert itself. Leader describes the phenomenon of “anniversary symptoms”, the findings that adult hospitalisation dates coincide remarkably with anniversaries of childhood losses, or that GP surgery records reveal that people often return to doctors in the same week or month as their previous visit. “Rather than access their memories, the body commemorates them,” Leader writes.

 

Q. The author cites the example of post-conflict truth and reconciliation commissions to drive home the point that

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 4

According to the author, "“A loss, after all, always requires some kind of recognition, some sense that it has been witnessed and made real,” Leader writes. This is why we have such an elemental need to feel heard, why we make the effort to commemorate past conflicts, why post-conflict truth and reconciliation commissions are less about punishment than recognising the crimes." 

So, the need for acknowledgment of our losses is the reason why we engage in these exercises. Comparing the options, option C conveys this inference correctly.

Option A is a distortion. The author does not make such an assertion.

Options B and D are beyond the scope of the passage and do not convey the above inference in any way.

Option C is the answer.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 5

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Charles Darwin thought the mental capacities of animals and people differed only in degree, not kind—a natural conclusion to reach when armed with the radical new belief that the one evolved from the other. His last great book, “The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals”, examined joy, love and grief in birds, domestic animals and primates as well as in various human races. But Darwin’s attitude to animals—easily shared by people in everyday contact with dogs, horses, even mice—ran contrary to a long tradition in European thought which held that animals had no minds at all. This way of thinking stemmed from the argument of René Descartes, a great 17th-century philosopher, that people were creatures of reason, linked to the mind of God, while animals were merely machines made of flesh—living robots which, in the words of Nicolas Malebranche, one of his followers, “eat without pleasure, cry without pain, grow without knowing it: they desire nothing, fear nothing, know nothing.”

For much of the 20th century biology cleaved closer to Descartes than to Darwin. Students of animal behaviour did not rule out the possibility that animals had minds but thought the question almost irrelevant since it was impossible to answer. One could study an organism’s inputs (such as food or the environment) or outputs (its behaviour). But the organism itself remained a black box: unobservable things such as emotions or thoughts were beyond the scope of objective inquiry.

In the past 40 years, however, a wide range of work both in the field and the lab has pushed the consensus away from strict behaviourism and towards that Darwin-friendly view. Progress has not been easy or quick; as the behaviourists warned, both sorts of evidence can be misleading. Laboratory tests can be rigorous, but are inevitably based on animals which may not behave as they do in the wild. Field observations can be dismissed as anecdotal. Running them for years or decades and on a large scale goes some way to guarding against that problem, but such studies are rare.

Nevertheless, most scientists...say with confidence that some animals process information and express emotions in ways that are accompanied by conscious mental experience. They agree that animals...have complex mental capacities; that a few species have attributes once thought to be unique to people, such as the ability to give objects names and use tools; and that a handful of animals—primates, corvids (the crow family) and cetaceans (whales and dolphins)— have something close to what in humans is seen as culture, in that they develop distinctive ways of doing things which are passed down by imitation and example. Dolphins have been found to imitate the behaviour of other dolphins, in their group. No animals have all the attributes of human minds; but almost all the attributes of human minds are found in some animal or other.

 Brain mapping reveals that the neurological processes underlying what look like emotions in rats are similar to those behind what clearly are emotions in humans. As a group of neuroscientists seeking to sum the field up put it in 2012, “Humans are not unique in possessing the neurological substrates that generate consciousness. Non-human animals, including all mammals and birds, and many other creatures...also possess these neurological substrates.”

 

Q. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?

I. There is now a consensus among most scientists that some animals exhibit most of the attributes characteristic of human minds.

II. Some animals are self-aware and are also conscious of their social milieu.

III. Some animal minds are capable of imitative behaviour.

IV. People who rarely came in contact with animals disregarded Darwin's views on animal minds. 

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 5

Statement I is a distortion. The author states that "No animals have all the attributes of human minds; but almost all the attributes of human minds are found in some animal or other." The author attempts to convey the point most of the attributes of human minds, say, X,Y, Z etc., are found in animals too. For example, attribute X and Y in animal A, only Y in animal B, only Z in animal C and so on.

{ "Nevertheless, most scientists now feel they can say with confidence that some animals process information and express emotions in ways that are accompanied by conscious mental experience.}  But the inference drawn from this line is not sufficient to conclude that the animals are self-aware. Statement II can be eliminated.

{ They agree that animals...have complex mental capacities; that a few species have attributes once thought to be unique to people, such as the ability to give objects names and use tools; and that a handful of animals—primates, corvids (the crow family) and cetaceans (whales and dolphins)— have something close to what in humans is seen as culture, in that they develop distinctive ways of doing things which are passed down by imitation and example. Dolphins have been found to imitate the behaviour of other dolphins, in their group.} Statement III can be inferred from these lines. 

In the first paragraph, the author makes the observation that Darwin's attitude to animals was easily shared by people in everyday contact with dogs, horses, even mice. This, however, does not lead to the conclusion mentioned in statement IV. People who seldom came in contact with animals could still have backed Darwin's views.

Only statement III can be inferred. Hence, Option B is the answer.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 6

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Charles Darwin thought the mental capacities of animals and people differed only in degree, not kind—a natural conclusion to reach when armed with the radical new belief that the one evolved from the other. His last great book, “The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals”, examined joy, love and grief in birds, domestic animals and primates as well as in various human races. But Darwin’s attitude to animals—easily shared by people in everyday contact with dogs, horses, even mice—ran contrary to a long tradition in European thought which held that animals had no minds at all. This way of thinking stemmed from the argument of René Descartes, a great 17th-century philosopher, that people were creatures of reason, linked to the mind of God, while animals were merely machines made of flesh—living robots which, in the words of Nicolas Malebranche, one of his followers, “eat without pleasure, cry without pain, grow without knowing it: they desire nothing, fear nothing, know nothing.”

For much of the 20th century biology cleaved closer to Descartes than to Darwin. Students of animal behaviour did not rule out the possibility that animals had minds but thought the question almost irrelevant since it was impossible to answer. One could study an organism’s inputs (such as food or the environment) or outputs (its behaviour). But the organism itself remained a black box: unobservable things such as emotions or thoughts were beyond the scope of objective inquiry.

In the past 40 years, however, a wide range of work both in the field and the lab has pushed the consensus away from strict behaviourism and towards that Darwin-friendly view. Progress has not been easy or quick; as the behaviourists warned, both sorts of evidence can be misleading. Laboratory tests can be rigorous, but are inevitably based on animals which may not behave as they do in the wild. Field observations can be dismissed as anecdotal. Running them for years or decades and on a large scale goes some way to guarding against that problem, but such studies are rare.

Nevertheless, most scientists...say with confidence that some animals process information and express emotions in ways that are accompanied by conscious mental experience. They agree that animals...have complex mental capacities; that a few species have attributes once thought to be unique to people, such as the ability to give objects names and use tools; and that a handful of animals—primates, corvids (the crow family) and cetaceans (whales and dolphins)— have something close to what in humans is seen as culture, in that they develop distinctive ways of doing things which are passed down by imitation and example. Dolphins have been found to imitate the behaviour of other dolphins, in their group. No animals have all the attributes of human minds; but almost all the attributes of human minds are found in some animal or other.

 Brain mapping reveals that the neurological processes underlying what look like emotions in rats are similar to those behind what clearly are emotions in humans. As a group of neuroscientists seeking to sum the field up put it in 2012, “Humans are not unique in possessing the neurological substrates that generate consciousness. Non-human animals, including all mammals and birds, and many other creatures...also possess these neurological substrates.”

 

Q. Which of the following views of Descartes and/or his followers cannot be inferred from the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 6

{But Darwin’s attitude to animals—easily shared by people in everyday contact with dogs, horses, even mice—ran contrary to a long tradition in European thought which held that animals had no minds at all. This way of thinking stemmed from the argument of René Descartes, a great 17th-century philosopher, that people were creatures of reason, linked to the mind of God, while animals were merely machines made of flesh—living robots which, in the words of Nicolas Malebranche, one of his followers, “eat without pleasure, cry without pain, grow without knowing it: they desire nothing, fear nothing, know nothing.”}

Options B and D can be inferred from the last line. Also, Descartes asserts that animals do not have minds. And additionally, humans are creatures of reason. Hence, the mind is essential to be able to reason. Option A can be inferred as well.

Hence, option C is the answer. The author does not present either Descartes or his followers' views on the role animals play in human existence.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 7

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Charles Darwin thought the mental capacities of animals and people differed only in degree, not kind—a natural conclusion to reach when armed with the radical new belief that the one evolved from the other. His last great book, “The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals”, examined joy, love and grief in birds, domestic animals and primates as well as in various human races. But Darwin’s attitude to animals—easily shared by people in everyday contact with dogs, horses, even mice—ran contrary to a long tradition in European thought which held that animals had no minds at all. This way of thinking stemmed from the argument of René Descartes, a great 17th-century philosopher, that people were creatures of reason, linked to the mind of God, while animals were merely machines made of flesh—living robots which, in the words of Nicolas Malebranche, one of his followers, “eat without pleasure, cry without pain, grow without knowing it: they desire nothing, fear nothing, know nothing.”

For much of the 20th century biology cleaved closer to Descartes than to Darwin. Students of animal behaviour did not rule out the possibility that animals had minds but thought the question almost irrelevant since it was impossible to answer. One could study an organism’s inputs (such as food or the environment) or outputs (its behaviour). But the organism itself remained a black box: unobservable things such as emotions or thoughts were beyond the scope of objective inquiry.

In the past 40 years, however, a wide range of work both in the field and the lab has pushed the consensus away from strict behaviourism and towards that Darwin-friendly view. Progress has not been easy or quick; as the behaviourists warned, both sorts of evidence can be misleading. Laboratory tests can be rigorous, but are inevitably based on animals which may not behave as they do in the wild. Field observations can be dismissed as anecdotal. Running them for years or decades and on a large scale goes some way to guarding against that problem, but such studies are rare.

Nevertheless, most scientists...say with confidence that some animals process information and express emotions in ways that are accompanied by conscious mental experience. They agree that animals...have complex mental capacities; that a few species have attributes once thought to be unique to people, such as the ability to give objects names and use tools; and that a handful of animals—primates, corvids (the crow family) and cetaceans (whales and dolphins)— have something close to what in humans is seen as culture, in that they develop distinctive ways of doing things which are passed down by imitation and example. Dolphins have been found to imitate the behaviour of other dolphins, in their group. No animals have all the attributes of human minds; but almost all the attributes of human minds are found in some animal or other.

 Brain mapping reveals that the neurological processes underlying what look like emotions in rats are similar to those behind what clearly are emotions in humans. As a group of neuroscientists seeking to sum the field up put it in 2012, “Humans are not unique in possessing the neurological substrates that generate consciousness. Non-human animals, including all mammals and birds, and many other creatures...also possess these neurological substrates.”

 

Q. For much of the 20th century, students of animal behaviour opined that

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 7

{For much} of the 20th century biology cleaved closer to Descartes than to Darwin. Students of animal behaviour did not rule out the possibility that animals had minds but thought the question almost irrelevant since it was impossible to answer.}

Option C can be inferred from the above line.

All the other options are unrelated to the discussion.

Options A and D have not been implied in the passage.

Option B is incorrect. The subsequent discussion in the passage proves that animals are capable of emotions.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 8

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Charles Darwin thought the mental capacities of animals and people differed only in degree, not kind—a natural conclusion to reach when armed with the radical new belief that the one evolved from the other. His last great book, “The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals”, examined joy, love and grief in birds, domestic animals and primates as well as in various human races. But Darwin’s attitude to animals—easily shared by people in everyday contact with dogs, horses, even mice—ran contrary to a long tradition in European thought which held that animals had no minds at all. This way of thinking stemmed from the argument of René Descartes, a great 17th-century philosopher, that people were creatures of reason, linked to the mind of God, while animals were merely machines made of flesh—living robots which, in the words of Nicolas Malebranche, one of his followers, “eat without pleasure, cry without pain, grow without knowing it: they desire nothing, fear nothing, know nothing.”

For much of the 20th century biology cleaved closer to Descartes than to Darwin. Students of animal behaviour did not rule out the possibility that animals had minds but thought the question almost irrelevant since it was impossible to answer. One could study an organism’s inputs (such as food or the environment) or outputs (its behaviour). But the organism itself remained a black box: unobservable things such as emotions or thoughts were beyond the scope of objective inquiry.

In the past 40 years, however, a wide range of work both in the field and the lab has pushed the consensus away from strict behaviourism and towards that Darwin-friendly view. Progress has not been easy or quick; as the behaviourists warned, both sorts of evidence can be misleading. Laboratory tests can be rigorous, but are inevitably based on animals which may not behave as they do in the wild. Field observations can be dismissed as anecdotal. Running them for years or decades and on a large scale goes some way to guarding against that problem, but such studies are rare.

Nevertheless, most scientists...say with confidence that some animals process information and express emotions in ways that are accompanied by conscious mental experience. They agree that animals...have complex mental capacities; that a few species have attributes once thought to be unique to people, such as the ability to give objects names and use tools; and that a handful of animals—primates, corvids (the crow family) and cetaceans (whales and dolphins)— have something close to what in humans is seen as culture, in that they develop distinctive ways of doing things which are passed down by imitation and example. Dolphins have been found to imitate the behaviour of other dolphins, in their group. No animals have all the attributes of human minds; but almost all the attributes of human minds are found in some animal or other.

 Brain mapping reveals that the neurological processes underlying what look like emotions in rats are similar to those behind what clearly are emotions in humans. As a group of neuroscientists seeking to sum the field up put it in 2012, “Humans are not unique in possessing the neurological substrates that generate consciousness. Non-human animals, including all mammals and birds, and many other creatures...also possess these neurological substrates.”

 

Q. Which of the following is a reason why the behaviourists are concerned about the evidence supporting the Darwin-friendly view?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 8

In the passage, the author presents two major concerns- One, the laboratory tests, though rigorous, may employ animals that may not behave as they do in the wild. And the other concern is that evidence from field observations may be anecdotal and not based on scientific research and hence could be unreliable. 

Comparing the options, option C captures the second concern mentioned by the author. 

Option A is extraneous to the discussion. The author makes no such observation.

Option B is a distortion. The laboratory tests do not necessarily suppress or inhibit the animal's true behaviour. Rather, the animals chosen for the experiment may behave in a way that may not mirror the behaviour of others belonging to the same species in the wild. 

Option D is a misrepresentation. The author mentions the rarity of large-scale, extensive field studies and not laboratory studies. 

Option C is the answer. 

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 9

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

For traditional Darwinian natural selection to work, the entities in question must display some property or ability that can be inherited, and that results in their having more offspring than the competition. For instance, the first creatures with vision, however fuzzy, were presumably better at avoiding predators and finding mates than the sightless members of their population, and had more surviving progeny for that reason. In technical terms, then, selected entities must exist in populations showing heritable variation in fitness, greater fitness resulting in these entities’ differential reproduction.

Even if inherited properties are the result of undirected or ‘random’ mutation, repeating the selection process over generations will incrementally improve on them. This produces complex adaptations such as the vertebrate eye, with its highly sophisticated function. Lightsensitive areas acquired lenses for focusing and means for distinguishing colours step by advantageous step, ultimately producing modern eyes that are clearly for seeing. So even without an overall purpose, evolution, through selection,  creates something that behaves as if it has a goal.

Back in 1979, when Lovelock’s first popular book, Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth, came out, the wider field of evolutionary biology was becoming a very reductionist discipline. Richard Dawkins’s The Selfish Gene had been published three years earlier, and it promoted a hardcore gene-centrism insisting that we look at genes as the fundamental units of selection - that is, the thing upon which natural selection operates. His claim was that genes were the reproducing entities par excellence, because they are the only things that always replicate and produce enduring lineages. Replication here means making fairly exact one-to-one copies, as genes (and asexual organisms such as bacteria) do. Reproduction, though, is a more inclusive and forgiving term - it’s what we humans and other sexual species do, when we make offspring that resemble both parents, but each only imperfectly. Still, this sloppy process exhibits heritable variation in fitness, and so supports evolution by natural selection.

In recent decades, many theorists have come to understand that there can be reproducing or even replicating entities evolving by natural selection at several levels of the biological hierarchy - not just in the domains of replicating genes and bacteria, or even sexual creatures such as ourselves. They have come to embrace something called multilevel selection theory: the idea that life can be represented as a hierarchy of entities nested together in larger entities, like Russian dolls. As the philosopher of science Peter Godfrey-Smith puts it, ‘genes, cells, social groups and species can all, in principle, enter into change of this kind’.

But to qualify as a thing on which natural selection can operate - a unit of selection - ‘they must be connected by parent-offspring relations; they must have the capacity to reproduce,’ Godfrey-Smith continues. It’s the requirement for reproduction and leaving parent-offspring lineages (lines of descent) we need to focus on here, because they remain essential in traditional formulations. Without reproduction, fitness is undefined, and heritability seems to make no sense. And without lines of descent, at some level, how can we even conceive of natural selection?

 

Q. All of the following statements can be inferred from the passage, EXCEPT;

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 9

“...selected entities must exist in populations showing heritable variation in fitness, greater fitness resulting in these entities’ differential reproduction...” From these lines, option A can be inferred.

"...Replication here means making fairly exact one-to-one copies, as genes (and asexual organisms such as bacteria) do. Reproduction, though, is a more inclusive and forgiving term - it’s what we humans and other sexual species do when we make offspring that resemble both parents, but each only imperfectly...” Option B can be inferred from these lines.

“...In recent decades, many theorists have come to understand that there can be reproducing or even replicating entities evolving by natural selection at several levels of the biological hierarchy - not just in the domains of replicating genes and bacteria, or even sexual creatures such as ourselves. They have come to embrace something called multilevel selection theory...” Here, the author discusses that many theorists have started comprehending natural selection differently, but it has not been mentioned that the new theory has completely replaced the traditional theory. Hence option C cannot be inferred.

“...Even if inherited properties are the result of undirected or ‘random’ mutation, repeating the selection process over generations will incrementally improve on them...” Option D can be inferred from these lines.

Option C is the answer. 

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 10

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

For traditional Darwinian natural selection to work, the entities in question must display some property or ability that can be inherited, and that results in their having more offspring than the competition. For instance, the first creatures with vision, however fuzzy, were presumably better at avoiding predators and finding mates than the sightless members of their population, and had more surviving progeny for that reason. In technical terms, then, selected entities must exist in populations showing heritable variation in fitness, greater fitness resulting in these entities’ differential reproduction.

Even if inherited properties are the result of undirected or ‘random’ mutation, repeating the selection process over generations will incrementally improve on them. This produces complex adaptations such as the vertebrate eye, with its highly sophisticated function. Lightsensitive areas acquired lenses for focusing and means for distinguishing colours step by advantageous step, ultimately producing modern eyes that are clearly for seeing. So even without an overall purpose, evolution, through selection,  creates something that behaves as if it has a goal.

Back in 1979, when Lovelock’s first popular book, Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth, came out, the wider field of evolutionary biology was becoming a very reductionist discipline. Richard Dawkins’s The Selfish Gene had been published three years earlier, and it promoted a hardcore gene-centrism insisting that we look at genes as the fundamental units of selection - that is, the thing upon which natural selection operates. His claim was that genes were the reproducing entities par excellence, because they are the only things that always replicate and produce enduring lineages. Replication here means making fairly exact one-to-one copies, as genes (and asexual organisms such as bacteria) do. Reproduction, though, is a more inclusive and forgiving term - it’s what we humans and other sexual species do, when we make offspring that resemble both parents, but each only imperfectly. Still, this sloppy process exhibits heritable variation in fitness, and so supports evolution by natural selection.

In recent decades, many theorists have come to understand that there can be reproducing or even replicating entities evolving by natural selection at several levels of the biological hierarchy - not just in the domains of replicating genes and bacteria, or even sexual creatures such as ourselves. They have come to embrace something called multilevel selection theory: the idea that life can be represented as a hierarchy of entities nested together in larger entities, like Russian dolls. As the philosopher of science Peter Godfrey-Smith puts it, ‘genes, cells, social groups and species can all, in principle, enter into change of this kind’.

But to qualify as a thing on which natural selection can operate - a unit of selection - ‘they must be connected by parent-offspring relations; they must have the capacity to reproduce,’ Godfrey-Smith continues. It’s the requirement for reproduction and leaving parent-offspring lineages (lines of descent) we need to focus on here, because they remain essential in traditional formulations. Without reproduction, fitness is undefined, and heritability seems to make no sense. And without lines of descent, at some level, how can we even conceive of natural selection?

 

Q. Which of the following could be the reason why the author discusses the example of the vertebrate eye in the second paragraph?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 10

The author mentions that the vertebrate eye has a highly sophisticated function. However, this one detail is not enough to conclude that all vertebrates are sophisticated creatures.  Moreover, the author is not trying to make a conclusive statement about vertebrates but rather is trying to establish a link between the vertebral eye and natural selection. Hence option A is incorrect.

Option B again is a vague statement and may or may not be true. It also does not contain any reference to natural selection and inherited properties, which are the main themes the author is trying to discuss. Hence, option B is wrong.

Option C captures the essence of the vertebrate example neatly. The author strives to drive home the point that undirected mutations, which result in inherited properties, improve incrementally through repeated selection over generations. Hence, option C is the right answer.

Nowhere has it been mentioned that all sophisticated functions developed as a result of undirected mutations. The statement is misleading, and hence option D is wrong.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 11

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

For traditional Darwinian natural selection to work, the entities in question must display some property or ability that can be inherited, and that results in their having more offspring than the competition. For instance, the first creatures with vision, however fuzzy, were presumably better at avoiding predators and finding mates than the sightless members of their population, and had more surviving progeny for that reason. In technical terms, then, selected entities must exist in populations showing heritable variation in fitness, greater fitness resulting in these entities’ differential reproduction.

Even if inherited properties are the result of undirected or ‘random’ mutation, repeating the selection process over generations will incrementally improve on them. This produces complex adaptations such as the vertebrate eye, with its highly sophisticated function. Lightsensitive areas acquired lenses for focusing and means for distinguishing colours step by advantageous step, ultimately producing modern eyes that are clearly for seeing. So even without an overall purpose, evolution, through selection,  creates something that behaves as if it has a goal.

Back in 1979, when Lovelock’s first popular book, Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth, came out, the wider field of evolutionary biology was becoming a very reductionist discipline. Richard Dawkins’s The Selfish Gene had been published three years earlier, and it promoted a hardcore gene-centrism insisting that we look at genes as the fundamental units of selection - that is, the thing upon which natural selection operates. His claim was that genes were the reproducing entities par excellence, because they are the only things that always replicate and produce enduring lineages. Replication here means making fairly exact one-to-one copies, as genes (and asexual organisms such as bacteria) do. Reproduction, though, is a more inclusive and forgiving term - it’s what we humans and other sexual species do, when we make offspring that resemble both parents, but each only imperfectly. Still, this sloppy process exhibits heritable variation in fitness, and so supports evolution by natural selection.

In recent decades, many theorists have come to understand that there can be reproducing or even replicating entities evolving by natural selection at several levels of the biological hierarchy - not just in the domains of replicating genes and bacteria, or even sexual creatures such as ourselves. They have come to embrace something called multilevel selection theory: the idea that life can be represented as a hierarchy of entities nested together in larger entities, like Russian dolls. As the philosopher of science Peter Godfrey-Smith puts it, ‘genes, cells, social groups and species can all, in principle, enter into change of this kind’.

But to qualify as a thing on which natural selection can operate - a unit of selection - ‘they must be connected by parent-offspring relations; they must have the capacity to reproduce,’ Godfrey-Smith continues. It’s the requirement for reproduction and leaving parent-offspring lineages (lines of descent) we need to focus on here, because they remain essential in traditional formulations. Without reproduction, fitness is undefined, and heritability seems to make no sense. And without lines of descent, at some level, how can we even conceive of natural selection?

 

Q. Which of the following, if true, would strongly counter Peter Godfrey-Smith’s observations on natural selection?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 11

Peter Godrey- Smith’s main argument is that for a thing to be deemed as a ‘unit of selection’, it must exhibit parent-offspring relations, i.e., be able to reproduce. Option A bears no relevance to the unit of selection and can be safely eliminated.

Option B reiterates that natural selection cannot exist on its own and needs something to act on. It does not counter Peter Godrey-Smith’s argument in any way. 

Peter Godfrey-Smith opines that different entities, including social groups, in principle, could be deemed as undergoing a change through selection if they are treated as being part of a larger entity. However, he further goes on to elucidate how not being able to reproduce disqualifies certain entities from being treated as units of selection. Hence, option C, even if true, does not negate the philosopher’s central argument around reproduction.

Option D, if true, would imply that reproduction and, consequently, parent-offspring relations are not necessary conditions to be fulfilled by an entity for it to be classified as a unit of selection. This contrasts Godfrey-Smith’s major argument. Hence, option D is the answer.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 12

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

For traditional Darwinian natural selection to work, the entities in question must display some property or ability that can be inherited, and that results in their having more offspring than the competition. For instance, the first creatures with vision, however fuzzy, were presumably better at avoiding predators and finding mates than the sightless members of their population, and had more surviving progeny for that reason. In technical terms, then, selected entities must exist in populations showing heritable variation in fitness, greater fitness resulting in these entities’ differential reproduction.

Even if inherited properties are the result of undirected or ‘random’ mutation, repeating the selection process over generations will incrementally improve on them. This produces complex adaptations such as the vertebrate eye, with its highly sophisticated function. Lightsensitive areas acquired lenses for focusing and means for distinguishing colours step by advantageous step, ultimately producing modern eyes that are clearly for seeing. So even without an overall purpose, evolution, through selection,  creates something that behaves as if it has a goal.

Back in 1979, when Lovelock’s first popular book, Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth, came out, the wider field of evolutionary biology was becoming a very reductionist discipline. Richard Dawkins’s The Selfish Gene had been published three years earlier, and it promoted a hardcore gene-centrism insisting that we look at genes as the fundamental units of selection - that is, the thing upon which natural selection operates. His claim was that genes were the reproducing entities par excellence, because they are the only things that always replicate and produce enduring lineages. Replication here means making fairly exact one-to-one copies, as genes (and asexual organisms such as bacteria) do. Reproduction, though, is a more inclusive and forgiving term - it’s what we humans and other sexual species do, when we make offspring that resemble both parents, but each only imperfectly. Still, this sloppy process exhibits heritable variation in fitness, and so supports evolution by natural selection.

In recent decades, many theorists have come to understand that there can be reproducing or even replicating entities evolving by natural selection at several levels of the biological hierarchy - not just in the domains of replicating genes and bacteria, or even sexual creatures such as ourselves. They have come to embrace something called multilevel selection theory: the idea that life can be represented as a hierarchy of entities nested together in larger entities, like Russian dolls. As the philosopher of science Peter Godfrey-Smith puts it, ‘genes, cells, social groups and species can all, in principle, enter into change of this kind’.

But to qualify as a thing on which natural selection can operate - a unit of selection - ‘they must be connected by parent-offspring relations; they must have the capacity to reproduce,’ Godfrey-Smith continues. It’s the requirement for reproduction and leaving parent-offspring lineages (lines of descent) we need to focus on here, because they remain essential in traditional formulations. Without reproduction, fitness is undefined, and heritability seems to make no sense. And without lines of descent, at some level, how can we even conceive of natural selection?

 

Q. Which of the following is definitely true according to the multi-level selection theory?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 12

The multi-level theory posits that life could be represented as a hierarchy of entities nested together in larger entities. For these larger entities to survive the competition, these entities must perform better than other similarly large entities. However, considering cooperation as a performance or survival metric/parameter is speculative. Option A cannot be inferred.

{“the idea that life can be represented as a hierarchy of entities nested together in larger entities, like Russian dolls. As the philosopher of science, Peter Godfrey-Smith puts it, ‘genes, cells, social groups and species can all, in principle, enter into change of this kind"}. From these lines, it is clear that social groups can act as vehicles of selection. Hence, option B is the answer.

Cohesive functioning across different layers must outweigh individual competition within groups. This does not, however, mean there is no individual competition within groups. Hence option C is not the answer.

The former part of Option D is again a straightforward interpretation of the idea,” life could be represented as a hierarchy of entities nested together in larger entities”. However, the latter part, which asserts the competition levels are higher in larger entities, has not been implied. Hence, option D is not the answer.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 13

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

For traditional Darwinian natural selection to work, the entities in question must display some property or ability that can be inherited, and that results in their having more offspring than the competition. For instance, the first creatures with vision, however fuzzy, were presumably better at avoiding predators and finding mates than the sightless members of their population, and had more surviving progeny for that reason. In technical terms, then, selected entities must exist in populations showing heritable variation in fitness, greater fitness resulting in these entities’ differential reproduction.

Even if inherited properties are the result of undirected or ‘random’ mutation, repeating the selection process over generations will incrementally improve on them. This produces complex adaptations such as the vertebrate eye, with its highly sophisticated function. Lightsensitive areas acquired lenses for focusing and means for distinguishing colours step by advantageous step, ultimately producing modern eyes that are clearly for seeing. So even without an overall purpose, evolution, through selection,  creates something that behaves as if it has a goal.

Back in 1979, when Lovelock’s first popular book, Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth, came out, the wider field of evolutionary biology was becoming a very reductionist discipline. Richard Dawkins’s The Selfish Gene had been published three years earlier, and it promoted a hardcore gene-centrism insisting that we look at genes as the fundamental units of selection - that is, the thing upon which natural selection operates. His claim was that genes were the reproducing entities par excellence, because they are the only things that always replicate and produce enduring lineages. Replication here means making fairly exact one-to-one copies, as genes (and asexual organisms such as bacteria) do. Reproduction, though, is a more inclusive and forgiving term - it’s what we humans and other sexual species do, when we make offspring that resemble both parents, but each only imperfectly. Still, this sloppy process exhibits heritable variation in fitness, and so supports evolution by natural selection.

In recent decades, many theorists have come to understand that there can be reproducing or even replicating entities evolving by natural selection at several levels of the biological hierarchy - not just in the domains of replicating genes and bacteria, or even sexual creatures such as ourselves. They have come to embrace something called multilevel selection theory: the idea that life can be represented as a hierarchy of entities nested together in larger entities, like Russian dolls. As the philosopher of science Peter Godfrey-Smith puts it, ‘genes, cells, social groups and species can all, in principle, enter into change of this kind’.

But to qualify as a thing on which natural selection can operate - a unit of selection - ‘they must be connected by parent-offspring relations; they must have the capacity to reproduce,’ Godfrey-Smith continues. It’s the requirement for reproduction and leaving parent-offspring lineages (lines of descent) we need to focus on here, because they remain essential in traditional formulations. Without reproduction, fitness is undefined, and heritability seems to make no sense. And without lines of descent, at some level, how can we even conceive of natural selection?

 

Q. “So even without an overall purpose, evolution, through selection,  creates something that behaves as if it has a goal” Which of the following best captures the essence of this statement?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 13

Option A is close. The author states that evolution may not have an overall purpose. However, this cannot be equated to the existence of several unique purposes. The inference that evolution is a multi-purpose mechanism cannot be conclusively made. Hence, option A can be eliminated.

Option B is wrong. Natural selection only selects genetic variants that are more likely to aid survival and reproduction and does not supply any traits.

Option C is wrong, as well. Natural selection is not random. It selects suitable genetic variants. 

Option D captures the essence of the statement aptly. Natural selection may not have a visible goal. It selects suitable genetic variants, which leads to the development of desirable traits, making the process seem like a goal-oriented one.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 14

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Mythology remains important in Western culture. Take, for instance, the role model of the hero, of contemporary revolutionaries, martyrs and dictators. These ideal figures exemplify models of human achievement. Similarly, notions of salvation, progress and ethics are so constitutive of our notions of reality that they’re often communicated through the format of mythology. There’s a surfeit of cultural products that fulfil the function of myth whereby characters and stories give us the means to understand the world we live in. Through superhero comic books, to the obscure immanence of modern art, from visions of paradisiacal vacations, to computer games and the self-mythologising of social media production, we seek a higher ground beyond the banal and the profane. We’ve even replaced the effervescent experience of sacred rites...in our engagement with art, drugs, cinema, rock music and all-night dance parties. Lastly, individuals have developed their own ways to create self-narratives that include mythical transitions in pilgrimages or personal quests to their ancestral lands. Likewise, some seek inner spaces wherein faith and meaning can be transformed into experience.

To prepare for our exploration of contemporary mythology, we can look back at civilisations and consider the function of the stories they told. The story of the flood, for example, recurs in early urban societies, marking a crisis in human-divine relations and man’s experience of gradual self-reliance and separation from nature. Whereas during the Axial Age (800-200 BCE), faith developed in an environment of early trade economies, at which time we observe a concern with individual conscience, morality, compassion and a tendency to look within. According to Karen Armstrong’s A Short History of Myth (2005), these Axial myths of interiority indicate that people felt they no longer shared the same nature as the gods, and that the supreme reality had become impossibly difficult to access. These myths were a response to the loss of previous notions of social order, cosmology and human good, and represented ways to portray these social transformations in macrocosmic stories, and were reflections of how people tried to make sense of their rapidly changing world.

What constitutes a mythology? It’s an organised canon of beliefs that explains the state of the world. It also delivers an origin story - such as the Hindu Laws of Manu or the Biblical creation story - that creates a setting for how we experience the world. In fact, for Eliade, all myths provided an explanation of the world by virtue of giving an account of where things came from. If all mythologies are origin stories in this sense, what are the origin stories suggested by psychology? Two original elements of human nature are explained in its lore: the story of personhood - that is, what it means to be an individual and have an identity - and, secondly, the story of our physical constitution in the brain. 

Contemporary psychology is a form of mythology insofar as it is an attempt to succor our need to believe in stories that provide a sense of value and signification in the context of secular modernity. The ways in which psychology is used - for example in experiments or self-help literature or personality tests or brain scans - are means of providing rituals to enact the myths of personhood and materialism.

 

Q. Which of the following statements about mythology cannot be inferred from the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 14

In the penultimate paragraph, the author presents the following about mythology-

{What constitutes a mythology? It’s an organised canon of beliefs that explains the state of the world. It also delivers an origin story - such as the Hindu Laws of Manu or the Biblical creation story - that creates a setting for how we experience the world.}

Additionally, in the first paragraph, the author makes the following observation-

{ Notions of salvation, progress and ethics are so constitutive of our notions of reality that they’re often communicated through the format of mythology.}

From the above, options A, B and D can be clearly inferred. The author does not assert anywhere in the passage that the origin stories and legends which formulate the myths are uncorroborated. Hence, option C cannot be conclusively inferred. Option C is the answer.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 15

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Mythology remains important in Western culture. Take, for instance, the role model of the hero, of contemporary revolutionaries, martyrs and dictators. These ideal figures exemplify models of human achievement. Similarly, notions of salvation, progress and ethics are so constitutive of our notions of reality that they’re often communicated through the format of mythology. There’s a surfeit of cultural products that fulfil the function of myth whereby characters and stories give us the means to understand the world we live in. Through superhero comic books, to the obscure immanence of modern art, from visions of paradisiacal vacations, to computer games and the self-mythologising of social media production, we seek a higher ground beyond the banal and the profane. We’ve even replaced the effervescent experience of sacred rites...in our engagement with art, drugs, cinema, rock music and all-night dance parties. Lastly, individuals have developed their own ways to create self-narratives that include mythical transitions in pilgrimages or personal quests to their ancestral lands. Likewise, some seek inner spaces wherein faith and meaning can be transformed into experience.

To prepare for our exploration of contemporary mythology, we can look back at civilisations and consider the function of the stories they told. The story of the flood, for example, recurs in early urban societies, marking a crisis in human-divine relations and man’s experience of gradual self-reliance and separation from nature. Whereas during the Axial Age (800-200 BCE), faith developed in an environment of early trade economies, at which time we observe a concern with individual conscience, morality, compassion and a tendency to look within. According to Karen Armstrong’s A Short History of Myth (2005), these Axial myths of interiority indicate that people felt they no longer shared the same nature as the gods, and that the supreme reality had become impossibly difficult to access. These myths were a response to the loss of previous notions of social order, cosmology and human good, and represented ways to portray these social transformations in macrocosmic stories, and were reflections of how people tried to make sense of their rapidly changing world.

What constitutes a mythology? It’s an organised canon of beliefs that explains the state of the world. It also delivers an origin story - such as the Hindu Laws of Manu or the Biblical creation story - that creates a setting for how we experience the world. In fact, for Eliade, all myths provided an explanation of the world by virtue of giving an account of where things came from. If all mythologies are origin stories in this sense, what are the origin stories suggested by psychology? Two original elements of human nature are explained in its lore: the story of personhood - that is, what it means to be an individual and have an identity - and, secondly, the story of our physical constitution in the brain. 

Contemporary psychology is a form of mythology insofar as it is an attempt to succor our need to believe in stories that provide a sense of value and signification in the context of secular modernity. The ways in which psychology is used - for example in experiments or self-help literature or personality tests or brain scans - are means of providing rituals to enact the myths of personhood and materialism.

 

Q. The author cites the examples of the story of the flood and myth of interiority to drive home the point that

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 15

In the second paragraph, the author states the following about the myths-

{These myths were a response to the loss of previous notions of social order, cosmology and human good and represented ways to portray these social transformations in macrocosmic stories, and were reflections of how people tried to make sense of their rapidly changing world}

In the story of the flood example, the author cites the growing divide between human and divine and man's perception of nature due to the flooding of urban societies. During the Axial age, individuals engaged in introspective exercise and the divide between man and the supreme grew. According to the author, the myths try to make sense of these related but separated social transformations through macrocosmic stories, i.e., stories that universally represent these changes and capture the larger context. 

Now, comparing the options, option D conveys this inference and is the answer.

All other options are either distorted or do not convey the main point elucidated above. 

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 16

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Mythology remains important in Western culture. Take, for instance, the role model of the hero, of contemporary revolutionaries, martyrs and dictators. These ideal figures exemplify models of human achievement. Similarly, notions of salvation, progress and ethics are so constitutive of our notions of reality that they’re often communicated through the format of mythology. There’s a surfeit of cultural products that fulfil the function of myth whereby characters and stories give us the means to understand the world we live in. Through superhero comic books, to the obscure immanence of modern art, from visions of paradisiacal vacations, to computer games and the self-mythologising of social media production, we seek a higher ground beyond the banal and the profane. We’ve even replaced the effervescent experience of sacred rites...in our engagement with art, drugs, cinema, rock music and all-night dance parties. Lastly, individuals have developed their own ways to create self-narratives that include mythical transitions in pilgrimages or personal quests to their ancestral lands. Likewise, some seek inner spaces wherein faith and meaning can be transformed into experience.

To prepare for our exploration of contemporary mythology, we can look back at civilisations and consider the function of the stories they told. The story of the flood, for example, recurs in early urban societies, marking a crisis in human-divine relations and man’s experience of gradual self-reliance and separation from nature. Whereas during the Axial Age (800-200 BCE), faith developed in an environment of early trade economies, at which time we observe a concern with individual conscience, morality, compassion and a tendency to look within. According to Karen Armstrong’s A Short History of Myth (2005), these Axial myths of interiority indicate that people felt they no longer shared the same nature as the gods, and that the supreme reality had become impossibly difficult to access. These myths were a response to the loss of previous notions of social order, cosmology and human good, and represented ways to portray these social transformations in macrocosmic stories, and were reflections of how people tried to make sense of their rapidly changing world.

What constitutes a mythology? It’s an organised canon of beliefs that explains the state of the world. It also delivers an origin story - such as the Hindu Laws of Manu or the Biblical creation story - that creates a setting for how we experience the world. In fact, for Eliade, all myths provided an explanation of the world by virtue of giving an account of where things came from. If all mythologies are origin stories in this sense, what are the origin stories suggested by psychology? Two original elements of human nature are explained in its lore: the story of personhood - that is, what it means to be an individual and have an identity - and, secondly, the story of our physical constitution in the brain. 

Contemporary psychology is a form of mythology insofar as it is an attempt to succor our need to believe in stories that provide a sense of value and signification in the context of secular modernity. The ways in which psychology is used - for example in experiments or self-help literature or personality tests or brain scans - are means of providing rituals to enact the myths of personhood and materialism.

 

Q. Why does the author refer to contemporary psychology as a form of mythology?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 16

In the last paragraph, the author states the following- {Contemporary psychology is a form of mythology insofar as it is an attempt to succor our need to believe in stories that provide a sense of value and signification in the context of secular modernity.} Also, in the penultimate paragraph, the author remarks that mythology provided origin stories that create a setting for how we experience the worldAnd these stories were associated with various religions- like the Hindu Laws of Manu and the Biblical creation story.

Contemporary psychology, which uses tools like personality tests and self-help literature, enables us to continue believing in stories that provide value and signification without associating themselves with any religion, i.e., it stays true to the context of secular modernity.

Comparing the options, only option B conveys the above inference. Hence, option B is the answer.

Options A and C have not been implied in the passage and can be eliminated. Option D does not convey the inference elucidated above, and furthermore, the author does not discuss anything about secular principles. 

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 17

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Mythology remains important in Western culture. Take, for instance, the role model of the hero, of contemporary revolutionaries, martyrs and dictators. These ideal figures exemplify models of human achievement. Similarly, notions of salvation, progress and ethics are so constitutive of our notions of reality that they’re often communicated through the format of mythology. There’s a surfeit of cultural products that fulfil the function of myth whereby characters and stories give us the means to understand the world we live in. Through superhero comic books, to the obscure immanence of modern art, from visions of paradisiacal vacations, to computer games and the self-mythologising of social media production, we seek a higher ground beyond the banal and the profane. We’ve even replaced the effervescent experience of sacred rites...in our engagement with art, drugs, cinema, rock music and all-night dance parties. Lastly, individuals have developed their own ways to create self-narratives that include mythical transitions in pilgrimages or personal quests to their ancestral lands. Likewise, some seek inner spaces wherein faith and meaning can be transformed into experience.

To prepare for our exploration of contemporary mythology, we can look back at civilisations and consider the function of the stories they told. The story of the flood, for example, recurs in early urban societies, marking a crisis in human-divine relations and man’s experience of gradual self-reliance and separation from nature. Whereas during the Axial Age (800-200 BCE), faith developed in an environment of early trade economies, at which time we observe a concern with individual conscience, morality, compassion and a tendency to look within. According to Karen Armstrong’s A Short History of Myth (2005), these Axial myths of interiority indicate that people felt they no longer shared the same nature as the gods, and that the supreme reality had become impossibly difficult to access. These myths were a response to the loss of previous notions of social order, cosmology and human good, and represented ways to portray these social transformations in macrocosmic stories, and were reflections of how people tried to make sense of their rapidly changing world.

What constitutes a mythology? It’s an organised canon of beliefs that explains the state of the world. It also delivers an origin story - such as the Hindu Laws of Manu or the Biblical creation story - that creates a setting for how we experience the world. In fact, for Eliade, all myths provided an explanation of the world by virtue of giving an account of where things came from. If all mythologies are origin stories in this sense, what are the origin stories suggested by psychology? Two original elements of human nature are explained in its lore: the story of personhood - that is, what it means to be an individual and have an identity - and, secondly, the story of our physical constitution in the brain. 

Contemporary psychology is a form of mythology insofar as it is an attempt to succor our need to believe in stories that provide a sense of value and signification in the context of secular modernity. The ways in which psychology is used - for example in experiments or self-help literature or personality tests or brain scans - are means of providing rituals to enact the myths of personhood and materialism.

 

Q. Which of the following statements about human behaviour cannot be inferred from the first paragraph?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 17

The author states the following in the opening paragraph-

{ Through superhero comic books, to the obscure immanence of modern art, from visions of paradisiacal vacations to computer games and the self-mythologising of social media production, we seek a higher ground beyond the banal and the profane.}  Art, media, books all of which are cultural tools, aid an individual who seeks to cross over to a higher ground, separated from the crudity and triteness of the usual reality. Option A can be inferred.

Option B is a distortion. {some seek inner spaces wherein faith and meaning can be transformed into experience.} The author does not assert that an individual tries to form a relationship between faith and meaning. Option B cannot be inferred.

{Lastly, individuals have developed their own ways to create self-narratives that include mythical transitions in pilgrimages or personal quests to their ancestral lands.} Option C can be inferred from this line. 

{We’ve even replaced the effervescent experience of sacred rites, not in blood sacrifice or vision quests, but in our engagement with art, drugs, cinema, rock music and all-night dance parties.} Option D can be inferred from this line.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 18

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Mythology remains important in Western culture. Take, for instance, the role model of the hero, of contemporary revolutionaries, martyrs and dictators. These ideal figures exemplify models of human achievement. Similarly, notions of salvation, progress and ethics are so constitutive of our notions of reality that they’re often communicated through the format of mythology. There’s a surfeit of cultural products that fulfil the function of myth whereby characters and stories give us the means to understand the world we live in. Through superhero comic books, to the obscure immanence of modern art, from visions of paradisiacal vacations, to computer games and the self-mythologising of social media production, we seek a higher ground beyond the banal and the profane. We’ve even replaced the effervescent experience of sacred rites...in our engagement with art, drugs, cinema, rock music and all-night dance parties. Lastly, individuals have developed their own ways to create self-narratives that include mythical transitions in pilgrimages or personal quests to their ancestral lands. Likewise, some seek inner spaces wherein faith and meaning can be transformed into experience.

To prepare for our exploration of contemporary mythology, we can look back at civilisations and consider the function of the stories they told. The story of the flood, for example, recurs in early urban societies, marking a crisis in human-divine relations and man’s experience of gradual self-reliance and separation from nature. Whereas during the Axial Age (800-200 BCE), faith developed in an environment of early trade economies, at which time we observe a concern with individual conscience, morality, compassion and a tendency to look within. According to Karen Armstrong’s A Short History of Myth (2005), these Axial myths of interiority indicate that people felt they no longer shared the same nature as the gods, and that the supreme reality had become impossibly difficult to access. These myths were a response to the loss of previous notions of social order, cosmology and human good, and represented ways to portray these social transformations in macrocosmic stories, and were reflections of how people tried to make sense of their rapidly changing world.

What constitutes a mythology? It’s an organised canon of beliefs that explains the state of the world. It also delivers an origin story - such as the Hindu Laws of Manu or the Biblical creation story - that creates a setting for how we experience the world. In fact, for Eliade, all myths provided an explanation of the world by virtue of giving an account of where things came from. If all mythologies are origin stories in this sense, what are the origin stories suggested by psychology? Two original elements of human nature are explained in its lore: the story of personhood - that is, what it means to be an individual and have an identity - and, secondly, the story of our physical constitution in the brain. 

Contemporary psychology is a form of mythology insofar as it is an attempt to succor our need to believe in stories that provide a sense of value and signification in the context of secular modernity. The ways in which psychology is used - for example in experiments or self-help literature or personality tests or brain scans - are means of providing rituals to enact the myths of personhood and materialism.

 

Q. The author cites the examples of psychological experiments, self-help literature, brain scans and personality tests because

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 18

In the last paragraph, the author states the following-

{The ways in which psychology is used - for example in experiments or self-help literature or personality tests or brain scans - are means of providing rituals to enact the myths of personhood and materialism.}

So, the examples the author mentions provide means to enact or approve the myths of personhood and materialism. Let's compare the options now. 

Option A talks about formulating the myths, which is wrong.

Option B talks about modifying the myths, which is wrong as well.

Option D contrast the inference. These rituals ratify, and not decry the myths.

Option C correctly conveys the above inference. Option C is the answer. 

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 19

The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’s position.

Auctions use the principle of scarcity, whereby we overvalue things that we think might run out. Auction items are scarce in that they are unique (only one person can have them), and scarce in time (after the bids are finished, you’ve lost your chance). Think how many shop sales successfully rely on scarcity heuristics such as “Last day of sale!”, or “Only 2 left in stock!”, and you’ll get a feel for how powerful this persuasion principle can be. The other principle used by auctions is that of “social proof”. We all tend to take the lead from other people; if everybody does something, or says something, most of us join in before we think about what we really should do. Auctions put you in intimate contact with other people who are all providing social proof that the sale item is important and valuable.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 19

In the passage, the author talks about psychological manipulation that takes place during auctions, which often leads to people overpaying for the auctioned items. 

Options A and C are close, but both are categorical. In the passage, the author majorly discusses the role of psychological persuasion techniques in driving up the prices of items that are scarce in number or quantity. So, it is not possible to generalise the inference. 

Also, option C is extreme when it says that rational bidding is impossible.

Option D is beyond the scope of the passage and can be safely eliminated.

This leaves us with option B, which comes closest to the inference elucidated above. Hence, option B is the answer. 

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 20

DIRECTIONS for the question: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced, would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence as your answer:

  1. And, to say that someone is or is not intelligent has never been merely a comment on their mental faculties.
  2. But the notion that intelligence could determine one’s station in life was already much older.
  3. The idea that intelligence could be quantified, like blood pressure or shoe size, was barely a century old when I took the test that would decide my place in the world.
  4. It is always also a judgment on what they are permitted to do. 

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 20

Statement 3 appears to be the starting sentence since it introduces the subject: the quantification of intelligence. The author mentions that the attempt to measure intelligence "was barely a century old" at the time he took an unknown test. However, he adds that the very notion that intelligence could be used to determine one's place in the world in life precedes this aforementioned time stamp. Hence, arrangement 3 - 2 forms a logical block. The author further adds to the discussion by highlighting the outcome of such an enterprise (of determining intelligence): it is not just a "comment" on our mental capabilities but also a "judgement" on what we will be allowed to do. Thus, 1- 4 forms a coherent follow-up to 3 - 2. The use of the phrase "has never been merely" in Statement 1 and "always also" in Statment 4 helps us determine their positions. Hence, the correct sequence would be 3214.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 21

DIRECTIONS for the question: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced, would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence as your answer:

  1. Now, tech giants like Facebook and Twitter are actively copying Clubhouse.
  2. Its growth is undeniable thanks to figures as disparate as Oprah Winfrey, Elon Musk and, Trump consigliere Roger Stone — not to mention regular people craving conversation after nearly a year of lockdown.
  3. Now, with more than two million users and the app on the precipice of the mainstream, Clubhouse has become a flashpoint in the broader culture wars around censorship, online harassment, and the far-reaching powers of Big Tech.
  4. They are doling out the new talking features for their billions of users, giving a preview of what the future of online life is likely to look like.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 21

1 and 3 both can be the starting sentences, but on reading all four sentences, we find that these lines talk about an app called Clubhouse.

3 will start the para because it tells us what is Clubhouse all about, and 2 will follow it as it further elaborates on how it gained popularity. 4 will definitely follow 1 because 4 elaborates on how the tech giants are trying to copy Clubhouse. Finally, the pair 14 will follow 3-2.

Hence, the sequence will be 3214.

Alternate explanation:

On a preliminary read, we notice that all sentences incorporate transition words (like "now", "they", "its") at the beginning. These could serve as potential markers for us to zero in on the correct sequence quickly. The discussion revolves around Clubhouse, which is first introduced to us in Statement 3. The term "its" in 2 points towards the subject ("Its growth..." = "Clubhouse's growth..."); while we notice that Statement 4 begins with "they" (plural ) - thus, points towards multiple entities. It is evident that these entities are Facebook and Twitter mentioned in 1. Hence, 3214 is the correct sequence. 

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 22

DIRECTIONS for the question: Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out.

  1. The band consists of vocalist Anthony Kiedis, bassist Flea, drummer Chad Smith, and guitarist John Frusciante.
  2. Their music incorporates elements of alternative rock, funk, punk rock and psychedelic rock.
  3. Alternative rock is a category of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1970s and became widely popular in the 1990s.
  4. The Red Hot Chili Peppers are an American rock band formed in Los Angeles in 1983, and with over 80 million records sold worldwide, the Red Hot Chili Peppers are one of the best-selling bands of all time.
  5. They have won six Grammy Awards, and in 2012 were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 22

Sentence 3 will be the odd one because it talks about alternative rock in general, but the rest of the sentences talk about the alternative rock band Red Hot Chili Pepper. The rest of the sentences, when arranged in sequence 4125, make a coherent paragraph.

4 will be the starting sentence since it introduces the topic, i.e. the band called Red Hot Chili Peppers. 1 will follow 4 because it introduces the band members. 2 will follow 1 because it talks about the kind of music the band makes. Finally, 2 will be followed by 5 as 5 highlights their awards and achievements.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 23

In order to boost the overall production, the use of pesticides in commercial farming is something that has become a necessity. But the overuse of pesticides has had a negative impact on overall ecology of the area. One, pesticides leads to the killing of bees and butterflies. The bees and butterflies among others are pollinators and are needed in perpetuating plant cycles and evolution. Secondly, the overuse of pesticides gives rise to mutant pests, which develop resistance to pesticides and continue to breed.
From the passage above, it can be inferred that:
1. The use of pesticides does more harm than good in the overall scheme of things and there should be a rethink whether pesticides should be used.
2. The use of pesticides needs to be limited to those chemicals which do not impact bees and butterflies so that these can flourish.
3. The use of pesticides needs to be managed in such a way that no one specie is targeted and no one specie assumes a dominant position in any particular crop cycles.
4. The use of pesticides needs to be limited to the ones that do not cause any mutation and do not lead to the creation of super-pests.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 23

In the given case, option 3 represents the perfect choice. It highlights the two aspects of the paragraph (bee/butterfly protection and prevention of mutant pests) in an indirect way. Effectively, the inference in this question is the unsaid conclusion of the paragraph. Option 4 is ruled out as it highlights only one aspect of the paragraph. Option 1 is not right as it counters the first line of the paragraph which states that pesticide use is required. Option 2 is ruled out as it only highlights one aspect of the paragraph.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 24

Large fiscal deficits do not cause an increase in inflation. If this was the case, the countries with the highest amount of fiscal deficits would also have the maximum inflation. In a statistical study, wherein the fiscal deficit figures for different countries were standardized and made comparable to each other, no standardized co-relation between fiscal deficit and inflation was found.
Considering the above statements to be true, which of the following can be inferred?
1. Countries with large fiscal deficits tend to control inflation.
2. Accurate comparisons of fiscal deficits of countries cannot be made.
3. A reduction in fiscal deficit does not necessarily lead to a reduction in inflation.
4. Countries with high inflation figures never have similarly large fiscal deficits.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 24

The correct answer is this case is option 3. The passage states that there is no standardized relationship between fiscal deficit and inflation. This means that the two cannot be co-related and an increase/decrease in one will not have an effect on the other. This is what is highlighted by 3. Option 4 is the other close option but it is rejected as there may be a case where fiscal deficit and inflation both might be high for a country; they can co-exist together, it is just that the two are not co-related to each other.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 25

There are 7 oil wells which are connected as shown in the below diagram. The oil wells act only as storage and do not produce any oil by themselves. The whole distribution of oil starts from A as per the directions shown. Each of B, C, D, E and F oil wells have a limited capacity and the extra oil that flows into the oil well through the inflow pipes is distributed equally into all the outflow pipes. The maximum capacity of each oil pipe is 8 million litres. The maximum capacity of each oil well is marked in the diagram. The difference of the maximum capacity of a pipe and the oil that flows in that pipe is called the slack of that pipe. The pipes that are connected to A have an initial slack value of zero.

 

Q. Find the amount of oil that flow in the D-G pipeline.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 25

We know that the slack in pipes A-B, A-C and A-D is zero. So, the volume of oil that flows in these three pipes is 8 million litres. B’s capacity is 3 million litres. So, the remaining 5 million litres is distributed into D and E equally. So, 2.5 million litres flow in both B-E and B-D pipes.
Similarly, the oil that flows into C is 8 million litres. C’s capacity is 2.5 million litres. So, the remaining 5.5 litres is distributed into D and F equally. So, 2.75 litres flow in both C-D and C-F pipes.
So, a total of 8 + 2.5 + 2.75 = 13.25 million litres has flown into D. D’s capacity is 4.5 million litres. The remaining 8.75 million litres is distributed into D-E, D-G and D-F pipes equally. So, 8.75/3 = 2.917 million litres flows in the D-G pipeline.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 26

There are 7 oil wells which are connected as shown in the below diagram. The oil wells act only as storage and do not produce any oil by themselves. The whole distribution of oil starts from A as per the directions shown. Each of B, C, D, E and F oil wells have a limited capacity and the extra oil that flows into the oil well through the inflow pipes is distributed equally into all the outflow pipes. The maximum capacity of each oil pipe is 8 million litres. The maximum capacity of each oil well is marked in the diagram. The difference of the maximum capacity of a pipe and the oil that flows in that pipe is called the slack of that pipe. The pipes that are connected to A have an initial slack value of zero.

 

Q. Find the slack in the F-G pipeline.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 26

We know that the slack in pipes A-B, A-C and A-D is zero. So, the volume of oil that flows in these three pipes is 8 million litres. B’s capacity is 3 million litres. So, the remaining 5 million litres is distributed into D and E equally. So, 2.5 million litres flow in both B-E and B-D pipes.
Similarly, the oil that flows into C is 8 million litres. C’s capacity is 2.5 million litres. So, the remaining 5.5 litres is distributed into D and F equally. So, 2.75 litres flow in both C-D and C-F pipes.
So, a total of 8 + 2.5 + 2.75 = 13.25 million litres has flown into D. D’s capacity is 4.5 million litres. The remaining 8.75 million litres is distributed into D-E, D-G and D-F pipes equally. So, 8.75/3 = 2.917 million litres flows in the D-F pipeline.
So a total of 2.75 + 2.917 = 5.667 million litres flow into the F oil well. The capacity of F is 4 million litres. So, 5.667 - 4 = 1.667 million litres flow into the F-G pipeline. So, the slack of F-G pipeline = 8 - 1.667 = 6.333 million litres.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 27

There are 7 oil wells which are connected as shown in the below diagram. The oil wells act only as storage and do not produce any oil by themselves. The whole distribution of oil starts from A as per the directions shown. Each of B, C, D, E and F oil wells have a limited capacity and the extra oil that flows into the oil well through the inflow pipes is distributed equally into all the outflow pipes. The maximum capacity of each oil pipe is 8 million litres. The maximum capacity of each oil well is marked in the diagram. The difference of the maximum capacity of a pipe and the oil that flows in that pipe is called the slack of that pipe. The pipes that are connected to A have an initial slack value of zero.

 

Q. If the oil well G distributes all the oil that flows into it to 20 oil reservoirs, then what is the value of the oil that flows into each oil reservoir from G.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 27

We know that the slack in pipes A-B, A-C and A-D is zero. So, the volume of oil that flows in these three pipes is 8 million litres. B’s capacity is 3 million litres. So, the remaining 5 million litres is distributed into D and E equally. So, 2.5 million litres flow in both B-E and B-D pipes.
Similarly, the oil that flows into C is 8 million litres. C’s capacity is 2.5 million litres. So, the remaining 5.5 litres is distributed into D and F equally. So, 2.75 litres flow in both C-D and C-F pipes.
So, a total of 8 + 2.5 + 2.75 = 13.25 million litres has flown into D. D’s capacity is 4.5 million litres. The remaining 8.75 million litres is distributed into D-E, D-G and D-F pipes equally. So, 8.75/3 = 2.917 million litres flows in the D-F pipeline.
So a total of 2.75 + 2.917 = 5.667 million litres flow into the F oil well. The capacity of F is 4 million litres. So, 5.667 - 4 = 1.667 million litres flow into the F-G pipeline.
The flow in D-E pipeline is 2.917 million litres and B-E pipeline is 2.5 million litres. So, a total of 5.417 million litres flows into E. The capacity of E is 2 million litres. So, the extra 3.417 million litres flows into E-G pipe.
So, a total of 3.417 + 2.917 + 1.667 = 8 million litres flows into G, which is distributed into 20 reservoirs. So, each reservoir has 8million/20 = 0.4 million litres.

Alternative approach:

The total flow into G cannot also be found by subtracting the requirement in each of the oil wells from the total outflow from A.

Total outflow from A = 3*8 = 24 million litres

Total requirement of B, C, D, E and F = 3 + 2.5 + 4.5 + 2 + 4 = 16 million litres

Total flow into G = 24 - 16 = 8 million litres, which is distributed into 20 reservoirs.

=> Each reservoir has 8 million/20 = 0.4 million litres.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 28

There are 7 oil wells which are connected as shown in the below diagram. The oil wells act only as storage and do not produce any oil by themselves. The whole distribution of oil starts from A as per the directions shown. Each of B, C, D, E and F oil wells have a limited capacity and the extra oil that flows into the oil well through the inflow pipes is distributed equally into all the outflow pipes. The maximum capacity of each oil pipe is 8 million litres. The maximum capacity of each oil well is marked in the diagram. The difference of the maximum capacity of a pipe and the oil that flows in that pipe is called the slack of that pipe. The pipes that are connected to A have an initial slack value of zero.

 

Q. The pipe C-D has a leakage problem and hence is closed. Find the slack in the D-G pipe in this situation.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 28

We know that the slack in pipes A-B, A-C and A-D is zero. So, the volume of oil that flows in these three pipes is 8 million litres. B’s capacity is 3 million litres. So, the remaining 5 million litres is distributed into D and E equally. So, 2.5 million litres flow in both B-E and B-D pipes.
8 million litres come into D from A and 2.5 million litres come into D from B. Nothing comes from C because the C-D pipeline is closed. Hence the total volume into D is 10.5 million litres. The capacity of D is 4.5 million litres. So, 10.5 - 4.5 = 6 million litres is distributed into D-E, D-F and D-G pipelines equally. So, the flow in each of these pipelines is equal to 6/3 = 2 million litres. So, the slack in D-G pipeline is equal to 8 - 2 = 6 million litres.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 29

Read the below information carefully and answer the following questions.

There are 100 students in a class. Each of the students has to opt for one or more of the three specializations among Finance, Operations and Marketing. The number of students who opted for Marketing is more than the number of students who opted for Finance which is more than the number of students who opted for Operations which is more than the number of students who opted for exactly two of the three specializations which is more than the number of students who opted for all three specializations. At least one student opted for all three specializations.

 

Q. What is the maximum number of students who opted for Operations as a specialization?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 29

It is known that the total number of students is 100. We also know that the number of students who opted for Marketing is more than the number of students who opted for Finance which is more than the number of students who opted for Operations.
To maximize the number of students who opted for Operations we have to maximize the number of students who study two specializations and three specializations.
This can be done by assigning 49 students to those who have opted for all three specializations and 51 students to those who have opted exactly two specializations. The 51 students have to be divided among Marketing, Finance and Operations as equally as possible which is as shown in the Venn diagram below.


Thus, the maximum number of students who opted for Operations as a specialization = 16+17+49 = 82

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 30

Read the below information carefully and answer the following questions.

There are 100 students in a class. Each of the students has to opt for one or more of the three specializations among Finance, Operations and Marketing. The number of students who opted for Marketing is more than the number of students who opted for Finance which is more than the number of students who opted for Operations which is more than the number of students who opted for exactly two of the three specializations which is more than the number of students who opted for all three specializations. At least one student opted for all three specializations.

 

Q. What is the minimum number of students who opted for Marketing?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 30

It is known that the total number of students is 100. We also know that the number of students who opted for Marketing is more than the number of students who opted for Finance which is more than the number of students who opted for Operations.
To minimize the number of students who opted for Marketing, which is the maximum among all, we have to assign minimum values to those who study all three and exactly two specializations and distribute the remaining in all three as equally as possible as shown in the Venn diagram below.

Thus, the minimum number of students who opted for Marketing = 33+2+1 = 36

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 31

Read the below information carefully and answer the following questions.

There are 100 students in a class. Each of the students has to opt for one or more of the three specializations among Finance, Operations and Marketing. The number of students who opted for Marketing is more than the number of students who opted for Finance which is more than the number of students who opted for Operations which is more than the number of students who opted for exactly two of the three specializations which is more than the number of students who opted for all three specializations. At least one student opted for all three specializations.

 

Q. What is the maximum number of students who opted for only Finance?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 31

It is known that the total number of students is 100. We also know that the number of students who opted for Marketing is more than the number of students who opted for Finance which is more than the number of students who opted for Operations.
The number of students who study study only finance cannot be 50. This is because in that case the number of people in only finance is 50 then there will be at least 51 people in finance (At least one person opted for all 3). Thus, marketing cannot be greater than finance in that case. Now let us consider the number of students in finance to be 49. In this case we can arrange the other people as shown in the venn diagram. None of the given condition is violated in the given diagram. Hence, at max 49 people can opt for only finance.

Thus, the maximum number of students who opted for only Finance is 49

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 32

Read the below information carefully and answer the following questions.

There are 100 students in a class. Each of the students has to opt for one or more of the three specializations among Finance, Operations and Marketing. The number of students who opted for Marketing is more than the number of students who opted for Finance which is more than the number of students who opted for Operations which is more than the number of students who opted for exactly two of the three specializations which is more than the number of students who opted for all three specializations. At least one student opted for all three specializations.

 

Q. What is the maximum number of students who opted for Finance and Operations but not Marketing?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 32

It is known that the total number of students is 100. We also know that the number of students who opted for Marketing is more than the number of students who opted for Finance which is more than the number of students who opted for Operations.
We have to maximize the number of students who chose both Finance and Operations as their specialization. We know that the number of students who chose Marketing will be greater than the number of students who opted for Finance and Operations as their specialization. This can be done as shown in the following Venn diagram.

Thus, the maximum number of students who opted for Finance and Operations but not Marketing = 48

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 33

Consider 4 players A,B,C,D are playing a carrom match. The carrom match has 9 white, 9 black and 1 red coin. A,C are teammates and B,D are teammates. A round has four turns and a round is said to be completed when all the four players have completed their turns. The following is known about the rules of the carrom match.

  • A and C choose white colour for their team and A takes the first shot, followed by B,C,D respectively.
  • When a player pockets a coin of his chosen colour, he gets another chance in his turn.This continues until he does not pocket any coin, or when he pockets a coin of the opponents colour, which signals the end of his turn. The next player then starts his turn.
  • Any player who pockets the red coin, which is worth 5 points, should follow with pocketing a coin of his colour. If he pockets a coin of the opposite colour after pocketing the red, the red is awarded to the opposite team. If the player does not pocket any coin after pocketing the red, the red coin is placed back on to the board.
  • When there is only one coin of black or white and a red coin left on the board, the black/white coin should not be pocketed. Instead, the red coin is to be pocketed. If by mistake the lone coin is pocketed, it is to be placed back in the centre.
  • The game ends when one of the teams pockets all their coins. The points are calculated as follows.

No of points = (No of coins of opposite team left)*2 + points from pocketing red coin. The team with the most points wins.

 

Q. Consider the case when 6 White coins have been pocketed at the end of the first round. (All players have had one turn each). What is the maximum number of coins that D could have pocketed in the first round, if the game does not end in the first round ?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 33

We know that the game does not end in the first round, and at the end of the first round 3 white coins remain. This means that, for the game to not end, the minimum number of black coins that must be left on the board is 1.

Since D can pocket one white coin to end his turn, (A,B,C) in their turns pocket a total of 5 white coins and 0 black coins. This can be done using many combinations like (A,B,C) =  (3,0,2), (2,1,2) etc.

We now have to maximise the number of coins that D should pocket. 

This means that D has to pocket all the black coins on the board except one, which has to be left on the board as the game does not end.

Therefore D should have pocketed 8 black coins, and also should also have pocketed the red coin during his turn. 

Also, D should have ended his turn by pocketing a white coin at the end.

Therefore, the total number of coins that D could have pocketed is 8 black + 1 red + 1 white = 10 coins.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 34

Consider 4 players A,B,C,D are playing a carrom match. The carrom match has 9 white, 9 black and 1 red coin. A,C are teammates and B,D are teammates. A round has four turns and a round is said to be completed when all the four players have completed their turns. The following is known about the rules of the carrom match.

  • A and C choose white colour for their team and A takes the first shot, followed by B,C,D respectively.
  • When a player pockets a coin of his chosen colour, he gets another chance in his turn.This continues until he does not pocket any coin, or when he pockets a coin of the opponents colour, which signals the end of his turn. The next player then starts his turn.
  • Any player who pockets the red coin, which is worth 5 points, should follow with pocketing a coin of his colour. If he pockets a coin of the opposite colour after pocketing the red, the red is awarded to the opposite team. If the player does not pocket any coin after pocketing the red, the red coin is placed back on to the board.
  • When there is only one coin of black or white and a red coin left on the board, the black/white coin should not be pocketed. Instead, the red coin is to be pocketed. If by mistake the lone coin is pocketed, it is to be placed back in the centre.
  • The game ends when one of the teams pockets all their coins. The points are calculated as follows.

No of points = (No of coins of opposite team left)*2 + points from pocketing red coin. The team with the most points wins.

 

Q. If a white coin is the last coin to be pocketed in the game but Black wins and  k is the difference between the points of white team and black team, find the number of possible values for k?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 34

If white coin is the last coin to be pocketed, this means that there are 0 white coins left on the board and at least one black coin on the board. In such a case, the points of black can be 5 or 0, depending on whether black has pocketed the red coin. As it is given that black wins, we can infer that the black team has pocketed the red coin. Hence, Black team points are 5.

Suppose there is 1 black coin left on the board, then, White's points would be 2.

Suppose there are 2 black coins left on the board, White would have 4 points. When 3 black coins exist , White would have 6 points. But this case would not exist as then White would win. 

Hence, the point differences of Black - White can be 5-2 and 5-4.

The maximum number of values that can exist is 2.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 35

Consider 4 players A,B,C,D are playing a carrom match. The carrom match has 9 white, 9 black and 1 red coin. A,C are teammates and B,D are teammates. A round has four turns and a round is said to be completed when all the four players have completed their turns. The following is known about the rules of the carrom match.

  • A and C choose white colour for their team and A takes the first shot, followed by B,C,D respectively.
  • When a player pockets a coin of his chosen colour, he gets another chance in his turn.This continues until he does not pocket any coin, or when he pockets a coin of the opponents colour, which signals the end of his turn. The next player then starts his turn.
  • Any player who pockets the red coin, which is worth 5 points, should follow with pocketing a coin of his colour. If he pockets a coin of the opposite colour after pocketing the red, the red is awarded to the opposite team. If the player does not pocket any coin after pocketing the red, the red coin is placed back on to the board.
  • When there is only one coin of black or white and a red coin left on the board, the black/white coin should not be pocketed. Instead, the red coin is to be pocketed. If by mistake the lone coin is pocketed, it is to be placed back in the centre.
  • The game ends when one of the teams pockets all their coins. The points are calculated as follows.

No of points = (No of coins of opposite team left)*2 + points from pocketing red coin. The team with the most points wins.

 

Q. Find the sum of all possible points that a team can score.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 35

We consider all scores possible for Team A where the opponent is Team B.

Case 1: Red is pocketed by Team B

In such a case where the opponent has pocketed the red, then he must have taken at least one of his coins. Thus, the opposition team can have from 0 coins to 8 coins on board. 

Therefore, all the possible scores of Team A are 0,2,4,6,......16. 

Sum of this series = 2*(1+2+.. 8) = 2*36 = 72 points

Case 2: Red is pocketed by Team A

In this case, 0 to 9 coins of Team B can be on the board.

As the red is pocketed, then 5 points are added to each of the above scores. Hence, now, the possible scores are 5+2*0, 5+2*1 ... 5+2*9 = 5,7,9,......23 points. Sum of this series = 5*10 + 2*(1+2+...+9) = 50+90 = 140

The total is 72 + 140 = 212 points.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 36

5 friends- Jack, Kiara, Liam, Mike and Nico went for a quiz competition and had to appear for an MCQ test, which was the first round for elimination. The test was fairly simple. It had just four questions and each question had 3 options- A, B and C. The five friends sat down in a continuous line, one behind the other, all facing the same direction. Except for the  person sitting in front among these 5 friends, all the others copied at least one answer from the person sitting immediately in front of him. Furthermore, for each of the pairs of friends sitting continuously, exactly one answer was same.

We are also given some additional facts-

  1. Exactly two friends marked the answer as option B for Q1 and neither of the two were sitting at the first or the fifth position.
  2. The person sitting in the second position, who was not Liam, marked the answer as option B for Q3, which he copied.
  3. Jack, who was sitting immediately in front of Liam, marked the answer as option C for exactly two questions, while Nico marked the answer as option C only for Q1.
  4. The person sitting in the last position, who was not Liam, marked the answer as option B for Q2 and Mike, who was not in the last position, did not mark the answer to Q3 as option B.
  5. Each of the four friends who copied the answer did so for a different question and each friend marked the answer as option A for at least one question, as option B for at least one question and as option C for at least one question.
  6. The person sitting in the middle marked the answer to Q2 as option C, which he did not copy.
  7. The answers of two persons sitting one behind another are the same only if the person sitting at the back copied the answer.

 

Q. What was the answer marked by the person sitting in the last position for Q4?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 36

Let us use J, K, L, M and N as codes for Jack, Kiara, Liam, Mike and Nico respectively. 

Using statements 2, 4 and 6, we can have the following table to start with:

Statement 2 gives that the person sitting in second position copied his third answer from the person before him. Hence person sitting in the first position must answer B for question 3.

Statement 6 mentions that the person sitting in the middle did not copy his answer.Since he answered C for question 2. The person sitting in front must not have answered C for question 2. Hence the person in position 2 for question can answer either A/B.

Given J sits one place in front of L. Since L cannot sit at position 2 and 5 . J can sit only at 2,3. If J sits at 2 or 3 L must sit at 3 or 4.

Given in statement 4 M does not not sit position 5 nor answer option B for question 3. Hence he can only sit at either 3 or 4.

If J sits at 3 and L sits at 4 M does not have a place to sit. Hence J must sit at 2, L at 3 and M at 4.

Also, statement 3 says that J marked C twice and hence A and B were marked exactly once by him. Hence C must be answered for Q1 and Q4.

Statement 1 says that B was marked twice in question 1 hence it must be answered for by L and M because the person sitting at first and final position cannot answer B and person at position has already answered Q1 with C hence B must be answered for Q1 by persons L and M and since they are consecutively seated they must have copied. After placing as per the mentioned conditions the table looks like this :


Since the a set of persons must copy only one answer. The person sitting at position 1 cannot place C for Q1 because if he does that then there will be two copied answers between 1st and 2nd seated people. Hence he must answer A for question 1.

Note that in statement 3 it is mentioned that Nico marked the answer as option C only for Q1. Hence Nico is at position 5 and Kiara at position 1.

Also, exactly 2 persons marked B as answers to Q1. So,

Now, we have copied answers for pairs (3,4) and (1,2) and for questions 1 and 3.

So, pairs (2,3) and (4,5) must have copied answers for Q2 and Q4.

And since pair (2,3) did not copy answer for Q2, they must have done it for Q4. And the pair (4,5) must have copied for Q2.

Statement 4 tells that person sitting at the last position answers B for question 2. Since (4,5) copied Q2 person at position 4 must answer B for Q4

Now since, each of the 5 person must have at least one A, B and C each as the answers. We further deduce the following:

For M one of Q3 and Q4 must be answered with A and C. Since Q4 cannot be answered C by M as it would mean that he had copied this from L this is a false case. Hence he answers A for Q3 and C for Q4.

For L since we must have at least  one answer to be A we must Q3 with A.

For K we must have at least 1 answer to be C and we cannot answer Q4 with C we must answer Q2 with C.

The remaining Q4 for K can be answered with A/B but not C because J has answered Q4 with C.

The last person can answer Q3 with A/B because A/B because C cannot be placed as M answered Q3 with C similarly for Q4 only B/C can be used.

Also, the last person marked B as the answer for Q2. So


Now, Nico only answered C for Q1. If he answers B for Q3 . He cannot answer A for any of the Questions hence he must answer Q3 with option A. Since he only answers one question with option C he must answer Q4 with B.

The final table looks like :

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 37

5 friends- Jack, Kiara, Liam, Mike and Nico went for a quiz competition and had to appear for an MCQ test, which was the first round for elimination. The test was fairly simple. It had just four questions and each question had 3 options- A, B and C. The five friends sat down in a continuous line, one behind the other, all facing the same direction. Except for the  person sitting in front among these 5 friends, all the others copied at least one answer from the person sitting immediately in front of him. Furthermore, for each of the pairs of friends sitting continuously, exactly one answer was same.

We are also given some additional facts-

  1. Exactly two friends marked the answer as option B for Q1 and neither of the two were sitting at the first or the fifth position.
  2. The person sitting in the second position, who was not Liam, marked the answer as option B for Q3, which he copied.
  3. Jack, who was sitting immediately in front of Liam, marked the answer as option C for exactly two questions, while Nico marked the answer as option C only for Q1.
  4. The person sitting in the last position, who was not Liam, marked the answer as option B for Q2 and Mike, who was not in the last position, did not mark the answer to Q3 as option B.
  5. Each of the four friends who copied the answer did so for a different question and each friend marked the answer as option A for at least one question, as option B for at least one question and as option C for at least one question.
  6. The person sitting in the middle marked the answer to Q2 as option C, which he did not copy.
  7. The answers of two persons sitting one behind another are the same only if the person sitting at the back copied the answer.

 

Q. Which Question number did Kiara copy from her friend?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 37

Let us use J, K, L, M and N as codes for Jack, Kiara, Liam, Mike and Nico respectively. 

Using statements 2, 4 and 6, we can have the following table to start with:

Statement 2 gives that the person sitting in second position copied his third answer from the person before him. Hence person sitting in the first position must answer B for question 3.

Statement 6 mentions that the person sitting in the middle did not copy his answer.Since he answered C for question 2. The person sitting in front must not have answered C for question 2. Hence the person in position 2 for question can answer either A/B.

Given J sits one place in front of L. Since L cannot sit at position 2 and 5 . J can sit only at 2,3. If J sits at 2 or 3 L must sit at 3 or 4.

Given in statement 4 M does not not sit position 5 nor answer option B for question 3. Hence he can only sit at either 3 or 4.

If J sits at 3 and L sits at 4 M does not have a place to sit. Hence J must sit at 2, L at 3 and M at 4.

Also, statement 3 says that J marked C twice and hence A and B were marked exactly once by him. Hence C must be answered for Q1 and Q4.

Statement 1 says that B was marked twice in question 1 hence it must be answered for by L and M because the person sitting at first and final position cannot answer B and person at position has already answered Q1 with C hence B must be answered for Q1 by persons L and M and since they are consecutively seated they must have copied. After placing as per the mentioned conditions the table looks like this :


Since the a set of persons must copy only one answer. The person sitting at position 1 cannot place C for Q1 because if he does that then there will be two copied answers between 1st and 2nd seated people. Hence he must answer A for question 1.

Note that in statement 3 it is mentioned that Nico marked the answer as option C only for Q1. Hence Nico is at position 5 and Kiara at position 1.

Also, exactly 2 persons marked B as answers to Q1. So,

Now, we have copied answers for pairs (3,4) and (1,2) and for questions 1 and 3.

So, pairs (2,3) and (4,5) must have copied answers for Q2 and Q4.

And since pair (2,3) did not copy answer for Q2, they must have done it for Q4. And the pair (4,5) must have copied for Q2.

Statement 4 tells that person sitting at the last position answers B for question 2. Since (4,5) copied Q2 person at position 4 must answer B for Q4

Now since, each of the 5 person must have at least one A, B and C each as the answers. We further deduce the following:

For M one of Q3 and Q4 must be answered with A and C. Since Q4 cannot be answered C by M as it would mean that he had copied this from L this is a false case. Hence he answers A for Q3 and C for Q4.

For L since we must have at least  one answer to be A we must Q3 with A.

For K we must have at least 1 answer to be C and we cannot answer Q4 with C we must answer Q2 with C.

The remaining Q4 for K can be answered with A/B but not C because J has answered Q4 with C.

The last person can answer Q3 with A/B because A/B because C cannot be placed as M answered Q3 with C similarly for Q4 only B/C can be used.

Also, the last person marked B as the answer for Q2. So


Now, Nico only answered C for Q1. If he answers B for Q3 . He cannot answer A for any of the Questions hence he must answer Q3 with option A. Since he only answers one question with option C he must answer Q4 with B.

The final table looks like :

Since Kiara is the first person among the 5 friends, she did not copy any answer from her friends.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 38

5 friends- Jack, Kiara, Liam, Mike and Nico went for a quiz competition and had to appear for an MCQ test, which was the first round for elimination. The test was fairly simple. It had just four questions and each question had 3 options- A, B and C. The five friends sat down in a continuous line, one behind the other, all facing the same direction. Except for the  person sitting in front among these 5 friends, all the others copied at least one answer from the person sitting immediately in front of him. Furthermore, for each of the pairs of friends sitting continuously, exactly one answer was same.

We are also given some additional facts-

  1. Exactly two friends marked the answer as option B for Q1 and neither of the two were sitting at the first or the fifth position.
  2. The person sitting in the second position, who was not Liam, marked the answer as option B for Q3, which he copied.
  3. Jack, who was sitting immediately in front of Liam, marked the answer as option C for exactly two questions, while Nico marked the answer as option C only for Q1.
  4. The person sitting in the last position, who was not Liam, marked the answer as option B for Q2 and Mike, who was not in the last position, did not mark the answer to Q3 as option B.
  5. Each of the four friends who copied the answer did so for a different question and each friend marked the answer as option A for at least one question, as option B for at least one question and as option C for at least one question.
  6. The person sitting in the middle marked the answer to Q2 as option C, which he did not copy.
  7. The answers of two persons sitting one behind another are the same only if the person sitting at the back copied the answer.

 

Q. For how many questions did Liam and the friend sitting in the first position mark the same answer?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 38

Let us use J, K, L, M and N as codes for Jack, Kiara, Liam, Mike and Nico respectively. 

Using statements 2, 4 and 6, we can have the following table to start with:

Statement 2 gives that the person sitting in second position copied his third answer from the person before him. Hence person sitting in the first position must answer B for question 3.

Statement 6 mentions that the person sitting in the middle did not copy his answer.Since he answered C for question 2. The person sitting in front must not have answered C for question 2. Hence the person in position 2 for question can answer either A/B.

Given J sits one place in front of L. Since L cannot sit at position 2 and 5 . J can sit only at 2,3. If J sits at 2 or 3 L must sit at 3 or 4.

Given in statement 4 M does not not sit position 5 nor answer option B for question 3. Hence he can only sit at either 3 or 4.

If J sits at 3 and L sits at 4 M does not have a place to sit. Hence J must sit at 2, L at 3 and M at 4.

Also, statement 3 says that J marked C twice and hence A and B were marked exactly once by him. Hence C must be answered for Q1 and Q4.

Statement 1 says that B was marked twice in question 1 hence it must be answered for by L and M because the person sitting at first and final position cannot answer B and person at position has already answered Q1 with C hence B must be answered for Q1 by persons L and M and since they are consecutively seated they must have copied. After placing as per the mentioned conditions the table looks like this :


Since the a set of persons must copy only one answer. The person sitting at position 1 cannot place C for Q1 because if he does that then there will be two copied answers between 1st and 2nd seated people. Hence he must answer A for question 1.

Note that in statement 3 it is mentioned that Nico marked the answer as option C only for Q1. Hence Nico is at position 5 and Kiara at position 1.

Also, exactly 2 persons marked B as answers to Q1. So,

Now, we have copied answers for pairs (3,4) and (1,2) and for questions 1 and 3.

So, pairs (2,3) and (4,5) must have copied answers for Q2 and Q4.

And since pair (2,3) did not copy answer for Q2, they must have done it for Q4. And the pair (4,5) must have copied for Q2.

Statement 4 tells that person sitting at the last position answers B for question 2. Since (4,5) copied Q2 person at position 4 must answer B for Q4

Now since, each of the 5 person must have at least one A, B and C each as the answers. We further deduce the following:

For M one of Q3 and Q4 must be answered with A and C. Since Q4 cannot be answered C by M as it would mean that he had copied this from L this is a false case. Hence he answers A for Q3 and C for Q4.

For L since we must have at least  one answer to be A we must Q3 with A.

For K we must have at least 1 answer to be C and we cannot answer Q4 with C we must answer Q2 with C.

The remaining Q4 for K can be answered with A/B but not C because J has answered Q4 with C.

The last person can answer Q3 with A/B because A/B because C cannot be placed as M answered Q3 with C similarly for Q4 only B/C can be used.

Also, the last person marked B as the answer for Q2. So


Now, Nico only answered C for Q1. If he answers B for Q3 . He cannot answer A for any of the Questions hence he must answer Q3 with option A. Since he only answers one question with option C he must answer Q4 with B.

The final table looks like :

Liam and Kiara has same answers for only Q2.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 39

5 friends- Jack, Kiara, Liam, Mike and Nico went for a quiz competition and had to appear for an MCQ test, which was the first round for elimination. The test was fairly simple. It had just four questions and each question had 3 options- A, B and C. The five friends sat down in a continuous line, one behind the other, all facing the same direction. Except for the  person sitting in front among these 5 friends, all the others copied at least one answer from the person sitting immediately in front of him. Furthermore, for each of the pairs of friends sitting continuously, exactly one answer was same.

We are also given some additional facts-

  1. Exactly two friends marked the answer as option B for Q1 and neither of the two were sitting at the first or the fifth position.
  2. The person sitting in the second position, who was not Liam, marked the answer as option B for Q3, which he copied.
  3. Jack, who was sitting immediately in front of Liam, marked the answer as option C for exactly two questions, while Nico marked the answer as option C only for Q1.
  4. The person sitting in the last position, who was not Liam, marked the answer as option B for Q2 and Mike, who was not in the last position, did not mark the answer to Q3 as option B.
  5. Each of the four friends who copied the answer did so for a different question and each friend marked the answer as option A for at least one question, as option B for at least one question and as option C for at least one question.
  6. The person sitting in the middle marked the answer to Q2 as option C, which he did not copy.
  7. The answers of two persons sitting one behind another are the same only if the person sitting at the back copied the answer.

 

Q. For all the responses combined for the four questions, which option was the least chosen one among the three?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 39

Let us use J, K, L, M and N as codes for Jack, Kiara, Liam, Mike and Nico respectively. 

Using statements 2, 4 and 6, we can have the following table to start with:

Statement 2 gives that the person sitting in second position copied his third answer from the person before him. Hence person sitting in the first position must answer B for question 3.

Statement 6 mentions that the person sitting in the middle did not copy his answer.Since he answered C for question 2. The person sitting in front must not have answered C for question 2. Hence the person in position 2 for question can answer either A/B.

Given J sits one place in front of L. Since L cannot sit at position 2 and 5 . J can sit only at 2,3. If J sits at 2 or 3 L must sit at 3 or 4.

Given in statement 4 M does not not sit position 5 nor answer option B for question 3. Hence he can only sit at either 3 or 4.

If J sits at 3 and L sits at 4 M does not have a place to sit. Hence J must sit at 2, L at 3 and M at 4.

Also, statement 3 says that J marked C twice and hence A and B were marked exactly once by him. Hence C must be answered for Q1 and Q4.

Statement 1 says that B was marked twice in question 1 hence it must be answered for by L and M because the person sitting at first and final position cannot answer B and person at position has already answered Q1 with C hence B must be answered for Q1 by persons L and M and since they are consecutively seated they must have copied. After placing as per the mentioned conditions the table looks like this :


Since the a set of persons must copy only one answer. The person sitting at position 1 cannot place C for Q1 because if he does that then there will be two copied answers between 1st and 2nd seated people. Hence he must answer A for question 1.

Note that in statement 3 it is mentioned that Nico marked the answer as option C only for Q1. Hence Nico is at position 5 and Kiara at position 1.

Also, exactly 2 persons marked B as answers to Q1. So,

Now, we have copied answers for pairs (3,4) and (1,2) and for questions 1 and 3.

So, pairs (2,3) and (4,5) must have copied answers for Q2 and Q4.

And since pair (2,3) did not copy answer for Q2, they must have done it for Q4. And the pair (4,5) must have copied for Q2.

Statement 4 tells that person sitting at the last position answers B for question 2. Since (4,5) copied Q2 person at position 4 must answer B for Q4

Now since, each of the 5 person must have at least one A, B and C each as the answers. We further deduce the following:

For M one of Q3 and Q4 must be answered with A and C. Since Q4 cannot be answered C by M as it would mean that he had copied this from L this is a false case. Hence he answers A for Q3 and C for Q4.

For L since we must have at least  one answer to be A we must Q3 with A.

For K we must have at least 1 answer to be C and we cannot answer Q4 with C we must answer Q2 with C.

The remaining Q4 for K can be answered with A/B but not C because J has answered Q4 with C.

The last person can answer Q3 with A/B because A/B because C cannot be placed as M answered Q3 with C similarly for Q4 only B/C can be used.

Also, the last person marked B as the answer for Q2. So


Now, Nico only answered C for Q1. If he answers B for Q3 . He cannot answer A for any of the Questions hence he must answer Q3 with option A. Since he only answers one question with option C he must answer Q4 with B.

The final table looks like :

Option A was chosen 5/6 times.

Option B was chosen 8/7 times.

Option C was chosen 7 times.

So, even if Kiara marked A as the answer for Q4, A would still be the least chosen option.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 40

Six friends- Aman, Billu, Dinesh, Ekansh, Ganesh and Hritesh went for a trip together across 5 different cities- Pune, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Delhi and Bangalore in that order. Each of the six friends made certain expenses in each of the five cities . It is known that the total amount remaining with each of the six friends before visiting Delhi was the same. The following graph shows the amount of money spent (in thousands ) in each city by the six friends:

Note : All values are either multiples of 5 or 10 (in thousands )

 

Q. Which friend had the least amount with him before the start of the tour?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 40

The amount of money (in thousands) spent by each of the friends in six cities as per the chart provided is:


After spending in Hyderabad, each of the six friends are left with same amount of money, say 'x'. 

By then Aman, Billu, Dinesh, Ekansh, Ganesh and Hritesh have spent a total of 50, 75, 100, 50, 70 and 35 thousand respectively.

Since, they are left with the same amount after this, all of the six friends must have started the tour with (x+50), (x+75), (x+100), (x+50), (x+70) and (x+35) thousand respectively.

The following table shows the amount left with each of the friends after visiting the particular cities:


Hritesh had the least amount before the start of the tour.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 41

Six friends- Aman, Billu, Dinesh, Ekansh, Ganesh and Hritesh went for a trip together across 5 different cities- Pune, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Delhi and Bangalore in that order. Each of the six friends made certain expenses in each of the five cities . It is known that the total amount remaining with each of the six friends before visiting Delhi was the same. The following graph shows the amount of money spent (in thousands ) in each city by the six friends:

Note : All values are either multiples of 5 or 10 (in thousands )

 

Q. Which friend had the highest amount left with him after the tour to Bangalore?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 41

The amount of money (in thousands) spent by each of the friends in six cities as per the chart provided is:


After spending in Hyderabad, each of the six friends are left with same amount of money, say 'x'. 

By then Aman, Billu, Dinesh, Ekansh, Ganesh and Hritesh have spent a total of 50, 75, 100, 50, 70 and 35 thousand respectively.

Since, they are left with the same amount after this, all of the six friends must have started the tour with (x+50), (x+75), (x+100), (x+50), (x+70) and (x+35) thousand respectively.

The following table shows the amount left with each of the friends after visiting the particular cities:

After Bangalore's trip, Dinesh is left with the highest amount.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 42

Six friends- Aman, Billu, Dinesh, Ekansh, Ganesh and Hritesh went for a trip together across 5 different cities- Pune, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Delhi and Bangalore in that order. Each of the six friends made certain expenses in each of the five cities . It is known that the total amount remaining with each of the six friends before visiting Delhi was the same. The following graph shows the amount of money spent (in thousands ) in each city by the six friends:

Note : All values are either multiples of 5 or 10 (in thousands )

 

Q. If each of the friends spent at least 50% of the amount (in all the trips including Bangalore) they initially had before the start of the tour,  what is the maximum amount of money with any friend before the beginning of Mumbai trip?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 42

The amount of money (in thousands) spent by each of the friends in six cities as per the chart provided is:

Each spent at least 50% of money 
Now Maximum amount will be left if each spent as less as possible which means each spent 50% of total money with him.
At the beginning of the trip they can have a maximum total of :
Aman  =220
Billu - 220
Dinesh -250
Ekansh- 240
Ganesh- 280
Hritesh - 190
 

But considering the additional condition that all of them have the same equal amounts by the time they reach Delhi :

Let initially their amounts be a, b, c, d, e, f

Since by the time they reach Delhi all of them must be equal :

By the time they reach Delhi

For Aman : a - 50000 

If Aman has 220000 he will end up with 220000- 50000 = 170000 by the time he reaches Delhi. This is the maximum limit.

For Billu : b - 75000

If Billu has 220000 he will end up with 220000- 75000 = 145000 by the time he reaches Delhi. This is the maximum limit.

For Dinesh : c - 100000

If Dinesh has 250000 he will end up with 250000- 100000 = 150000 by the time he reaches Delhi. This is the maximum limit.

For Ekansh : d - 50000

If Ekansh has 240000 he will end up with 240000- 50000 = 190000 by the time he reaches Delhi. This is the maximum limit.

For Ganesh : e - 70000

If Ganesh has 280000 he will end up with 280000- 70000 = 210000 by the time he reaches Delhi. This is the maximum limit.

For Hritesh : f - 35000

If Hritesh has 190000 he will end up with 190000- 35000 = 155000 by the time he reaches Delhi. This is the maximum limit.

The lowest among the maximum for all the people was for Billu which was 145000.

Hence everyone must have Rs 145000 by the time they reach Delhi.

Before the beginning of Mumbai trip :

Aman will have 145000 + 10000 + 15000 =  Rs 170000

Billu will have 145000 + 30000 + 25000 = Rs 200000

Dinesh will have 145000 + 40000 + 35000 = Rs 220000

Ekansh will have 145000 + 15000 + 5000 = Rs 165000

Ganesh will have 145000 + 15000 + 20000 = Rs 180000

Hritesh will have 145000 + 20000 + 5000 = Rs 170000

Among these Dinesh has the highest of Rs 220000 before the Mumbai trip.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 43

Six friends- Aman, Billu, Dinesh, Ekansh, Ganesh and Hritesh went for a trip together across 5 different cities- Pune, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Delhi and Bangalore in that order. Each of the six friends made certain expenses in each of the five cities . It is known that the total amount remaining with each of the six friends before visiting Delhi was the same. The following graph shows the amount of money spent (in thousands ) in each city by the six friends:

Note : All values are either multiples of 5 or 10 (in thousands )

 

Q. If Ganesh was left with Rs. 30,000 at the end of the entire trip, what is the amount of money left with Billu after his trip to Mumbai?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 43

The amount of money (in thousands) spent by each of the friends in six cities as per the chart provided is:


After spending in Hyderabad, each of the six friends are left with same amount of money, say 'x'.

By then Aman, Billu, Dinesh, Ekansh, Ganesh and Hritesh have spent a total of 50, 75, 100, 50, 70 and 35 thousand respectively.

Since, they are left with the same amount after this, all of the six friends must have started the tour with (x+50), (x+75), (x+100), (x+50), (x+70) and (x+35) thousand respectively.

The following table shows the amount left with each of the friends after visiting the particular cities:


Ganesh is left with Rs. (x-70) thousand after the trip ends.

So, x = Rs. 100,000

Amount left with Billu after his trip to Mumbai= Rs. (x+30) thousand = Rs. 130,000

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 44

Directions: The following state-wise demographic information is available for the different states in North-East India. This demographic findings is conducted every 5 years, and the latest one was conducted this year in 2016.

Sex Ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males.
Birth Rate is the number of live births per 1000 population in a year
Literacy Rate is the percentage of the population who have the ability to read and write.
Each of these figures have been rounded off to the nearest integer.

The Government of India wants to track all these parameters and note key areas where the states have improved in the past 5 years. A higher sex ratio, higher literacy rate, and lower birth rate across this period is what the Government of India wants from these states.

How many of these states saw an increase in the sex ratio figure by more than 3% during the 2011-2016 period?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 44

Arunachal Pradesh (4.69%), Assam (3.03%), Sikkim (3.77%) and Tripura (3.40%) saw an increase in the sex ratio figure by more than 3% during the 2011-2016 period. Hence, four states.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 45

A classroom of 40 students and 1 teacher has an average weight of 48kgs. When the teacher left, the average weight drops by 1.25%. 2 more students join the class and the average weight further drops by 0.4 kgs. What is the average weight (in Kgs) of the 2 new students?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 45

Let the weight of the teacher be T and the average weight of 40 students be S. Let X be the  wieght of the added students

As per the question, 40S + T = 41 × 48 ....(I)

When the teacher left the average weight drops by 1.25%

Thus 40S = 40(1−1.25%)48

Or 40S = 40(47.4)

S = 47.4

When 2 students of overall weight X is added, the average weight drops by 0.4kgs. Thus

40(S) + X = 42(47.4−0.4)

40(47.4) + X = 42(47)

1896 + X = 1974

X = 78 Average weight = 39

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 46

Shyam bought fresh grapes which have 80% concentration of water. He stored them for few days such that the quantity of water drops down by 60% of the original quantity in the grapes. He then mixed these dried grapes with fresh grapes in the ratio of 5:8 by weight. What is the approximate percentage of water in the resulting mixture?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 46

Let we have 1 kg of fresh grapes. Then it will have 0.2kg pulp and 0.8 kg water.

After drying the quantity of water = (1−0.6)0.8 = 0.4(0.8) = 0.32 kg water.

Thus 0.52kg of dried grape will have 0.32kg of water

Let the quantity of dried grape mixed be 5 kg and quantity of fresh grape = 8 kg

Amount of water in 5 kg of dried grape = 

Amount of water in 8 kg fresh grape = 8 × 0.8 = 6.4

Total amount of water = 

% of water in the mixture = 

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 47

Find the product of all possible real values of x satisfying

|x + 5|x - 7|| + |6x + 7| x - 7|| = 79

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 47

∣x+5∣x−7∣∣ + ∣6x+7∣x−7∣∣ = 79

Case 1: x > = 7,

∣x+5∣x−7∣∣ + ∣6x+7∣x−7∣∣ = 79

∣x + 5x − 35∣ + ∣6x+7x−49∣ = 79

∣6x−35∣ + ∣13x−49∣ = 79

6x − 35 + 13x − 49 = 79

19x = 163

x = 163/19

Case 2: x < 7,

∣x+5 ∣x−7∣∣ + ∣6x+7∣ x−7∣∣ = 79

∣x−5x + 35 ∣ + ∣6x − 7x + 49∣ = 79

∣35−4x∣ + ∣49−x∣ = 79

35 − 4x + 49 − x = 79

5 × x = 5

x = 1

Product = 163/19

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 48

If f(x2 - x) = x4 - 2x3 + 3x2 - 2x - 3, find the value of

f(f(6))/f(5)

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 48

f(x2-x) = x4 - 2x3 + 3x2 - 2x-3

f(x2 - x) = x4 - 2x3 + x2 + 2x- 2x - 3

f(x2 − x) = (x2−x)+ 2(x− x) −3

f(x) = x2 + 2x - 3 = (x+3)(x-1)

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 49

How many obtuse-angled isosceles triangles with integer sides are possible with a semiperimeter of 21 units?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 49

Perimeter = 21 x 2 = 42

Since a + b > c

a + b + c > 2c

c < (a +b + c)/2

Hence, all sides are less than 21 units.

Possible triangles are

20,20,2

19,19,4

18,18,6

17,17,8

16,16,10

15,15,12

14,14,14

13,13,16

12,12,18

11,11,20 

Of these, 12,12,18 and 11,11,20  are obtuse since a2 + b2 < c2

Hence, only 2.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 50

A square field ABCD of side 10metres has a grass cover all over its area. 2 cows have been tied at A and D such that they can never touch each other apart from at only one point. They complete all the grass in their reach. A third cow is then tied at B with a rope of the exact same length as the other two. What is the total area of the grass cover left in the reach of this cow(in m2m)?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 50

We need to find out the area of the quarter circle centred at B (only the unshaded region).

Required area = (Area of the square - Area of the shaded region)/2

= 100 × 0.1073 = 10.73

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 51

A large solid cube of steel of side 1 metre is molten and recast into a number of smaller cubes of side 5cm or 10cm. If it is known that the number of 5cm cubes was at least double the number of 10cm cubes, what is the minimum percentage increase in the total surface area in this process?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 51

We know that if we have to minimise the total surface area, we need to keep the number of 5cm cubes minimum.

Let the number of 10cm cubes be b and the number of 5 cm cubes be a

Therefore,

100 x 100 x 100 = a x 5 x 5 x 5 + b x 10 x 10 x 10

8000 = a + 8b

Now, a > = 2b, since a needs to be minimum, a = 2b

Therefore, 10b = 8000

b = 800

a = 1600

Initial surface area = 6 x 100 x 100 = 60000

Final surface area = 6 (800 x 10 x 10 + 1600 x 5 x 5) = 720000

Hence, percentage increase = 720000 - 60000/60000 x 100 = 1100%

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 52

What is the ratio of the areas of a square and a regular hexagon with an equal perimeter?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 52

Let the perimeter be 24a 

Side of square = 6a

Side of hexagon = 4a

Area of square = 36α2
 
Area of hexagon = 

Ratio = 

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 53

Find the number of integer values of x ( x<100) satisfying the following:


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 53

For the expression to be defined, the denominator can't be equal to 0. So, x ≠ 2 
Similarly, x2 + 3x is always greater than 0, so can be ignored for the sign of the expression. 

Breakpoints are -7, -5, 1, 2

Hence, values are -7, -6, -5, ... , 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, .... , 99

Hence 9 + 97 = 106

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 54

Ram is a contractor who sells shirts, pants, and handkerchiefs. He sells 5 shirts, 3 pants and a handkerchief for Rs 1100. He sold 2 handkerchiefs, 5 pants and 8 shirts for Rs 1800. What will be the cost of 10 shirts, 4 handkerchiefs and 7 pants?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 54

Let xx, yy and zz be the selling price of shirts, pants and handkerchief respectively.

As per the question:

5x + 3y + z = 1100 .....(I)

8x + 5y + 2z = 1800 .....(II)

2(I) - (II) gives

2x + y = 400 ...(III) putting it in (I) gives

x + y + z = 300.....(IV)

4(IV)+3(III) gives

4x + 4y + 4z + 6x + 3y = 1200 + 1200

Or 10x + 7y + 4z = 2400

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 55

The total cost of 10 knives, 14 scissors and 15 blades is Rs. 799. The total cost of 20 knives, 25 scissors and 13 blades is Rs. 1110. What would be the total cost of 10 knives, 20 scissors and 49 blades?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 55

10k + 14s + 15b = 799 (x5)

20k + 25s + 13b = 1110 (x2)

50k + 70s + 75b = 3995

40k + 50s + 26b = 2220

Subtracting

10k + 20s + 49b = 1775.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 56

If log 360 = a, log 300 = b find the value of log 432 in terms of a and b

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 56

log 360 = a 

log 300 = b  

log 432 = ?

3 log 2 + 2 log 3 + log 5 = a  (....i)

2 log 2 + log 3 + 2 log 5 = b (....ii)

log 432 = 4 log 2 +3 log 3

2i - ii

4 log 2 + 3 log 3 = 2a - b

log 432 = 2a - b

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 57

If 8 < αb < 64, find the number of ordered pairs (a,b) such that both are natural numbers.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 57

b can not be equal to zero.

When b = 1,

a can take values from 9 to 63. Total = 55

When b = 2,

a can take values from 3 to 7. Total = 5

When b = 3,

a can take only the value of 3.

When  b = 4,

a can take the value of 2.

When b = 5,

a can take the value of 2.

Hence, total = 63

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 58

What is the remainder when 4550 is divided by 13?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 58

From Fermat's theorm we know that if  p is prime number then ap−1 mod p = 1

Thus 4512 mod 13 = 1

(4550 mod 13 = ((4512))4 × 452) mod13

Which equals 452 mod 13

452 = 2025

2025 mod 13 = 10

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 59

If the HCF of two natural numbers is 10 and their LCM is 1000, find the number of possible pair of numbers satisfying this criterion.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 59

Let the numbers be 10a and 10b

Hence,

10a x 10b = 10 x 1000

ab = 100

Possible sets of values are

(1, 100), (2, 50), (4, 25), (5, 20), (10, 10)

(2,50) (5,20) (10,10) are not possible since they are not coprime.

Hence 2 sets of pairs.

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 60

A toothpaste manufacturer sells toothpaste to a wholesaler at a price such that the manufacturer has a profit of 10%. The wholesaler sells the toothpaste to a retailer such that the profit earned is 20% of the cost price of manufacturing it. The retailer sells the toothpaste to customers at mentioned MRP and gets 20% profit from the sales. If the customer had to pay Rs 312 for one tube of toothpaste, what will be the profit earned by the wholesaler by selling 5 toothpaste tubes to the retailer?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 60

Let the cost of manufacturing 1 unit of toothpaste is x

Thus the selling price for the manufacturer is 1.1x

Profit for the wholesaler = 0.2x thus the selling price for wholesaler = 1.3x

The selling price for the retailer = 1.2 × 1.3x = 1.56x

We are given that 1.56x = 312 or x = 200

Profit for wholesaler = 0.2x = Rs 40 per tube

Profit for 5 tubes = Rs200

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 61

Sonali bought eggs at Rs 90 a dozen. She kept few eggs to herself and sold the remaining eggs such that the profit she made was 33 1/3 ​% of the money she spent to buy all the eggs. At what markup % did she sell the remaining eggs if she kept 1/3​ of the eggs for herself?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 61

Total money received after the sale = (1+ 33 1/3 ​%)90 = (4/3​) 90 = 120

Cost of 1 egg for Sonali = 90/12 ​= 7.5

Number of eggs kept by Sonali = 1/3 12 = 4

Eggs sold by Sonali = 12 - 4 = 8

Selling price per egg = 120​/8 = 15

Markup = 15 - 7.5 = Rs 7.5

Markup percent = 7.5/7.5​ × 100 % = 100%

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 62

How many terms are common in the two series:
2, 11, 20, 29, 38, ...., 9002
-1, 9, 19, 29, 39, ...., 10009

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 62

First common term = 29

Common difference = LCM(common difference of 1st series, common difference of 2nd series) = LCM(9, 10) = 90

So the common terms of the 2 series will be an AP with a = 29 and d = 90

Now, last term of the series < = 9002

29 + (n - 1) 90 <= 9002

(n - 1)90 <= 8973

n - 1 <= 99.7

n <= 100.7

n = 100

CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 63

What is the value of the following :

[log7 1] + [log7 2] + [log7 3] + ....[log7 350]

Here [x] denotes greatest integer less than or equal to x.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 63

For n = 1 to 6 log7​n = 0

For log7​n = 1. Thus there are 42 such numbers

For n = 49 to 342, log7​n = 2, Thus there are 294 such numbers

For n = 343 to 350, log7​n = 2 There are 8 such numbers.

Required sum = 42(1) + 294(2) + 8(3) = 654

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 64

An escalator is moving up. Rohit and his girlfriend walk up the moving escalator. Rohit has a walking speed one and half times that of his girlfriend. Rohit reaches the top after taking 40 steps, while his girlfriend does so after taking 30 steps. If the escalator is switched off, how many steps would Rohit take to walk up to the top?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 64

Let the walking speed of Rohit be 1.5x and that of his girlfriend be x. Let the speed of the escalator be S steps/unit time, and the number of steps on the escalator be N.
As per information provided for Rohit, we can say that N = (40/1.5x) * (1.5x+S)
As per information provided for Rohit's girlfriend, N = (30/x) * (x+S)
Equating the two we get S = 3x
Hence number of steps on the escalator is N = 120.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 65

A man invested Rs. 80000 in a bond which gives 10% p.a interest compounded half yearly. If the annual rate of interest is increased by 20% at the end of every half year. What will be the interest earned (in Rs.) for one and a half years?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 65

As the rate of interest is increasing by 20% annually, the rate of interest per half year increased by 10% over previous year.

The required interest that has been accrued is 40,750.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 66

A work is done by three persons A, B and C. A alone takes 9 minutes to manufacture a single bolt, while B and C working together take 6 minutes to manufacture a single bolt. If the entire task requires manufacturing of 30 such bolts, and all three work together, then how many minutes does the trio need to work for?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 2 (17/07/2022) - Question 66

A alone takes 9 minutes to manufacture a single bolt, hence in 1 minute, 1/9th of a bolt is manufactured.
B and C working together take 6 minutes to manufacture a single bolt, hence in 1 minute, 1/6th of a bolt is manufactured.
If all three start working together, then in 1 minute, they can manufacture (1/9 + 1/6)th of a bolt or 5/18th of a bolt,
Hence 1 bolt takes the trio 18/5 or 3.6 minutes to manufacture.
Thus 30 bolts will take the trio 30*3.6 = 108 minutes to manufacture.

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