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CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022)


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66 Questions MCQ Test CAT Mock Test Series | CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022)

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CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 1

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Private philanthropists have helped propel some of the most important social-impact success stories of the past century: Virtually eradicating polio globally. Providing free and reduced-price lunches for all needy schoolchildren in the United States. Establishing a universal 911 service. Securing the right for same-sex couples to marry in the U.S. These efforts have transformed or saved hundreds of millions of lives. That we now take them for granted makes them no less astonishing: They were the inconceivable moon shots of their day before they were inevitable success stories in retrospect. Many of today's emerging large-scale philanthropists aspire to similarly audacious successes. They don't want to fund homeless shelters and food pantries; they want to end homelessness and hunger. Steady, linear progress isn't enough; they demand disruptive, catalytic, systemic change - and in short order. Even as society grapples with important questions about today's concentrations of wealth, many of the largest philanthropists feel the weight of responsibility that comes with their privilege. And the scale of their ambition, along with the wealth they are willing to give back to society, is breath taking.

But a growing number of these donors privately express great frustration. Despite having written big checks for years, they aren't seeing transformative successes for society: Think of philanthropic interventions to arrest climate change or improve U.S. public education, to cite just two examples. When faced with setbacks and public criticism, the best philanthropists re-examine their goals and approaches, including how they engage the communities they aspire to help in the decision-making process. But some retreat to seemingly safer donations to universities or art museums, while others withdraw from public giving altogether.

Audacious social change is incredibly challenging. Yet history shows that it can succeed. Unfortunately, success never results from a silver bullet; it takes collaboration, government engagement, and persistence over decades, among other things. The role of philanthropists in the historical success stories vary. By and large they underwrote the efforts of others. The hands-on work fell, as it does today, to NGO leaders, service providers, activists, and many others on the front lines of social change. The common thread in these success stories was that philanthropists acted as sources of flexible capital, identifying gaps left by others and directing their resources accordingly. Sometimes only minor support was enough to tip the scales. This framework does not constitute a simple or linear recipe.

Real change is highly complex and driven by many forces, luck and timing play important roles, and causality is impossible to prove. Still, we believe that if ambitious philanthropists apply the framework over the arc of a campaign, they may substantially increase the odds of achieving transformative change. There are some high-level reasons as to why so many efforts wither on the vine. Most of the these share four important patterns: Success took a long time - nearly 90% of the efforts spanned more than 20 years. It frequently entailed government cooperation - 80% required changes to government funding, policies, or actions. It often necessitated collaboration - nearly 75% involved active coordination among key actors across sectors. And at least 66% featured donors who made one or more philanthropic big bets - gifts of $10 million or more.

Unfortunately, these patterns go against the grain of much philanthropic practice today. Donors know conceptually that achieving widespread change can take a long time, even for the most important and straightforward ideas. The basic lifesaving practice of hand washing and sterilizing surgical instruments and facilities took 30 years to gain acceptance even after a leading medical journal published ironclad evidence in support of it. Yet philanthropists often fund grantees with the expectation that much more complex change can be achieved in just a handful of years. Wary of red tape and of being perceived as "too political," many donors have been unwilling to fund work that meaningfully engages with the U.S. government, despite the central role it plays and the trillions of dollars it spends addressing society's toughest problems. Furthermore, collaboration of any type can be difficult and costly, so few philanthropists meaningfully support or engage in it, even though most are frustrated with the inefficient proliferation of siloed change efforts. And finally, only a small fraction of donor gifts for social change are large enough to make a dent - although philanthropists routinely commit $20 million or more to infinitely simpler challenges, such as building a university library or a museum wing.

Q. What is the tone of the author in the last para of the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 1 In the said para, the author is both stating some facts and giving his own opinions. And the tone can only be that which can suffice both the things aptly. Belligerent = hostile, aggressive, and the author is not at all being aggressive in his tone here. Condescending = patronising, but the author is not humiliating the philanthropists here. Facetious = inappropriate does not bear any relevance. Subjective = descriptive, which is the correct answer, is aptly sufficing both the facts and opinions context.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 2

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Private philanthropists have helped propel some of the most important social-impact success stories of the past century: Virtually eradicating polio globally. Providing free and reduced-price lunches for all needy schoolchildren in the United States. Establishing a universal 911 service. Securing the right for same-sex couples to marry in the U.S. These efforts have transformed or saved hundreds of millions of lives. That we now take them for granted makes them no less astonishing: They were the inconceivable moon shots of their day before they were inevitable success stories in retrospect. Many of today's emerging large-scale philanthropists aspire to similarly audacious successes. They don't want to fund homeless shelters and food pantries; they want to end homelessness and hunger. Steady, linear progress isn't enough; they demand disruptive, catalytic, systemic change - and in short order. Even as society grapples with important questions about today's concentrations of wealth, many of the largest philanthropists feel the weight of responsibility that comes with their privilege. And the scale of their ambition, along with the wealth they are willing to give back to society, is breath taking.

But a growing number of these donors privately express great frustration. Despite having written big checks for years, they aren't seeing transformative successes for society: Think of philanthropic interventions to arrest climate change or improve U.S. public education, to cite just two examples. When faced with setbacks and public criticism, the best philanthropists re-examine their goals and approaches, including how they engage the communities they aspire to help in the decision-making process. But some retreat to seemingly safer donations to universities or art museums, while others withdraw from public giving altogether.

Audacious social change is incredibly challenging. Yet history shows that it can succeed. Unfortunately, success never results from a silver bullet; it takes collaboration, government engagement, and persistence over decades, among other things. The role of philanthropists in the historical success stories vary. By and large they underwrote the efforts of others. The hands-on work fell, as it does today, to NGO leaders, service providers, activists, and many others on the front lines of social change. The common thread in these success stories was that philanthropists acted as sources of flexible capital, identifying gaps left by others and directing their resources accordingly. Sometimes only minor support was enough to tip the scales. This framework does not constitute a simple or linear recipe.

Real change is highly complex and driven by many forces, luck and timing play important roles, and causality is impossible to prove. Still, we believe that if ambitious philanthropists apply the framework over the arc of a campaign, they may substantially increase the odds of achieving transformative change. There are some high-level reasons as to why so many efforts wither on the vine. Most of the these share four important patterns: Success took a long time - nearly 90% of the efforts spanned more than 20 years. It frequently entailed government cooperation - 80% required changes to government funding, policies, or actions. It often necessitated collaboration - nearly 75% involved active coordination among key actors across sectors. And at least 66% featured donors who made one or more philanthropic big bets - gifts of $10 million or more.

Unfortunately, these patterns go against the grain of much philanthropic practice today. Donors know conceptually that achieving widespread change can take a long time, even for the most important and straightforward ideas. The basic lifesaving practice of hand washing and sterilizing surgical instruments and facilities took 30 years to gain acceptance even after a leading medical journal published ironclad evidence in support of it. Yet philanthropists often fund grantees with the expectation that much more complex change can be achieved in just a handful of years. Wary of red tape and of being perceived as "too political," many donors have been unwilling to fund work that meaningfully engages with the U.S. government, despite the central role it plays and the trillions of dollars it spends addressing society's toughest problems. Furthermore, collaboration of any type can be difficult and costly, so few philanthropists meaningfully support or engage in it, even though most are frustrated with the inefficient proliferation of siloed change efforts. And finally, only a small fraction of donor gifts for social change are large enough to make a dent - although philanthropists routinely commit $20 million or more to infinitely simpler challenges, such as building a university library or a museum wing.

Q. Which of the following instances could comply to the words of the author in the passage where he says that the philanthropists underwrote the efforts of others?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 2 The meaning of the author's words in the passage is that the philanthropists often provide grants to the NGOs, service providers and activists, who actually do the work of taking the needful services to the required grassroots, while these philanthropists get all the name when they not even do the actual work. Both A & C will be true here because the companies (Facebook and Walmart) are reaching the grassroot levels themselves and not just giving grants to others, in turn, not doing the real work. B will not follow because it clearly shows that Pepsi just gives grants and does not engage in actually doing the work. Hence, D will be the correct answer.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 3

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Private philanthropists have helped propel some of the most important social-impact success stories of the past century: Virtually eradicating polio globally. Providing free and reduced-price lunches for all needy schoolchildren in the United States. Establishing a universal 911 service. Securing the right for same-sex couples to marry in the U.S. These efforts have transformed or saved hundreds of millions of lives. That we now take them for granted makes them no less astonishing: They were the inconceivable moon shots of their day before they were inevitable success stories in retrospect. Many of today's emerging large-scale philanthropists aspire to similarly audacious successes. They don't want to fund homeless shelters and food pantries; they want to end homelessness and hunger. Steady, linear progress isn't enough; they demand disruptive, catalytic, systemic change - and in short order. Even as society grapples with important questions about today's concentrations of wealth, many of the largest philanthropists feel the weight of responsibility that comes with their privilege. And the scale of their ambition, along with the wealth they are willing to give back to society, is breath taking.

But a growing number of these donors privately express great frustration. Despite having written big checks for years, they aren't seeing transformative successes for society: Think of philanthropic interventions to arrest climate change or improve U.S. public education, to cite just two examples. When faced with setbacks and public criticism, the best philanthropists re-examine their goals and approaches, including how they engage the communities they aspire to help in the decision-making process. But some retreat to seemingly safer donations to universities or art museums, while others withdraw from public giving altogether.

Audacious social change is incredibly challenging. Yet history shows that it can succeed. Unfortunately, success never results from a silver bullet; it takes collaboration, government engagement, and persistence over decades, among other things. The role of philanthropists in the historical success stories vary. By and large they underwrote the efforts of others. The hands-on work fell, as it does today, to NGO leaders, service providers, activists, and many others on the front lines of social change. The common thread in these success stories was that philanthropists acted as sources of flexible capital, identifying gaps left by others and directing their resources accordingly. Sometimes only minor support was enough to tip the scales. This framework does not constitute a simple or linear recipe.

Real change is highly complex and driven by many forces, luck and timing play important roles, and causality is impossible to prove. Still, we believe that if ambitious philanthropists apply the framework over the arc of a campaign, they may substantially increase the odds of achieving transformative change. There are some high-level reasons as to why so many efforts wither on the vine. Most of the these share four important patterns: Success took a long time - nearly 90% of the efforts spanned more than 20 years. It frequently entailed government cooperation - 80% required changes to government funding, policies, or actions. It often necessitated collaboration - nearly 75% involved active coordination among key actors across sectors. And at least 66% featured donors who made one or more philanthropic big bets - gifts of $10 million or more.

Unfortunately, these patterns go against the grain of much philanthropic practice today. Donors know conceptually that achieving widespread change can take a long time, even for the most important and straightforward ideas. The basic lifesaving practice of hand washing and sterilizing surgical instruments and facilities took 30 years to gain acceptance even after a leading medical journal published ironclad evidence in support of it. Yet philanthropists often fund grantees with the expectation that much more complex change can be achieved in just a handful of years. Wary of red tape and of being perceived as "too political," many donors have been unwilling to fund work that meaningfully engages with the U.S. government, despite the central role it plays and the trillions of dollars it spends addressing society's toughest problems. Furthermore, collaboration of any type can be difficult and costly, so few philanthropists meaningfully support or engage in it, even though most are frustrated with the inefficient proliferation of siloed change efforts. And finally, only a small fraction of donor gifts for social change are large enough to make a dent - although philanthropists routinely commit $20 million or more to infinitely simpler challenges, such as building a university library or a museum wing.

Q. Which of the following could be the reason(s) for the basic lifesaving practice of hand washing and sterilizing surgical instruments and facilities taking 30 years to gain acceptance even after the leading medical journal published strong evidence in support of it?

I. Even though evidence was given, the journal was not able to actively preach the importance of hand washing and sterilizing surgical instruments and facilities.

II. It was a substantial change in the normal practices that were being followed till the time, and so, acceptance of something this different and of this scale took time.

III. Some of the researches previously published in the said journal were later deemed false upon further investigations; hence, people were sceptical about adopting one of its advices again - the reason it took so much time.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 3 The underlying theme of (II) is the exact context on which the last para, which contains the question, starts; hence, we can clearly say that (II) will follow. Neither we know anything about the preaching, nor about any false reports for either of (I) or (III) to be the correct answer here. Hence, B will be the answer.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 4

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Private philanthropists have helped propel some of the most important social-impact success stories of the past century: Virtually eradicating polio globally. Providing free and reduced-price lunches for all needy schoolchildren in the United States. Establishing a universal 911 service. Securing the right for same-sex couples to marry in the U.S. These efforts have transformed or saved hundreds of millions of lives. That we now take them for granted makes them no less astonishing: They were the inconceivable moon shots of their day before they were inevitable success stories in retrospect. Many of today's emerging large-scale philanthropists aspire to similarly audacious successes. They don't want to fund homeless shelters and food pantries; they want to end homelessness and hunger. Steady, linear progress isn't enough; they demand disruptive, catalytic, systemic change - and in short order. Even as society grapples with important questions about today's concentrations of wealth, many of the largest philanthropists feel the weight of responsibility that comes with their privilege. And the scale of their ambition, along with the wealth they are willing to give back to society, is breath taking.

But a growing number of these donors privately express great frustration. Despite having written big checks for years, they aren't seeing transformative successes for society: Think of philanthropic interventions to arrest climate change or improve U.S. public education, to cite just two examples. When faced with setbacks and public criticism, the best philanthropists re-examine their goals and approaches, including how they engage the communities they aspire to help in the decision-making process. But some retreat to seemingly safer donations to universities or art museums, while others withdraw from public giving altogether.

Audacious social change is incredibly challenging. Yet history shows that it can succeed. Unfortunately, success never results from a silver bullet; it takes collaboration, government engagement, and persistence over decades, among other things. The role of philanthropists in the historical success stories vary. By and large they underwrote the efforts of others. The hands-on work fell, as it does today, to NGO leaders, service providers, activists, and many others on the front lines of social change. The common thread in these success stories was that philanthropists acted as sources of flexible capital, identifying gaps left by others and directing their resources accordingly. Sometimes only minor support was enough to tip the scales. This framework does not constitute a simple or linear recipe.

Real change is highly complex and driven by many forces, luck and timing play important roles, and causality is impossible to prove. Still, we believe that if ambitious philanthropists apply the framework over the arc of a campaign, they may substantially increase the odds of achieving transformative change. There are some high-level reasons as to why so many efforts wither on the vine. Most of the these share four important patterns: Success took a long time - nearly 90% of the efforts spanned more than 20 years. It frequently entailed government cooperation - 80% required changes to government funding, policies, or actions. It often necessitated collaboration - nearly 75% involved active coordination among key actors across sectors. And at least 66% featured donors who made one or more philanthropic big bets - gifts of $10 million or more.

Unfortunately, these patterns go against the grain of much philanthropic practice today. Donors know conceptually that achieving widespread change can take a long time, even for the most important and straightforward ideas. The basic lifesaving practice of hand washing and sterilizing surgical instruments and facilities took 30 years to gain acceptance even after a leading medical journal published ironclad evidence in support of it. Yet philanthropists often fund grantees with the expectation that much more complex change can be achieved in just a handful of years. Wary of red tape and of being perceived as "too political," many donors have been unwilling to fund work that meaningfully engages with the U.S. government, despite the central role it plays and the trillions of dollars it spends addressing society's toughest problems. Furthermore, collaboration of any type can be difficult and costly, so few philanthropists meaningfully support or engage in it, even though most are frustrated with the inefficient proliferation of siloed change efforts. And finally, only a small fraction of donor gifts for social change are large enough to make a dent - although philanthropists routinely commit $20 million or more to infinitely simpler challenges, such as building a university library or a museum wing.

Q. Which of the following could be the underlying idea(s) that the author wants to reflect from the passage?

I. The issues most deserving of investment today are different from those of past decades; what remains constant is the need for shared and dynamic problem definition, clear and winnable milestones, solutions built for scale, robust investments to drive and serve demand, and adaptive capacity among philanthropists and grantees alike.

II. At the highest level, the successful strategies that should be practiced run counter to prevailing funding practices. They included decades-long persistence, even when the pace of change felt slow; financial support for collaboration among key actors, even when it meant giving up some control; engagement with governments to influence funding and action, even in uncertain times; and big philanthropic bets that shifted power from the donor to the doers and beneficiaries.

III. For the types of social challenges targeted by audacious philanthropists and other change makers, adaptation informed by robust measurement is key and to fuel progress, funders need to make sure that both their attitudes and their funding reflect that reality.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 4 It should be noted that in the passage, the author just discusses about the mindset and the common practices of audacious philanthropists. At places, he has included things about have should have been the perspective, but overall, it's just the mindset, their aspirations and practices followed generally, and the differences between "what should have been done" and "what is normally done". He has not talked about the solution part, for us to consider (III) because that's what it focuses on. Both (I) & (II) will follow because they're both able to talk on the same context as discussed above.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 5

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Private philanthropists have helped propel some of the most important social-impact success stories of the past century: Virtually eradicating polio globally. Providing free and reduced-price lunches for all needy schoolchildren in the United States. Establishing a universal 911 service. Securing the right for same-sex couples to marry in the U.S. These efforts have transformed or saved hundreds of millions of lives. That we now take them for granted makes them no less astonishing: They were the inconceivable moon shots of their day before they were inevitable success stories in retrospect. Many of today's emerging large-scale philanthropists aspire to similarly audacious successes. They don't want to fund homeless shelters and food pantries; they want to end homelessness and hunger. Steady, linear progress isn't enough; they demand disruptive, catalytic, systemic change - and in short order. Even as society grapples with important questions about today's concentrations of wealth, many of the largest philanthropists feel the weight of responsibility that comes with their privilege. And the scale of their ambition, along with the wealth they are willing to give back to society, is breath taking.

But a growing number of these donors privately express great frustration. Despite having written big checks for years, they aren't seeing transformative successes for society: Think of philanthropic interventions to arrest climate change or improve U.S. public education, to cite just two examples. When faced with setbacks and public criticism, the best philanthropists re-examine their goals and approaches, including how they engage the communities they aspire to help in the decision-making process. But some retreat to seemingly safer donations to universities or art museums, while others withdraw from public giving altogether.

Audacious social change is incredibly challenging. Yet history shows that it can succeed. Unfortunately, success never results from a silver bullet; it takes collaboration, government engagement, and persistence over decades, among other things. The role of philanthropists in the historical success stories vary. By and large they underwrote the efforts of others. The hands-on work fell, as it does today, to NGO leaders, service providers, activists, and many others on the front lines of social change. The common thread in these success stories was that philanthropists acted as sources of flexible capital, identifying gaps left by others and directing their resources accordingly. Sometimes only minor support was enough to tip the scales. This framework does not constitute a simple or linear recipe.

Real change is highly complex and driven by many forces, luck and timing play important roles, and causality is impossible to prove. Still, we believe that if ambitious philanthropists apply the framework over the arc of a campaign, they may substantially increase the odds of achieving transformative change. There are some high-level reasons as to why so many efforts wither on the vine. Most of the these share four important patterns: Success took a long time - nearly 90% of the efforts spanned more than 20 years. It frequently entailed government cooperation - 80% required changes to government funding, policies, or actions. It often necessitated collaboration - nearly 75% involved active coordination among key actors across sectors. And at least 66% featured donors who made one or more philanthropic big bets - gifts of $10 million or more.

Unfortunately, these patterns go against the grain of much philanthropic practice today. Donors know conceptually that achieving widespread change can take a long time, even for the most important and straightforward ideas. The basic lifesaving practice of hand washing and sterilizing surgical instruments and facilities took 30 years to gain acceptance even after a leading medical journal published ironclad evidence in support of it. Yet philanthropists often fund grantees with the expectation that much more complex change can be achieved in just a handful of years. Wary of red tape and of being perceived as "too political," many donors have been unwilling to fund work that meaningfully engages with the U.S. government, despite the central role it plays and the trillions of dollars it spends addressing society's toughest problems. Furthermore, collaboration of any type can be difficult and costly, so few philanthropists meaningfully support or engage in it, even though most are frustrated with the inefficient proliferation of siloed change efforts. And finally, only a small fraction of donor gifts for social change are large enough to make a dent - although philanthropists routinely commit $20 million or more to infinitely simpler challenges, such as building a university library or a museum wing.

Q. Which of the following can logically and contextually follow paragraph 1 to link it with paragraph 2, as in forming a bridge between the two paragraphs?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 5 C can be eliminated because it has not contained anything to make out that it can related to a philanthropic context. The surrounding contexts are the ambition and wealth of philanthropists and the frustration they growingly express. A takes "social services and products" as its context while B talks about "improving socially resonant messages" and neither of the two is actually our concern here.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 6

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Private philanthropists have helped propel some of the most important social-impact success stories of the past century: Virtually eradicating polio globally. Providing free and reduced-price lunches for all needy schoolchildren in the United States. Establishing a universal 911 service. Securing the right for same-sex couples to marry in the U.S. These efforts have transformed or saved hundreds of millions of lives. That we now take them for granted makes them no less astonishing: They were the inconceivable moon shots of their day before they were inevitable success stories in retrospect. Many of today's emerging large-scale philanthropists aspire to similarly audacious successes. They don't want to fund homeless shelters and food pantries; they want to end homelessness and hunger. Steady, linear progress isn't enough; they demand disruptive, catalytic, systemic change - and in short order. Even as society grapples with important questions about today's concentrations of wealth, many of the largest philanthropists feel the weight of responsibility that comes with their privilege. And the scale of their ambition, along with the wealth they are willing to give back to society, is breath taking.

But a growing number of these donors privately express great frustration. Despite having written big checks for years, they aren't seeing transformative successes for society: Think of philanthropic interventions to arrest climate change or improve U.S. public education, to cite just two examples. When faced with setbacks and public criticism, the best philanthropists re-examine their goals and approaches, including how they engage the communities they aspire to help in the decision-making process. But some retreat to seemingly safer donations to universities or art museums, while others withdraw from public giving altogether.

Audacious social change is incredibly challenging. Yet history shows that it can succeed. Unfortunately, success never results from a silver bullet; it takes collaboration, government engagement, and persistence over decades, among other things. The role of philanthropists in the historical success stories vary. By and large they underwrote the efforts of others. The hands-on work fell, as it does today, to NGO leaders, service providers, activists, and many others on the front lines of social change. The common thread in these success stories was that philanthropists acted as sources of flexible capital, identifying gaps left by others and directing their resources accordingly. Sometimes only minor support was enough to tip the scales. This framework does not constitute a simple or linear recipe.

Real change is highly complex and driven by many forces, luck and timing play important roles, and causality is impossible to prove. Still, we believe that if ambitious philanthropists apply the framework over the arc of a campaign, they may substantially increase the odds of achieving transformative change. There are some high-level reasons as to why so many efforts wither on the vine. Most of the these share four important patterns: Success took a long time - nearly 90% of the efforts spanned more than 20 years. It frequently entailed government cooperation - 80% required changes to government funding, policies, or actions. It often necessitated collaboration - nearly 75% involved active coordination among key actors across sectors. And at least 66% featured donors who made one or more philanthropic big bets - gifts of $10 million or more.

Unfortunately, these patterns go against the grain of much philanthropic practice today. Donors know conceptually that achieving widespread change can take a long time, even for the most important and straightforward ideas. The basic lifesaving practice of hand washing and sterilizing surgical instruments and facilities took 30 years to gain acceptance even after a leading medical journal published ironclad evidence in support of it. Yet philanthropists often fund grantees with the expectation that much more complex change can be achieved in just a handful of years. Wary of red tape and of being perceived as "too political," many donors have been unwilling to fund work that meaningfully engages with the U.S. government, despite the central role it plays and the trillions of dollars it spends addressing society's toughest problems. Furthermore, collaboration of any type can be difficult and costly, so few philanthropists meaningfully support or engage in it, even though most are frustrated with the inefficient proliferation of siloed change efforts. And finally, only a small fraction of donor gifts for social change are large enough to make a dent - although philanthropists routinely commit $20 million or more to infinitely simpler challenges, such as building a university library or a museum wing.

Q. Which of the following could be an appropriate title for the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 6 The author has not talked about any forms of philanthropy for A to be correct. Nowhere in the passage there have been talks about perceptions only, let alone changing perceptions, eliminating E. Out of the remaining two, B will be the most precise and logically following title. Hence, B will be the correct answer.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 7

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Children begin to learn values when they are very young, before they can reason effectively. Young children behave in ways that we would never accept in adults: they scream, throw food, take off their clothes in public, hit, scratch, bite, and generally make a ruckus. Moral education begins from the start, as parents correct these antisocial behaviours, and they usually do so by conditioning children's emotions. Parents threaten physical punishment ("Do you want a spanking?"), they withdraw love ("I'm not going to play with you anymore!"), ostracize ("Go to your room!"), deprive ("No dessert for you!"), and induce vicarious distress ("Look at the pain you've caused!"). Each of these methods causes the misbehaved child to experience a negative emotion and associate it with the punished behaviour. Children also learn by emotional osmosis. They see their parents' reactions to news broadcasts and storybooks. They hear hours of judgmental gossip about inconsiderate neighbours, unethical co-workers, disloyal friends, and the black sheep in the family.

Emotional conditioning and osmosis are not merely convenient tools for acquiring values: they are essential. Parents sometimes try to reason with their children, but moral reasoning only works by drawing attention to values that the child has already internalized through emotional conditioning. No amount of reasoning can engender a moral value, because all values are, at bottom, emotional attitudes. Recent research in psychology supports this conjecture. It seems that we decide whether something is wrong by introspecting our feelings: if an action makes us feel bad, we conclude that it is wrong. Consistent with this, people's moral judgments can be shifted by simply altering their emotional states.

Psychologist Jonathan Haidt and colleagues have shown that people make moral judgments even when they cannot provide any justification for them. For example, 80% of the American college students in Haidt's study said it's wrong for two adult siblings to have consensual sex with each other even if they use contraception and no one is harmed. And, in a study I ran, 100% of people agreed it would be wrong to sexually fondle an infant even if the infant was not physically harmed or traumatized. Our emotions confirm that such acts are wrong even if our usual justification for that conclusion (harm to the victim) is inapplicable.

If morals are emotionally based, then people who lack strong emotions should be blind to the moral domain. This prediction is borne out by psychopaths, who, it turns out, suffer from profound emotional deficits. Psychologist James Blair has shown that psychopaths treat moral rules as mere conventions. This suggests that emotions are necessary for making moral judgments. The judgment that something is morally wrong is an emotional response.

It doesn't follow that every emotional response is a moral judgment. Morality involves specific emotions. Research suggests that the main moral emotions are anger and disgust when an action is performed by another person, and guilt and shame when an action is performed by oneself. Arguably, one doesn't harbour a moral attitude towards something unless one is disposed to have both these self- and other-directed emotions. You may be disgusted by eating cow tongue, but unless you are a moral vegetarian, you wouldn't be ashamed of eating it.

In some cases, the moral emotions that get conditioned in childhood can be re-conditioned later in life. Someone who feels ashamed of a homosexual desire may subsequently feel ashamed about feeling ashamed. This person can be said to have an inculcated tendency to view homosexuality as immoral, but also a conviction that homosexuality is permissible, and the latter serves to curb the former over time.

In summary, moral judgments are based on emotions, and reasoning normally contributes only by helping us extrapolate from our basic values to novel cases. Reasoning can also lead us to discover that our basic values are culturally inculcated, and that might impel us to search for alternative values, but reason alone cannot tell us which values to adopt, nor can it instil new values.

Q. It can be understood that in the first paragraph, which of the following is the main purpose of the author?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 7 What B is saying is an important aspect of the said para (how parents educate) and so the para is actually talking about it to emphasize a point and not just throwing light. C is incorrect as this presumes that we believe that it is reasoning which helps in inculcation of morals rather than emotions, which is not so. D is incorrect as the author does not talk about the importance of anything, rather he only provides info about the role emotions play in childhood in inculcating morals. A is the right answer as the author seeks to explain how inducing emotions in a child can play a role in moral education.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 8

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Children begin to learn values when they are very young, before they can reason effectively. Young children behave in ways that we would never accept in adults: they scream, throw food, take off their clothes in public, hit, scratch, bite, and generally make a ruckus. Moral education begins from the start, as parents correct these antisocial behaviours, and they usually do so by conditioning children's emotions. Parents threaten physical punishment ("Do you want a spanking?"), they withdraw love ("I'm not going to play with you anymore!"), ostracize ("Go to your room!"), deprive ("No dessert for you!"), and induce vicarious distress ("Look at the pain you've caused!"). Each of these methods causes the misbehaved child to experience a negative emotion and associate it with the punished behaviour. Children also learn by emotional osmosis. They see their parents' reactions to news broadcasts and storybooks. They hear hours of judgmental gossip about inconsiderate neighbours, unethical co-workers, disloyal friends, and the black sheep in the family.

Emotional conditioning and osmosis are not merely convenient tools for acquiring values: they are essential. Parents sometimes try to reason with their children, but moral reasoning only works by drawing attention to values that the child has already internalized through emotional conditioning. No amount of reasoning can engender a moral value, because all values are, at bottom, emotional attitudes. Recent research in psychology supports this conjecture. It seems that we decide whether something is wrong by introspecting our feelings: if an action makes us feel bad, we conclude that it is wrong. Consistent with this, people's moral judgments can be shifted by simply altering their emotional states.

Psychologist Jonathan Haidt and colleagues have shown that people make moral judgments even when they cannot provide any justification for them. For example, 80% of the American college students in Haidt's study said it's wrong for two adult siblings to have consensual sex with each other even if they use contraception and no one is harmed. And, in a study I ran, 100% of people agreed it would be wrong to sexually fondle an infant even if the infant was not physically harmed or traumatized. Our emotions confirm that such acts are wrong even if our usual justification for that conclusion (harm to the victim) is inapplicable.

If morals are emotionally based, then people who lack strong emotions should be blind to the moral domain. This prediction is borne out by psychopaths, who, it turns out, suffer from profound emotional deficits. Psychologist James Blair has shown that psychopaths treat moral rules as mere conventions. This suggests that emotions are necessary for making moral judgments. The judgment that something is morally wrong is an emotional response.

It doesn't follow that every emotional response is a moral judgment. Morality involves specific emotions. Research suggests that the main moral emotions are anger and disgust when an action is performed by another person, and guilt and shame when an action is performed by oneself. Arguably, one doesn't harbour a moral attitude towards something unless one is disposed to have both these self- and other-directed emotions. You may be disgusted by eating cow tongue, but unless you are a moral vegetarian, you wouldn't be ashamed of eating it.

In some cases, the moral emotions that get conditioned in childhood can be re-conditioned later in life. Someone who feels ashamed of a homosexual desire may subsequently feel ashamed about feeling ashamed. This person can be said to have an inculcated tendency to view homosexuality as immoral, but also a conviction that homosexuality is permissible, and the latter serves to curb the former over time.

In summary, moral judgments are based on emotions, and reasoning normally contributes only by helping us extrapolate from our basic values to novel cases. Reasoning can also lead us to discover that our basic values are culturally inculcated, and that might impel us to search for alternative values, but reason alone cannot tell us which values to adopt, nor can it instil new values.

Q. It can be inferred from the passage that the author has used which of the following examples to strengthen his argument that emotional reactions are crucial for the forming of moral judgements?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 8 A has been given by the author emphasize that moral judgements are sometimes made even when the person cannot provide a justification for them. B is incorrect as it has been given as an example to prove that one only harbours a moral judgement if he is directed by self and other emotions. C is incorrect as it has been given as an example to prove that moral emotions which are conditioned in childhood can be reconditioned in adult life. D is the right answer as it has been given as an example to emphasize that emotions are essential for forming moral judgements.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 9

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Children begin to learn values when they are very young, before they can reason effectively. Young children behave in ways that we would never accept in adults: they scream, throw food, take off their clothes in public, hit, scratch, bite, and generally make a ruckus. Moral education begins from the start, as parents correct these antisocial behaviours, and they usually do so by conditioning children's emotions. Parents threaten physical punishment ("Do you want a spanking?"), they withdraw love ("I'm not going to play with you anymore!"), ostracize ("Go to your room!"), deprive ("No dessert for you!"), and induce vicarious distress ("Look at the pain you've caused!"). Each of these methods causes the misbehaved child to experience a negative emotion and associate it with the punished behaviour. Children also learn by emotional osmosis. They see their parents' reactions to news broadcasts and storybooks. They hear hours of judgmental gossip about inconsiderate neighbours, unethical co-workers, disloyal friends, and the black sheep in the family.

Emotional conditioning and osmosis are not merely convenient tools for acquiring values: they are essential. Parents sometimes try to reason with their children, but moral reasoning only works by drawing attention to values that the child has already internalized through emotional conditioning. No amount of reasoning can engender a moral value, because all values are, at bottom, emotional attitudes. Recent research in psychology supports this conjecture. It seems that we decide whether something is wrong by introspecting our feelings: if an action makes us feel bad, we conclude that it is wrong. Consistent with this, people's moral judgments can be shifted by simply altering their emotional states.

Psychologist Jonathan Haidt and colleagues have shown that people make moral judgments even when they cannot provide any justification for them. For example, 80% of the American college students in Haidt's study said it's wrong for two adult siblings to have consensual sex with each other even if they use contraception and no one is harmed. And, in a study I ran, 100% of people agreed it would be wrong to sexually fondle an infant even if the infant was not physically harmed or traumatized. Our emotions confirm that such acts are wrong even if our usual justification for that conclusion (harm to the victim) is inapplicable.

If morals are emotionally based, then people who lack strong emotions should be blind to the moral domain. This prediction is borne out by psychopaths, who, it turns out, suffer from profound emotional deficits. Psychologist James Blair has shown that psychopaths treat moral rules as mere conventions. This suggests that emotions are necessary for making moral judgments. The judgment that something is morally wrong is an emotional response.

It doesn't follow that every emotional response is a moral judgment. Morality involves specific emotions. Research suggests that the main moral emotions are anger and disgust when an action is performed by another person, and guilt and shame when an action is performed by oneself. Arguably, one doesn't harbour a moral attitude towards something unless one is disposed to have both these self- and other-directed emotions. You may be disgusted by eating cow tongue, but unless you are a moral vegetarian, you wouldn't be ashamed of eating it.

In some cases, the moral emotions that get conditioned in childhood can be re-conditioned later in life. Someone who feels ashamed of a homosexual desire may subsequently feel ashamed about feeling ashamed. This person can be said to have an inculcated tendency to view homosexuality as immoral, but also a conviction that homosexuality is permissible, and the latter serves to curb the former over time.

In summary, moral judgments are based on emotions, and reasoning normally contributes only by helping us extrapolate from our basic values to novel cases. Reasoning can also lead us to discover that our basic values are culturally inculcated, and that might impel us to search for alternative values, but reason alone cannot tell us which values to adopt, nor can it instil new values.

Q. Which of the following statements best sum up the note on which the author ends the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 9 B is incorrect as the author makes it clear that only emotions play a role in instilling values in us, and reasoning plays no role in this. So, the use of the term 'greater' is incorrect here. C is incorrect as the author makes it clear that only emotions are necessary to develop moral judgements. D is incorrect as although the author does say that reasoning does not play a role in inculcating or developing moral judgements, but it does play a role in understanding them. A is the right answer as it sums up the note on which the author ends the passage.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 10

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Children begin to learn values when they are very young, before they can reason effectively. Young children behave in ways that we would never accept in adults: they scream, throw food, take off their clothes in public, hit, scratch, bite, and generally make a ruckus. Moral education begins from the start, as parents correct these antisocial behaviours, and they usually do so by conditioning children's emotions. Parents threaten physical punishment ("Do you want a spanking?"), they withdraw love ("I'm not going to play with you anymore!"), ostracize ("Go to your room!"), deprive ("No dessert for you!"), and induce vicarious distress ("Look at the pain you've caused!"). Each of these methods causes the misbehaved child to experience a negative emotion and associate it with the punished behaviour. Children also learn by emotional osmosis. They see their parents' reactions to news broadcasts and storybooks. They hear hours of judgmental gossip about inconsiderate neighbours, unethical co-workers, disloyal friends, and the black sheep in the family.

Emotional conditioning and osmosis are not merely convenient tools for acquiring values: they are essential. Parents sometimes try to reason with their children, but moral reasoning only works by drawing attention to values that the child has already internalized through emotional conditioning. No amount of reasoning can engender a moral value, because all values are, at bottom, emotional attitudes. Recent research in psychology supports this conjecture. It seems that we decide whether something is wrong by introspecting our feelings: if an action makes us feel bad, we conclude that it is wrong. Consistent with this, people's moral judgments can be shifted by simply altering their emotional states.

Psychologist Jonathan Haidt and colleagues have shown that people make moral judgments even when they cannot provide any justification for them. For example, 80% of the American college students in Haidt's study said it's wrong for two adult siblings to have consensual sex with each other even if they use contraception and no one is harmed. And, in a study I ran, 100% of people agreed it would be wrong to sexually fondle an infant even if the infant was not physically harmed or traumatized. Our emotions confirm that such acts are wrong even if our usual justification for that conclusion (harm to the victim) is inapplicable.

If morals are emotionally based, then people who lack strong emotions should be blind to the moral domain. This prediction is borne out by psychopaths, who, it turns out, suffer from profound emotional deficits. Psychologist James Blair has shown that psychopaths treat moral rules as mere conventions. This suggests that emotions are necessary for making moral judgments. The judgment that something is morally wrong is an emotional response.

It doesn't follow that every emotional response is a moral judgment. Morality involves specific emotions. Research suggests that the main moral emotions are anger and disgust when an action is performed by another person, and guilt and shame when an action is performed by oneself. Arguably, one doesn't harbour a moral attitude towards something unless one is disposed to have both these self- and other-directed emotions. You may be disgusted by eating cow tongue, but unless you are a moral vegetarian, you wouldn't be ashamed of eating it.

In some cases, the moral emotions that get conditioned in childhood can be re-conditioned later in life. Someone who feels ashamed of a homosexual desire may subsequently feel ashamed about feeling ashamed. This person can be said to have an inculcated tendency to view homosexuality as immoral, but also a conviction that homosexuality is permissible, and the latter serves to curb the former over time.

In summary, moral judgments are based on emotions, and reasoning normally contributes only by helping us extrapolate from our basic values to novel cases. Reasoning can also lead us to discover that our basic values are culturally inculcated, and that might impel us to search for alternative values, but reason alone cannot tell us which values to adopt, nor can it instil new values.

Q. Which of the following best sums up the central idea of the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 10 The passage talks about the role of emotions shaping morals and not vice versa. So, A is incorrect. C is incorrect as the last paragraph of the passage makes it clear that reasoning only helps in applying already existing moral values to special cases, but they do not shape morals in themselves. D is incorrect as it only talks mainly of the role of emotions in helping morals to take form; it only talks briefly about all possible origins of moral judgements. B is the right answer.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 11

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Children begin to learn values when they are very young, before they can reason effectively. Young children behave in ways that we would never accept in adults: they scream, throw food, take off their clothes in public, hit, scratch, bite, and generally make a ruckus. Moral education begins from the start, as parents correct these antisocial behaviours, and they usually do so by conditioning children's emotions. Parents threaten physical punishment ("Do you want a spanking?"), they withdraw love ("I'm not going to play with you anymore!"), ostracize ("Go to your room!"), deprive ("No dessert for you!"), and induce vicarious distress ("Look at the pain you've caused!"). Each of these methods causes the misbehaved child to experience a negative emotion and associate it with the punished behaviour. Children also learn by emotional osmosis. They see their parents' reactions to news broadcasts and storybooks. They hear hours of judgmental gossip about inconsiderate neighbours, unethical co-workers, disloyal friends, and the black sheep in the family.

Emotional conditioning and osmosis are not merely convenient tools for acquiring values: they are essential. Parents sometimes try to reason with their children, but moral reasoning only works by drawing attention to values that the child has already internalized through emotional conditioning. No amount of reasoning can engender a moral value, because all values are, at bottom, emotional attitudes. Recent research in psychology supports this conjecture. It seems that we decide whether something is wrong by introspecting our feelings: if an action makes us feel bad, we conclude that it is wrong. Consistent with this, people's moral judgments can be shifted by simply altering their emotional states.

Psychologist Jonathan Haidt and colleagues have shown that people make moral judgments even when they cannot provide any justification for them. For example, 80% of the American college students in Haidt's study said it's wrong for two adult siblings to have consensual sex with each other even if they use contraception and no one is harmed. And, in a study I ran, 100% of people agreed it would be wrong to sexually fondle an infant even if the infant was not physically harmed or traumatized. Our emotions confirm that such acts are wrong even if our usual justification for that conclusion (harm to the victim) is inapplicable.

If morals are emotionally based, then people who lack strong emotions should be blind to the moral domain. This prediction is borne out by psychopaths, who, it turns out, suffer from profound emotional deficits. Psychologist James Blair has shown that psychopaths treat moral rules as mere conventions. This suggests that emotions are necessary for making moral judgments. The judgment that something is morally wrong is an emotional response.

It doesn't follow that every emotional response is a moral judgment. Morality involves specific emotions. Research suggests that the main moral emotions are anger and disgust when an action is performed by another person, and guilt and shame when an action is performed by oneself. Arguably, one doesn't harbour a moral attitude towards something unless one is disposed to have both these self- and other-directed emotions. You may be disgusted by eating cow tongue, but unless you are a moral vegetarian, you wouldn't be ashamed of eating it.

In some cases, the moral emotions that get conditioned in childhood can be re-conditioned later in life. Someone who feels ashamed of a homosexual desire may subsequently feel ashamed about feeling ashamed. This person can be said to have an inculcated tendency to view homosexuality as immoral, but also a conviction that homosexuality is permissible, and the latter serves to curb the former over time.

In summary, moral judgments are based on emotions, and reasoning normally contributes only by helping us extrapolate from our basic values to novel cases. Reasoning can also lead us to discover that our basic values are culturally inculcated, and that might impel us to search for alternative values, but reason alone cannot tell us which values to adopt, nor can it instil new values.

Q. Which of the following best sums up the tone of the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 11 A is incorrect as the author does not speculate or question; rather he simply seeks to explain throughout the passage as to how emotions play a role in deriving moral judgements. C is incorrect as the author does not express doubt or scepticism towards anything. D is incorrect as the author presents very few facts, data and information in the passage. B is the right answer, as the author explains the role emotions play in shaping moral judgements.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 12

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Children begin to learn values when they are very young, before they can reason effectively. Young children behave in ways that we would never accept in adults: they scream, throw food, take off their clothes in public, hit, scratch, bite, and generally make a ruckus. Moral education begins from the start, as parents correct these antisocial behaviours, and they usually do so by conditioning children's emotions. Parents threaten physical punishment ("Do you want a spanking?"), they withdraw love ("I'm not going to play with you anymore!"), ostracize ("Go to your room!"), deprive ("No dessert for you!"), and induce vicarious distress ("Look at the pain you've caused!"). Each of these methods causes the misbehaved child to experience a negative emotion and associate it with the punished behaviour. Children also learn by emotional osmosis. They see their parents' reactions to news broadcasts and storybooks. They hear hours of judgmental gossip about inconsiderate neighbours, unethical co-workers, disloyal friends, and the black sheep in the family.

Emotional conditioning and osmosis are not merely convenient tools for acquiring values: they are essential. Parents sometimes try to reason with their children, but moral reasoning only works by drawing attention to values that the child has already internalized through emotional conditioning. No amount of reasoning can engender a moral value, because all values are, at bottom, emotional attitudes. Recent research in psychology supports this conjecture. It seems that we decide whether something is wrong by introspecting our feelings: if an action makes us feel bad, we conclude that it is wrong. Consistent with this, people's moral judgments can be shifted by simply altering their emotional states.

Psychologist Jonathan Haidt and colleagues have shown that people make moral judgments even when they cannot provide any justification for them. For example, 80% of the American college students in Haidt's study said it's wrong for two adult siblings to have consensual sex with each other even if they use contraception and no one is harmed. And, in a study I ran, 100% of people agreed it would be wrong to sexually fondle an infant even if the infant was not physically harmed or traumatized. Our emotions confirm that such acts are wrong even if our usual justification for that conclusion (harm to the victim) is inapplicable.

If morals are emotionally based, then people who lack strong emotions should be blind to the moral domain. This prediction is borne out by psychopaths, who, it turns out, suffer from profound emotional deficits. Psychologist James Blair has shown that psychopaths treat moral rules as mere conventions. This suggests that emotions are necessary for making moral judgments. The judgment that something is morally wrong is an emotional response.

It doesn't follow that every emotional response is a moral judgment. Morality involves specific emotions. Research suggests that the main moral emotions are anger and disgust when an action is performed by another person, and guilt and shame when an action is performed by oneself. Arguably, one doesn't harbour a moral attitude towards something unless one is disposed to have both these self- and other-directed emotions. You may be disgusted by eating cow tongue, but unless you are a moral vegetarian, you wouldn't be ashamed of eating it.

In some cases, the moral emotions that get conditioned in childhood can be re-conditioned later in life. Someone who feels ashamed of a homosexual desire may subsequently feel ashamed about feeling ashamed. This person can be said to have an inculcated tendency to view homosexuality as immoral, but also a conviction that homosexuality is permissible, and the latter serves to curb the former over time.

In summary, moral judgments are based on emotions, and reasoning normally contributes only by helping us extrapolate from our basic values to novel cases. Reasoning can also lead us to discover that our basic values are culturally inculcated, and that might impel us to search for alternative values, but reason alone cannot tell us which values to adopt, nor can it instil new values.

Q. It can be understood from the context and theme of the passage, that it is most likely to be an excerpt taken from which of the following sources?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 12 A is incorrect as the passage contains no research of the author's, no experiments, findings or hypotheses, as would have been contained in a research paper. B is incorrect as the main topic of discussion is not a philosophical one, but rather a scientific one. D is incorrect as the passage does not contain an account or report of events or happenings, as would have been true of a newspaper report. C is the right answer as the passage is most likely to be an excerpt from a science journal as it covers a science topic and gives information regarding it.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 13

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Kumaon, the northernmost region of Uttarakhand (a state in India), shines under the Himalayan sun and snow and gushes with water shared with the nation of Nepal. This bond runs thousands of years old, and has only in modern times been obscured by a 225 km border. The traditions of trade and migration - where Kumaoni goods spanned out to Tibet and Central Asia through Nepal, or where Nepalese people dwelling in mountain villages came down to the warmer and more inhabited Kumaon - made the Himalayan range seem less of a geographical barrier and more a home to transnational cultures and incredible religious tolerance.

Though the geographical isolation that the Himalayas brought about could have very easily caused distinction between ethnic and cultural groups and raised barriers to cultural diffusion, the economic and social conditions led to greater tolerance of intermarriage. Parents blessed marriages of couples whose origins were often hundreds of kilometres apart. As a result, love marriages, though not so common, were also accepted in this region, where arranged marriages were usually the norm.

In short, intermarriage and cultural diffusion fuelled each other across the Indo-Nepalese border. The traditions of both regions, which are neither "purely" from those regions, emphasize this fact. Hindus in Kumaon are less preoccupied with the caste system (though there is still discrimination that exists as a result of this hierarchy.) Buddhists in Nepal retain certain elements of Hinduism that were left with them even as the last of the Kumaoni migrant traders passed by their villages.

However, following British rule in India, the Anglo-Nepalese war, and the creation of geopolitical entities, the 225 km landscape which was once known as an open gate between kingdoms of India and Nepal became an established border. Centuries of open trade and intermarriage became closed off, and those who once lived within an autonomous Kumaon with its own kingdom and culture became, for the first time, to be known as Indians.

Even today, marriages take place across the border, and thus hold together ancient ties between families and different cultural and ethnic groups. For example, Nepalese men leave their homes for Kumaon in search of jobs and even the love of their life. Immigration between Nepal and India has extremely lax regulations - about 18 forms of ID are acceptable for passing through the border. Even if one cannot produce such ID, get permission, or get a fake passport (another common options) many Nepalese can still take advantage of obscure but dangerous pedestrian paths and cross rivers to get to the land that was once bound with theirs.

Once in the Kumaon region, Nepalese migrants usually work menial jobs and, in glaring contrast to their ancestors, are given the short end of the stick in terms of the social hierarchy. Not only are they looked down upon by many modern-day Kumaonis who consider themselves more Indian than Himalayan (though it merits mention that many Kumaonis still venerate the ancient ties with Nepal) but they also face their business often face crushing competitions from larger businesses with backing from Indian financial institutions.

This is further emphasized when one looks at the implications of many Indians immigrating freely into Nepal. The Nepalese government has complained time and again about migrant Indians luring Nepalese women into prostitution with empty promises of Bollywood and glamour. In addition, Indian dacoits (robbers or bandits) often take advantage of the porous border and spill into southern and western Nepal. In short, the tie is there, but it is not what it used to be.

Q. Which of the following options best sums up the central idea of the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 13 A is incorrect as the passage talks of cultural and social relations of the two countries rather than political ones. B is incorrect as the passage is not entirely about how intermarriage strengthened the bond; it also talks about the weakening of the bond in recent times due to several factors. C is incorrect as the passage does not entirely focus on the barriers that threaten the bond between the two countries; rather it talks about the bond in past and in present, and focuses in some part on the barriers that have emerged in recent times. D is the right answer, as it best sums up the central idea of the changing cultural relations between India and Nepal in the light of intermarriage and diffusion of identities as key facets.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 14

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Kumaon, the northernmost region of Uttarakhand (a state in India), shines under the Himalayan sun and snow and gushes with water shared with the nation of Nepal. This bond runs thousands of years old, and has only in modern times been obscured by a 225 km border. The traditions of trade and migration - where Kumaoni goods spanned out to Tibet and Central Asia through Nepal, or where Nepalese people dwelling in mountain villages came down to the warmer and more inhabited Kumaon - made the Himalayan range seem less of a geographical barrier and more a home to transnational cultures and incredible religious tolerance.

Though the geographical isolation that the Himalayas brought about could have very easily caused distinction between ethnic and cultural groups and raised barriers to cultural diffusion, the economic and social conditions led to greater tolerance of intermarriage. Parents blessed marriages of couples whose origins were often hundreds of kilometres apart. As a result, love marriages, though not so common, were also accepted in this region, where arranged marriages were usually the norm.

In short, intermarriage and cultural diffusion fuelled each other across the Indo-Nepalese border. The traditions of both regions, which are neither "purely" from those regions, emphasize this fact. Hindus in Kumaon are less preoccupied with the caste system (though there is still discrimination that exists as a result of this hierarchy.) Buddhists in Nepal retain certain elements of Hinduism that were left with them even as the last of the Kumaoni migrant traders passed by their villages.

However, following British rule in India, the Anglo-Nepalese war, and the creation of geopolitical entities, the 225 km landscape which was once known as an open gate between kingdoms of India and Nepal became an established border. Centuries of open trade and intermarriage became closed off, and those who once lived within an autonomous Kumaon with its own kingdom and culture became, for the first time, to be known as Indians.

Even today, marriages take place across the border, and thus hold together ancient ties between families and different cultural and ethnic groups. For example, Nepalese men leave their homes for Kumaon in search of jobs and even the love of their life. Immigration between Nepal and India has extremely lax regulations - about 18 forms of ID are acceptable for passing through the border. Even if one cannot produce such ID, get permission, or get a fake passport (another common options) many Nepalese can still take advantage of obscure but dangerous pedestrian paths and cross rivers to get to the land that was once bound with theirs.

Once in the Kumaon region, Nepalese migrants usually work menial jobs and, in glaring contrast to their ancestors, are given the short end of the stick in terms of the social hierarchy. Not only are they looked down upon by many modern-day Kumaonis who consider themselves more Indian than Himalayan (though it merits mention that many Kumaonis still venerate the ancient ties with Nepal) but they also face their business often face crushing competitions from larger businesses with backing from Indian financial institutions.

This is further emphasized when one looks at the implications of many Indians immigrating freely into Nepal. The Nepalese government has complained time and again about migrant Indians luring Nepalese women into prostitution with empty promises of Bollywood and glamour. In addition, Indian dacoits (robbers or bandits) often take advantage of the porous border and spill into southern and western Nepal. In short, the tie is there, but it is not what it used to be.

Q. It can be understood that in the fourth paragraph, the key purpose of the author is to:

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 14 B is incorrect as the paragraph does not talk about how the mindsets of the people of both these countries was changed due to historical events, rather it talks about social and economic changes. C is incorrect as this forms only a brief mention in the paragraph, but is not the key focus. D is incorrect as the paragraph does not talk about rivalry rather the isolation of the two countries socially and economically. A is the right answer, as the author seeks to introduce factors that led to the straining of relations between the two countries.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 15

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Kumaon, the northernmost region of Uttarakhand (a state in India), shines under the Himalayan sun and snow and gushes with water shared with the nation of Nepal. This bond runs thousands of years old, and has only in modern times been obscured by a 225 km border. The traditions of trade and migration - where Kumaoni goods spanned out to Tibet and Central Asia through Nepal, or where Nepalese people dwelling in mountain villages came down to the warmer and more inhabited Kumaon - made the Himalayan range seem less of a geographical barrier and more a home to transnational cultures and incredible religious tolerance.

Though the geographical isolation that the Himalayas brought about could have very easily caused distinction between ethnic and cultural groups and raised barriers to cultural diffusion, the economic and social conditions led to greater tolerance of intermarriage. Parents blessed marriages of couples whose origins were often hundreds of kilometres apart. As a result, love marriages, though not so common, were also accepted in this region, where arranged marriages were usually the norm.

In short, intermarriage and cultural diffusion fuelled each other across the Indo-Nepalese border. The traditions of both regions, which are neither "purely" from those regions, emphasize this fact. Hindus in Kumaon are less preoccupied with the caste system (though there is still discrimination that exists as a result of this hierarchy.) Buddhists in Nepal retain certain elements of Hinduism that were left with them even as the last of the Kumaoni migrant traders passed by their villages.

However, following British rule in India, the Anglo-Nepalese war, and the creation of geopolitical entities, the 225 km landscape which was once known as an open gate between kingdoms of India and Nepal became an established border. Centuries of open trade and intermarriage became closed off, and those who once lived within an autonomous Kumaon with its own kingdom and culture became, for the first time, to be known as Indians.

Even today, marriages take place across the border, and thus hold together ancient ties between families and different cultural and ethnic groups. For example, Nepalese men leave their homes for Kumaon in search of jobs and even the love of their life. Immigration between Nepal and India has extremely lax regulations - about 18 forms of ID are acceptable for passing through the border. Even if one cannot produce such ID, get permission, or get a fake passport (another common options) many Nepalese can still take advantage of obscure but dangerous pedestrian paths and cross rivers to get to the land that was once bound with theirs.

Once in the Kumaon region, Nepalese migrants usually work menial jobs and, in glaring contrast to their ancestors, are given the short end of the stick in terms of the social hierarchy. Not only are they looked down upon by many modern-day Kumaonis who consider themselves more Indian than Himalayan (though it merits mention that many Kumaonis still venerate the ancient ties with Nepal) but they also face their business often face crushing competitions from larger businesses with backing from Indian financial institutions.

This is further emphasized when one looks at the implications of many Indians immigrating freely into Nepal. The Nepalese government has complained time and again about migrant Indians luring Nepalese women into prostitution with empty promises of Bollywood and glamour. In addition, Indian dacoits (robbers or bandits) often take advantage of the porous border and spill into southern and western Nepal. In short, the tie is there, but it is not what it used to be.

Q. It can be inferred that the passage is most likely to be an excerpt from which of the following sources?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 15 A is incorrect as although historical references are given in the passage, it is not entirely focused on narrating historical events. C is incorrect as the passage does not give insights on travelling. D is incorrect as the passage does not have fictional characters, plot or elements. B is the right answer as the passage gives description of sociological and cultural relationships between two countries, so the passage is most likely to have been taken from a sociology magazine or journal.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 16

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Kumaon, the northernmost region of Uttarakhand (a state in India), shines under the Himalayan sun and snow and gushes with water shared with the nation of Nepal. This bond runs thousands of years old, and has only in modern times been obscured by a 225 km border. The traditions of trade and migration - where Kumaoni goods spanned out to Tibet and Central Asia through Nepal, or where Nepalese people dwelling in mountain villages came down to the warmer and more inhabited Kumaon - made the Himalayan range seem less of a geographical barrier and more a home to transnational cultures and incredible religious tolerance.

Though the geographical isolation that the Himalayas brought about could have very easily caused distinction between ethnic and cultural groups and raised barriers to cultural diffusion, the economic and social conditions led to greater tolerance of intermarriage. Parents blessed marriages of couples whose origins were often hundreds of kilometres apart. As a result, love marriages, though not so common, were also accepted in this region, where arranged marriages were usually the norm.

In short, intermarriage and cultural diffusion fuelled each other across the Indo-Nepalese border. The traditions of both regions, which are neither "purely" from those regions, emphasize this fact. Hindus in Kumaon are less preoccupied with the caste system (though there is still discrimination that exists as a result of this hierarchy.) Buddhists in Nepal retain certain elements of Hinduism that were left with them even as the last of the Kumaoni migrant traders passed by their villages.

However, following British rule in India, the Anglo-Nepalese war, and the creation of geopolitical entities, the 225 km landscape which was once known as an open gate between kingdoms of India and Nepal became an established border. Centuries of open trade and intermarriage became closed off, and those who once lived within an autonomous Kumaon with its own kingdom and culture became, for the first time, to be known as Indians.

Even today, marriages take place across the border, and thus hold together ancient ties between families and different cultural and ethnic groups. For example, Nepalese men leave their homes for Kumaon in search of jobs and even the love of their life. Immigration between Nepal and India has extremely lax regulations - about 18 forms of ID are acceptable for passing through the border. Even if one cannot produce such ID, get permission, or get a fake passport (another common options) many Nepalese can still take advantage of obscure but dangerous pedestrian paths and cross rivers to get to the land that was once bound with theirs.

Once in the Kumaon region, Nepalese migrants usually work menial jobs and, in glaring contrast to their ancestors, are given the short end of the stick in terms of the social hierarchy. Not only are they looked down upon by many modern-day Kumaonis who consider themselves more Indian than Himalayan (though it merits mention that many Kumaonis still venerate the ancient ties with Nepal) but they also face their business often face crushing competitions from larger businesses with backing from Indian financial institutions.

This is further emphasized when one looks at the implications of many Indians immigrating freely into Nepal. The Nepalese government has complained time and again about migrant Indians luring Nepalese women into prostitution with empty promises of Bollywood and glamour. In addition, Indian dacoits (robbers or bandits) often take advantage of the porous border and spill into southern and western Nepal. In short, the tie is there, but it is not what it used to be.

Q. It can be understood from the context of the passage that which of the following would seamlessly follow the last paragraph?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 16 Note that the last paragraph ends with saying 'in short the tie is there but not what it used to be'. The paragraph describes the problems taking place to the free movement of people between the two nations. A does not establish continuity with any of these problems. B is incorrect as it only talks of the role of trade bringing together the two countries which does not follow the last paragraph. D is incorrect as it talks of the distant past and how the structure of governing influenced the tie between the two nations; this is not discussed in the paragraph. C is the right answer as it talks about how culture used to freely flow at first, but now it has somewhat weakened and new problems which have emerged need to be solved. These problems have been discussed in the last para of the passage. This makes it clear that C will follow.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 17

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Kumaon, the northernmost region of Uttarakhand (a state in India), shines under the Himalayan sun and snow and gushes with water shared with the nation of Nepal. This bond runs thousands of years old, and has only in modern times been obscured by a 225 km border. The traditions of trade and migration - where Kumaoni goods spanned out to Tibet and Central Asia through Nepal, or where Nepalese people dwelling in mountain villages came down to the warmer and more inhabited Kumaon - made the Himalayan range seem less of a geographical barrier and more a home to transnational cultures and incredible religious tolerance.

Though the geographical isolation that the Himalayas brought about could have very easily caused distinction between ethnic and cultural groups and raised barriers to cultural diffusion, the economic and social conditions led to greater tolerance of intermarriage. Parents blessed marriages of couples whose origins were often hundreds of kilometres apart. As a result, love marriages, though not so common, were also accepted in this region, where arranged marriages were usually the norm.

In short, intermarriage and cultural diffusion fuelled each other across the Indo-Nepalese border. The traditions of both regions, which are neither "purely" from those regions, emphasize this fact. Hindus in Kumaon are less preoccupied with the caste system (though there is still discrimination that exists as a result of this hierarchy.) Buddhists in Nepal retain certain elements of Hinduism that were left with them even as the last of the Kumaoni migrant traders passed by their villages.

However, following British rule in India, the Anglo-Nepalese war, and the creation of geopolitical entities, the 225 km landscape which was once known as an open gate between kingdoms of India and Nepal became an established border. Centuries of open trade and intermarriage became closed off, and those who once lived within an autonomous Kumaon with its own kingdom and culture became, for the first time, to be known as Indians.

Even today, marriages take place across the border, and thus hold together ancient ties between families and different cultural and ethnic groups. For example, Nepalese men leave their homes for Kumaon in search of jobs and even the love of their life. Immigration between Nepal and India has extremely lax regulations - about 18 forms of ID are acceptable for passing through the border. Even if one cannot produce such ID, get permission, or get a fake passport (another common options) many Nepalese can still take advantage of obscure but dangerous pedestrian paths and cross rivers to get to the land that was once bound with theirs.

Once in the Kumaon region, Nepalese migrants usually work menial jobs and, in glaring contrast to their ancestors, are given the short end of the stick in terms of the social hierarchy. Not only are they looked down upon by many modern-day Kumaonis who consider themselves more Indian than Himalayan (though it merits mention that many Kumaonis still venerate the ancient ties with Nepal) but they also face their business often face crushing competitions from larger businesses with backing from Indian financial institutions.

This is further emphasized when one looks at the implications of many Indians immigrating freely into Nepal. The Nepalese government has complained time and again about migrant Indians luring Nepalese women into prostitution with empty promises of Bollywood and glamour. In addition, Indian dacoits (robbers or bandits) often take advantage of the porous border and spill into southern and western Nepal. In short, the tie is there, but it is not what it used to be.

Q. Which of the following best describes the tone of the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 17 B is incorrect as a passage with a subjective tone would imply that the author voices his own opinion in addition to a description of the topic. In the given passage, the author does not express his own views or perspectives. Rather he simply describes the state of affairs as they are now, versus how they were in the past. C is incorrect as the author does not directly address the readers or aim to evoke a response or emotional in them. D is incorrect as although the author gives references to some historical events, the tone or the focus of the entire passage cannot be said to be historical or giving an account of historical events. A is the right answer as the author seeks to describe the changing cultural relations of India and Nepal.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 18

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Kumaon, the northernmost region of Uttarakhand (a state in India), shines under the Himalayan sun and snow and gushes with water shared with the nation of Nepal. This bond runs thousands of years old, and has only in modern times been obscured by a 225 km border. The traditions of trade and migration - where Kumaoni goods spanned out to Tibet and Central Asia through Nepal, or where Nepalese people dwelling in mountain villages came down to the warmer and more inhabited Kumaon - made the Himalayan range seem less of a geographical barrier and more a home to transnational cultures and incredible religious tolerance.

Though the geographical isolation that the Himalayas brought about could have very easily caused distinction between ethnic and cultural groups and raised barriers to cultural diffusion, the economic and social conditions led to greater tolerance of intermarriage. Parents blessed marriages of couples whose origins were often hundreds of kilometres apart. As a result, love marriages, though not so common, were also accepted in this region, where arranged marriages were usually the norm.

In short, intermarriage and cultural diffusion fuelled each other across the Indo-Nepalese border. The traditions of both regions, which are neither "purely" from those regions, emphasize this fact. Hindus in Kumaon are less preoccupied with the caste system (though there is still discrimination that exists as a result of this hierarchy.) Buddhists in Nepal retain certain elements of Hinduism that were left with them even as the last of the Kumaoni migrant traders passed by their villages.

However, following British rule in India, the Anglo-Nepalese war, and the creation of geopolitical entities, the 225 km landscape which was once known as an open gate between kingdoms of India and Nepal became an established border. Centuries of open trade and intermarriage became closed off, and those who once lived within an autonomous Kumaon with its own kingdom and culture became, for the first time, to be known as Indians.

Even today, marriages take place across the border, and thus hold together ancient ties between families and different cultural and ethnic groups. For example, Nepalese men leave their homes for Kumaon in search of jobs and even the love of their life. Immigration between Nepal and India has extremely lax regulations - about 18 forms of ID are acceptable for passing through the border. Even if one cannot produce such ID, get permission, or get a fake passport (another common options) many Nepalese can still take advantage of obscure but dangerous pedestrian paths and cross rivers to get to the land that was once bound with theirs.

Once in the Kumaon region, Nepalese migrants usually work menial jobs and, in glaring contrast to their ancestors, are given the short end of the stick in terms of the social hierarchy. Not only are they looked down upon by many modern-day Kumaonis who consider themselves more Indian than Himalayan (though it merits mention that many Kumaonis still venerate the ancient ties with Nepal) but they also face their business often face crushing competitions from larger businesses with backing from Indian financial institutions.

This is further emphasized when one looks at the implications of many Indians immigrating freely into Nepal. The Nepalese government has complained time and again about migrant Indians luring Nepalese women into prostitution with empty promises of Bollywood and glamour. In addition, Indian dacoits (robbers or bandits) often take advantage of the porous border and spill into southern and western Nepal. In short, the tie is there, but it is not what it used to be.

Q. It can be understood that when the author says that Nepalese migrants are given the short end of the stick, he means:

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 18 The rest of the passage clearly shows that the Nepalese migrants are looked down upon, so A is the most likely answer. We have insufficient information to conclude B and C. D takes the phrase literally, which is not the answer. The reference can be found in the penultimate paragraph, where the author says, "Once in the Kumaon region, Nepalese migrants usually work menial jobs and, in glaring contrast to their ancestors, are given the short end of the stick in terms of the social hierarchy."
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 19

Direction: This question features a set of 4 sentences. From the options given below, select the option which identifies the incorrect set of sentences.

1. The most interesting aspect about this theory is that it delved into the subject like no other theory has ever done before.

2. Mahesh does not agree with the policy of hiring people at a low salaries and believes that by providing adequate pay, the best talent in the industry can be attracted.

3. The wine served here is a classical example of authentic French wine.

4. The coach and captain of the team is going to select the team.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 19

Sentence 1: The sentence commits a tense error. The sentence requires the present tense verb 'delves' instead of the past tense verb 'delved'. The clue is the second verb, 'has', in the sentence. The tenses for the two verbs do not match.

Sentence 3: Instead of 'classical', the correct version should be 'classic'.

Sentence 4: The sentence may seem to be incorrect but it is actually correct, as in this case, the coach and captain of the team is the same person, as indicated by the usage of a single article 'the'.

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 20

Direction: Read the passage below and choose the option that best captures the summary of the passage.

Modernity has long been obsessed with, perhaps even defined by, its epistemic insecurity, its grasping toward big truths that ultimately disappoint as our world grows only less knowable. New knowledge and new ways of understanding simultaneously produce new forms of non-knowledge, new uncertainties and mysteries. The scientific method, based in deduction and falsification, is better at proliferating questions than it is at answering them. For instance, Einstein's theories about the curvature of space and motion at the quantum level provide new knowledge and generates new unknowns that previously could not be pondered.

  1. Modernity has managed to aggravate the existing intellectual mess that we find ourselves in.

  2. Modernity has not managed to provide the answers it was searching for and in the process, found itself out of sync with reality.

  3. Modernity, in its quest for knowledge, has ended by raising questions instead of answering them

  4. Modernity has not managed to add to the collective knowledge of mankind and this is its failure.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 20 Option 1 is too extreme an answer option.

Option 2 is ruled out at its second part is not mentioned in the passage.

Option 3 is the apt choice at is perfectly synthesizes the answer options.

Option 4 is a judgment that is not present in the given question.

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 21

This question has a set of sentences, which when properly sequenced, forms a coherent paragraph. Choose the most logical order of the sentences from among the given options.

  1. About 760 children in the contaminated Safety Zone have been reported to have thyroid cancer, though only 3 children have died from it so far.

  2. It is the children that have local doctors the most worried about.

  3. Germ cells, sperm and eggs, are the genetic building blocks of future generations which caused the children of such people to turn out deformed and disfigured.

  4. Birth defects have more than doubled inside the Safety Zone and there have also been isolated cases of liver and rectal cancer, which is uncommon in children of their age.

  5. Those who lived in the area around the nuclear power station at the time of the accident have had mutations in their germ cells due to the radiation.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 21 The answer is 53412. Out of all the given statements, statement 5 serves as the best introductory sentence as it introduces to the readers about the accident which occurred in the nuclear power station and the affect of radiation on the people living in that area. Statement 1 cannot be the introductory sentence because it talks about the suffering of children in the contaminated "Safety Zone" but it does not throw any light on the cause of the contamination in that zone. Statement 2 cannot be the introductory sentence because the worry which the children were causing to the local doctors must have been due to some reason which has not been mentioned in the statement. Statement 5 is followed by statement 3 which carries forward the point of mutations in the germ cells of the people caused by the radiations by further elaborating it. Statement 4 is the most logical extension of the sentence 3 which talks about the birth defects and the cases of liver and rectal cancers which supports the point of children being born deformed and disfigured as mentioned in statement 3. Statement 2 is the concluding sentence which states that the situation of the children is causing concern to the doctors.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 22

The following question presents four statements of which three, when placed in the correct order, forms a contextually complete paragraph. Find the statement that is not part of the paragraph.

  1. It would, for example, be wrong to pursue a surplus if the terms of trade were to fall more than is currently forecast by Treasury, as a further fiscal tightening on top of the shock to national income would all but guarantee a prolonged period of sub-trend economic growth and with it rising unemployment.

  2. The evidence to support this risk comes from the experience over the past three years where the terms of trade have been falling.

  3. Not many economists would seriously doubt the broad goal of returning the budget to surplus over the next few years, but there is a risk that pursuing a surplus come what may could be contractionary for the economy and jobs.

  4. If the surplus country takes no steps to reduce its surplus - for example, by increasing its domestic investment and consumption - the only way the deficit country can reduce its deficit is by cutting its own investment and consumption.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 22 While all other sentences highlight the possible problem accompanied with pursuing a surplus, sentence 4 goes off track and suggests ways to cut deficits. Therefore, option 4 is the answer.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 23

Direction: Read the following passage and choose an option that logically completes the paragraph

Motivation is a key concept in Psychology and in fiction. It is a man's basic premises and values that form his character and move him to action-and in order to understand a man's character, it is the motivation behind his actions that we must understand.

To know "what makes a man tick," ________

  1. We must observe him for a long time.

  2. We must thoroughly check his past record.

  3. We must ask: "What is he after?"

  4. We must ask: "Could he have done better?"


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 23 The correct answer is 3. The question tests both logic and structure. 4 goes out because it says 'could he have done better?' how can we use a comparative term without knowing the base of comparison. The passage states 'in order to understand a man's character..it is the motivation behind his actions that we must understand. The question in option 3 perfectly complements that. 'What is he after' will correctly answer 'what motivates him'.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 24

Direction: Read the passage below and choose the option that best captures the summary of the passage.

Sartre refused the Nobel Prize because of the philosophical idea with which he will forever be associated: Existentialism. The core of Existentialism is this: Existence precedes essence. Think of a penknife, said Sartre in his 1946 lecture 'Existentialism is a Humanism'. Do you believe an artisan makes a penknife from an idea of a penknife that comes first? If so, you believe that essence precedes existence, and are not an Existentialist. You believe the physical existing penknife is derived from an essential Penknife, from which all penknives are brought into existence. Applying this thinking to persons, putting essence before existence means that all people are created from one universal idea of people - namely, God's image of people. But Sartre did not believe that people were created in God's image. He believed that a person's existence came first. A person exists, encounters his or her self, breaks out into the world - and defines his or her self only afterward. Only by existing can a person know who she is.

  1. The principles of Existentialism, propounded and discovered by Sartre, were centered around existence and not essence.

  2. The principles of Existentialism, counseled and revealed by Sartre, played up the dominance of existence over essence.

  3. The principles of Existentialism, suggested and exposed by Sartre, conflated the fine line between existence and essence.

  4. The principles of Existentialism, advocated and observed by Sartre, highlighted the primacy of existence over essence.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 24 In the given case, it is not given that Sartre discovered, revealed or exposed Existentialism. From the given paragraph, we simply know that he advocated and supported it. Because of this, options 1, 2 and 3 are ruled out and option 4 is the correct answer. Also, the second part of option 4 is absolutely correct as it highlights the central tenet of existentialism.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 25

Direction: See the Graph Carefully

Q. In which year during the period 2007-10 was the ratio of expenses to profit the lowest?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 25 The ratio of expenses to profit

In 2007 = 198 / 498 − 198 = 0.66

In 2008 = 220 / 332 − 220 = 1.96

In 2010 = 179 / 442 − 179 = 0.68

In 2009 = 253 / 500 − 253 = 1.02

The ratio is lowest in 2007.

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 26

Direction: See the Graph Carefully

Q. In how many of the years from 2007 to 2010 (both inclusive) was a rise in profit per employee accompanied by a fall in the total profits or vice-versa (with respect to the previous year)?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 26 Change in profit per employee can be calculated from first bar-chart and change in total

profit can be calculated from second bar-chart.

Change in profit per employee

In 2007 = − 1(–ve)

In 2008 = − 10 (–ve)

In 2009 = 1 (+ve)

In 2010 = 2 (+ve)

Change in total profit

In 2007 = 300 − 217 = 83 crores (+ve)

In 2008 = 112 − 300 = − 188 crores (–ve)

In 2009 = 247 − 112 = 135 crores (+ve)

In 2010 = 263 − 247 = 16 crores (+ve)

There is a opposite trend only in year 2007.

In the year 2009, number of govt. employees

= 3846 × 1.04 × 1.05 × 1.06 = 4452

Number of private employees

= 0.87 × 3846 × 0.98 × 1 × 0.99

= 3246

Required difference = 4452 − 3246 = 1206

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 27

Direction: See the Graph Carefully

Q. In which of the following years, was the number of employees of company XYZ, the highest?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 27

Number of employees = Profit / Profit per employee

In 2010 = (442−179) × 100 / 23 = 1143

In 2008 = (332−220) × 100 / 20 = 560

In 2007 = (498−198) × 100 / 30 = 1000

In 2009 = (500−253) × 100 / 21 = 1176

Hence, in 2009 the number of employees of company XYZ was highest.

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 28

Direction: See the Graph Carefully

Q. The total assets of company XYZ continuously decreased (with respect to the previous year) in the four years from 2007 to 2010 by 20%, 10%, 5%, 10% respectively. Of these four years, in which year, was the ratio of revenue to assets the highest?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 28 From year 2007 to 2010 , revenue is highest in year 2009 As assets of the company is continuously decreasing.

∴ Assets in 2009 is lesser than that in 2007 and 2008

∴ Ratio of revenue to assets in 2009 is higher than that in 2007 and 2008 Now in 2010 assets decreased by 10% when compared to 2009 and revenue in 2010 is 442 crores.

Let assets in 2009 be x

Then ratio of revenue to assets

In 2009 = 500 / x

In 2010 = 442 / 0.9x = 491.11 / x

∴ Ratio is highest in 2009

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 29

Direction: The following graph shows the percentage change in number of employees of two sectors. Refer the graph to answer the questions that follow.

Q. f the ratio of total salaries of the government employees to the private employees is 3 : 2 in the year 2004, then what will be the ratio of total salaries of the government employees to the private employees in the year 2009?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 29 In the year 2004

In the year 2009

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 30

Direction: The following graph shows the percentage change in number of employees of two sectors. Refer the graph to answer the questions that follow.

Q. If government employees’ salary is Rs 60 per head and private sector employees’ salary is Rs 75 per head and the total salary of government employees and private sector employees in the year 2010 are Rs 50000 and Rs 70000 respectively, then what is the difference in total salary of government and private employees in the year 2011?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 30

In the year 2010, number of govt. employees

= 50000/60

= 833.33~− 833

Number of private employees

= 70000/75

= 933.33~− 933

In the year 2011, number of govt. employees

= 833 × 1.08

= 899.64~− 900

Number of private employees = 933 × 0.99

= 923.67~− 924

Now the total salary of govt. employees

= 900 × 60 = Rs 54000

And total salary of private employees

= 924 × 75 = Rs 69300

Required difference = 69300 − 54000

= Rs 15300

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 31

Direction: The following graph shows the percentage change in number of employees of two sectors. Refer the graph to answer the questions that follow.

Q. If in the year 1999, government employees are twice of private sector employees then what will be the ratio of government employees to private sector employees in the year 2003?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 31

In the year 2003, the number of govt. employees

= 2P × 1.01 × 1 × 1 × 1 = 2.02P

Number of private employees

= P × 0.98 × 0.96 × 0.98 × 0.97

= 0.89 P

Required Ratio = 2.02 P/0.89 P = 2.27

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 32

Direction: The following table shows data of lipsticks, please refer to the table to answer the questions that follow

Q. The total sales of Brand ‘A’ lipstick from April 2008 to August 2008 account for

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 32 Total sales from April, 2008 to August, 2008

= Annual total sales – cumulative sales from Sep, 2008 to March, 2009

12639 – 7636 = 5000 appx.

Rs 5000000 ≈ Rs 5 million appx.

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 33

Direction: The following table shows data of lipsticks, please refer to the table to answer the questions that follow

Q. Average price per unit of Brand ‘A’ lipstick in March 2009 is

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 33 The average price is 1552000/239266 = Rs 6.5
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 34

Direction: The following table shows data of lipsticks, please refer to the table to answer the questions that follow

Q. Brand C’s sales in March 2009 account for what percentage of Brand C’s cumulative sales from April 2008 to August 2008?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 34 Brand ‘C’s April, 2008 to August, 2008 sales

= Rs 14850000

March sales are Rs 3137000.

Required percentage = 21%

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 35

Direction: A person in India was searching through five internet shopping portals V, W, X, Y and Z which are based in USA, Australia, England, India and Abu Dhabi respectively, for purchasing some items among A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H. The basic costs of these items at each portal are listed in the table given below.

The cost at each portal is given in terms of the currency of the country where the portal is based and payments are accepted only in that currency. The shipping costs incurred in transferring goods bought from V, W, X and Z to India were 3%, 4%, 5% and 2% respectively of the basic cost. No transportation charges are to be paid for any item bought from portal Y.The total cost to be paid for an item is the sum of its basic cost and shipping cost, if any.

The conversion rate for different currencies with respect to Indian rupees is as follows.

1 Dollar (USA) = Rs 45

1 Dollar (Australian) = Rs 27

1 Pound (England) = Rs 75

1 Dinar (Abu Dhabi) = Rs 15

Q. If not more than two articles can be bought from the same portal and the person has Rs 79000 with him, then what is the maximum number of items that he can buy with the amount?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 35 Total cost (in rupees) of each item when it is bought from V, W, X, Y and Z (including transportation charges).

The maximum amount of money can be left when he buys all the items at cheapest rate Cheapest rate of item A is Rs.11750 at portal Y Cheapest rate of item B is Rs.22050 at portal X

Cheapest rate of item D is Rs.27562.5 at portal X

Cheapest rate of item E is Rs.37320 at portal Y

For buying maximum items he should buy cheaper items.

He should buy item A from portal Y, item G from portal Y, item B from portal X and item H from portal X.

So total amount spent = 11750 + 20900 + 22050 + 23625

= Rs. 78325

So he can buy 4 items from Rs 7900

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 36

Direction: A person in India was searching through five internet shopping portals V, W, X, Y and Z which are based in USA, Australia, England, India and Abu Dhabi respectively, for purchasing some items among A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H. The basic costs of these items at each portal are listed in the table given below.

The cost at each portal is given in terms of the currency of the country where the portal is based and payments are accepted only in that currency. The shipping costs incurred in transferring goods bought from V, W, X and Z to India were 3%, 4%, 5% and 2% respectively of the basic cost. No transportation charges are to be paid for any item bought from portal Y.The total cost to be paid for an item is the sum of its basic cost and shipping cost, if any.

The conversion rate for different currencies with respect to Indian rupees is as follows.

1 Dollar (USA) = Rs 45

1 Dollar (Australian) = Rs 27

1 Pound (England) = Rs 75

1 Dinar (Abu Dhabi) = Rs 15

Q. If the person has Rs 125000 with him, what is the maximum amount of money he can be left with after he buys items A, B, D and E?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 36 Total cost (in rupees) of each item when it is bought from V, W, X, Y and Z (including transportation charges).

The maximum amount of money can be left when he buys all the items at cheapest rate Cheapest rate of item A is Rs.11750 at portal Y Cheapest rate of item B is Rs.22050 at portal X

Cheapest rate of item D is Rs.27562.5 at portal X

Cheapest rate of item E is Rs.37320 at portal Y

Total cost of these items at cheapest rate = Rs. 98682.5

Remaining amount = 125000 − 98682.5

= Rs. 26317.50

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 37

Direction: A person in India was searching through five internet shopping portals V, W, X, Y and Z which are based in USA, Australia, England, India and Abu Dhabi respectively, for purchasing some items among A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H. The basic costs of these items at each portal are listed in the table given below.

The cost at each portal is given in terms of the currency of the country where the portal is based and payments are accepted only in that currency. The shipping costs incurred in transferring goods bought from V, W, X and Z to India were 3%, 4%, 5% and 2% respectively of the basic cost. No transportation charges are to be paid for any item bought from portal Y.The total cost to be paid for an item is the sum of its basic cost and shipping cost, if any.

The conversion rate for different currencies with respect to Indian rupees is as follows.

1 Dollar (USA) = Rs 45

1 Dollar (Australian) = Rs 27

1 Pound (England) = Rs 75

1 Dinar (Abu Dhabi) = Rs 15

Q. From which portal can the person buy item C at the cheapest total cost?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 37 Total cost (in rupees) of each item when it is bought from V, W, X, Y and Z (including transportation charges).

It is clear from the table that cheapest cost of item C is at portal X.

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 38

Direction: The passengers travelled by an airline during the year 2008, consisted of 45% men, 35% women and the remaining children. Of the children, 40% were female and 60% male. Of the men, 10% were over the age of 60 yr and 25% below the age of 40 yr. Of the women, 20% were over the age of 60 yr and an equal number were under 40 yr of age. The number of men increased by 4% in 2009 and that of women increased by 6%. The number of passengers travelled in 2008 was 2,00,000.

Q. What is the men in the year 2009?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 38 The given data can be summarized as follows

Total passengers in 2008 = 200000

Men = 45% of 2 lakh = 90000

Above 60 yr = 10% of 90000

= 9000 = 4.5%

Less than 40 yr = 25% of 90,000

= 22500 = 11.25%

Women = 35% of 2 lakh = 70000

Less than 40% = 20% of 70000 = 14000 = 7%

Children = 20% of 2 lakh = 40000

Boys = 60% of 40000 = 24000 = 12%

Girls = 40% of 40000 = 16000 = 8%

In the year 2009, percentage increase in male passengers was 4% and female = 6%.

Number of men in 2009

1.04 × 90000 = 93600

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 39

Direction: The passengers travelled by an airline during the year 2008, consisted of 45% men, 35% women and the remaining children. Of the children, 40% were female and 60% male. Of the men, 10% were over the age of 60 yr and 25% below the age of 40 yr. Of the women, 20% were over the age of 60 yr and an equal number were under 40 yr of age. The number of men increased by 4% in 2009 and that of women increased by 6%. The number of passengers travelled in 2008 was 2,00,000.

Q. What percentage of passengers in 2009 consisted of children?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 39 It cannot be determined as we don’t have any data regarding the change in the total passengers or in the number of children.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 40

Annual Cost of Flood Damage

Q. What is the average amount spent on flood damage during the mentioned years in the nineties? (in Rs crore)


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 40 The total for the 90's is ≈ Rs. 12750 crore. So the average is ≈ Rs. 2125 crore.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 41

Annual Cost of Flood Damage

Q. In the year when the cost of flood control was the highest, 32% of the cost was because of a cyclone that hit the south-eastern coast of the country. The cyclone relief was equally divided among Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. How much did Andhra Pradesh get as cyclone relief? (in Rs crore)


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 41 Since 32% gets equally divided among the 2 states, each of them get 16% of the total of Rs. 3950 crore ≈ Rs. 632 crore.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 42

Annual Cost of Flood Damage

Q. If Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal account for 40% and 30% of the total cost, in how many years has their combined contribution been greater than the total cost of the previous year on the basis of the given graph? (Use above data for other questions if required.)


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 42 Since they account for a combined 70%, we have to check out for the years where 70% of that year's contribution is greater than the previous years contribution. Only two years, '86 and '93 satisfy the required condition.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 43

Direction: The table given below shows the aircraft handling capabilities in terms of maximum size of aircraft. It is assumed for all airports that a lesser sized aircraft can also be handled, if it can handle a larger sized aircraft. The figure in brackets in third column shows the number of months required for airports to be implemented.

Q. After ten months how many airports will have capabilities to handle both types of aircraft AB - 300 and AB-320?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 43 All airports who can handle a B - 474 or an AB - 300, can handle both an AB - 300 and a AB -320. Because if an airport handles an aircraft of larger capacity it can also handle all aircraft of lesser capacity. So, we have to count the number of air crafts who will able to handle either B -474 or an AB - 300 in next ten months. It comes as 7 + 3 + 6 + 5 = 21.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 44

Direction: The table given below shows the aircraft handling capabilities in terms of maximum size of aircraft. It is assumed for all airports that a lesser sized aircraft can also be handled, if it can handle a larger sized aircraft. The figure in brackets in third column shows the number of months required for airports to be implemented.

Q. How many airports will have capabilities to handle all types of aircrafts after four months?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 44 All airports which can handle a B - 474 can also handle all other lesser capacity aircrafts. Hence the total number of airports which can handle all types of aircrafts in next 4 months is 10.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 45

Ram borrowed Rs 72000 at 20% p.a compound interest, the interest being compounded annually. He repaid x at the end of the first year and 57600 at the end of the second year and he cleared the loan. The amount he paid at the end of the first year was.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 45 Value of 72000 at the end of 1st year = 86400

The amount to be paid at the end of second year in order to clear the loan

= (86400 - x) + 20/100 x (86400 - x)

Or, 1.2(86400-x) = 57600

Or, x = 38400

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 46

What is the 10's digit of 799?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 46 If we see the increasing powers of 7, we observe that there is a general trend that is being followed by the digits in Tens' Place.

7, 49, 343, 2401, 16807, ..49,....43,.....01 and soon.

Hence the series is repeated every 4 terms.

Hence for 99th term, that is 24 x 4 + 3, the digit at Tens' place would he same as that of 3rd term i.e. '4'.

Hence the correct option is (3)

Alternate method:

This question can also be solved by finding remainder when 799 is divided by 100.

N = 799 = 73[74]24 = 73[2401]24

[N/100J = [{73[2401]24}/100JR = [(73)/100]R = 43

Hence the ten's place digit will be 4.

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 47

In ΔABC, the median from A is perpendicular to the median from B. If AC = 6, BC = 7, what is the length of AB?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 47 Let the medians intersect at G as shown in the figure below.

Consider GD = p, GE = q

We have AG = 2p, BG = 2q

In right ΔAGE, 4p2 + q2 = 9

In right ΔBGD, 4q2 + p2 = 49/4

Adding the 2 equations above gives us 5(p2 + q2) = 85/4

Or p2 + q2 = 17/4

In right ΔGED, DE2 = p2 + q2 = 17/4

Or DE = √17/2

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 48

Let us assume we have an eight face die numbered from 1 to 8. What is the probability that exactly two of the eight numbers appear on the top face in the five throws of an unbiased die?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 48 Total Number of possible outcomes = 85

Selecting any two numbers from 1 to 8 = 8C2

These two numbers should appear in all 5 throws. Let us say, x and y are those two numbers. Thus, first throw should result in either x or y. Similarly for all subsequent throws.

But, all throws should not result in the same number.

Required probability=8C2*(25 - 2)/ 85

= 840/32768.

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 49

On tossing 7 unbiased coins together, what is the probability of getting more tails than heads?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 49 The total number of possible outcomes n = 27 = 128

The number of tails and heads could be (7, 0), (6, 1), (5, 2), (4, 3)

n (E) = 1 + 7 + 21 + 35 =64

p (E) = 64/128

= 1/2

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 50

A pair of straight lines is expressed as 2x2 - 3 = 0. The straight lines are ____________ to each other. Fill in the blank.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 50 2x2 - 3 = 0 ⇒ (x- √1.5) (x + √1.5) = 0

Hence the two equations are (x- √1.5) = 0 and (x + √1.5) = 0.

Hence both are parallel.

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 51

What is the area enclosed by the graphs of x2 + y2 ≤ 9 and 2x - 3y ≥ 0?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 51 The graph x2 + y2 < 9 indicates the area of the circle whose radius is 3 and center at (0,0). The line 2x - 3y = 0 passes through the origin. Hence the common area is equal to the semi-circle. So area = π(3)2/2 = 4.5 π sq.units. Hence Option 4.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 52

In the diagram given below, E is the midpoint of AB and D is the midpoint of BC. Right angles are as shown. If AC = 6, find AB.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 52 Let AB =6y

AE=EB =3y, as median to hypotenuse is half.

CE = 3y

CG = 2GE

CG = 2y AND GE = y

From ∆AGE,

AG = √[(3y)2 - y2] =√ [8y2]

From ∆AGC, [8y2] + [4y2] = 36

12y2 = 36

y =√3

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 53

Aruj can fill a large tank from a river with a bucket in 40 minutes, Anik is 25% more efficient than Aruj and Rhitam is 20% more efficient than Anik. Aruj and Anik are allotted for filling up the tank. Rhitam, being a naughty kid, starts emptying the tank. Assuming filling the tank requires equal time and effort as that for emptying, what is the time required to fill the tank?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 53 Given, Aruj can fill the tank in 40 minutes

So Anik can fill the tank in (40 x 100 x 125) minutes = 32 minutes.

So Rhitam can empty (or fill) the tank in (32 x 100)/120 = 80/3 minutes.

Now, the amount of the tank filled in 1 minute = (1/40 + 1/32 - 3/80) part of the tank = 3/160 part of the tank.

Therefore, the tank will be filled in 160/3 minutes or 53.33 minutes.

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 54

Banta Singh was driving to Lonawala when his truck suddenly stops. He realised that the truck has run out of diesel, He remembered that he has a can holding 'P' liters of diesel and promptly emptied it into the right circular cylindrical diesel tank. He then inserted a straight stick vertically into the tank such that the free end of stick touches the bottom of the tank. He found that E% of stick left dry. After traveling a few kilometers (for which fuel consumption is negligible), he reached a refueling station. Now how many litres of diesel will be needed to fill the diesel tank of Banta's truck?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 54 The equation would be P + (E/100) Capacity = Capacity Capacity = 100 P/ ( 100 - E) Hence diesel to be added = E% of capacity =P.E./ (100 - E). Hence answer is option (1).
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 55

here are five train lines between A and B; and four train lines between B and C; three train lines between C and D; and three train lines between D and E. How many ways can the roundtrip by the train be taken from A to E by way of B, C, and D, given that you do not use the same train line more than once?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 55 For the forward journey, from there arc 5 different train lines between A and B, 4 between B and C, 3 between C and D, and 3 train lines between D and E. For the return journey, there are only (5-1)=4 different train lines between A and B, 3 between B and C, 2 between C and D, and 2 between D and E. Thus total number of ways will be 5x4 x 3 x3 x4x3x2x2 = 8640. Thus the correct option is 1.
CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 56

M litres of milk solution contains 80% milk. Instead of adding certain amount of water to change the 80% milk solution to 60% milk solution, same amount of milk is added by mistake. To the resulting solution W litres of water is added and the initial objective of 60% milk solution is attained. What is the ratio of M and W.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 56 The milk solution contains 20% water.

To make 80% milk solution to 60% milk solution, one needs to add(40 - 20):(100 - 40) i.e. 1/3M water.

However by mistake 1/3M milk is added which will result in 0.8M + 1/3M i.e. 3.4M/3

Litres of milk with a total volume of the solution = M + 1/3M i.e. 4M/3.

Now W Litres of water is added to make the concentration of milk to 60%.

So, 3.4M/3 = 0.6*(4M/3 + W) = 2.4M/3 + 0.6W

So, M/3 = 0.6W

So M/W = 1.8 = 9:5

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 57

A 126 cm long rubber band is attached to a wall at one end and to a car on the other stretched end. On the rubber band, a bug is positioned at the car end. The car starts moving away from the wall in the opposite direction at 1.3 cm/sec and the bug starts moving towards the wall end at 3.1 cm /sec.

Q. Assume the rubber band is uniformly and infinitely elastic. How far the car will travel before the bug reaches the other end?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 57 The speed of Car = 1.3 cm/sec and the speed of bug is = 3.1 cm/sec

Since they are moving in opposite directions and the speed of car is resisting the speed of bug, the effective speed of bug is 3.1 - 1.3 = 1.8 cm/sec

So the bug will reach the wall end in 126/1.8 = 70 secs.

By the time the car travels 70 x 1.3= 91 cm.

Hence the correct option is (2)

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 58

Rath, Vivaan and Rishi can complete a work in 20, 24 and 30 days respectively. If they work in such a manner that Rath works for 1 day, then Vivaan works for 2 days, then Rishi works for 3 days again Rath works for 1 day and so on. How many days will it take to complete the work?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 58 Work completed in first six days = 1/20 + 2/24 + 3/30 = 14/60

Hence work completed in 24 days = 4 x 14/60 = 56/60.

Remaining work = 4/60.

Now, work completed on the 25th day = 1/20.

Remaining work = 4/60 - 1/20 = 1/60

Vivaan will be working on the 26th day so the time taken by Vivaan to complete the work = (1/60) x 24 = 2/5th of a day.

Hence total number of days required = 24 + 1 + 2/5 = 25(2/5) days

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 59

712 is a 11-digit number which contains one 0’s, three 1’s, two 2’s, one 3’s, one 4’s, one 7’s and two more digits which are the same. What are the missing same digits?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 59 712 = 1 mod 9, i.e when 712 is divided by 9, remainder will be 1

Sum of the digits = 21

Since 712 = 1 mod 9, sum of the digits should be (1 + multiple of 9)

Missing digit can be 6, 8 or 9 as other digits have already been taken into consideration

Considering 6 as a missing digit, sum of digits = 21 + 2 X 6 = 33, which is 6 more than 27(multiple of 9). Hence, 6 cannot be a missing digit

Considering 8 as a missing digit, sum of digits = 21 + 2 X 8 = 37, which is 1 more than 36(multiple of 9). Hence, 8 is the missing digit

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 60

The volume of bisleri water kept in a cylindrical container is 301π. All the water is poured into n conical bottles of radii r and heights 1/r, where r = 1, 2, 3, .., n. What is the value of r?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 60 The volume of each of the conical bottles is ⅓ π r2 1/r = πr/3

The sum of volumes of the n conical bottles is ⅓ π (1 + 2 + 3 + .. + n) = 301 π.

So, [n(n + 1)/2] = 903, Solving this gives us n = 42

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 61

The number of ordered pairs (A, B), where A, B are digits, so that the number X = 2 1 A 5 3 B 4 is divisible by 44


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 61 Sum of Odd terms = A + 9

Sum of Even terms = B + 6

SE - S0 = B - A - 3

X is divisible by 4 if

B = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8

'X' is divisible is 11 if

B - A - 3 = 0 or multiple of 11

A - B = - 3 .............(i) or A - B = 8 ...............(ii)

From Equation (i)

B = 0 A = 8

B = 2 A = - 1 (not possible)

B = 4 A = 1

B = 6 A = 3

B = 8 A = 5

number of ordered pairs is 4

total number of ordered pairs, so that number 'X' is divisible by 44, is 4

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 62

Rohan is standing at the bottom of a staircase. He starts tossing a coin, and every time it shows Heads, he climbs up two steps, while every time it shows Tails he climbs up one step. After a while, he finds that he has climbed up a total of 8 steps. How many possible sequences of Heads and Tails could he have thrown?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 62 The man could have climbed 8 steps in the following possible sequences of Heads/Tails:-

I. 8 consecutive Tails → 1 way

II. 6 Tails, 1 Head → 7C1 = 7 ways

III. 4 Tails, 2 Head → 6C2 = 15 ways

IV. 2 Tails, 3Head → 5C3 = 10 ways

V. 4 consecutive Heads → 1 way

Thus total possible number of ways = (1 + 7 + 15 + 10 + 1) = 34 ways.

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 63

In Euro 2012, 16 teams participated and each team played exactly one match with each of the other 15 teams. The wining team is awarded with 4 points and the losing team gets 1 point. In case of draw both the team gets 1 point each. If the total points awarded to all the teams at the end of the tournament was 540, then how many matches ended in a draw?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 63 Total number of matches played in the football tournament = 16C2 = 120 matches

Maximum possible number of points awarded to all the teams is 120 x 5 = 600. This is possible if no match ended in a draw. But the total points awarded to all the teams is 540.

The difference = 600 - 540 = 60.

As a draw match generates only 2 points and there is loss of 3 points in every match that ends in a draw we can say that for the loss of 60 points 60/3 = 20 matches were ended in a draw.

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 64

Let ABC be a right-angled triangle with BC as the hypotenuse. Lengths of AB and AC are 15 km and 20 km, respectively. The minimum possible time, in minutes, required to reach the hypotenuse from A at a speed of 30 km per hour is


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 64 The length of the altitude from A to the hypotenuse will be the shortest distance.

This is a right triangle with sides 3 : 4 : 5.

Hence, the hypotenuse =

= 25 Km.

Length of the altitude = 15 x 20 / 25 = 12 Km

(This is derived from equating area of triangle, 15.20/2 = 25⋅altitude / 2)

The time taken = 12/30 x 60 = 24 minutes

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 65

Let AB, CD, EF, GH, and JK be five diameters of a circle with center at 0. In how many ways can three points be chosen out of A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, and O so as to form a triangle?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 65 The total number of given points are 11. (10 on circumference and 1 is the center)

So total possible triangles = 11C3 = 165.

However, AOB, COD, EOF, GOH, JOK lie on a straight line. Hence, these 5 triangles are not possible. Thus, the required number of triangles = 165 - 5 = 160

CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 66

In how many ways can 7 identical erasers be distributed among 4 kids in such a way that each kid gets at least one eraser but nobody gets more than 3 erasers?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 20 (14/11/2022) - Question 66 We have been given that a + b + c + d = 7

Total ways of distributing 7 things among 4 people so that each one gets at least one

= n−1Cr−1 = 6C3 = 20

Now we need to subtract the cases where any one person got more than 3 erasers. Any person cannot get more than 4 erasers since each child has to get at least 1. Any of the 4 childs can get 4 erasers. Thus, there are 4 cases. On subtracting these cases from the total cases we get the required answer. Hence, the required value is 20 - 4 = 16

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