CAT Mock Test - 3 (New Pattern)


75 Questions MCQ Test CAT Mock Test Series | CAT Mock Test - 3 (New Pattern)


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This mock test of CAT Mock Test - 3 (New Pattern) for CAT helps you for every CAT entrance exam. This contains 75 Multiple Choice Questions for CAT CAT Mock Test - 3 (New Pattern) (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this CAT Mock Test - 3 (New Pattern) quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. CAT students definitely take this CAT Mock Test - 3 (New Pattern) exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other CAT Mock Test - 3 (New Pattern) extra questions, long questions & short questions for CAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

The plain man finds himself in a world of physical things and of minds, and it seems to him that his experience directly testifies to the existence of both. This means that the things of which he has experience appear to belong to two distinct classes. It does not mean, of course, that he has only two kinds of experiences. The phenomena which are revealed to us are indefinitely varied; all physical phenomena are not just alike, and all mental phenomena are not just alike.
Nevertheless, amid all the bewildering variety that forces itself upon our attention, there stands out one broad distinction, that of the physical and the mental. It is a distinction that the man who has done no reading in the philosophers is scarcely tempted to obliterate; to him the world consists of two kinds of things widely different from each other; minds are not material things and material things are not minds. We are justified in regarding this as the opinion of the plain man even when we recognize that, in his endeavor to make clear to himself what he means by minds, he sometimes speaks as though he were talking about something material or semi-material.
Now, the materialist allows these two classes to run together; so does the idealist. The one says that everything is matter; the other, that everything is mind. It would be foolish to maintain that nothing can be said for either doctrine, for men of ability have embraced each. But one may at least say that both seem to be refuted by our common experience of the world, an experience which, so far as it is permitted to testify at all, lifts up its voice in favor of Dualism.
Dualism is sometimes defined as the doctrine that there are in the world two kinds of substances, matter and mind, which are different in kind and should be kept distinct. There are dualists who prefer to avoid the use of the word substance, and to say that the world of our experiences consists of physical phenomena and of mental phenomena, and that these two classes of facts should be kept separate. The dualist may maintain that we have a direct knowledge of matter and of mind, and he may content himself with such a statement, doing little to make clear what we mean by matter and by mind. In this case, his position is little different from that of the plain man who does not attempt to philosophize.

On the other hand, the dualist may attempt to make clear, through philosophical reflection, what we mean by the matter and mind which experience seems to give us. He may conclude:—­
(1) That he must hold that we perceive directly only physical and mental phenomena, but are justified in inferring that, since the phenomena are different, there must be two kinds of underlying substances to which the phenomena are referred. Thus, he may distinguish between the two substances and their manifestations, as some monists distinguish between the one substance and its manifestations.
(2) Or he may conclude that it is futile to search for substances or realities of any sort behind phenomena, arguing that such realities are never revealed in experience, and that no sound reason for their assumption can be adduced. In this case, he may try to make plain what mind and matter are, by simply analyzing our experiences of mind and matter and coming to a clearer comprehension of their nature.

Q. It can be inferred from the passage that some dualists avoid the term 'substance' as

Solution:

Dualism is sometimes defined as the doctrine that there are in the world two kinds of substances, matter and mind, which are different in kind and should be kept distinct.

There are dualists who prefer to avoid the use of the word substance, and to say that the world of our experiences consists of physical phenomena and of mental phenomena, and that these two classes of facts should be kept separate.

Remember, dualism recognizes mind and matter. The reason for avoiding a term such as substance is that it implies something physical and thereby misses the aspect of ''mind''.

QUESTION: 2

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

The plain man finds himself in a world of physical things and of minds, and it seems to him that his experience directly testifies to the existence of both. This means that the things of which he has experience appear to belong to two distinct classes. It does not mean, of course, that he has only two kinds of experiences. The phenomena which are revealed to us are indefinitely varied; all physical phenomena are not just alike, and all mental phenomena are not just alike.
Nevertheless, amid all the bewildering variety that forces itself upon our attention, there stands out one broad distinction, that of the physical and the mental. It is a distinction that the man who has done no reading in the philosophers is scarcely tempted to obliterate; to him the world consists of two kinds of things widely different from each other; minds are not material things and material things are not minds. We are justified in regarding this as the opinion of the plain man even when we recognize that, in his endeavor to make clear to himself what he means by minds, he sometimes speaks as though he were talking about something material or semi-material.
Now, the materialist allows these two classes to run together; so does the idealist. The one says that everything is matter; the other, that everything is mind. It would be foolish to maintain that nothing can be said for either doctrine, for men of ability have embraced each. But one may at least say that both seem to be refuted by our common experience of the world, an experience which, so far as it is permitted to testify at all, lifts up its voice in favor of Dualism.
Dualism is sometimes defined as the doctrine that there are in the world two kinds of substances, matter and mind, which are different in kind and should be kept distinct. There are dualists who prefer to avoid the use of the word substance, and to say that the world of our experiences consists of physical phenomena and of mental phenomena, and that these two classes of facts should be kept separate. The dualist may maintain that we have a direct knowledge of matter and of mind, and he may content himself with such a statement, doing little to make clear what we mean by matter and by mind. In this case, his position is little different from that of the plain man who does not attempt to philosophize.

On the other hand, the dualist may attempt to make clear, through philosophical reflection, what we mean by the matter and mind which experience seems to give us. He may conclude:—­
(1) That he must hold that we perceive directly only physical and mental phenomena, but are justified in inferring that, since the phenomena are different, there must be two kinds of underlying substances to which the phenomena are referred. Thus, he may distinguish between the two substances and their manifestations, as some monists distinguish between the one substance and its manifestations.
(2) Or he may conclude that it is futile to search for substances or realities of any sort behind phenomena, arguing that such realities are never revealed in experience, and that no sound reason for their assumption can be adduced. In this case, he may try to make plain what mind and matter are, by simply analyzing our experiences of mind and matter and coming to a clearer comprehension of their nature.

Q. The author of the passage:

Solution:

In the given case, the author of the passage describes the subject of dualism and highlights the various viewpoints for the same. He goes on to explain the viewpoints of the plain man and the dualists. All through the passage, he maintains an introductory tone in the passage and is concerned with explaining the basic tenets of dualism.
This makes option D the best answer in the given case.

QUESTION: 3

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

The plain man finds himself in a world of physical things and of minds, and it seems to him that his experience directly testifies to the existence of both. This means that the things of which he has experience appear to belong to two distinct classes. It does not mean, of course, that he has only two kinds of experiences. The phenomena which are revealed to us are indefinitely varied; all physical phenomena are not just alike, and all mental phenomena are not just alike.
Nevertheless, amid all the bewildering variety that forces itself upon our attention, there stands out one broad distinction, that of the physical and the mental. It is a distinction that the man who has done no reading in the philosophers is scarcely tempted to obliterate; to him the world consists of two kinds of things widely different from each other; minds are not material things and material things are not minds. We are justified in regarding this as the opinion of the plain man even when we recognize that, in his endeavor to make clear to himself what he means by minds, he sometimes speaks as though he were talking about something material or semi-material.
Now, the materialist allows these two classes to run together; so does the idealist. The one says that everything is matter; the other, that everything is mind. It would be foolish to maintain that nothing can be said for either doctrine, for men of ability have embraced each. But one may at least say that both seem to be refuted by our common experience of the world, an experience which, so far as it is permitted to testify at all, lifts up its voice in favor of Dualism.
Dualism is sometimes defined as the doctrine that there are in the world two kinds of substances, matter and mind, which are different in kind and should be kept distinct. There are dualists who prefer to avoid the use of the word substance, and to say that the world of our experiences consists of physical phenomena and of mental phenomena, and that these two classes of facts should be kept separate. The dualist may maintain that we have a direct knowledge of matter and of mind, and he may content himself with such a statement, doing little to make clear what we mean by matter and by mind. In this case, his position is little different from that of the plain man who does not attempt to philosophize.

On the other hand, the dualist may attempt to make clear, through philosophical reflection, what we mean by the matter and mind which experience seems to give us. He may conclude:—­
(1) That he must hold that we perceive directly only physical and mental phenomena, but are justified in inferring that, since the phenomena are different, there must be two kinds of underlying substances to which the phenomena are referred. Thus, he may distinguish between the two substances and their manifestations, as some monists distinguish between the one substance and its manifestations.
(2) Or he may conclude that it is futile to search for substances or realities of any sort behind phenomena, arguing that such realities are never revealed in experience, and that no sound reason for their assumption can be adduced. In this case, he may try to make plain what mind and matter are, by simply analyzing our experiences of mind and matter and coming to a clearer comprehension of their nature.

Q. The author of the passage implies that:

Solution:

The trick in this question is to know the meaning of the word disagreeable.
It means ''not agreeing with your tastes or expectations/not to your liking''.
On the other hand, disparate means '' Fundamentally different or distinct in quality or kind''.
Now refer to the lines: Now, the materialist allows these two classes to run together; so does the idealist.  The one says that everything is matter; the other, that everything is mind. It would be foolish to maintain that nothing can be said for either doctrine, for men of ability have embraced each. But one may at least say that both seem to be refuted by our common experience of the world, an experience which, so far as it is permitted to testify at all, lifts up its voice in favor of Dualism.
We can see that idealists and materialists have different viewpoints and keeping all of the above in mind.
Hence option C is the correct answer here.

QUESTION: 4

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

The plain man finds himself in a world of physical things and of minds, and it seems to him that his experience directly testifies to the existence of both. This means that the things of which he has experience appear to belong to two distinct classes. It does not mean, of course, that he has only two kinds of experiences. The phenomena which are revealed to us are indefinitely varied; all physical phenomena are not just alike, and all mental phenomena are not just alike.
Nevertheless, amid all the bewildering variety that forces itself upon our attention, there stands out one broad distinction, that of the physical and the mental. It is a distinction that the man who has done no reading in the philosophers is scarcely tempted to obliterate; to him the world consists of two kinds of things widely different from each other; minds are not material things and material things are not minds. We are justified in regarding this as the opinion of the plain man even when we recognize that, in his endeavor to make clear to himself what he means by minds, he sometimes speaks as though he were talking about something material or semi-material.
Now, the materialist allows these two classes to run together; so does the idealist. The one says that everything is matter; the other, that everything is mind. It would be foolish to maintain that nothing can be said for either doctrine, for men of ability have embraced each. But one may at least say that both seem to be refuted by our common experience of the world, an experience which, so far as it is permitted to testify at all, lifts up its voice in favor of Dualism.
Dualism is sometimes defined as the doctrine that there are in the world two kinds of substances, matter and mind, which are different in kind and should be kept distinct. There are dualists who prefer to avoid the use of the word substance, and to say that the world of our experiences consists of physical phenomena and of mental phenomena, and that these two classes of facts should be kept separate. The dualist may maintain that we have a direct knowledge of matter and of mind, and he may content himself with such a statement, doing little to make clear what we mean by matter and by mind. In this case, his position is little different from that of the plain man who does not attempt to philosophize.

On the other hand, the dualist may attempt to make clear, through philosophical reflection, what we mean by the matter and mind which experience seems to give us. He may conclude:—­
(1) That he must hold that we perceive directly only physical and mental phenomena, but are justified in inferring that, since the phenomena are different, there must be two kinds of underlying substances to which the phenomena are referred. Thus, he may distinguish between the two substances and their manifestations, as some monists distinguish between the one substance and its manifestations.
(2) Or he may conclude that it is futile to search for substances or realities of any sort behind phenomena, arguing that such realities are never revealed in experience, and that no sound reason for their assumption can be adduced. In this case, he may try to make plain what mind and matter are, by simply analyzing our experiences of mind and matter and coming to a clearer comprehension of their nature.

Q. The author is most likely to agree with the statement:

Solution:

Option C can be derived from the lines: We are justified in regarding this as the opinion of the plain man even when we recognize that, in his endeavor to make clear to himself what he means by minds, he sometimes speaks as though he were talking about something material or semi-material.
► Option A can be negated from the lines: The phenomena which are revealed to us are indefinitely varied; all physical phenomena are not just alike, and all mental phenomena are not just alike.
► Option B can be negated from the line: Now, the materialist allows these two classes to run together; so does the idealist.We can see that there is one common thread between the two.
 Option D can be negated from the lines: The dualist may maintain that we have a direct knowledge of matter and of mind, and he may content himself with such a statement, doing little to make clear what we mean by matter and by mind.  In this case, his position is little different from that of the plain man who does not attempt to philosophize.

QUESTION: 5

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

The plain man finds himself in a world of physical things and of minds, and it seems to him that his experience directly testifies to the existence of both. This means that the things of which he has experience appear to belong to two distinct classes. It does not mean, of course, that he has only two kinds of experiences. The phenomena which are revealed to us are indefinitely varied; all physical phenomena are not just alike, and all mental phenomena are not just alike.
Nevertheless, amid all the bewildering variety that forces itself upon our attention, there stands out one broad distinction, that of the physical and the mental. It is a distinction that the man who has done no reading in the philosophers is scarcely tempted to obliterate; to him the world consists of two kinds of things widely different from each other; minds are not material things and material things are not minds. We are justified in regarding this as the opinion of the plain man even when we recognize that, in his endeavor to make clear to himself what he means by minds, he sometimes speaks as though he were talking about something material or semi-material.
Now, the materialist allows these two classes to run together; so does the idealist. The one says that everything is matter; the other, that everything is mind. It would be foolish to maintain that nothing can be said for either doctrine, for men of ability have embraced each. But one may at least say that both seem to be refuted by our common experience of the world, an experience which, so far as it is permitted to testify at all, lifts up its voice in favor of Dualism.
Dualism is sometimes defined as the doctrine that there are in the world two kinds of substances, matter and mind, which are different in kind and should be kept distinct. There are dualists who prefer to avoid the use of the word substance, and to say that the world of our experiences consists of physical phenomena and of mental phenomena, and that these two classes of facts should be kept separate. The dualist may maintain that we have a direct knowledge of matter and of mind, and he may content himself with such a statement, doing little to make clear what we mean by matter and by mind. In this case, his position is little different from that of the plain man who does not attempt to philosophize.

On the other hand, the dualist may attempt to make clear, through philosophical reflection, what we mean by the matter and mind which experience seems to give us. He may conclude:—­
(1) That he must hold that we perceive directly only physical and mental phenomena, but are justified in inferring that, since the phenomena are different, there must be two kinds of underlying substances to which the phenomena are referred. Thus, he may distinguish between the two substances and their manifestations, as some monists distinguish between the one substance and its manifestations.
(2) Or he may conclude that it is futile to search for substances or realities of any sort behind phenomena, arguing that such realities are never revealed in experience, and that no sound reason for their assumption can be adduced. In this case, he may try to make plain what mind and matter are, by simply analyzing our experiences of mind and matter and coming to a clearer comprehension of their nature.

Q. It can be inferred from the passage that:

Solution:

► Option B can be inferred from the lines: The dualist may maintain that we have a direct knowledge of matter and of mind, and he may content himself with such a statement, doing little to make clear what we mean by matter and by mind. 
► Option A is incorrect as the author clearly states that the distinction can never be absolute.
► Option C is not implied in the passage.

QUESTION: 6

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

The plain man finds himself in a world of physical things and of minds, and it seems to him that his experience directly testifies to the existence of both. This means that the things of which he has experience appear to belong to two distinct classes. It does not mean, of course, that he has only two kinds of experiences. The phenomena which are revealed to us are indefinitely varied; all physical phenomena are not just alike, and all mental phenomena are not just alike.
Nevertheless, amid all the bewildering variety that forces itself upon our attention, there stands out one broad distinction, that of the physical and the mental. It is a distinction that the man who has done no reading in the philosophers is scarcely tempted to obliterate; to him the world consists of two kinds of things widely different from each other; minds are not material things and material things are not minds. We are justified in regarding this as the opinion of the plain man even when we recognize that, in his endeavor to make clear to himself what he means by minds, he sometimes speaks as though he were talking about something material or semi-material.
Now, the materialist allows these two classes to run together; so does the idealist. The one says that everything is matter; the other, that everything is mind. It would be foolish to maintain that nothing can be said for either doctrine, for men of ability have embraced each. But one may at least say that both seem to be refuted by our common experience of the world, an experience which, so far as it is permitted to testify at all, lifts up its voice in favor of Dualism.
Dualism is sometimes defined as the doctrine that there are in the world two kinds of substances, matter and mind, which are different in kind and should be kept distinct. There are dualists who prefer to avoid the use of the word substance, and to say that the world of our experiences consists of physical phenomena and of mental phenomena, and that these two classes of facts should be kept separate. The dualist may maintain that we have a direct knowledge of matter and of mind, and he may content himself with such a statement, doing little to make clear what we mean by matter and by mind. In this case, his position is little different from that of the plain man who does not attempt to philosophize.

On the other hand, the dualist may attempt to make clear, through philosophical reflection, what we mean by the matter and mind which experience seems to give us. He may conclude:—­
(1) That he must hold that we perceive directly only physical and mental phenomena, but are justified in inferring that, since the phenomena are different, there must be two kinds of underlying substances to which the phenomena are referred. Thus, he may distinguish between the two substances and their manifestations, as some monists distinguish between the one substance and its manifestations.
(2) Or he may conclude that it is futile to search for substances or realities of any sort behind phenomena, arguing that such realities are never revealed in experience, and that no sound reason for their assumption can be adduced. In this case, he may try to make plain what mind and matter are, by simply analyzing our experiences of mind and matter and coming to a clearer comprehension of their nature.

Q. According to the author of the passage:

Solution:

This is an easy question placed right at the end of the passage. The answer for this question can be directly derived from the last two paragraphs of the passage.
These two points given at the end represent options A and B.

QUESTION: 7

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
It is well to remind ourselves, from time to time, that "Ethics" is but another word for "righteousness," that for which many men and women of every generation have hungered and thirsted, and without which life becomes meaningless.
Certain forms of personal righteousness have become to a majority of the community almost automatic. It is as easy for most of us to keep from stealing our dinners as it is to digest them, and there is quite as much voluntary morality involved in one process as in the other. To steal would be for us to fall sadly below the standard of habit and expectation which makes virtue easy. In the same way we have been carefully reared to a sense of family obligation, to be kindly and considerate to the members of our own households, and to feel responsible for their well-being. As the rules of conduct have become established in regard to our self-development and our families, so they have been in regard to limited circles of friends. If the fulfillment of these claims were all that a righteous life required, the hunger and thirst would be stilled for many good men and women, and the clew of right living would lie easily in their hands.
But we all know that each generation has its own test, the contemporaneous and current standard by which alone it can adequately judge of its own moral achievements, and that it may not legitimately use a previous and less vigorous test. The advanced test must indeed include that which has already been attained; but if it includes no more, we shall fail to go forward, thinking complacently that we have "arrived" when in reality we have not yet started.
To attain individual morality in an age demanding social morality, to pride one's self on the results of personal effort when the time demands social adjustment, is utterly to fail to apprehend the situation. It is perhaps significant that a German critic has of late reminded us that the one test which the most authoritative and dramatic portrayal of the Day of Judgment offers, is the social test. The stern questions are not in regard to personal and family relations, but did ye visit the poor, the criminal, the sick, and did ye feed the hungry?
All about us are men and women who have become unhappy in regard to their attitude toward the social order itself; toward the dreary round of uninteresting work, the pleasures narrowed down to those of appetite, the declining consciousness of brain power, and the lack of mental food which characterizes the lot of the large proportion of their fellow-citizens. These men and women have caught a moral challenge raised by the exigencies of contemporaneous life; some are bewildered, others who are denied the relief which sturdy action brings are even seeking an escape, but all are increasingly anxious concerning their actual relations to the basic organization of society.

Q. All of the following can be inferred from the passage about the test for moral achievements for each generation (as suggested by the author) except:

Solution:

Refer to the lines in 3rd paragraph: But we all know that each generation has its own test, the contemporaneous and current standard by which alone it can adequately judge of its own moral achievements, and that it may not legitimately use a previous and less vigorous test.

The author of the passage clearly suggests a sterner test for the next generation. Also, this means that the test for the next generation changes from the one for the previous one. These two points mean that options 1, 2 and 4 are correct.

Option 3 is the only option that effectively states that the test for the current generation should easier than the previous one. (Do not forget to spot the ''except'' in the question).

QUESTION: 8

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
It is well to remind ourselves, from time to time, that "Ethics" is but another word for "righteousness," that for which many men and women of every generation have hungered and thirsted, and without which life becomes meaningless.
Certain forms of personal righteousness have become to a majority of the community almost automatic. It is as easy for most of us to keep from stealing our dinners as it is to digest them, and there is quite as much voluntary morality involved in one process as in the other. To steal would be for us to fall sadly below the standard of habit and expectation which makes virtue easy. In the same way we have been carefully reared to a sense of family obligation, to be kindly and considerate to the members of our own households, and to feel responsible for their well-being. As the rules of conduct have become established in regard to our self-development and our families, so they have been in regard to limited circles of friends. If the fulfillment of these claims were all that a righteous life required, the hunger and thirst would be stilled for many good men and women, and the clew of right living would lie easily in their hands.
But we all know that each generation has its own test, the contemporaneous and current standard by which alone it can adequately judge of its own moral achievements, and that it may not legitimately use a previous and less vigorous test. The advanced test must indeed include that which has already been attained; but if it includes no more, we shall fail to go forward, thinking complacently that we have "arrived" when in reality we have not yet started.
To attain individual morality in an age demanding social morality, to pride one's self on the results of personal effort when the time demands social adjustment, is utterly to fail to apprehend the situation. It is perhaps significant that a German critic has of late reminded us that the one test which the most authoritative and dramatic portrayal of the Day of Judgment offers, is the social test. The stern questions are not in regard to personal and family relations, but did ye visit the poor, the criminal, the sick, and did ye feed the hungry?
All about us are men and women who have become unhappy in regard to their attitude toward the social order itself; toward the dreary round of uninteresting work, the pleasures narrowed down to those of appetite, the declining consciousness of brain power, and the lack of mental food which characterizes the lot of the large proportion of their fellow-citizens. These men and women have caught a moral challenge raised by the exigencies of contemporaneous life; some are bewildered, others who are denied the relief which sturdy action brings are even seeking an escape, but all are increasingly anxious concerning their actual relations to the basic organization of society.

Q. Paraphrase the following extract from the passage: exigencies of contemporaneous life.

Solution:

The first step to identify the correct answer is to know the meanings of the words exigencies and contemporaneous.

► Exigencies means an urgent need or demand.

► Contemporaneous is derived from contemporary and it means ''existing at or occurring in the same period of time''.

Adding the two up, the meaning of the phrase can be identified as: urgent needs or demands of the present time

QUESTION: 9

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
It is well to remind ourselves, from time to time, that "Ethics" is but another word for "righteousness," that for which many men and women of every generation have hungered and thirsted, and without which life becomes meaningless.
Certain forms of personal righteousness have become to a majority of the community almost automatic. It is as easy for most of us to keep from stealing our dinners as it is to digest them, and there is quite as much voluntary morality involved in one process as in the other. To steal would be for us to fall sadly below the standard of habit and expectation which makes virtue easy. In the same way we have been carefully reared to a sense of family obligation, to be kindly and considerate to the members of our own households, and to feel responsible for their well-being. As the rules of conduct have become established in regard to our self-development and our families, so they have been in regard to limited circles of friends. If the fulfillment of these claims were all that a righteous life required, the hunger and thirst would be stilled for many good men and women, and the clew of right living would lie easily in their hands.
But we all know that each generation has its own test, the contemporaneous and current standard by which alone it can adequately judge of its own moral achievements, and that it may not legitimately use a previous and less vigorous test. The advanced test must indeed include that which has already been attained; but if it includes no more, we shall fail to go forward, thinking complacently that we have "arrived" when in reality we have not yet started.
To attain individual morality in an age demanding social morality, to pride one's self on the results of personal effort when the time demands social adjustment, is utterly to fail to apprehend the situation. It is perhaps significant that a German critic has of late reminded us that the one test which the most authoritative and dramatic portrayal of the Day of Judgment offers, is the social test. The stern questions are not in regard to personal and family relations, but did ye visit the poor, the criminal, the sick, and did ye feed the hungry?
All about us are men and women who have become unhappy in regard to their attitude toward the social order itself; toward the dreary round of uninteresting work, the pleasures narrowed down to those of appetite, the declining consciousness of brain power, and the lack of mental food which characterizes the lot of the large proportion of their fellow-citizens. These men and women have caught a moral challenge raised by the exigencies of contemporaneous life; some are bewildered, others who are denied the relief which sturdy action brings are even seeking an escape, but all are increasingly anxious concerning their actual relations to the basic organization of society.

Q. According to the author of the passage, the portrayal of the Day of Judgment offers:

Solution:

In order to identify the right answer for the given question, read the portions in bold from the 4th paragraph of the passage: It is perhaps significant that a German critic has of late reminded us that the one test which the most authoritative and dramatic portrayal of the Day of Judgment offers, is the social test.

The stern questions are not in regard to personal and family relations, but did ye visit the poor, the criminal, the sick, and did ye feed the hungry?

Effectively, the Day of Judgment is a authoritative and dramatic portrayal of the social test. Which option mimics this sentiment best?

► Option 3 is the one which is closest to this particular meaning.

QUESTION: 10

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
It is well to remind ourselves, from time to time, that "Ethics" is but another word for "righteousness," that for which many men and women of every generation have hungered and thirsted, and without which life becomes meaningless.
Certain forms of personal righteousness have become to a majority of the community almost automatic. It is as easy for most of us to keep from stealing our dinners as it is to digest them, and there is quite as much voluntary morality involved in one process as in the other. To steal would be for us to fall sadly below the standard of habit and expectation which makes virtue easy. In the same way we have been carefully reared to a sense of family obligation, to be kindly and considerate to the members of our own households, and to feel responsible for their well-being. As the rules of conduct have become established in regard to our self-development and our families, so they have been in regard to limited circles of friends. If the fulfillment of these claims were all that a righteous life required, the hunger and thirst would be stilled for many good men and women, and the clew of right living would lie easily in their hands.
But we all know that each generation has its own test, the contemporaneous and current standard by which alone it can adequately judge of its own moral achievements, and that it may not legitimately use a previous and less vigorous test. The advanced test must indeed include that which has already been attained; but if it includes no more, we shall fail to go forward, thinking complacently that we have "arrived" when in reality we have not yet started.
To attain individual morality in an age demanding social morality, to pride one's self on the results of personal effort when the time demands social adjustment, is utterly to fail to apprehend the situation. It is perhaps significant that a German critic has of late reminded us that the one test which the most authoritative and dramatic portrayal of the Day of Judgment offers, is the social test. The stern questions are not in regard to personal and family relations, but did ye visit the poor, the criminal, the sick, and did ye feed the hungry?
All about us are men and women who have become unhappy in regard to their attitude toward the social order itself; toward the dreary round of uninteresting work, the pleasures narrowed down to those of appetite, the declining consciousness of brain power, and the lack of mental food which characterizes the lot of the large proportion of their fellow-citizens. These men and women have caught a moral challenge raised by the exigencies of contemporaneous life; some are bewildered, others who are denied the relief which sturdy action brings are even seeking an escape, but all are increasingly anxious concerning their actual relations to the basic organization of society.

Q. The author of the passage would agree with how many of the following statements:
I. Rules of conduct with regard to our own selves, our families and our friends have been established.
II. Individual morality in age which demands social morality does not suffice.
III. All of us have become unhappy in regard to the attitudes towards the social order.
IV. Adhering to moral principles and righteous living are some things that every generation craves for.

Solution:

► Statement I can be derived from the lines: As the rules of conduct have become established in regard to our self-development and our families, so they have been in regard to limited circles of friends.
 Statement II can be derived from the lines: To attain individual morality in an age demanding social morality, to pride one''s self on the results of personal effort when the time demands social adjustment, is utterly to fail to apprehend the situation.
► Statement III is incorrect: All about us are men and women who have become unhappy in regard to their attitude toward the social order itself; toward the dreary round of uninteresting work, the pleasures narrowed down to those of appetite, the declining consciousness of brain power, and the lack of mental food which characterizes the lot of the large proportion of their fellow-citizens. The passage states ''all about us'' and not ''all of us''.
► Statement IV can be derived from the lines: It is well to remind ourselves, from time to time, that "Ethics" is but another word for "righteousness," that for which many men and women of every generation have hungered and thirsted, and without which life becomes meaningless.
Thus, the author will agree with 3 of the statements.

QUESTION: 11

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
Because technology begets more technology, the importance of an invention's diffusion potentially exceeds the importance of the original invention. Technology's history xemplifies what is termed an autocatalytic process: that is, one that speeds up at a rate that increases with time, because the process catalyzes itself.
One reason why technology tends to catalyze itself is that advances depend upon previous mastery of simpler problems. For example, Stone Age farmers did not proceed directly to extracting and working iron, which requires high-temperature furnaces. Instead, iron ore metallurgy grew out of thousands of years of human experience with natural outcrops of pure metals soft enough to be hammered into shape without heat (copper and gold). It also grew out of thousands of years of development of simple furnaces to make pottery, and then to extract copper ores and work copper alloys (bronzes) that do not require as high temperatures as does iron.
The other main reason for autocatalysis is that new technologies and materials make it possible to generate still other new technologies by recombination. For instance, why did printing spread explosively in medieval Europe after Gutenberg printed his Bible in A.D. 1455, but not after that unknown printer printed the Phaistos disk in 1700 B.C.? The explanation is partly that medieval European printers were able to combine six technological advances, most of which were unavailable to the maker of  the Phaistos disk. Of those advances — in paper, movable type, metallurgy, presses, inks, and scripts — paper and the idea of movable type reached Europe from China. Gutenberg's development of typecasting from metal dies, to overcome the potentially fatal problem of non-uniform type size, depended on many metallurgical developments: steel for letter punches, brass or bronze alloys (later replaced by steel) for dies, lead for molds, and a tin-zinc-lead alloy for type. Gutenberg's press was derived from screw presses in use for making wine and olive oil, while his ink was an oil-based improvement on existing inks. The alphabetic scripts that medieval Europe inherited from three millennia of alphabet development lent themselves to printing with movable type, because only a few dozen letter forms had to be cast, as opposed to the thousands of signs required for Chinese writing.
In all six respects, the maker of the Phaistos disk had access to much less powerful technologies to combine into a printing system than did Gutenberg. The disk's writing medium was clay, which is much bulkier and heavier than paper. The metallurgical skills, inks, and presses of 1700 B.C. Crete were more primitive than those of A.D. 1455 Germany, so the disk had to be punched by hand rather than by cast movable type locked into a metal frame, inked, and pressed. In addition to all those technological drawbacks, the Phaistos disk was printed at a time when knowledge of writing was confined to a few palace or temple scribes. Hence there was little demand for the disk maker's beautiful product, and little incentive to invest in making the dozens of hand punches required.

Q. All of the following were the reasons why printing spread during Gutenberg’s time than Phaistos time EXCEPT

Solution:

► Option 1 - The writing was known to only a few scribes. Hence incorrect.
All the other are mentioned in the passage.

 Option 2 - The metallurgical skills, inks, and presses of 1700 B.C. Crete were more primitive than those of A.D. 1455 Germany. Of those advances — in paper, movable type, metallurgy, presses, inks, and scripts — paper and the idea of movable type reached Europe from China. Gutenberg''s development of typecasting from metal dies, to overcome the potentially fatal problem of non-uniform type size, depended on many metallurgical developments.

► Option 3 - The metallurgical skills, inks, and presses of 1700 B.C. Crete were more primitive than those of A.D. 1455 Germany, so the disk had to be punched by hand rather than by cast movable type locked into a metal frame, inked, and pressed.

► Option 4 - The metallurgical skills, inks, and presses of 1700 B.C. Crete were more primitive than those of A.D. 1455 Germany.

QUESTION: 12

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
Because technology begets more technology, the importance of an invention's diffusion potentially exceeds the importance of the original invention. Technology's history xemplifies what is termed an autocatalytic process: that is, one that speeds up at a rate that increases with time, because the process catalyzes itself.
One reason why technology tends to catalyze itself is that advances depend upon previous mastery of simpler problems. For example, Stone Age farmers did not proceed directly to extracting and working iron, which requires high-temperature furnaces. Instead, iron ore metallurgy grew out of thousands of years of human experience with natural outcrops of pure metals soft enough to be hammered into shape without heat (copper and gold). It also grew out of thousands of years of development of simple furnaces to make pottery, and then to extract copper ores and work copper alloys (bronzes) that do not require as high temperatures as does iron.
The other main reason for autocatalysis is that new technologies and materials make it possible to generate still other new technologies by recombination. For instance, why did printing spread explosively in medieval Europe after Gutenberg printed his Bible in A.D. 1455, but not after that unknown printer printed the Phaistos disk in 1700 B.C.? The explanation is partly that medieval European printers were able to combine six technological advances, most of which were unavailable to the maker of  the Phaistos disk. Of those advances — in paper, movable type, metallurgy, presses, inks, and scripts — paper and the idea of movable type reached Europe from China. Gutenberg's development of typecasting from metal dies, to overcome the potentially fatal problem of non-uniform type size, depended on many metallurgical developments: steel for letter punches, brass or bronze alloys (later replaced by steel) for dies, lead for molds, and a tin-zinc-lead alloy for type. Gutenberg's press was derived from screw presses in use for making wine and olive oil, while his ink was an oil-based improvement on existing inks. The alphabetic scripts that medieval Europe inherited from three millennia of alphabet development lent themselves to printing with movable type, because only a few dozen letter forms had to be cast, as opposed to the thousands of signs required for Chinese writing.
In all six respects, the maker of the Phaistos disk had access to much less powerful technologies to combine into a printing system than did Gutenberg. The disk's writing medium was clay, which is much bulkier and heavier than paper. The metallurgical skills, inks, and presses of 1700 B.C. Crete were more primitive than those of A.D. 1455 Germany, so the disk had to be punched by hand rather than by cast movable type locked into a metal frame, inked, and pressed. In addition to all those technological drawbacks, the Phaistos disk was printed at a time when knowledge of writing was confined to a few palace or temple scribes. Hence there was little demand for the disk maker's beautiful product, and little incentive to invest in making the dozens of hand punches required.

Q. Why did people take so long to start extracting iron ore?

Solution:

► Option 2 – The passage states that the Stone Age farmer first worked with naturally available materials and then moved to working with materials that required simple furnaces and then to iron which required high temperature furnaces.

► Option 1 – We cannot understand whether they know iron ore or not.

► Option 3 – There is no mention of perfection in the paragraph.

Option 4 – This is not true because then later on too they would not have moved to iron extraction.

QUESTION: 13

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
Because technology begets more technology, the importance of an invention's diffusion potentially exceeds the importance of the original invention. Technology's history xemplifies what is termed an autocatalytic process: that is, one that speeds up at a rate that increases with time, because the process catalyzes itself.
One reason why technology tends to catalyze itself is that advances depend upon previous mastery of simpler problems. For example, Stone Age farmers did not proceed directly to extracting and working iron, which requires high-temperature furnaces. Instead, iron ore metallurgy grew out of thousands of years of human experience with natural outcrops of pure metals soft enough to be hammered into shape without heat (copper and gold). It also grew out of thousands of years of development of simple furnaces to make pottery, and then to extract copper ores and work copper alloys (bronzes) that do not require as high temperatures as does iron.
The other main reason for autocatalysis is that new technologies and materials make it possible to generate still other new technologies by recombination. For instance, why did printing spread explosively in medieval Europe after Gutenberg printed his Bible in A.D. 1455, but not after that unknown printer printed the Phaistos disk in 1700 B.C.? The explanation is partly that medieval European printers were able to combine six technological advances, most of which were unavailable to the maker of  the Phaistos disk. Of those advances — in paper, movable type, metallurgy, presses, inks, and scripts — paper and the idea of movable type reached Europe from China. Gutenberg's development of typecasting from metal dies, to overcome the potentially fatal problem of non-uniform type size, depended on many metallurgical developments: steel for letter punches, brass or bronze alloys (later replaced by steel) for dies, lead for molds, and a tin-zinc-lead alloy for type. Gutenberg's press was derived from screw presses in use for making wine and olive oil, while his ink was an oil-based improvement on existing inks. The alphabetic scripts that medieval Europe inherited from three millennia of alphabet development lent themselves to printing with movable type, because only a few dozen letter forms had to be cast, as opposed to the thousands of signs required for Chinese writing.
In all six respects, the maker of the Phaistos disk had access to much less powerful technologies to combine into a printing system than did Gutenberg. The disk's writing medium was clay, which is much bulkier and heavier than paper. The metallurgical skills, inks, and presses of 1700 B.C. Crete were more primitive than those of A.D. 1455 Germany, so the disk had to be punched by hand rather than by cast movable type locked into a metal frame, inked, and pressed. In addition to all those technological drawbacks, the Phaistos disk was printed at a time when knowledge of writing was confined to a few palace or temple scribes. Hence there was little demand for the disk maker's beautiful product, and little incentive to invest in making the dozens of hand punches required.

Q. According to the passage all of the following are not true, except

Solution:

► Option 4 - The six technology aspects which were unavailable to Phaistos– paper, movable type, metallurgy, presses, inks, and scripts. In the last para, it is stated that knowledge of writing was confined to few people.

► Option 1 – Few dozen letters made movable type printing possible

► Option 2 – There is no mention of this in the passage.

Option 3 – Later technologies did not make the original technologies redundant, rather the later technologies were built from earlier ones, with the later ones gaining more importance not outplacing them.

QUESTION: 14

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
Because technology begets more technology, the importance of an invention's diffusion potentially exceeds the importance of the original invention. Technology's history xemplifies what is termed an autocatalytic process: that is, one that speeds up at a rate that increases with time, because the process catalyzes itself.
One reason why technology tends to catalyze itself is that advances depend upon previous mastery of simpler problems. For example, Stone Age farmers did not proceed directly to extracting and working iron, which requires high-temperature furnaces. Instead, iron ore metallurgy grew out of thousands of years of human experience with natural outcrops of pure metals soft enough to be hammered into shape without heat (copper and gold). It also grew out of thousands of years of development of simple furnaces to make pottery, and then to extract copper ores and work copper alloys (bronzes) that do not require as high temperatures as does iron.
The other main reason for autocatalysis is that new technologies and materials make it possible to generate still other new technologies by recombination. For instance, why did printing spread explosively in medieval Europe after Gutenberg printed his Bible in A.D. 1455, but not after that unknown printer printed the Phaistos disk in 1700 B.C.? The explanation is partly that medieval European printers were able to combine six technological advances, most of which were unavailable to the maker of  the Phaistos disk. Of those advances — in paper, movable type, metallurgy, presses, inks, and scripts — paper and the idea of movable type reached Europe from China. Gutenberg's development of typecasting from metal dies, to overcome the potentially fatal problem of non-uniform type size, depended on many metallurgical developments: steel for letter punches, brass or bronze alloys (later replaced by steel) for dies, lead for molds, and a tin-zinc-lead alloy for type. Gutenberg's press was derived from screw presses in use for making wine and olive oil, while his ink was an oil-based improvement on existing inks. The alphabetic scripts that medieval Europe inherited from three millennia of alphabet development lent themselves to printing with movable type, because only a few dozen letter forms had to be cast, as opposed to the thousands of signs required for Chinese writing.
In all six respects, the maker of the Phaistos disk had access to much less powerful technologies to combine into a printing system than did Gutenberg. The disk's writing medium was clay, which is much bulkier and heavier than paper. The metallurgical skills, inks, and presses of 1700 B.C. Crete were more primitive than those of A.D. 1455 Germany, so the disk had to be punched by hand rather than by cast movable type locked into a metal frame, inked, and pressed. In addition to all those technological drawbacks, the Phaistos disk was printed at a time when knowledge of writing was confined to a few palace or temple scribes. Hence there was little demand for the disk maker's beautiful product, and little incentive to invest in making the dozens of hand punches required.

Q. Which of the following is not be an example of autocatalytic process as understood from the passage?

Solution:

► Option 4: Television – Here technology transformed itself into a stable one not leading to anything further. Here even if we didn’t know about the others, we could come to the answer. As we are told that a autocatalytic process is one that speeds up at a rate that increases with time, because the process catalyzes itself. We definitely know that television has not given rise to anything else.
► Options 1, 2 and 3:
For a detailed explanation of the other three: Computers, Biotechnology and Nanotech don't work that way.
They are self-accelerating; that is, the products of their own processes enable them to develop ever more rapidly. New computer chips are immediately put to use developing the next generation of more powerful ones; this is the inexorable acceleration expressed as Moore's law. The same dynamic drives biotech and nanotech--even more so because all these technologies tend to accelerate one another. Computers are rapidly mapping the DNA in the human genome, and now DNA is being explored as a medium for computation.
When nanobots are finally perfected, you can be sure that one of the first things they will do is make new and better nanobots.

QUESTION: 15

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Whatever forces may govern human life, if they are to be recognized by man, must betray them in human experience. There is unfortunately no school of modern philosophy to which a critique of human progress can well be attached. Progress in science or religion, no less than in morals and art, is a dramatic episode in man's career, a welcome variation in his habit and state of mind; although this variation may often regard or propitiate things external, adjustment to which may be important for his welfare. The importance of these external things, as well as their existence, he can establish only by the function and utility which recognition of them may have in his life. What themes would prevail in such an examination of heart? 
A philosopher could hardly have a higher ambition than to make himself a mouth-piece for the memory and judgment of his race. Yet the most casual consideration of affairs already involves an attempt to do the same thing. Reflection is pregnant from the beginning with all the principles of synthesis and valuation needed in the most comprehensive criticism. So soon as man ceases to be wholly immersed in sense, he looks before and after, he regrets and desires; and the moments in which prospect or retrospect takes place constitute the reflective or representative part of his life, in contrast to the unmitigated flux of sensations in which nothing ulterior is regarded.
Representation, however, can hardly remain idle and merely speculative. To the ideal function of envisaging the absent, memory and reflection will add the practical function of modifying the future. Vital impulse, however, when it is modified by reflection and veers in sympathy with judgments pronounced on the past, is properly called reason. Man's rational life consists in those moments in which reflection not only occurs but proves efficacious. What is absent then works in the present, and values are imputed where they cannot be felt. Such representation is so far from being merely speculative that its presence alone can raise bodily change to the dignity of action.
The limits of reflection mark those of concerted and rational action; they circumscribe the field of cumulative experience, or, what is the same thing, of profitable living. Thus if we use that life of reason in operations, then Life of Reason  will then be a name for that part of experience which perceives and pursues ideals all conduct so controlled and all sense so interpreted as to perfect natural happiness. Without reason, as without memory, there might still be pleasures and pains in existence. To increase those pleasures and reduce those pains would be to introduce an improvement into the sentient world, as if a devil suddenly died in hell or in heaven a new angel were created. In human progress, therefore, reason is not a casual instrument, having its sole value in its service to sense; such a betterment in sentience would not be progress unless it were a progress in reason, and the increasing pleasure revealed some object that could please; for without a picture of the situation from which a heightened vitality might flow, the improvement could be neither remembered nor measured nor desired.
To recount man's rational moments would be to take an inventory of all his goods; for he is not himself (as we say with unconscious accuracy) in the others. If he ever appropriates them in recollection or prophecy, it is only on the ground of some physical relation which they may have to his being. Reason and humanity begin with the union of instinct and ideation, when instinct becomes enlightened, establishes values in its objects, and is turned from a process into an art, while at the same time consciousness becomes practical and cognitive, beginning to contain some symbol or record of the co-ordinate realities among which it arises. All reflection would then be applicable in action and all action fruitful in happiness. Though this be an ideal, yet everyone gives it from time to time a partial embodiment when he practises useful arts, when his passions happily lead him to enlightenment, or when his fancy breeds visions pertinent to his ultimate good.
Excerpted from 'The life of  Reason'' by George Santayana

Q. What is the importance of Reflection as per the context of the passage?

Solution:

► Option 1: After reading the lines ‘Reflection is pregnant from the beginning with all the principles of synthesis and valuation needed in the most comprehensive criticism speculative. To the ideal function of envisaging the absent, memory and reflection will add the practical function of modifying the future’’ it is clear that ‘reflection’ helps us to understand the life better and also helps in making life purposeful; it has an element of improving the future.

► Option 2 is rejected as ‘reflection’ does more than speculation as one’s starts reflecting on his or her life , one can improve one’s life and it is clear from the lines ‘Such representation is so far from being merely speculative that its presence alone can raise bodily change to the dignity of action. The limits of reflection mark those of concerted and rational action; they circumscribe the field of cumulative experience, or, what is the same thing, of profitable living’.

► Option 3 is rejected as this is true for reasoning, not reflection. Reflection is really a process that begins with looking back on a situation, pondering over it, learning from it and then using the new knowledge to help you in future similar situations.

► Option 4 is out of scope.

QUESTION: 16

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Whatever forces may govern human life, if they are to be recognized by man, must betray them in human experience. There is unfortunately no school of modern philosophy to which a critique of human progress can well be attached. Progress in science or religion, no less than in morals and art, is a dramatic episode in man's career, a welcome variation in his habit and state of mind; although this variation may often regard or propitiate things external, adjustment to which may be important for his welfare. The importance of these external things, as well as their existence, he can establish only by the function and utility which recognition of them may have in his life. What themes would prevail in such an examination of heart? 
A philosopher could hardly have a higher ambition than to make himself a mouth-piece for the memory and judgment of his race. Yet the most casual consideration of affairs already involves an attempt to do the same thing. Reflection is pregnant from the beginning with all the principles of synthesis and valuation needed in the most comprehensive criticism. So soon as man ceases to be wholly immersed in sense, he looks before and after, he regrets and desires; and the moments in which prospect or retrospect takes place constitute the reflective or representative part of his life, in contrast to the unmitigated flux of sensations in which nothing ulterior is regarded.
Representation, however, can hardly remain idle and merely speculative. To the ideal function of envisaging the absent, memory and reflection will add the practical function of modifying the future. Vital impulse, however, when it is modified by reflection and veers in sympathy with judgments pronounced on the past, is properly called reason. Man's rational life consists in those moments in which reflection not only occurs but proves efficacious. What is absent then works in the present, and values are imputed where they cannot be felt. Such representation is so far from being merely speculative that its presence alone can raise bodily change to the dignity of action.
The limits of reflection mark those of concerted and rational action; they circumscribe the field of cumulative experience, or, what is the same thing, of profitable living. Thus if we use that life of reason in operations, then Life of Reason  will then be a name for that part of experience which perceives and pursues ideals all conduct so controlled and all sense so interpreted as to perfect natural happiness. Without reason, as without memory, there might still be pleasures and pains in existence. To increase those pleasures and reduce those pains would be to introduce an improvement into the sentient world, as if a devil suddenly died in hell or in heaven a new angel were created. In human progress, therefore, reason is not a casual instrument, having its sole value in its service to sense; such a betterment in sentience would not be progress unless it were a progress in reason, and the increasing pleasure revealed some object that could please; for without a picture of the situation from which a heightened vitality might flow, the improvement could be neither remembered nor measured nor desired.
To recount man's rational moments would be to take an inventory of all his goods; for he is not himself (as we say with unconscious accuracy) in the others. If he ever appropriates them in recollection or prophecy, it is only on the ground of some physical relation which they may have to his being. Reason and humanity begin with the union of instinct and ideation, when instinct becomes enlightened, establishes values in its objects, and is turned from a process into an art, while at the same time consciousness becomes practical and cognitive, beginning to contain some symbol or record of the co-ordinate realities among which it arises. All reflection would then be applicable in action and all action fruitful in happiness. Though this be an ideal, yet everyone gives it from time to time a partial embodiment when he practises useful arts, when his passions happily lead him to enlightenment, or when his fancy breeds visions pertinent to his ultimate good.
Excerpted from 'The life of  Reason'' by George Santayana

Q. All the following can be called progress, except:

Solution:

► Option A is true as per the lines ‘To increase those pleasures and reduce those pains would be to introduce an improvement into the sentient world’.

► Option B is correct as per the lines ‘Thus if we use that life of reason in operations, then Life of Reason will then be a name for that part of experience --all conduct so controlled and all sense so interpreted as to perfect natural happiness.  Without reason, as without …created’ progress, which is the life of reason, helps us to realize the ways to handle pains and pleasures of life judiciously.

► Option C is correct as it is the essence of the passage.

► Option D – Progress has an action element in it – it is not merely speculation. Also we can have progress in the spiritual sense of the word.

QUESTION: 17

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Whatever forces may govern human life, if they are to be recognized by man, must betray them in human experience. There is unfortunately no school of modern philosophy to which a critique of human progress can well be attached. Progress in science or religion, no less than in morals and art, is a dramatic episode in man's career, a welcome variation in his habit and state of mind; although this variation may often regard or propitiate things external, adjustment to which may be important for his welfare. The importance of these external things, as well as their existence, he can establish only by the function and utility which recognition of them may have in his life. What themes would prevail in such an examination of heart? 
A philosopher could hardly have a higher ambition than to make himself a mouth-piece for the memory and judgment of his race. Yet the most casual consideration of affairs already involves an attempt to do the same thing. Reflection is pregnant from the beginning with all the principles of synthesis and valuation needed in the most comprehensive criticism. So soon as man ceases to be wholly immersed in sense, he looks before and after, he regrets and desires; and the moments in which prospect or retrospect takes place constitute the reflective or representative part of his life, in contrast to the unmitigated flux of sensations in which nothing ulterior is regarded.
Representation, however, can hardly remain idle and merely speculative. To the ideal function of envisaging the absent, memory and reflection will add the practical function of modifying the future. Vital impulse, however, when it is modified by reflection and veers in sympathy with judgments pronounced on the past, is properly called reason. Man's rational life consists in those moments in which reflection not only occurs but proves efficacious. What is absent then works in the present, and values are imputed where they cannot be felt. Such representation is so far from being merely speculative that its presence alone can raise bodily change to the dignity of action.
The limits of reflection mark those of concerted and rational action; they circumscribe the field of cumulative experience, or, what is the same thing, of profitable living. Thus if we use that life of reason in operations, then Life of Reason  will then be a name for that part of experience which perceives and pursues ideals all conduct so controlled and all sense so interpreted as to perfect natural happiness. Without reason, as without memory, there might still be pleasures and pains in existence. To increase those pleasures and reduce those pains would be to introduce an improvement into the sentient world, as if a devil suddenly died in hell or in heaven a new angel were created. In human progress, therefore, reason is not a casual instrument, having its sole value in its service to sense; such a betterment in sentience would not be progress unless it were a progress in reason, and the increasing pleasure revealed some object that could please; for without a picture of the situation from which a heightened vitality might flow, the improvement could be neither remembered nor measured nor desired.
To recount man's rational moments would be to take an inventory of all his goods; for he is not himself (as we say with unconscious accuracy) in the others. If he ever appropriates them in recollection or prophecy, it is only on the ground of some physical relation which they may have to his being. Reason and humanity begin with the union of instinct and ideation, when instinct becomes enlightened, establishes values in its objects, and is turned from a process into an art, while at the same time consciousness becomes practical and cognitive, beginning to contain some symbol or record of the co-ordinate realities among which it arises. All reflection would then be applicable in action and all action fruitful in happiness. Though this be an ideal, yet everyone gives it from time to time a partial embodiment when he practises useful arts, when his passions happily lead him to enlightenment, or when his fancy breeds visions pertinent to his ultimate good.
Excerpted from 'The life of  Reason'' by George Santayana

Q. Each of the following could be the title of the passage, except:

Solution:

In the given case, options 2, 3 and 4 represent the general ideas contained in the passage, and are holistic answer options that cover the complete spectrum of information provided in the passage.

This extract is from a book called ‘The Life of Reason’, so 2 is in.

Since the connection is stronger with Reason, we pull 2 and 3 in.

1 is the odd man out – since it is lacking in ‘reason’. The passage does talk about progress, but not the phases of progress.

QUESTION: 18

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Whatever forces may govern human life, if they are to be recognized by man, must betray them in human experience. There is unfortunately no school of modern philosophy to which a critique of human progress can well be attached. Progress in science or religion, no less than in morals and art, is a dramatic episode in man's career, a welcome variation in his habit and state of mind; although this variation may often regard or propitiate things external, adjustment to which may be important for his welfare. The importance of these external things, as well as their existence, he can establish only by the function and utility which recognition of them may have in his life. What themes would prevail in such an examination of heart? 
A philosopher could hardly have a higher ambition than to make himself a mouth-piece for the memory and judgment of his race. Yet the most casual consideration of affairs already involves an attempt to do the same thing. Reflection is pregnant from the beginning with all the principles of synthesis and valuation needed in the most comprehensive criticism. So soon as man ceases to be wholly immersed in sense, he looks before and after, he regrets and desires; and the moments in which prospect or retrospect takes place constitute the reflective or representative part of his life, in contrast to the unmitigated flux of sensations in which nothing ulterior is regarded.
Representation, however, can hardly remain idle and merely speculative. To the ideal function of envisaging the absent, memory and reflection will add the practical function of modifying the future. Vital impulse, however, when it is modified by reflection and veers in sympathy with judgments pronounced on the past, is properly called reason. Man's rational life consists in those moments in which reflection not only occurs but proves efficacious. What is absent then works in the present, and values are imputed where they cannot be felt. Such representation is so far from being merely speculative that its presence alone can raise bodily change to the dignity of action.
The limits of reflection mark those of concerted and rational action; they circumscribe the field of cumulative experience, or, what is the same thing, of profitable living. Thus if we use that life of reason in operations, then Life of Reason  will then be a name for that part of experience which perceives and pursues ideals all conduct so controlled and all sense so interpreted as to perfect natural happiness. Without reason, as without memory, there might still be pleasures and pains in existence. To increase those pleasures and reduce those pains would be to introduce an improvement into the sentient world, as if a devil suddenly died in hell or in heaven a new angel were created. In human progress, therefore, reason is not a casual instrument, having its sole value in its service to sense; such a betterment in sentience would not be progress unless it were a progress in reason, and the increasing pleasure revealed some object that could please; for without a picture of the situation from which a heightened vitality might flow, the improvement could be neither remembered nor measured nor desired.
To recount man's rational moments would be to take an inventory of all his goods; for he is not himself (as we say with unconscious accuracy) in the others. If he ever appropriates them in recollection or prophecy, it is only on the ground of some physical relation which they may have to his being. Reason and humanity begin with the union of instinct and ideation, when instinct becomes enlightened, establishes values in its objects, and is turned from a process into an art, while at the same time consciousness becomes practical and cognitive, beginning to contain some symbol or record of the co-ordinate realities among which it arises. All reflection would then be applicable in action and all action fruitful in happiness. Though this be an ideal, yet everyone gives it from time to time a partial embodiment when he practises useful arts, when his passions happily lead him to enlightenment, or when his fancy breeds visions pertinent to his ultimate good.
Excerpted from 'The life of  Reason'' by George Santayana

Q. Which of the following can be inferred?

Solution:

Option 1 can be inferred from the lines ‘Reason and humanity begin with the union ………..arises.
Other options are factually wrong and hence rejected.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 19

DIRECTIONS for question:
Four sentences related to a topic are given below. Three of them can be put together  to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.
1. Medieval alchemists hunted in vain for the rejuvenating Philosopher's Stone; industrial-age quacks got rich off their patent elixirs
2. Most religions offer an attenuated version of immortality in which some fuzzily defined soul endures even after the body has died
3. Many explanations have been offered and discarded to explain the power of dieting
4. For as long as people have been growing old, they've been wishing they didn't have to


Solution:

The paragraph talks about growing old and what are the things that people have being doing to counter that.

► 1 talks about rejuvenation i.e. getting young again.

► 2 talks about immortality.

► 3 talks of dieting which is not what the paragraph addresses.

► 4 talks about people not wanting to grow old.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 20

DIRECTIONS for question:
Four sentences related to a topic are given below. Three of them can be put together  to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.
1. There is general relativity, which beautifully accounts for gravity and all of the things it dominates: orbiting planets, colliding galaxies, the dynamics of the expanding universe as a whole. That’s big.
2. The conflict between the two halves of physics has been brewing for more than a century—sparked by a pair of 1905 papers by Einstein, one outlining relativity and the other introducing the quantum—but recently it has entered an intriguing, unpredictable new phase.
3. At present physicists have two separate rulebooks explaining how nature works.
4. Then there is quantum mechanics, which handles the other three forces—electromagnetism and the two nuclear forces. Quantum theory is extremely adept at describing what happens when a uranium atom decays, or when individual particles of light hit a solar cell. That’s small.


Solution:

In this case, the tricky part of the problem is that all the statements are related to the subject of the paragraph.

Statements 3-1-4 form the connected set of statements as they highlight a logical structure of connected statements.

Statement 3 introduces the subject, statements 1 and 4 then provides two rulebooks explaining how nature works.

Statement 2 talks about the conflict between these two rulebooks; this is subject that not been introduced so far and does not relate to the other three sentences.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 21

DIRECTIONS for the question:
The five sentences (labelled 1,2,3,4, and 5) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentence and key in this sequence of five numbers as your answer.
1. In a book that deserves to be read by Republicans who care about their party’s future, Rich Lowry calls for a return to the ideas of President Abraham Lincoln, who represented large railroad corporations as an attorney but who passionately believed in individual opportunity as the best remedy for poverty
2. The Republican Party is experiencing its most wrenching period of division and confusion since the troubled years between Watergate and Ronald Reagan’s presidential election in 1980.
3. Lowry is mostly right about Lincoln’s politics, although not many establishment Republicans today would support Lincoln’s archprotectionist industrial policies.
4. Its traditional vision of an alliance between government and big corporations in pursuing an ambitious foreign policy and creating a strong business climate at home faces opposition from a libertarian Tea Party wing that hates crony capitalism and is suspicious of ambitious government projects.
5. And it remains to be seen whether the approach that some have termed “opportunity conservatism” could appeal to both wings of today’s divided GOP.


Solution:

Statement 1&3 is obviously a mandatory pair as the two statements describes the ideas and thoughts of Rich Lowry. But the context in which Lowry’s book comes into reference is wrt the Republican party. So, that context is provided by Statement 2.

Followed by statement 4 as it describes the division in the Republican party. Also the pronoun ''its'' is used for republican party.

Statement 5 talks about “opportunity conservatism” which would come after statement3, as statement 3 highlights the opportunism that is highlighted by industrial policies.

QUESTION: 22

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Identify the most appropriate summary for the paragraph.
If you still think 2008 and the financial crisis changed everything, still think of it as a progressive triumph, think again. Instead of the brave new world of reformed finance, what's been created in the US is something close to a perfect world, policy-wise, for the plutocrats. The biggest rewards have come from an economic policy, backed by the Federal Reserve and the administration, that has maintained ultra-low interest rates. This has forced investors into the market, at the expense of middle-class savers, particularly the elderly. The steady supply of bond purchases has essentially given free money to those least in need and most likely to do damage to everyone else. The results make a mockery of the Democrats' attempts to stoke populist sentiments. In this recovery, the top 1% gained 11% in their incomes while the other 99% experienced, at best, stagnant incomes. As one writer at the Huffington Post put it: "The rising tide has lifted fewer boats during the Obama years " and the ones it's lifted have been mostly yachts."

Solution:

Option 4 is the best answer.
In this question, you need to carefully evaluate the options and identify the one which is most applicable in the given case:
► Option 1: too strong an option; losses of plutocrats not mentioned.
► Option 2: the paragraph does not mention maximum possible help to any particular group
► Option 3: the paragraph does not mention that measures of the past have been continued
► Option 4: this is the apt choice which highlights the significant points of the paragraph.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 23

DIRECTIONS for question:
Four sentences related to a topic are given below. Three of them can be put together  to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.
1. The real power of these technical means lay not in the techniques and technologies themselves but in the disposition of those who used them, in their unshakable confidence that there were in principle “no mysterious, incalculable forces” they could not calculate and control.
2. Such a technical rationality had replaced the “magical means” premodern people had used to placate gods and spirits.dence that there were in principle “no mysterious, incalculable forces” they could not calculate and control.
3. Having conquered everything else, the calculating machines of modernity are now coming for our books.
4. When Max Weber suggested in 1917 that the world had been disenchanted, he meant that modernity was best understood by the expansion of “technical means” that controlled “all things through calculation.”


Solution:

In this case, statements 1, 2 and 4 are connected. The correct order for these statements is: 4-1-2. These statements are generic statements and statement 3 does not fit the given context highlighted by these three statements.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 24

DIRECTIONS for question:
Four sentences related to a topic are given below. Three of them can be put together  to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.
1. A new study suggests that if engaged in online debate, college students can use the popular social network to learn and develop a variety of skills.
2. In the future, Ms. Greenhow said, she would be interested in studying the levels of engagement in similar Facebook applications, and how to encourage other participants to join in discussion more regularly.
3. In a paper released on Monday, Christine Greenhow, an assistant professor of education at Michigan State University, argues that using informal social-media settings to carry on debates about science can help students refine their argumentative skills, increase their scientific literacy, and supplement learning in the classroom.
4. Who says Facebook is always a distraction?


Solution:

Statements 4-1-3 form the set of connected statements (in that order). Statement 2 is clearly the odd one out as it introduces a point about the future, something which does not concern the other three statements in the given case.

QUESTION: 25

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Identify the most appropriate summary for the paragraph.
Alien species are those moved by humans to areas outside of their native ranges. Once transported in this manner, they become removed from the predators, parasites and diseases that kept them in balance in tier native environments. As a result of losing these controls, they often become pests in the areas into which they are introduced. In Hawaii, alien species have caused a tremendous amount of damage to the environment and economy and pose an ever-increasing threat to its natural resources, native and ecosystems.
Ornamental plants are legally imported and planted, but they spread to forests when they reproduce and their seeds are blown there by the wind or carried by birds. Others like agricultural insect pests and a variety of other flying insects arrive as unintentional hitchhikers on agricultural produce, cargo or aeroplanes. Still other species, like reptiles are smuggled illegally to satisfy their owners urge to have and exotic pet.

Solution:

The paragraph talks of two ways in which alien species come into habitats and also about the damage that they do to environment and economy.

► Option 1 – It talks only about the environment.

► Option 2 – There are other factors like parasites and diseases that keep species in balance. Complete destruction is too sweeping a statement.

► Option 3 – This is too general an answer.

QUESTION: 26

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

Q. In 2010 the number of casualties of people riding two wheelers is what percent more than casualties of pedestrians?

Solution:

{(1656 – 1336)/1336} × 100 = 24%

QUESTION: 27

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

Q. The rate of decline over the years is approximately the same for which of the two categories:

Solution:

If we go by options and check for Others and Cyclists , we can observe that:

Others: {(1555 – 919) / 1555} × 100 = 40.9%
Cyclists: {(419 – 256) / 419} × 100 = 38.9%

Which is approximately same .
Others and Cyclists : 40%

QUESTION: 28

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

Q. In which of the years the number has fallen to a third from the previous year in one of the categories?

Solution:

Of all the years comparing the fall in various categories, the Others category in the year 2008 has fallen to 568 from 1708. This number is one third of the previous. Hence 2008, third option is the answer.

QUESTION: 29

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

Q. Which year recorded the highest overall growth over the previous year?

Solution:

The overall casualties in the given years are

2007 - 3.2% in comparison to 2.3, –10.73 and 0.5 respectively. Hence the highest is in the year 2007. First option.

QUESTION: 30

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.
Comparison of world’s 10 most powerful economies
The ten largest economies in the world in 2050, measured in GDP (billions of 2006 USD), according to Goldman Sachs.
Answer the following questions by taking the units to the nearest multiple of 2500.

Q. What will be the approximate growth percentage p. a. registered by India from 2030 to 2050?

Solution:

Economy in 2030 at 7500 units, Economy in 2050 at 37500 units;
Growth = 30000 units over 7500 units i.e. 7500×100/30000 = 400% growth over 20 years or we can say  20% growth per annum.

QUESTION: 31

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.
Comparison of world’s 10 most powerful economies
The ten largest economies in the world in 2050, measured in GDP (billions of 2006 USD), according to Goldman Sachs.
Answer the following questions by taking the units to the nearest multiple of 2500.

Q. In 2020, the economies of India and Russia will almost be the same. The magnitude India reaches in 2030 will be reached by Russia in 2040. This shows that

Solution:

If the Russian economy takes twice as much time as the Indian economy to reach a certain level, the rate of growth of the Indian economy must be twice that of the Russian economy or we can also say that rate of growth of Russia is half that of India. The correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 32

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.
Comparison of world’s 10 most powerful economies
The ten largest economies in the world in 2050, measured in GDP (billions of 2006 USD), according to Goldman Sachs.
Answer the following questions by taking the units to the nearest multiple of 2500.

Q. Which of the following countries has shown the slowest growth rate?

Solution:

A visual inspection of the graph suggests that Japan, Germany and the UK are expected to have the lowest growth rates.
Even if we assume that the slopes of all graphs are the same, the growth rate for Japan will be the smallest because its base (GDP size in 2010) is the highest.

QUESTION: 33

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.
Comparison of world’s 10 most powerful economies
The ten largest economies in the world in 2050, measured in GDP (billions of 2006 USD), according to Goldman Sachs.
Answer the following questions by taking the units to the nearest multiple of 2500.

Q. The rate of growth of India is approximately ______ that of China in the decade 2040-50.

Solution:

From 2040 to 2050, the Indian economy has grown from approximately 17500 to 37500.

This is a growth of 20,000/17,500 = 115%.

From 2040 to 2050, the Chinese economy has grown from 44,000 to 70,000.

This is a growth of 26,000/44,000 = 59.09%.

Thus the growth rate of the Indian economy is approximately twice that of the Chinese economy.

Note: We are using multiples of 2,500 as data points, as it is specified so in the question.

QUESTION: 34

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

Eight PhD students, Anuj, Bipin, Chaitalee, Durgesh, Eknath, Fiza, Gargi, and Hitesh, must each be assigned to grade class participation in exactly one of three subjects, Finance, Marketing and Operations. The assignment must ensure that each subject has at least two, but not more than three graders from amongst the eight PhD students. Chaitalee must be assigned as a grader in Finance. Neither Eknath nor Hitesh can be assigned as graders in Marketing. Durgesh cannot be assigned as a grader in any subject where either Eknath or Gargi are assigned as graders. If Bipin is assigned as a grader in Finance, then both Gargi and Hitesh must be assigned as graders in Operations.

Q. If Bipin is assigned as a grader in Marketing, which of the following cannot be true?

I. Gargi and Hitesh are both assigned as graders in Operation

II. Gargi is assigned as a grader in Operations and Fiza is assigned as a grader in Finance      

III. Anuj is assigned as a grader in Marketing and Durgesh is assigned as a grader in Finance

IV. Eknath is assigned as a grader in Finance and Durgesh is assigned as a grader in Marketing

Solution:

It is easy to verify from the clues that none of the conditions are violated by any of the four statements.

Note that even though Bipin is not assigned as a grader in Finance, Gargi and Hitesh can still be assigned as graders in Operations.

Since all 4 statements could be true, the best answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 35

DIRECTIONS for the question:

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

Eight PhD students, Anuj, Bipin, Chaitalee, Durgesh, Eknath, Fiza, Gargi, and Hitesh, must each be assigned to grade class participation in exactly one of three subjects, Finance, Marketing and Operations. The assignment must ensure that each subject has at least two, but not more than three graders from amongst the eight PhD students. Chaitalee must be assigned as a grader in Finance. Neither Eknath nor Hitesh can be assigned as graders in Marketing. Durgesh cannot be assigned as a grader in any subject where either Eknath or Gargi are assigned as graders. If Bipin is assigned as a grader in Finance, then both Gargi and Hitesh must be assigned as graders in Operations.

Q. If Bipin is assigned as a grader in Finance, which of the following must be false?

Solution:

If Bipin is assigned as a grader in Finance, then Gargi and Hitesh must be assigned as graders in Operations.

Since Gargi and Durgesh cannot be assigned as graders in the same subject, hence Durgesh cannot be assigned as a grader in Operations.

Thus third option is the answer.

QUESTION: 36

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

Eight PhD students, Anuj, Bipin, Chaitalee, Durgesh, Eknath, Fiza, Gargi, and Hitesh, must each be assigned to grade class participation in exactly one of three subjects, Finance, Marketing and Operations. The assignment must ensure that each subject has at least two, but not more than three graders from amongst the eight PhD students. Chaitalee must be assigned as a grader in Finance. Neither Eknath nor Hitesh can be assigned as graders in Marketing. Durgesh cannot be assigned as a grader in any subject where either Eknath or Gargi are assigned as graders. If Bipin is assigned as a grader in Finance, then both Gargi and Hitesh must be assigned as graders in Operations.

Q. If Gargi is assigned as a grader in Finance and Hitesh is assigned as a grader in Operations, which of the following is definitely true?

Solution:

Since Gargi and Hitesh are not both assigned as graders in Operations, we know that Bipin has not been assigned as a grader in Finance.

So option 2 is definitely true.

QUESTION: 37

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

My friend, Himanshu, sent me an e-mail which had the details of the marks that he scored in four subjects. Instead of sending the marks he scored in each subject separately, he said that, he added the marks in two subjects at a time and was sending the six unequal totals so obtained. These totals were given in ascending order in the file that he sent as an attachment with the e-mail. When I opened the e-mail attachment, I found that the first, third and fourth figures appeared as junk characters due to some corruption in the file and I could read only the remaining three figures - 169, 178 and 180.
I sent a mail back to Himanshu that I needed some more data to calculate his marks in each subject. He replied as follows:

1. "Instead of using my marks in the e-mail, if I had used the marks that my friend Amit scored (in the same four subjects), you would still have got the same figures for the three totals that you were able to read in the e-mail".

2. "The highest marks that I scored among the four subjects is more than that scored by Amit."

3. "There is no multiple of 5 among Amit's marks whereas there is one among mine."

Note: Assume that all the marks are integers.

Q. Which of the following statements is not true regarding the marks of Himanshu in the mentioned four subjects?

Solution:

Let a, b, c and d be the marks of Himanshu in increasing order. Since all the six totals are unequal, no two out of a, b, c, and d will be the same. If we add the smallest and the third smallest, we get the second smallest total. We get
a + c = 169  …..(1)

If we add the largest and the third largest number, we get the second largest total. So,
b + d = 178 …..(2)

If we add the largest and the second largest numbers, we get the largest total. So,
c + d = 180 ..... (3)

Equation (1) + Equation (2) - Equation (3) gives us
a + b = 167 ..... (4)

Equation (3) - Equation (1) gives us d - a = 11 .... (5)

From equation (4), we can conclude that a ≤ 83 (otherwise b < a).

From equation (3), we can conclude that d ≥ 91 (otherwise c ≥ d)

Since d = a + 11 (from equation (5), a cannot be less than 80 (otherwise d will be less than 91) So, a can take values from 80 to 83.

Only statement (3) is not true.

QUESTION: 38

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

My friend, Himanshu, sent me an e-mail which had the details of the marks that he scored in four subjects. Instead of sending the marks he scored in each subject separately, he said that, he added the marks in two subjects at a time and was sending the six unequal totals so obtained. These totals were given in ascending order in the file that he sent as an attachment with the e-mail. When I opened the e-mail attachment, I found that the first, third and fourth figures appeared as junk characters due to some corruption in the file and I could read only the remaining three figures - 169, 178 and 180.
I sent a mail back to Himanshu that I needed some more data to calculate his marks in each subject. He replied as follows:

1. "Instead of using my marks in the e-mail, if I had used the marks that my friend Amit scored (in the same four subjects), you would still have got the same figures for the three totals that you were able to read in the e-mail".

2. "The highest marks that I scored among the four subjects is more than that scored by Amit."

3. "There is no multiple of 5 among Amit's marks whereas there is one among mine."

Note: Assume that all the marks are integers.

Q. What is the highest mark scored by Himanshu?

Solution:

Let a, b, c and d be the marks of Himanshu in increasing order. Since all the six totals are unequal, no two out of a, b, c, and d will be the same. If we add the smallest and the third smallest, we get the second smallest total. We get
a + c = 169 …..(1)

If we add the largest and the third largest number, we get the second largest total. So,
b + d = 178 …..(2)

If we add the largest and the second largest numbers, we get the largest total. So,
c + d = 180 ..... (3)

Equation (1) + Equation (2) - Equation (3) gives us
a + b = 167 ..... (4)

Equation (3) - Equation (1) gives us d - a = 11 .... (5)

From equation (4), we can conclude that a ≤ 83 (otherwise b < a).

From equation (3), we can conclude that d ≥ 91 (otherwise c ≥ d)

Since d = a + 11 (from equation (5), a cannot be less than 80 (otherwise d will be less than 91) So, a can take values from 80 to 83.

Let us tabulate the possible values:

Out of the four sets above, one set will be Amit's marks and one set Himanshu's. On the basis of condition (3), Amit's marks are either set 1 or set 3 and Himanshu's, set 2 or set 4. Taking condition (2) also into account, we can conclude that Himanshu's marks are set 2 (82, 85, 87, 93) and Amit’s marks are set 3 (81, 86, 88, 92).

QUESTION: 39

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

My friend, Himanshu, sent me an e-mail which had the details of the marks that he scored in four subjects. Instead of sending the marks he scored in each subject separately, he said that, he added the marks in two subjects at a time and was sending the six unequal totals so obtained. These totals were given in ascending order in the file that he sent as an attachment with the e-mail. When I opened the e-mail attachment, I found that the first, third and fourth figures appeared as junk characters due to some corruption in the file and I could read only the remaining three figures - 169, 178 and 180.
I sent a mail back to Himanshu that I needed some more data to calculate his marks in each subject. He replied as follows:

1. "Instead of using my marks in the e-mail, if I had used the marks that my friend Amit scored (in the same four subjects), you would still have got the same figures for the three totals that you were able to read in the e-mail".

2. "The highest marks that I scored among the four subjects is more than that scored by Amit."

3. "There is no multiple of 5 among Amit's marks whereas there is one among mine."

Note: Assume that all the marks are integers.

Q. What is difference between the highest mark scored by Amit and the lowest mark scored by Himanshu?

Solution:

Let a, b, c and d be the marks of Himanshu in increasing order. Since all the six totals are unequal, no two out of a, b, c, and d will be the same. If we add the smallest and the third smallest, we get the second smallest total. We get
a + c = 169  …..(1)

If we add the largest and the third largest number, we get the second largest total. So,
b + d = 178  …..(2)

If we add the largest and the second largest numbers, we get the largest total. So,
c + d = 180  ..... (3)

Equation (1) + Equation (2) - Equation (3) gives us
a + b = 167 ..... (4)

Equation (3) - Equation (1) gives us d - a = 11  .... (5)

From equation (4), we can conclude that a ≤ 83 (otherwise b < a).

From equation (3), we can conclude that d ≥ 91 (otherwise c ≥ d)

Since d = a + 11 (from equation (5), a cannot be less than 80 (otherwise d will be less than 91) So, a can take values from 80 to 83.

Amit's highest marks are 94 or 92 as shown in set 1 and 3, whereas Himanshu's lowest marks are 82 or 80 as shown in set 2 and 4. The difference between the highest marks scored by Amit and lowest marks scored by Himanshu is 10 because Himanshu's marks are (82, 85, 87, 93) and Amit’s marks are (81, 86, 88, 92) So 92 - 82 = 10.

QUESTION: 40

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

My friend, Himanshu, sent me an e-mail which had the details of the marks that he scored in four subjects. Instead of sending the marks he scored in each subject separately, he said that, he added the marks in two subjects at a time and was sending the six unequal totals so obtained. These totals were given in ascending order in the file that he sent as an attachment with the e-mail. When I opened the e-mail attachment, I found that the first, third and fourth figures appeared as junk characters due to some corruption in the file and I could read only the remaining three figures - 169, 178 and 180.
I sent a mail back to Himanshu that I needed some more data to calculate his marks in each subject. He replied as follows:

1. "Instead of using my marks in the e-mail, if I had used the marks that my friend Amit scored (in the same four subjects), you would still have got the same figures for the three totals that you were able to read in the e-mail".

2. "The highest marks that I scored among the four subjects is more than that scored by Amit."

3. "There is no multiple of 5 among Amit's marks whereas there is one among mine."

Note: Assume that all the marks are integers.

Q. What is the least mark scored by Amit?

Solution:

Let a, b, c and d be the marks of Himanshu in increasing order. Since all the six totals are unequal, no two out of a, b, c, and d will be the same. If we add the smallest and the third smallest, we get the second smallest total. We get
a + c = 169 …..(1)

If we add the largest and the third largest number, we get the second largest total. So,
b + d = 178 …..(2)

If we add the largest and the second largest numbers, we get the largest total. So,
c + d = 180 ..... (3)

Equation (1) + Equation (2) - Equation (3) gives us
a + b = 167 ..... (4)

Equation (3) - Equation (1) gives us d - a = 11 .... (5)
From equation (4), we can conclude that a ≤ 83 (otherwise b < a).

From equation (3), we can conclude that d ≥ 91 (otherwise c ≥ d)

Since d = a + 11 (from equation (5), a cannot be less than 80 (otherwise d will be less than 91)

So, a can take values from 80 to 83.

QUESTION: 41

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

In a parking lot, there are seven vehicles parked in a row. Each of the vehicles is a car or a scooter or a bike. Each of the vehicles is owned by exactly one person among Ankita, Nitika and Ritika. Each person owns at least one vehicle. There is at least one vehicle of each type. No two of them own the same number of vehicles. For any two types of vehicles, the total number is different. All the vehicles of a particular type (if more than 1) is not owned by the same person and no one owned more than two vehicles of any one type. The names of the seven vehicles are - Kawasaki, Yamaha, Zen, Bajaj, Alto, Ritz and Priya. All the vehicles of a particular type are not parked together. No two vehicles owned by the same person are adjacent to each other. Each of Ankita's vehicles is to the immediate left of a scooter. Yamaha is owned by Nitika and is parked at one end of the row. Kawasaki is two places away to the right of Bajaj and these two are owned by the same person. Neither Kawasaki nor Bajaj is at any end of the row. Ritz, a bike, is adjacent to a scooter and a car and each of these three is owned by a different person. Zen is to the right of Alto which is owned by Ritika. Priya is to the left of Ritz. Ritika owns a scooter.

Q. Which of the following gives the complete list of the cars?

Solution:

There are seven vehicles of three types and three owners. No two types of vehicles are same in number and no two among the owners have the same number of vehicles. Hence the number of vehicles of each type is 4, 2 and 1 and the number of vehicles with each of them is 4, 2 and 1 in any order.

As, no two vehicles owned by the same person are adjacent to each other, the vehicles of the person who own four vehicles will be at the first, third, fifth and seventh positions. As, the vehicle owned by Nitika is at one end, Nitika owned four vehicles.

Now, as Ritz, the bike is adjacent to a scooter and a car and as these three are owned by different persons, the vehicle at the middle, i.e., Ritz must be one of the vehicles owned by Nitika, as his vehicles occupy alternate positions. So, Ritz must be the third or the fifth vehicle from the left end.

As Kawasaki is two places away to the right of Bajaj, and neither Kawasaki nor Bajaj is parked at any of the ends of the row, these two vehicles are not owned by Nitika.

∴ These two vehicles are parked at 2nd and 4th or 4th and 6th positions respectively.

Again, it is given that Alto is owned by Ritika.

Hence, the vehicles owned by Nitika are - Priya, Ritz, Zen and Yamaha.

As Kawasaki and Bajaj are owned by the same person, that person must be Ankita, we know Ritika is the owner of Alto.

As each of Ankita's vehicles i.e., Bajaj and Kawasaki is to the immediate left of a scooter, Ritz must be parked at the third position and Kawasaki and Bajaj are parked at 6th and 4th positions respectively from the left.

As Priya is to the left of Ritz, Priya must be parked at the first position from the left.
∴ Yamaha and Zen are parked at the 7th and 5th positions respectively from the left.
∴ The vehicles parked at the 5th and 7th positions from the left must be scooters. So, Zen and Yamaha are scooters. Also, Alto, owned by Ritika must be parked at the second from the left.

⇒ Bajaj must be a car, since Ritz is adjacent a scooter and a car.

∴ There are more than two scooters, which implies there are four scooters.

As, no person owns a particular type of vehicle more than two, the other scooter must be owned by Ankita. Priya cannot be a bike, in that case, both the bikes owned by Nitika, which is not possible. Hence, Priya is a car.

The final arrangement is as follows.

Priya and Bajaj are the Cars.

QUESTION: 42

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

In a parking lot, there are seven vehicles parked in a row. Each of the vehicles is a car or a scooter or a bike. Each of the vehicles is owned by exactly one person among Ankita, Nitika and Ritika. Each person owns at least one vehicle. There is at least one vehicle of each type. No two of them own the same number of vehicles. For any two types of vehicles, the total number is different. All the vehicles of a particular type (if more than 1) is not owned by the same person and no one owned more than two vehicles of any one type. The names of the seven vehicles are - Kawasaki, Yamaha, Zen, Bajaj, Alto, Ritz and Priya. All the vehicles of a particular type are not parked together. No two vehicles owned by the same person are adjacent to each other. Each of Ankita's vehicles is to the immediate left of a scooter. Yamaha is owned by Nitika and is parked at one end of the row. Kawasaki is two places away to the right of Bajaj and these two are owned by the same person. Neither Kawasaki nor Bajaj is at any end of the row. Ritz, a bike, is adjacent to a scooter and a car and each of these three is owned by a different person. Zen is to the right of Alto which is owned by Ritika. Priya is to the left of Ritz. Ritika owns a scooter.

Q. Which of the following gives the correct combination of the vehicle, type of vehicle and the owner?

Solution:

There are seven vehicles of three types and three owners. No two types of vehicles are same in number and no two among the owners have the same number of vehicles. Hence the number of vehicles of each type is 4, 2 and 1 and the number of vehicles with each of them is 4, 2 and 1 in any order.

As, no two vehicles owned by the same person are adjacent to each other, the vehicles of the person who own four vehicles will be at the first, third, fifth and seventh positions. As, the vehicle owned by Nitika is at one end, Nitika owned four vehicles.

Now, as Ritz, the bike is adjacent to a scooter and a car and as these three are owned by different persons, the vehicle at the middle, i.e., Ritz must be one of the vehicles owned by Nitika, as his vehicles occupy alternate positions. So, Ritz must be the third or the fifth vehicle from the left end.

As Kawasaki is two places away to the right of Bajaj, and neither Kawasaki nor Bajaj is parked at any of the ends of the row, these two vehicles are not owned by Nitika.
∴ These two vehicles are parked at 2nd and 4th or 4th and 6th positions respectively.
Again, it is given that Alto is owned by Ritika.

Hence, the vehicles owned by Nitika are - Priya, Ritz, Zen and Yamaha.

As Kawasaki and Bajaj are owned by the same person, that person must be Ankita, we know Ritika is the owner of Alto.

As each of Ankita's vehicles i.e., Bajaj and Kawasaki is to the immediate left of a scooter, Ritz must be parked at the third position and Kawasaki and Bajaj are parked at 6th and 4th positions respectively from the left.

As Priya is to the left of Ritz, Priya must be parked at the first position from the left.
∴ Yamaha and Zen are parked at the 7th and 5th positions respectively from the left.
​∴ The vehicles parked at the 5th and 7th positions from the left must be scooters. So, Zen and Yamaha are scooters. Also, Alto, owned by Ritika must be parked at the second from the left.

⇒ Bajaj must be a car, since Ritz is adjacent a scooter and a car.

∴ There are more than two scooters, which implies there are four scooters.

As, no person owns a particular type of vehicle more than two, the other scooter must be owned by Ankita. Priya cannot be a bike, in that case, both the bikes owned by Nitika, which is not possible. Hence, Priya is a car.

The final arrangement is as follows.

Zen – Scooter – Nitika is the correct combination.

QUESTION: 43

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

In a parking lot, there are seven vehicles parked in a row. Each of the vehicles is a car or a scooter or a bike. Each of the vehicles is owned by exactly one person among Ankita, Nitika and Ritika. Each person owns at least one vehicle. There is at least one vehicle of each type. No two of them own the same number of vehicles. For any two types of vehicles, the total number is different. All the vehicles of a particular type (if more than 1) is not owned by the same person and no one owned more than two vehicles of any one type. The names of the seven vehicles are - Kawasaki, Yamaha, Zen, Bajaj, Alto, Ritz and Priya. All the vehicles of a particular type are not parked together. No two vehicles owned by the same person are adjacent to each other. Each of Ankita's vehicles is to the immediate left of a scooter. Yamaha is owned by Nitika and is parked at one end of the row. Kawasaki is two places away to the right of Bajaj and these two are owned by the same person. Neither Kawasaki nor Bajaj is at any end of the row. Ritz, a bike, is adjacent to a scooter and a car and each of these three is owned by a different person. Zen is to the right of Alto which is owned by Ritika. Priya is to the left of Ritz. Ritika owns a scooter.

Q. Which of the following gives the complete list of the vehicles owned by Nitika?

Solution:

There are seven vehicles of three types and three owners. No two types of vehicles are same in number and no two among the owners have the same number of vehicles. Hence the number of vehicles of each type is 4, 2 and 1 and the number of vehicles with each of them is 4, 2 and 1 in any order.

As, no two vehicles owned by the same person are adjacent to each other, the vehicles of the person who own four vehicles will be at the first, third, fifth and seventh positions. As, the vehicle owned by Nitika is at one end, Nitika owned four vehicles.

Now, as Ritz, the bike is adjacent to a scooter and a car and as these three are owned by different persons, the vehicle at the middle, i.e., Ritz must be one of the vehicles owned by Nitika, as his vehicles occupy alternate positions. So, Ritz must be the third or the fifth vehicle from the left end.

As Kawasaki is two places away to the right of Bajaj, and neither Kawasaki nor Bajaj is parked at any of the ends of the row, these two vehicles are not owned by Nitika.
∴ These two vehicles are parked at 2nd and 4th or 4th and 6th positions respectively.

Again, it is given that Alto is owned by Ritika.

Hence, the vehicles owned by Nitika are - Priya, Ritz, Zen and Yamaha.

As Kawasaki and Bajaj are owned by the same person, that person must be Ankita, we know Ritika is the owner of Alto.

As each of Ankita's vehicles i.e., Bajaj and Kawasaki is to the immediate left of a scooter, Ritz must be parked at the third position and Kawasaki and Bajaj are parked at 6th and 4th positions respectively from the left.

As Priya is to the left of Ritz, Priya must be parked at the first position from the left.
∴ Yamaha and Zen are parked at the 7th and 5th positions respectively from the left.
​∴ The vehicles parked at the 5th and 7th positions from the left must be scooters.

So, Zen and Yamaha are scooters. Also, Alto, owned by Ritika must be parked at the second from the left.

⇒ Bajaj must be a car, since Ritz is adjacent a scooter and a car.

∴ There are more than two scooters, which implies there are four scooters.

As, no person owns a particular type of vehicle more than two, the other scooter must be owned by Ankita. Priya cannot be a bike, in that case, both the bikes owned by Nitika, which is not possible.

Hence, Priya is a car.

The final arrangement is as follows.

The complete list is – Priya, Ritz, Zen and Yamaha.

QUESTION: 44

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Network Systems Ltd. has just taken on a new project for their client IPL Logistics Ltd. The following network diagram shows the sequence of activities involved in the completion of the project. The project starts at node 1 and is completed at node 11. Activities can happen simultaneously. However, an activity cannot be started unless all prior activities have been completed, e.g., the activities at node 6 cannot start unless all activities at nodes 1, 2, 3 and 5 have been completed.
The table below gives the descriptions of the times taken to complete each of these activities.

Q. What is the minimum time taken to complete the project?

Solution:

The different paths from node 1 to node 11 and their corresponding times are as follows:
Path 1: 1-2-3-5-6-7-11. 
Time: 6+4+2+3+2+4 = 21 weeks.

Path 2: 1-2-3-5-6-8-11.  
Time: 6+4+2+3+4+1 = 20 weeks.

Path 3: 1-2-6-8-11.
Time: 6+6+4+1 = 17 weeks.

Path 4: 1-2-4-9-10-11.
Time: 6+3+4+1+4 = 18 weeks.

Path 5: 1-2-6-7-11.
Time : 6+6+2+4 = 18 weeks. 

The longest path will be considered since it ensures that all activities are completed.

QUESTION: 45

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Network Systems Ltd. has just taken on a new project for their client IPL Logistics Ltd. The following network diagram shows the sequence of activities involved in the completion of the project. The project starts at node 1 and is completed at node 11. Activities can happen simultaneously. However, an activity cannot be started unless all prior activities have been completed, e.g., the activities at node 6 cannot start unless all activities at nodes 1, 2, 3 and 5 have been completed.
The table below gives the descriptions of the times taken to complete each of these activities.

Q. IPL Logistics Ltd. insists that the project be delivered in 18 weeks. Which of the following options should Network Systems Ltd. implement so that they can deliver the project on time?

I. Reduce the time spent in designing hardware by 3 weeks.

II. Reduce the time spent in finishing the manual by 3 weeks.

III. Reduce the time spent in formalizing specifications by 2 weeks and in testing hardware by 1 week.

Solution:

Path 1: 1-2-3-5-6-7-11.
Time: 6+4+2+3+2+4 = 21 weeks.

Path 2: 1-2-3-5-6-8-11.
Time: 6+4+2+3+4+1 = 20 weeks.

Path 3: 1-2-6-8-11.
Time: 6+6+4+1 = 17 weeks.

Path 4: 1-2-4-9-10-11.
Time: 6+3+4+1+4 = 18 weeks.

Path 5: 1-2-6-7-11.
Time : 6+6+2+4 = 18 weeks.

If the time spent in designing hardware (activity 2 – 3) is reduced by 3 weeks, then the times for paths 1 to 5 from node 1 to node 11 become 18 weeks, 17 weeks, 17 weeks, 18 weeks and 18 weeks respectively. So they will be able to deliver in 18 weeks.

If the time spent in finishing the manual (activity 4 – 9) is reduced by 3 weeks, then the times for paths 1 to 5 from node 1 to node 11 are 21 weeks, 20 weeks, 17 weeks, 15 weeks and 18 weeks respectively. Since there are paths that take longer than 18 weeks, they will not be able to deliver in 18 weeks.

If the time spent in formalizing specifications (activity 1 – 2) is reduced by 2 weeks and the time spent in testing hardware (activity 5 – 6) is reduced by 1 week, then the times for paths 1 to 5 from node 1 to node 11 are 18 weeks, 17 weeks, 15 weeks, 16 weeks and 16 weeks respectively. So they will be able to deliver in 18 weeks.

Therefore, they should implement options I or III.

QUESTION: 46

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.
The x - axis denotes the years from 1983 to 1991.

Q. If in 1988, the sum of the food and fertilizer production was 170 million tonnes, the value of food production must have been (approximately, in million tonnes).

Solution:

Students please note that the values on the Y-axis are not given. But you may observe that none of the questions require you to have these values. We can very well solve all questions by assigning arbitrary values to them. For the sake of convenience let us start the values from 0 and make an increment to 2 at each grid lines (dotted lines). So the values in the graph can be compiled as given below :

According to our values, the fertilizer production in 1988 is 7 and the food production is 10, i.e. they add up to 17. If this corresponds to 170 million tonnes, then the food production should correspond to 100 million tonnes.

QUESTION: 47

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.
The x - axis denotes the years from 1983 to 1991.

Q. Going according to previous trends, one can say that the Fertilizer Production has shown an anomalous behaviour in which year?

Solution:

Students please note that the values on the Y-axis are not given. But you may observe that none of the questions require you to have these values. We can very well solve all questions by assigning arbitrary values to them. For the sake of convenience let us start the values from 0 and make an increment to 2 at each grid lines (dotted lines). So the values in the graph can be compiled as given below :

It is clear that the graph for fertilizer production remains constant for two consecutive years. But it breaks this trend in 1989 as it has a value of 2 instead of 7 in this year.

QUESTION: 48

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.
The x - axis denotes the years from 1983 to 1991.

Q. A scholar observed that if the production of fertilizers in 1989 had been the same as that in 1988, then the total fertilizer production for all the given years would have been 450 million tonnes. Using this information, and knowing that the food production has been plotted on the same scale, one may say that the food production in 1983 was (approximately, in million tonnes) …

Solution:

Students please note that the values on the Y-axis are not given. But you may observe that none of the questions require you to have these values. We can very well solve all questions by assigning arbitrary values to them. For the sake of convenience let us start the values from 0 and make an increment to 2 at each grid lines (dotted lines). So the values in the graph can be compiled as given below :

If the fertilizer production in 1989 had been the same as that in 1988, its value for 1989 would have been 7.

Hence total fertilizer production according to our values would have been (5+7+7+4+4+7+7+2+2) = 45.

If this corresponds to 450 million tonnes then our 1 unit will correspond to 10 million ton. The food production in 1983 as per our scale is 13, which will correspond to 130 million tonnes.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 49

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

Seven boys are made to stand in a row in order of their increasing heights (shortest boy first). Their names are Arjun, Balvinder, Chaman, Diljeet, Deepak, Farhaan, Gopal (not in that order). Following statements give information about their positions in the row.
1. Balvinder  is the tallest boy.
2. Farhaan is exactly between Arjun and Diljeet.
3. There are exactly three boys between Diljeet and Gopal.
4. Chaman comes right after Balvinder in height.

According to the information given, how many arrangements are possible? (in numerical value)


Solution:

Considering the given statement is following order , we get, From (1) Balvinder  is at 7th place.

From (4), Chaman is at 6th place.

From (3) Diljeet and Gopal must be standing at 1st and 5th places.

From (2), Arjun, Farhaan and Diljeet are standing at 3rd, 4th and 5th places respectively or at 3rd, 2nd and 1st places respectively. Thus, we get four possible arrangements as:

So its clear that two arrangements are possible.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 50

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

Seven boys are made to stand in a row in order of their increasing heights (shortest boy first). Their names are Arjun, Balvinder, Chaman, Diljeet, Deepak, Farhaan, Gopal (not in that order). Following statements give information about their positions in the row.
1. Balvinder  is the tallest boy.
2. Farhaan is exactly between Arjun and Diljeet.
3. There are exactly three boys between Diljeet and Gopal.
4. Chaman comes right after Balvinder in height.

How many boys take the same position in the row in all the possible arrangements? (in numerical value)


Solution:

Considering the given statement is following order , we get, From (1) alvinder  is at 7th place.

From (4), Diljeet is at 6th place.

From (3) Diljeet and  Gopal must be standing at 1st and 5th places.

From (2), Arjun, Farhaan and Diljeet are standing at 3rd ,4th and 5th places respectively or at 3rd,2nd and 1st places respectively. Thus, we get two possible arrangements as:

3 boys, Arjun, Chaman and Balwinder, occupy the same positions in both arrangements.

QUESTION: 51

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.
Let T contains 93 elements. A, B are subsets of T such that
(i) A ≠ B
(ii) A ∪ B = T
How many unordered pairs (A,B) will exist. ( (A,B) & (B,A) are same)

Solution:

Let A contains x, (0 ≤ x ≤ 93) elements: so, A can be chosen in 93Cx ways.

For each such A, the set B must necessarily have remaining (93-x) elements & possible some elements of A.

For every element of A to be in B, we have 2 choices: either we can take or we can leave. So, B can be chosen in 2x ways.

So, there are 93Cx 2x ways to choose A & B where 0 ≤ x ≤ 93.
⇒ 
= 393
There is 1 case where A = B = (T). & since order does not matter so, required answer

QUESTION: 52

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.
In a game of tennis, A gives B, 21 points and gives C, 25 points. B gives C, 10 points. How many points make the game?

Solution:

Suppose p points make the game. Hence the points played by A, B and C will be,

Therefore, (p – 21) × (p – 10) = p × (p – 25)
⇒ p2 – 31p + 210 = p2 – 25p
⇒ 6p = 210
⇒ p = 35.
Hence 35 points make the game.
Hence option 3.

QUESTION: 53

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.
What is the remainder when  is divided by 5?

Solution:

13/5 yields remainder 3, 132/5 yields remainder 4, 133/5 gives remainder 2 and 134/5 gives remainder 1.

So, the cycle is of 4.

Now divide 1313 by 4 and get 1 as remainder.

So, the remainder of given question is 3 (The first step of the above cycle).

QUESTION: 54

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.
From a point P, the tangents PQ and PT are drawn to a circle with centre O and radius 2 units. From the centre O, OA and OB are drawn parallel to PQ and PT respectively. The length of the chord TQ is 2 units. Find the measure of the ∠AOB.

Solution:

Since, OQ = TQ = 2 units, therefore ∠ TOQ = 60º
Since, PQ is tangent to the circle, so ∠OQP = 90º
Since, PQ is parallel to OA so ∠AOQ = 90º
For the same reason ∠BOT = 90º
∴∠AOB = 360º - (∠TOQ + ∠AOQ + ∠BOT) = 120º.

QUESTION: 55

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Read the following information and answer the question that follows.
Three friends Atul, Mandar, and Uday stand on the bank of a straight river of uniform width. They walk this path everyday, and are totally aware of all distances. The river can be crossed by a bridge 2 km away from where they stand.
The original plan is that Atul is to swim parallel to the bridge and wait for the others who would walk to the bridge, then cross it, and rejoin him exactly in 20 minutes. Mandar and Uday walk for 5 minutes from their original position, and then deviating from the plan, Mandar decides to swim parallel to the bridge and wait on the other side for Uday. Uday reaches the bridge 4 minutes after leaving Mandar, rests there for a while which again was not scheduled in their original plan, and meets Mandar 15 minutes since they had parted ways.
Assuming that the walking and swimming speeds of the three friends is uniform and equal, what is the distance (in km) that Uday has to walk to meet Atul?

Solution:

In this quesiton, data for Mandar is not important. Uday needs to walk 2 KM to the bridge, cross the bridge and then walk another 2 km towards Atul on the other side. He expects total 20 mins to cover all this distance. Out of these 20 mins, he takes 9 minutes to reach the bridge. So similarly he will take another 9 mins to reach Atul after crossing the bridge. This leaves us with 2 mins to cross the bridge. 

Uday takes 9 minutes to cover a distance of 2 km. Uday’s walking speed = 2/9 km/min.

Length of the bridge = 2/9*2 = 4/9 = 0.44 km.

Total distance = 2km + 2km  + 0.44km = 4.44 km.

So, option A.

QUESTION: 56

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Solve the following question and mark the best possible option
If Log10 7 = a, the Log10 (1/70) is equal to 

Solution:


Hence, option A is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 57

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

A person who has a certain amount with him goes to market. He can buy 50 oranges or 40 mangoes. He retains 10% of the amount for taxi fares and buys 20 mangoes and of the balance he purchases oranges. Number of oranges he can purchase is

Solution:

Let us assume that he has Rs. 100.
In this he can buy 50 oranges or 40 mangoes.
In other words, the price of an orange is Rs. 2 and that of a mango is Rs. 2.50.
Now if he decides to keep 10% of his money for taxi fares, he would be left with Rs. 90.
Now if he buys 20 mangoes, he would spend Rs. 50 and will be left with Rs. 40, in which he can buy 20 oranges.

QUESTION: 58

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

A took two loans altogether for Rs. 1200 from B and C. B claimed 14% simple interest per annum, while C claimed 15% per annum. The total interest paid by A in one year was Rs. 172. Then, A borrowed

Solution:

Let A borrowed Rs. x from B, therefore Rs. (1200-x) from C respectively
Now applying the conditions we have

∴  A borrowed Rs. 800 from B.
So answer is option D

QUESTION: 59

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

A and B together have Rs 1300. If 1/5 A's amount is equal to 2/3 B's amount, how much amount does B have?

Solution:


A + B = 1300 ...(1) 

 Put this value in equation (1)

B = 300
Hence, option B is the correct answer.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 60

The concentration of salt in seawater (salinity) is about 35 parts per thousand. Commercial salt produced in a saltpan has a moisture content of 0.5%. How many kg of seawater are required to produce 1 kg of this salt? (answer in kg, rounded to nearest integer).


Solution:

35 parts per thousand is 3.5 %
This means that 1000 g of sea water contains 35 g of salt.
In 1 kg of final product, there is 995 g of salt.
So we need 995/35 = 28.4 kg of sea water.

QUESTION: 61

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

The third, fifth and eighth terms of an A.P are consecutive terms of a G.P. The common ratio of the G.P will be :

Solution:

Let the A.P be a, a +d, a + 2d, …….
Then we have  (a + 4d)2 = (a +2d) (a +7d)….. (1)
or a = 2d.
Now common ratio = (a + 4d) / (a + 2d) = 6 / 4 = 1.5

QUESTION: 62

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Z = **5**1*** is a nine- digit number. 1st three, 2nd three and last three digits each form three digit- numbers P, Q & R, i.e. P= **5, Q = **1 and R = ***. If P, Q and R are perfect squares and hundreds digit and tens digit are the same in P and also in Q, while the sum of the hundreds digit and the units digit of R is equal to its Tens digit. Then find the possible value of Z.

Solution:

P = 225 & Q = 441 (where both are perfect squares and hundreds and tens digits are same).
R = 484 or 121 (both are perfect squares and sum of hundreds and units digit is equal to tens digits).

So, Z can be 225441121 or 225441484.

QUESTION: 63

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.
In the figure, BOC is a diameter of the circle with center O. AD is the perpendicular bisector of OB and OB = AB. Which of the angles X, Y, Z, W is/are equal to 30°?

Solution:

Here x + y + z  = 900 .................(1) ( angles in semi- circle),
Now < AOC = 90 + y
Hence w + z + 90 + y = 1800
⇒  y + z + w = 900 ................(2)  
From equation 1...  2y + z  = 900…(1) (given x = y as AD is perpendicular bisector of OB)
From equation 2... y + 2z = 900 (z = w, base angles of Isos. Triangle)
By solving both the equations we get y = 300, z = 300, x = 300, w =300.

QUESTION: 64

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

A landlord purchased a plot for Rs. 25000 per hectare 3 years ago. The rupee falls at a rate of 1% in 4 years while the cost of plot increases at a rate of 10% in 5 years. Find out the approximate value of the plot per hectare 17 years later from now?

Solution:

Total time period = 17 + 3 = 20 years
The valuation of the plot after 20 years = Plot value × Rupee value
Plot value = (1+10/100)4 × 25000 = Rs. 36602.5
Rupee value = (1 – 1/100)5 = 0.95 (Though the real value will be a bit more due to compounding but because it is 1%, so negligible)
Hence, value of the plot after 20 years = 36602.5 × 0.95 = Rs. 34,772

QUESTION: 65

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

A chain smoker buys two matchboxes filled with n matchsticks each. Every time he needs a matchstick, he chooses one of the boxes at random and takes out a matchstick. One day, he takes out a matchbox and finds it empty. The probability that the other matchbox contains k (0 < k < n) matchsticks is

Solution:

The total number of matches is 2n. Since one of the  boxes is empty and the other has k matches, it means that 2n - k matches have already been used. The total number of ways of choosing any of these matches is 22n - k. Since we are interested in the empty box, we need to choose all n matches from that box.
This can be done in 2n - kCn ways. Thus the required probability is 

QUESTION: 66

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Which of the following statements is definitely true?

Solution:

If all the angles in a parallelogram are acute, their sum cannot be 360°. So option 1 is false.

Option 2 is not necessarily true as the diagonals of a kite are also perpendicular to each other. Consider option 3.

Each diagonal of a quadrilateral divides it into 2 triangles. So, the lines joining the mid-points of the sides will be parallel to the diagonals and their lengths will be half the lengths of the corresponding diagonals. So, the figure formed will be a parallelogram.

Since the diagonals are perpendicular to each other, the sides of the parallelogram formed will be perpendicular to each other.

In other words, the parallelogram formed is a rectangle.

Thus option 3 is true.

QUESTION: 67

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

If x and y are both real, what is the least possible value of the function f(x, y) = x2y2 − 4x2y + 4x2 − 2xy2 + 8xy − 8x + y2 − 4y + 7?

Solution:

► f(x, y) = x2y2 − 4x2y + 4x2 − 2xy2 + 8xy − 8x + y2 − 4y + 7                  
► f(x, y) = (x2y2 − 4x2y + 4x2) + (−2xy2 + 8xy − 8x) + (y2 − 4y + 4) + 3                           
► f(x, y) = x2(y2 − 4y + 4) − 2x(y2 − 4y + 4) + (y2 − 4y + 4) + 3             
► f(x, y) = (x2 − 2x + 1)(y2 − 4y + 4) + 3
► f(x, y) = (x − 1)2(y − 2)2  + 3         

It can be seen from this final expression that f(x, y) is always positive, and that its least value occurs when one of (x − 1) = 0 or (y − 2) = 0. This least value = 0 + 3 = 3.

QUESTION: 68

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

The logarithm of 16∛32 to the base of ∛2 is

Solution:

Let x be the required logarithm.

By replacing logarithm with the help of the definition, we get 

QUESTION: 69

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Two taps A and B can fill a cistern in 15 hours and 10 hours respectively. Tap C can empty full cistern in 30 hours. All the three taps were opened for 2 hours, when it was remembered that the emptying tap had been left open, it was then closed.
How many hours more would it take for the cistern to be filled?

Solution:

Let the capacity of the tank is 30 litres.

∴ Tap A can fill it at 2 liter/hr rate and Tap B can fill it at 3 liter/hr rate, where as Tap C can empty it at 1 liter/hr rate.

Now, amount of water filled in tank in 2 hrs = 2×2 + 3 × 2 – 1 × 2 = 8 litre

Remaining volume of tank to be filled = 30 – 8 = 22 liter.

Now, this 22 litres will be filled by A & B working together in 22/5 = 4.4 hrs

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 70

The average of three numbers is 77. If the 1st number is twice that of  2nd number and the 2nd number is twice that of 3rd number, then the 1st number is___. (in numerical value)


Solution:

Let the three nos be a, b and c
So 
⇒ a + b + c = 231 ...(1)
Now, we are given that

Using equation (1), 

So Answer is option 1

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 71

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Solve the following question and write the answer.

In an examination, a candidate wrote seven papers all having equal maximum possible marks. If the marks he secured in these seven papers are in the ratio 4 : 5 : 6 : 7 : 8: 9: 10, and the average of his highest and lowest scores is 60%, find the number of papers in which he scored not less than 75%. (in numerical value)


Solution:

Average of 4 and 10 is 7 which is 60% of total. Hence total is 7/60% and 75% of which is 8.75. So required number of papers is 2. 

QUESTION: 72

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Two boats start from points A and B of a river and travel towards each other with the same speeds of 5 kmph. The first boat covers half the distance covered by the second boat when they meet. After that point the first boat increases its speed and both the boats reach their respective destinations at the same time. What was the stream speed and the increase in the speed of the boat?

Solution:

Let the initial distance between the point A and B be 3x km, the stream speed be s kmph and the increase in speed of the first boat be y kmph.
Since the speed of both the boats is same and the first boat covers half the distance covered by the second boat, so the first boat is moving upstream and second boat downstream.
Thus x/(5 – s) = 2x/(5 + s)
5x + sx = 10x – 2sx
3sx = 5x
s = 5/3 kmph.
After meeting, the first boat increases its speed and both reach their respective destinations at the same time, hence,
2x/(5 + y – 5/3) = x/(5 + 5/3)
So, y = 10 kmph.
Hence option 1.

QUESTION: 73

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

A man gives a 40% commission and still earns a 12% profit on the sale of an article. Had the man offered the agent a commission of 25%, what would be the profit earned?

Solution:

S.P.= M.P.(0.6) = C.P.(1.12) =>  M.P. = C.P.(28/15)
According to given statement, S.P.= M.P.(3/4) = C.P. (28/15)(3/4) = C.P.(1.4).
Hence the profit is 40%.

QUESTION: 74

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Determine 3x4 + 2x5 if x1, x2, x3, x4, and x5 satisfy the system of equations below.
2x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 = 6
x1 + 2x2 + x3 + x+ x5  = 12
x1 + x2 + 2x3 + x+ x5  = 24
x1 + x2 + x3 + 2x+ x5  = 48
x1 + x2 + x3 + x+ 2x5  = 96

Solution:

Adding all five equations gives us 6 (x1 + x2 + x3 + x+ x5) = 6 (1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16) so x1 + x2 + x3 + x+ x5 = 31.

Subtracting this from the fourth given equation gives x4 = 17 and subtracting it from the fifth given equation gives x5 = 65, so our answer is 3 × 17 + 2 × 65 = 181.

QUESTION: 75

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

A square of side 1 foot is rotated about one of its diagonal. What is the volume, in cubic feet, of the solid formed?

Solution:

The solid formed will look like two congruent cones placed one on top of the other. Each of these cones will have height and radius equal to half the diagonal of the square.

Since the diagonal of the square is √2, the heights and radii of the cones are each equal to 1/√2. Thus the volume of the solid will be 

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