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CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022)


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CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 1

Read the passage and answer the questions that follow:

It is important to keep in mind how differently people thought then. People's primary concern was to avoid living an unfortunate life. Therefore, they were more likely to order their thoughts, decisions, and behaviours to promote increased life satisfaction. One of the most important things to keep in mind is individuals didn’t automatically assume that they would achieve happiness by attaining money, prestige, and or beautiful things. With great urgency, people wanted to understand how they could have an excellent soul.

Stoicism was one of the famous schools of thought during this period because the Stoics provided interesting answers to anxiety, stress, fear, and troubling questions like “What do I want out of life?” The Stoics offered an operating system that dealt with the trials of the human condition. Their ultimate answer to these issues (essentially) went: I want enduring happiness and tranquillity of mind, which comes from being a virtuous person. In summation, Stoicism was an ancient school of philosophy that taught a particular way of living. Its principal focus was how to live a virtuous life, maximize happiness and reduce negative emotions. The Stoic philosophy changed over time, shifting focus from logic and physics - to more psychological concerns like tranquillity and well-being. Also, the Stoics could never convene to affirm all of their tenants precisely, but there are certain principles at the core of the Stoic operating system.

Epictetus - A Greek Stoic Philosopher wrote, "Some things are up to us, and some are not up to us. Our opinions are up to us, and our impulses, desires, aversions-in short, whatever is our own doing. Our bodies are not up to us, nor are our possessions, our reputations, or our public offices." If we tether our happiness to things, not within our control, be it wealth, beauty, social status, or even our health, we will suffer unnecessarily. For chance, luck, randomness, or whatever one wishes to call it, plays a massive role in each person’s life. We can easily lose the external goods or accolades on which, in ignorance, we base our happiness, or even fail to attain them in the first place. But acceptance of this does not have to lead to fatalistic resignation in the assumption that because some things are out of our control, so too is our well-being. Epictetus explained that we are troubled by our judgement about things and because we can control our judgements, the quality of our life is also within our control.

The Stoics take a very different view of misfortune than most people. They expect mishaps and use them as opportunities to hone their virtues. Imagine breaking a leg and needing to sit in bed for four months while it heals. A Stoic would attempt to guide their thoughts away from useless “woe is me” rumination and focus instead on how they might do something productive while bedridden (e.g., write their first book). They would try to reframe the event as a way to cultivate their patience and become more creative. Where there is an adverse event, Stoics try not to let it ruin their tranquillity, and instead, they try to derive character-building benefits wherever possible. This is the beauty of stoicism.

 

Q. Which of the following is an inference that can be drawn from the second paragraph?

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 2

Read the passage and answer the questions that follow:

It is important to keep in mind how differently people thought then. People's primary concern was to avoid living an unfortunate life. Therefore, they were more likely to order their thoughts, decisions, and behaviours to promote increased life satisfaction. One of the most important things to keep in mind is individuals didn’t automatically assume that they would achieve happiness by attaining money, prestige, and or beautiful things. With great urgency, people wanted to understand how they could have an excellent soul.

Stoicism was one of the famous schools of thought during this period because the Stoics provided interesting answers to anxiety, stress, fear, and troubling questions like “What do I want out of life?” The Stoics offered an operating system that dealt with the trials of the human condition. Their ultimate answer to these issues (essentially) went: I want enduring happiness and tranquillity of mind, which comes from being a virtuous person. In summation, Stoicism was an ancient school of philosophy that taught a particular way of living. Its principal focus was how to live a virtuous life, maximize happiness and reduce negative emotions. The Stoic philosophy changed over time, shifting focus from logic and physics - to more psychological concerns like tranquillity and well-being. Also, the Stoics could never convene to affirm all of their tenants precisely, but there are certain principles at the core of the Stoic operating system.

Epictetus - A Greek Stoic Philosopher wrote, "Some things are up to us, and some are not up to us. Our opinions are up to us, and our impulses, desires, aversions-in short, whatever is our own doing. Our bodies are not up to us, nor are our possessions, our reputations, or our public offices." If we tether our happiness to things, not within our control, be it wealth, beauty, social status, or even our health, we will suffer unnecessarily. For chance, luck, randomness, or whatever one wishes to call it, plays a massive role in each person’s life. We can easily lose the external goods or accolades on which, in ignorance, we base our happiness, or even fail to attain them in the first place. But acceptance of this does not have to lead to fatalistic resignation in the assumption that because some things are out of our control, so too is our well-being. Epictetus explained that we are troubled by our judgement about things and because we can control our judgements, the quality of our life is also within our control.

The Stoics take a very different view of misfortune than most people. They expect mishaps and use them as opportunities to hone their virtues. Imagine breaking a leg and needing to sit in bed for four months while it heals. A Stoic would attempt to guide their thoughts away from useless “woe is me” rumination and focus instead on how they might do something productive while bedridden (e.g., write their first book). They would try to reframe the event as a way to cultivate their patience and become more creative. Where there is an adverse event, Stoics try not to let it ruin their tranquillity, and instead, they try to derive character-building benefits wherever possible. This is the beauty of stoicism.

 

Q. According to Epictetus' philosophy, which of the following best expresses the role played by chance in the well being of an individual?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 2

The penultimate paragraph describes Epictetus' philosophy, where it is said that a person suffers when they tether their happiness to worldly possessions, which depend upon chance. Hence, he implies that chance does not directly affect the well-being of a person, but is affected when a person identifies their happiness in their possessions, which are subject to fate. Option C is in line with this.

Option A couples fate and well being, which is in direct contradiction to Epictetus's philosophy. Hence, it can be eliminated.

"But acceptance of this does not have to lead to fatalistic resignation in the assumption that because some things are out of our control, so too is our well-being."

Option B is again in contradiction to what is said. Epictetus does not distinguish between external and internal well-being and says that all well-being is under a person's control. Hence, Option B can be eliminated too.

Option D has not been implied in the passage. Moreover, goes against the main point stated in the penultimate paragraph, as mentioned above.

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 3

Read the passage and answer the questions that follow:

It is important to keep in mind how differently people thought then. People's primary concern was to avoid living an unfortunate life. Therefore, they were more likely to order their thoughts, decisions, and behaviours to promote increased life satisfaction. One of the most important things to keep in mind is individuals didn’t automatically assume that they would achieve happiness by attaining money, prestige, and or beautiful things. With great urgency, people wanted to understand how they could have an excellent soul.

Stoicism was one of the famous schools of thought during this period because the Stoics provided interesting answers to anxiety, stress, fear, and troubling questions like “What do I want out of life?” The Stoics offered an operating system that dealt with the trials of the human condition. Their ultimate answer to these issues (essentially) went: I want enduring happiness and tranquillity of mind, which comes from being a virtuous person. In summation, Stoicism was an ancient school of philosophy that taught a particular way of living. Its principal focus was how to live a virtuous life, maximize happiness and reduce negative emotions. The Stoic philosophy changed over time, shifting focus from logic and physics - to more psychological concerns like tranquillity and well-being. Also, the Stoics could never convene to affirm all of their tenants precisely, but there are certain principles at the core of the Stoic operating system.

Epictetus - A Greek Stoic Philosopher wrote, "Some things are up to us, and some are not up to us. Our opinions are up to us, and our impulses, desires, aversions-in short, whatever is our own doing. Our bodies are not up to us, nor are our possessions, our reputations, or our public offices." If we tether our happiness to things, not within our control, be it wealth, beauty, social status, or even our health, we will suffer unnecessarily. For chance, luck, randomness, or whatever one wishes to call it, plays a massive role in each person’s life. We can easily lose the external goods or accolades on which, in ignorance, we base our happiness, or even fail to attain them in the first place. But acceptance of this does not have to lead to fatalistic resignation in the assumption that because some things are out of our control, so too is our well-being. Epictetus explained that we are troubled by our judgement about things and because we can control our judgements, the quality of our life is also within our control.

The Stoics take a very different view of misfortune than most people. They expect mishaps and use them as opportunities to hone their virtues. Imagine breaking a leg and needing to sit in bed for four months while it heals. A Stoic would attempt to guide their thoughts away from useless “woe is me” rumination and focus instead on how they might do something productive while bedridden (e.g., write their first book). They would try to reframe the event as a way to cultivate their patience and become more creative. Where there is an adverse event, Stoics try not to let it ruin their tranquillity, and instead, they try to derive character-building benefits wherever possible. This is the beauty of stoicism.

 

Q. Which of the following is NOT an example of a stoic response to adversity?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 3

The Stoics take a very different view of misfortune than most people. They expect mishaps and use them as opportunities to hone their virtues.

A stoic response to adversity would be one where a person uses adversity as an opportunity to hone his/her virtues. Instead of woefully ruminating or complaining about the misfortune, a person would start working on his/her skills or engage in some other meaningful task. The focus would be on using the misfortune as an opportunity to improve themselves.

In Option A, the person decides to work on her technical skills instead of fretting over the loss of her job. Hence, A would be counted as a Stoic response.

In Option B, the student decides to prepare for competitive examinations when he is unable to attend the classes. He makes productive use of his time in the face of adversity. Hence, B is also an example of a Stoic response.

In Option D, the textile worker mentioned starts learning hand embroidery to support herself, instead of focusing on the fact that she lost a leg. She engages in a productive activity instead of fretting over her misfortune, and hence D is also an example of a Stoic response.

Option C does not classify as a stoic response. Though the person is engaging in an activity, we cannot say that rebuilding the house is working on honing their virtues. Moreover, a house is an external possession and not internal virtue which is the focus of Stoicism.

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 4

Read the passage and answer the questions that follow:

It is important to keep in mind how differently people thought then. People's primary concern was to avoid living an unfortunate life. Therefore, they were more likely to order their thoughts, decisions, and behaviours to promote increased life satisfaction. One of the most important things to keep in mind is individuals didn’t automatically assume that they would achieve happiness by attaining money, prestige, and or beautiful things. With great urgency, people wanted to understand how they could have an excellent soul.

Stoicism was one of the famous schools of thought during this period because the Stoics provided interesting answers to anxiety, stress, fear, and troubling questions like “What do I want out of life?” The Stoics offered an operating system that dealt with the trials of the human condition. Their ultimate answer to these issues (essentially) went: I want enduring happiness and tranquillity of mind, which comes from being a virtuous person. In summation, Stoicism was an ancient school of philosophy that taught a particular way of living. Its principal focus was how to live a virtuous life, maximize happiness and reduce negative emotions. The Stoic philosophy changed over time, shifting focus from logic and physics - to more psychological concerns like tranquillity and well-being. Also, the Stoics could never convene to affirm all of their tenants precisely, but there are certain principles at the core of the Stoic operating system.

Epictetus - A Greek Stoic Philosopher wrote, "Some things are up to us, and some are not up to us. Our opinions are up to us, and our impulses, desires, aversions-in short, whatever is our own doing. Our bodies are not up to us, nor are our possessions, our reputations, or our public offices." If we tether our happiness to things, not within our control, be it wealth, beauty, social status, or even our health, we will suffer unnecessarily. For chance, luck, randomness, or whatever one wishes to call it, plays a massive role in each person’s life. We can easily lose the external goods or accolades on which, in ignorance, we base our happiness, or even fail to attain them in the first place. But acceptance of this does not have to lead to fatalistic resignation in the assumption that because some things are out of our control, so too is our well-being. Epictetus explained that we are troubled by our judgement about things and because we can control our judgements, the quality of our life is also within our control.

The Stoics take a very different view of misfortune than most people. They expect mishaps and use them as opportunities to hone their virtues. Imagine breaking a leg and needing to sit in bed for four months while it heals. A Stoic would attempt to guide their thoughts away from useless “woe is me” rumination and focus instead on how they might do something productive while bedridden (e.g., write their first book). They would try to reframe the event as a way to cultivate their patience and become more creative. Where there is an adverse event, Stoics try not to let it ruin their tranquillity, and instead, they try to derive character-building benefits wherever possible. This is the beauty of stoicism.

 

Q. According to the passage, what can be a direct consequence of people trying to avoid an unfortunate life?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 4

"People's primary concern was to avoid living an unfortunate life. Therefore, they were more likely to order their thoughts, decisions, and behaviours to promote increased life satisfaction."

These lines from the first paragraph state that since people wanted to avoid living an unfortunate life, they were likely to alter their thought processes, decision making and behaviour such that it increased their life satisfaction. Hence, we can infer that a direct consequence would be people making changes to themselves, such that their life satisfaction is increased. Hence Option C can be inferred.

Option A is mentioned in the same paragraph but is not implied as a direct consequence.

Option B is not a direct consequence, as people refer to philosophies like them to find answers to difficult questions, not necessarily to avoid an unfortunate life.

Option D is also not a direct consequence mentioned, as it mentions people embracing Stoicism, which is too specific. Ordering of thought, decisions and behaviour is not the same as embracing the same from as school of philosophy. Hence, it is a distortion and can be eliminated.

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 5

Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Humans often appear to react irrationally in the face of disease, as the COVID-19 pandemic has shown. Many cling to religion or become superstitious. Others become fatalistic. In times of plague and trauma, we moderns seek to protect ourselves with prayers, charms, sigils and spells as much as any medieval peasant. That a surgical mask is hygienic doesn’t make it any less of a magical symbol.

Despite the often blood-soaked history of the use of the term ‘magic’, we must remember that Western history is filled with thinkers who have defended its honour as good natural science - a tried-and-true technology for harnessing interactions between minds and bodies, human and otherwise. And their empirical claims were never tested more than during the centuries of plague. During the previous millennium, the biggest boom in the practice of magic coincided with the Black Death in the mid-14th century. It was the deadliest pandemic in human history, killing as much as half the population of Asia, Africa and Europe - around 200 million souls. 

The Islamic world...was hit particularly hard by the plague. There, it helped give rise to the ‘occult-scientific revolution’, where various occult sciences - astrology, alchemy, kabbalah, geomancy, dream interpretation - became an important basis for empire more than ever before. The ability to predict the future with divination, then change it with magic, was of obvious political, military and economic interest. Western Europe saw a parallel upsurge of occultism - much of it from Arabic sources - which we now call the Renaissance. The scientific revolution that followed continued the same trend: historians now admit that saints of science such as Johannes Kepler, Francis Bacon, Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton were likewise raving occultists.

Medicine, too, was often classified and practised as an occult science among premodern Muslim, Jewish and Christian physicians. Many considered it alchemy’s sister, both sciences being predicated on the harnessing of cosmic correspondences and natural sympathies to restore elemental equilibrium in the human body - the definition of health. Techniques for life-extension were also central to the alchemical quest. The sweeping physical and sociopolitical imbalances wrought by plague were accordingly answered by an upsurge in medicine, occult and otherwise.

Why did, and do, most practitioners of spiritual medicine see it as a perfectly rational response? Leaving aside the possible agency of spirits and other nonhuman entities, one factor is certain: the placebo effect. It refers to the clinical effectiveness of inert substitutes in healing disease, as long as the patient believes them to be a real drug. Under conditions of mass trauma, combined with sincere belief and mental focus, the effectiveness of the placebo often goes up sharply, with patients able to change their physiology at will. As it happens, creating extreme psychophysical conditions is also a prerequisite to the practice of many occult arts: fasting, prayer, isolation, a vegetarian diet, ritual cleanliness and constant vigil, for weeks, months or even years on end. 

By any premodern definition, then, the placebo effect is simply a form of magic. Whether you believe in the authority of celestial spirits or of doctors in white lab coats, the effect is similar: astonishing reversals (or inducements) of disease can sometimes be achieved through the power of belief alone - especially when ritually, traumatically harnessed.

 

Q. Which of the following has NOT been mentioned as one of the purposes of magic/occult sciences in the passage? 

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 5

"In times of plague and trauma, we moderns seek to protect ourselves with prayers, charms, sigils and spells as much as any medieval peasant." Option A can be inferred from this line.

"various occult sciences - astrology, alchemy, kabbalah, geomancy, dream interpretation - became an important basis for empire more than ever before. The ability to predict the future with divination, then change it with magic, was of obvious political, military and economic interest." Hence, we can infer that magic as a means to predict/portend the future and alter it for certain purposes has been presented in the passage. Option C can be inferred.

"Many considered it alchemy’s sister, both sciences being predicated on the harnessing of cosmic correspondences and natural sympathies to restore elemental equilibrium in the human body - the definition of health. Techniques for life-extension were also central to the alchemical quest." Option D echoes the above point and hence, can be eliminated.

Option B has not been stated in the passage. 

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 6

Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Humans often appear to react irrationally in the face of disease, as the COVID-19 pandemic has shown. Many cling to religion or become superstitious. Others become fatalistic. In times of plague and trauma, we moderns seek to protect ourselves with prayers, charms, sigils and spells as much as any medieval peasant. That a surgical mask is hygienic doesn’t make it any less of a magical symbol.

Despite the often blood-soaked history of the use of the term ‘magic’, we must remember that Western history is filled with thinkers who have defended its honour as good natural science - a tried-and-true technology for harnessing interactions between minds and bodies, human and otherwise. And their empirical claims were never tested more than during the centuries of plague. During the previous millennium, the biggest boom in the practice of magic coincided with the Black Death in the mid-14th century. It was the deadliest pandemic in human history, killing as much as half the population of Asia, Africa and Europe - around 200 million souls. 

The Islamic world...was hit particularly hard by the plague. There, it helped give rise to the ‘occult-scientific revolution’, where various occult sciences - astrology, alchemy, kabbalah, geomancy, dream interpretation - became an important basis for empire more than ever before. The ability to predict the future with divination, then change it with magic, was of obvious political, military and economic interest. Western Europe saw a parallel upsurge of occultism - much of it from Arabic sources - which we now call the Renaissance. The scientific revolution that followed continued the same trend: historians now admit that saints of science such as Johannes Kepler, Francis Bacon, Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton were likewise raving occultists.

Medicine, too, was often classified and practised as an occult science among premodern Muslim, Jewish and Christian physicians. Many considered it alchemy’s sister, both sciences being predicated on the harnessing of cosmic correspondences and natural sympathies to restore elemental equilibrium in the human body - the definition of health. Techniques for life-extension were also central to the alchemical quest. The sweeping physical and sociopolitical imbalances wrought by plague were accordingly answered by an upsurge in medicine, occult and otherwise.

Why did, and do, most practitioners of spiritual medicine see it as a perfectly rational response? Leaving aside the possible agency of spirits and other nonhuman entities, one factor is certain: the placebo effect. It refers to the clinical effectiveness of inert substitutes in healing disease, as long as the patient believes them to be a real drug. Under conditions of mass trauma, combined with sincere belief and mental focus, the effectiveness of the placebo often goes up sharply, with patients able to change their physiology at will. As it happens, creating extreme psychophysical conditions is also a prerequisite to the practice of many occult arts: fasting, prayer, isolation, a vegetarian diet, ritual cleanliness and constant vigil, for weeks, months or even years on end. 

By any premodern definition, then, the placebo effect is simply a form of magic. Whether you believe in the authority of celestial spirits or of doctors in white lab coats, the effect is similar: astonishing reversals (or inducements) of disease can sometimes be achieved through the power of belief alone - especially when ritually, traumatically harnessed.

 

Q. Which of the following highlights a major similarity between premodern medicine and alchemy?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 6

The author highlights the following similarities between premodern medicine and alchemy in the fourth paragraph-

-"both sciences...predicated on the harnessing of cosmic correspondences and natural sympathies to restore elemental equilibrium in the human body - the definition of health."

-"Techniques for life-extension were also central to the alchemical quest."

Hence, we can infer that the similarity between the two was that they both were practised as an occult science and relied on occult methods such as harnessing cosmic correspondences and natural sympathies.

Option A is a distortion. Both sciences sought to restore the elemental equilibrium in the human body, but the author does not assert that they sought equitable health outcomes.

Option B is correct. It is based on the first of the two similarities outlined above.

Option C is wrong. They attempted to restore the elemental equilibrium, i.e., the natural state, and not alter it. 

Option D is also a distortion. Both sciences sought to restore an original elemental equilibrium. The creation of a new equilibrium has not been implied in the passage.

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 7

Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Humans often appear to react irrationally in the face of disease, as the COVID-19 pandemic has shown. Many cling to religion or become superstitious. Others become fatalistic. In times of plague and trauma, we moderns seek to protect ourselves with prayers, charms, sigils and spells as much as any medieval peasant. That a surgical mask is hygienic doesn’t make it any less of a magical symbol.

Despite the often blood-soaked history of the use of the term ‘magic’, we must remember that Western history is filled with thinkers who have defended its honour as good natural science - a tried-and-true technology for harnessing interactions between minds and bodies, human and otherwise. And their empirical claims were never tested more than during the centuries of plague. During the previous millennium, the biggest boom in the practice of magic coincided with the Black Death in the mid-14th century. It was the deadliest pandemic in human history, killing as much as half the population of Asia, Africa and Europe - around 200 million souls. 

The Islamic world...was hit particularly hard by the plague. There, it helped give rise to the ‘occult-scientific revolution’, where various occult sciences - astrology, alchemy, kabbalah, geomancy, dream interpretation - became an important basis for empire more than ever before. The ability to predict the future with divination, then change it with magic, was of obvious political, military and economic interest. Western Europe saw a parallel upsurge of occultism - much of it from Arabic sources - which we now call the Renaissance. The scientific revolution that followed continued the same trend: historians now admit that saints of science such as Johannes Kepler, Francis Bacon, Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton were likewise raving occultists.

Medicine, too, was often classified and practised as an occult science among premodern Muslim, Jewish and Christian physicians. Many considered it alchemy’s sister, both sciences being predicated on the harnessing of cosmic correspondences and natural sympathies to restore elemental equilibrium in the human body - the definition of health. Techniques for life-extension were also central to the alchemical quest. The sweeping physical and sociopolitical imbalances wrought by plague were accordingly answered by an upsurge in medicine, occult and otherwise.

Why did, and do, most practitioners of spiritual medicine see it as a perfectly rational response? Leaving aside the possible agency of spirits and other nonhuman entities, one factor is certain: the placebo effect. It refers to the clinical effectiveness of inert substitutes in healing disease, as long as the patient believes them to be a real drug. Under conditions of mass trauma, combined with sincere belief and mental focus, the effectiveness of the placebo often goes up sharply, with patients able to change their physiology at will. As it happens, creating extreme psychophysical conditions is also a prerequisite to the practice of many occult arts: fasting, prayer, isolation, a vegetarian diet, ritual cleanliness and constant vigil, for weeks, months or even years on end. 

By any premodern definition, then, the placebo effect is simply a form of magic. Whether you believe in the authority of celestial spirits or of doctors in white lab coats, the effect is similar: astonishing reversals (or inducements) of disease can sometimes be achieved through the power of belief alone - especially when ritually, traumatically harnessed.

 

Q. Why does the author mention the 'surgical mask' in the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 7

"Humans often appear to react irrationally in the face of disease, as the COVID-19 pandemic has shown. Many cling to religion or become superstitious. Others become fatalistic. In times of plague and trauma, we moderns seek to protect ourselves with prayers, charms, sigils and spells as much as any medieval peasant. That a surgical mask is hygienic doesn’t make it any less of a magical symbol."

The first paragraph is about how humans act irrationally in the face of disease, and how they have different coping mechanisms. The author also states that we protect ourselves with prayers and other occult practices like a medieval peasant would have done. But the last line of the passage has a deeper significance than just stating a fact. It acts as a justification for the previous lines. The author here justifies that a surgical mask could be construed as a magical symbol, in spite of it having scientific utility. The author has mentioned the mask here as a proof that modern humans do behave irrationally, just as they did in earlier times. Option C perfectly captures this.

The author explicitly mentions Option A, and this is not the purpose why he mentions the mask as explained above. Hence, A can be eliminated.

Option B is not the main contention of the author while mentioning the surgical masks, as it does not help his argument in any way. Hence B can be eliminated.

The author does not draw a parallel between occult and scientific practices but between the way humans reacted to disease in the pre-modern era and how they react to it in the modern era. Hence, D can be eliminated too.

Hence, Option C is the answer.

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 8

Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Humans often appear to react irrationally in the face of disease, as the COVID-19 pandemic has shown. Many cling to religion or become superstitious. Others become fatalistic. In times of plague and trauma, we moderns seek to protect ourselves with prayers, charms, sigils and spells as much as any medieval peasant. That a surgical mask is hygienic doesn’t make it any less of a magical symbol.

Despite the often blood-soaked history of the use of the term ‘magic’, we must remember that Western history is filled with thinkers who have defended its honour as good natural science - a tried-and-true technology for harnessing interactions between minds and bodies, human and otherwise. And their empirical claims were never tested more than during the centuries of plague. During the previous millennium, the biggest boom in the practice of magic coincided with the Black Death in the mid-14th century. It was the deadliest pandemic in human history, killing as much as half the population of Asia, Africa and Europe - around 200 million souls. 

The Islamic world...was hit particularly hard by the plague. There, it helped give rise to the ‘occult-scientific revolution’, where various occult sciences - astrology, alchemy, kabbalah, geomancy, dream interpretation - became an important basis for empire more than ever before. The ability to predict the future with divination, then change it with magic, was of obvious political, military and economic interest. Western Europe saw a parallel upsurge of occultism - much of it from Arabic sources - which we now call the Renaissance. The scientific revolution that followed continued the same trend: historians now admit that saints of science such as Johannes Kepler, Francis Bacon, Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton were likewise raving occultists.

Medicine, too, was often classified and practised as an occult science among premodern Muslim, Jewish and Christian physicians. Many considered it alchemy’s sister, both sciences being predicated on the harnessing of cosmic correspondences and natural sympathies to restore elemental equilibrium in the human body - the definition of health. Techniques for life-extension were also central to the alchemical quest. The sweeping physical and sociopolitical imbalances wrought by plague were accordingly answered by an upsurge in medicine, occult and otherwise.

Why did, and do, most practitioners of spiritual medicine see it as a perfectly rational response? Leaving aside the possible agency of spirits and other nonhuman entities, one factor is certain: the placebo effect. It refers to the clinical effectiveness of inert substitutes in healing disease, as long as the patient believes them to be a real drug. Under conditions of mass trauma, combined with sincere belief and mental focus, the effectiveness of the placebo often goes up sharply, with patients able to change their physiology at will. As it happens, creating extreme psychophysical conditions is also a prerequisite to the practice of many occult arts: fasting, prayer, isolation, a vegetarian diet, ritual cleanliness and constant vigil, for weeks, months or even years on end. 

By any premodern definition, then, the placebo effect is simply a form of magic. Whether you believe in the authority of celestial spirits or of doctors in white lab coats, the effect is similar: astonishing reversals (or inducements) of disease can sometimes be achieved through the power of belief alone - especially when ritually, traumatically harnessed.

 

Q. "The scientific revolution that followed continued the same trend". The 'trend' in the statement refers to

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 8

"Western Europe saw a parallel upsurge of occultism - much of it from Arabic sources - which we now call the Renaissance. The scientific revolution that followed continued the same trend: historians now admit that saints of science such as Johannes Kepler, Francis Bacon, Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton were likewise raving occultists."

So, while the Islamic world witnessed an occult-scientific revolution, the Western world also witnessed a surge in interest for the occult, thanks to Arabic sources. And this surge in interest/popularity continued during the subsequent scientific revolution as well. 

Only option D conveys the above inference. Option D is the answer 

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 9

Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Our meritocracy looks to markets to measure merit. Prices—including, crucially, wages—establish what things are worth. Greg Mankiw, who chaired George Bush’s Council of Economic Advisers, captures the ideal in his “principle of just deserts.” Meritocracy holds that “a person who contributes more to society deserves a higher income that reflects those greater contributions.” Moreover, meritocracy measures each person’s contribution as the market value that she adds “to society’s production of goods and services.”

But in reality, meritocratic hierarchies now distort market valuations, especially wages. Elites remake work in their own image, to privilege education and skills that only they can afford to acquire. Finance illustrates the pattern. In the mid 20th century, when the Economist called banking “the world’s most respectable dying industry,” those in the field were neither better educated nor better paid than others. Since then, super-educated elites have developed technologies—financial instruments, digital tools and legal regimes—that dramatically favour their own skills. Today, no sector is more closely associated with high wages. But the innovation is not a true advance, and the new style of finance does not make a greater social contribution than the old. The transaction costs of financial intermediation have not declined, and overall financial risk is neither reduced nor better shared.

Similar patterns pervade the wider economy. Elites remake work to favour their peculiar skills and then use the enormous incomes that ensue to buy educations for their children that the rest cannot match. Far from correcting itself, meritocratic inequality triggers a feedback loop that undermines meritocracy’s core claims. Merit is an ideology built to launder offensive hierarchies.

But, today's distribution of rewards and opportunities is not so repugnant that we need to junk the idea of merit. The meritocratic idea was forged in the revolt against the old society that fixed people’s position at birth, most notably in the French and American Revolutions of the 18th century and the English liberal revolution of the 19th. But things didn’t stop there. Prominent thinkers of the time like Du Bois and Luther King, all rested their arguments on the idea that people should be judged on the basis of their own abilities. I would agree with a reworded version of Mankiw’s principle: someone who contributes more to prosperity deserves a higher income that reflects their greater contribution.

There is more to meritocracy than money-making. The meritocratic idea tries to address two of the great problems at the heart of modernity: how do we reconcile the moral equality of individuals with social differentiation? And how do we secure the economic growth that pays for the things we have come to expect, such as social welfare?
Meritocracy answers the first question by providing a combination of equality of opportunity and competition. Universal education gives everybody a basic shot at succeeding. Competition allows people to discover their unique talents. And if competition has downsides, they are nothing compared with the risks of allowing talents to go undiscovered. The evidence that meritocracy promotes economic efficiency is overwhelming: meritocratic countries such as Singapore grow more robustly than non-meritocratic ones such as Greece; public companies that recruit people on merit are more successful than family companies that rely on nepotism. The solution to the inequalities produced by meritocracy’s success is to tax the winners rather than to bind Prometheus.

 

Q. Which of the following best describes what the passage is trying to do?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 9

In the former half of the passage, the author discusses the cons of the meritocracy system and how it has meandered away from its original objectives. But, in the latter half, the author makes a case for the continued adoption of the meritocracy system, highlighting its role in enabling economic efficiency and social equality. Towards the end, the author states, "The solution to the inequalities produced by meritocracy’s success is to tax the winners rather than to bind Prometheus." Here, the author advocates the need for positive changes to the system rather than completely doing away with it.

Comparing the options, option C captures the author's view correctly. Option C is the answer.

Option A is out of scope. The link between idealism and realism cannot be inferred from the passage.

Option B is extreme. The evidence has not been described as overwhelmingly in favour of the viewpoint that meritocracy breeds inequality. The author merely attempts to bring out the two sides of the system.

Option D is an exaggeration. The author does not imply that any system can be hijacked by the elite for their own benefit. Hence, option d can be eliminated.

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 10

Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Our meritocracy looks to markets to measure merit. Prices—including, crucially, wages—establish what things are worth. Greg Mankiw, who chaired George Bush’s Council of Economic Advisers, captures the ideal in his “principle of just deserts.” Meritocracy holds that “a person who contributes more to society deserves a higher income that reflects those greater contributions.” Moreover, meritocracy measures each person’s contribution as the market value that she adds “to society’s production of goods and services.”

But in reality, meritocratic hierarchies now distort market valuations, especially wages. Elites remake work in their own image, to privilege education and skills that only they can afford to acquire. Finance illustrates the pattern. In the mid 20th century, when the Economist called banking “the world’s most respectable dying industry,” those in the field were neither better educated nor better paid than others. Since then, super-educated elites have developed technologies—financial instruments, digital tools and legal regimes—that dramatically favour their own skills. Today, no sector is more closely associated with high wages. But the innovation is not a true advance, and the new style of finance does not make a greater social contribution than the old. The transaction costs of financial intermediation have not declined, and overall financial risk is neither reduced nor better shared.

Similar patterns pervade the wider economy. Elites remake work to favour their peculiar skills and then use the enormous incomes that ensue to buy educations for their children that the rest cannot match. Far from correcting itself, meritocratic inequality triggers a feedback loop that undermines meritocracy’s core claims. Merit is an ideology built to launder offensive hierarchies.

But, today's distribution of rewards and opportunities is not so repugnant that we need to junk the idea of merit. The meritocratic idea was forged in the revolt against the old society that fixed people’s position at birth, most notably in the French and American Revolutions of the 18th century and the English liberal revolution of the 19th. But things didn’t stop there. Prominent thinkers of the time like Du Bois and Luther King, all rested their arguments on the idea that people should be judged on the basis of their own abilities. I would agree with a reworded version of Mankiw’s principle: someone who contributes more to prosperity deserves a higher income that reflects their greater contribution.

There is more to meritocracy than money-making. The meritocratic idea tries to address two of the great problems at the heart of modernity: how do we reconcile the moral equality of individuals with social differentiation? And how do we secure the economic growth that pays for the things we have come to expect, such as social welfare?
Meritocracy answers the first question by providing a combination of equality of opportunity and competition. Universal education gives everybody a basic shot at succeeding. Competition allows people to discover their unique talents. And if competition has downsides, they are nothing compared with the risks of allowing talents to go undiscovered. The evidence that meritocracy promotes economic efficiency is overwhelming: meritocratic countries such as Singapore grow more robustly than non-meritocratic ones such as Greece; public companies that recruit people on merit are more successful than family companies that rely on nepotism. The solution to the inequalities produced by meritocracy’s success is to tax the winners rather than to bind Prometheus.

 

Q. The author's view on the 'principle of just deserts' differs from that of Mankiw in which of the following ways?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 10

The following is Mankiw's version of 'just deserts'- "Meritocracy holds that “a person who contributes more to society deserves a higher income that reflects those greater contributions.” Moreover, meritocracy measures each person’s contribution as the market value that she adds “to society’s production of goods and services.”

The following is the author's take on the same- "someone who contributes more to prosperity deserves a higher income that reflects their greater contribution."

Hence, the key difference between the two versions is how they quantify the contributions of an individual. While Mankiw focuses on the market value-added, the author is more concerned about the ability of the contribution to improve the prosperity of the society, i.e., the benefits to the society.

Comparing the options, option D is closest to the above interpretation and is the answer.

Option A is wrong. Mankiw does measure individual contribution based on market value-added.

Option B is a distortion. The author is concerned about prosperity in general and not just the social status of the individual. Both are not interchangeable.

Option C is wrong. The author only suggests a scale to quantify individual contributions and does not advance the exclusion of any particular kind of contribution.

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 11

Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Our meritocracy looks to markets to measure merit. Prices—including, crucially, wages—establish what things are worth. Greg Mankiw, who chaired George Bush’s Council of Economic Advisers, captures the ideal in his “principle of just deserts.” Meritocracy holds that “a person who contributes more to society deserves a higher income that reflects those greater contributions.” Moreover, meritocracy measures each person’s contribution as the market value that she adds “to society’s production of goods and services.”

But in reality, meritocratic hierarchies now distort market valuations, especially wages. Elites remake work in their own image, to privilege education and skills that only they can afford to acquire. Finance illustrates the pattern. In the mid 20th century, when the Economist called banking “the world’s most respectable dying industry,” those in the field were neither better educated nor better paid than others. Since then, super-educated elites have developed technologies—financial instruments, digital tools and legal regimes—that dramatically favour their own skills. Today, no sector is more closely associated with high wages. But the innovation is not a true advance, and the new style of finance does not make a greater social contribution than the old. The transaction costs of financial intermediation have not declined, and overall financial risk is neither reduced nor better shared.

Similar patterns pervade the wider economy. Elites remake work to favour their peculiar skills and then use the enormous incomes that ensue to buy educations for their children that the rest cannot match. Far from correcting itself, meritocratic inequality triggers a feedback loop that undermines meritocracy’s core claims. Merit is an ideology built to launder offensive hierarchies.

But, today's distribution of rewards and opportunities is not so repugnant that we need to junk the idea of merit. The meritocratic idea was forged in the revolt against the old society that fixed people’s position at birth, most notably in the French and American Revolutions of the 18th century and the English liberal revolution of the 19th. But things didn’t stop there. Prominent thinkers of the time like Du Bois and Luther King, all rested their arguments on the idea that people should be judged on the basis of their own abilities. I would agree with a reworded version of Mankiw’s principle: someone who contributes more to prosperity deserves a higher income that reflects their greater contribution.

There is more to meritocracy than money-making. The meritocratic idea tries to address two of the great problems at the heart of modernity: how do we reconcile the moral equality of individuals with social differentiation? And how do we secure the economic growth that pays for the things we have come to expect, such as social welfare?
Meritocracy answers the first question by providing a combination of equality of opportunity and competition. Universal education gives everybody a basic shot at succeeding. Competition allows people to discover their unique talents. And if competition has downsides, they are nothing compared with the risks of allowing talents to go undiscovered. The evidence that meritocracy promotes economic efficiency is overwhelming: meritocratic countries such as Singapore grow more robustly than non-meritocratic ones such as Greece; public companies that recruit people on merit are more successful than family companies that rely on nepotism. The solution to the inequalities produced by meritocracy’s success is to tax the winners rather than to bind Prometheus.

 

Q. Why does the author mention the phrase 'bind Prometheus'?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 11

"The solution to the inequalities produced by meritocracy’s success is to tax the winners rather than to bind Prometheus."

The last line of the passage is an argument in the favour of implementing pragmatic reforms rather than getting rid of meritocracy. Here, 'tax the winners' refers to the pragmatic reform advocated by the author and 'bind Prometheus' is the metaphor for doing away with meritocracy. (Prometheus is a greek mythological creature who signifies the striving and development of humans, and who was bound by Zeus. Hence the metaphor is apt in signifying that doing away with meritocracy, which has yielded many benefits, is like binding Prometheus. The mythological part is irrelevant to the answer, and one must only understand the context to identify the meaning of the metaphor). Hence, the answer is Option B.

The phrase does not advocate anything and just stands as a metaphor. Hence, A is eliminated.

Mentioning a Greek mythological character is neither the author's contention here, though the metaphor does mean this. C would have been the answer if the meaning of the phrase was asked, but will be eliminated here.

The phrase does not mean what is mentioned in Option D. Hence, it can be eliminated.

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 12

Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Our meritocracy looks to markets to measure merit. Prices—including, crucially, wages—establish what things are worth. Greg Mankiw, who chaired George Bush’s Council of Economic Advisers, captures the ideal in his “principle of just deserts.” Meritocracy holds that “a person who contributes more to society deserves a higher income that reflects those greater contributions.” Moreover, meritocracy measures each person’s contribution as the market value that she adds “to society’s production of goods and services.”

But in reality, meritocratic hierarchies now distort market valuations, especially wages. Elites remake work in their own image, to privilege education and skills that only they can afford to acquire. Finance illustrates the pattern. In the mid 20th century, when the Economist called banking “the world’s most respectable dying industry,” those in the field were neither better educated nor better paid than others. Since then, super-educated elites have developed technologies—financial instruments, digital tools and legal regimes—that dramatically favour their own skills. Today, no sector is more closely associated with high wages. But the innovation is not a true advance, and the new style of finance does not make a greater social contribution than the old. The transaction costs of financial intermediation have not declined, and overall financial risk is neither reduced nor better shared.

Similar patterns pervade the wider economy. Elites remake work to favour their peculiar skills and then use the enormous incomes that ensue to buy educations for their children that the rest cannot match. Far from correcting itself, meritocratic inequality triggers a feedback loop that undermines meritocracy’s core claims. Merit is an ideology built to launder offensive hierarchies.

But, today's distribution of rewards and opportunities is not so repugnant that we need to junk the idea of merit. The meritocratic idea was forged in the revolt against the old society that fixed people’s position at birth, most notably in the French and American Revolutions of the 18th century and the English liberal revolution of the 19th. But things didn’t stop there. Prominent thinkers of the time like Du Bois and Luther King, all rested their arguments on the idea that people should be judged on the basis of their own abilities. I would agree with a reworded version of Mankiw’s principle: someone who contributes more to prosperity deserves a higher income that reflects their greater contribution.

There is more to meritocracy than money-making. The meritocratic idea tries to address two of the great problems at the heart of modernity: how do we reconcile the moral equality of individuals with social differentiation? And how do we secure the economic growth that pays for the things we have come to expect, such as social welfare?
Meritocracy answers the first question by providing a combination of equality of opportunity and competition. Universal education gives everybody a basic shot at succeeding. Competition allows people to discover their unique talents. And if competition has downsides, they are nothing compared with the risks of allowing talents to go undiscovered. The evidence that meritocracy promotes economic efficiency is overwhelming: meritocratic countries such as Singapore grow more robustly than non-meritocratic ones such as Greece; public companies that recruit people on merit are more successful than family companies that rely on nepotism. The solution to the inequalities produced by meritocracy’s success is to tax the winners rather than to bind Prometheus.

 

Q. The author cites the example of developments in finance to drive home all of the following points, EXCEPT

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 12

The author states the following about the developments in finance in the second and the third paragraph-

"super-educated elites have developed technologies—financial instruments, digital tools and legal regimes—that dramatically favour their own skills."

" But the innovation is not a true advance, and the new style of finance does not make a greater social contribution than the old."

From the above lines, options A and C can be inferred.

Also, in the opening line of the second paragraph, the author talks about meritocratic hierarchies distorting wages. And then goes on to establish this claim with the help of the finance industry example. In the latter half of the passage, the author notes that no other industry has higher wages, but also asserts that the innovations in finance have not led to greater social contributions. Hence, wages distort the true worth of a skill. Option D can be inferred as well.

Option B cannot be inferred. Meritocracy allows elites to promote skills favourable to them, true, but it cannot be concluded that this helps improve their own image or brand value. Option B is the answer.

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 13

Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Jesus said the truth will set us free. Francis Bacon said knowledge is power. Yet to recognise something as true is to be influenced by evidence or affected by the world - and in many ways knowledge limits our freedom. Climate change science calls us to alter our way of life and make sacrifices in order to avoid disaster. The urge to reject this science is strong: people try to find weak points in theories and look away from empirical evidence to maintain their freedom to eat meat or drive to work. Of course, critical scrutiny is crucial in science and an intrinsic part of scientific progress. The pursuit of knowledge goes hand in hand with doubt. The more intent a person is on obtaining knowledge, the less likely she is to have firm beliefs. That is why philosophy - the love of truth - often makes us more sceptical rather than knowledgeable. Socrates liked to say that he knew nothing except the fact that he knew nothing.
This doesn’t mean that all doubt is sound or that all scepticism is motivated by a love of knowledge. There is a form of scepticism which cannot be taken as a scientific or otherwise theoretical attitude at all. So although climate science denial presents itself as a kind of doubt, based on an alternative interpretation of evidence, much of it should be understood as a practical attitude. It is not interested in knowledge to begin with. Instead, it seeks freedom from knowledge. 

That is how the 19th-century Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard understood Socrates’s self-proclaimed ignorance: it was a rebellion against knowledge and an assertion of himself against objective reality. Kierkegaard called this attitude “irony” and he distinguished it carefully from doubt. Doubt is something we suffer insofar as we are invested in the truth but find it hard to verify our beliefs. The doubter feels alienated from reality and wants to get back in touch with it. The ironist, on the other hand, triumphs in this alienation. He does not love the truth; he loves the freedom that comes from not believing.

This notion of irony as a practical attitude different from doubt can be applied to a lot of climate science scepticism, such as cherry-picking a few dozen failed scientific predictions in order to reject all ecological science. Of course, irony manifests itself in a great deal of political thought, which has a thorny relation to facts, nature and culture. We see it at work when advocates of free immigration assert that national borders are purely imaginary and then infer from this that it is illegitimate to deny anyone entry into a territory.

Consider too the fierce resistance of some feminists to research in evolutionary biology that finds an innate basis for psychological and behavioural differences between the sexes. Chanda Prescod-Weinstein, for example, casts doubt on all of science by way of discrediting such findings. The discipline of biology, she points out, has a history of “encoding and justifying bias” by purporting to prove that women and non-Europeans are intellectually inferior to white men. But on the issue of gender differences, Prescod-Weinstein is, like Kierkegaard’s Socrates, happy to trade knowledge for freedom.

 

Q. Which of the following statements is the author least likely to agree with?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 13

"Yet to recognise something as true is to be influenced by evidence or affected by the world - and in many ways knowledge limits our freedom."

Option B can be inferred from the latter half of the above line.

In the passage, the author highlights the differences between doubt and irony and notes the following- "..critical scrutiny is crucial in science and an intrinsic part of scientific progress. The pursuit of knowledge goes hand in hand with doubt." Hence, option C can be inferred.

In the penultimate paragraph, the author highlights the example of free immigration activists rejecting the notion of borders as an example of an attitude of irony, which is driven by the pursuit of freedom from reality/knowledge. Option D can be inferred as well.

Option A cannot be concluded. The author discusses examples of ironists who interacted with the world, despite having no commitment to truth. Option A is the answer.

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 14

Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Jesus said the truth will set us free. Francis Bacon said knowledge is power. Yet to recognise something as true is to be influenced by evidence or affected by the world - and in many ways knowledge limits our freedom. Climate change science calls us to alter our way of life and make sacrifices in order to avoid disaster. The urge to reject this science is strong: people try to find weak points in theories and look away from empirical evidence to maintain their freedom to eat meat or drive to work. Of course, critical scrutiny is crucial in science and an intrinsic part of scientific progress. The pursuit of knowledge goes hand in hand with doubt. The more intent a person is on obtaining knowledge, the less likely she is to have firm beliefs. That is why philosophy - the love of truth - often makes us more sceptical rather than knowledgeable. Socrates liked to say that he knew nothing except the fact that he knew nothing.
This doesn’t mean that all doubt is sound or that all scepticism is motivated by a love of knowledge. There is a form of scepticism which cannot be taken as a scientific or otherwise theoretical attitude at all. So although climate science denial presents itself as a kind of doubt, based on an alternative interpretation of evidence, much of it should be understood as a practical attitude. It is not interested in knowledge to begin with. Instead, it seeks freedom from knowledge. 

That is how the 19th-century Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard understood Socrates’s self-proclaimed ignorance: it was a rebellion against knowledge and an assertion of himself against objective reality. Kierkegaard called this attitude “irony” and he distinguished it carefully from doubt. Doubt is something we suffer insofar as we are invested in the truth but find it hard to verify our beliefs. The doubter feels alienated from reality and wants to get back in touch with it. The ironist, on the other hand, triumphs in this alienation. He does not love the truth; he loves the freedom that comes from not believing.

This notion of irony as a practical attitude different from doubt can be applied to a lot of climate science scepticism, such as cherry-picking a few dozen failed scientific predictions in order to reject all ecological science. Of course, irony manifests itself in a great deal of political thought, which has a thorny relation to facts, nature and culture. We see it at work when advocates of free immigration assert that national borders are purely imaginary and then infer from this that it is illegitimate to deny anyone entry into a territory.

Consider too the fierce resistance of some feminists to research in evolutionary biology that finds an innate basis for psychological and behavioural differences between the sexes. Chanda Prescod-Weinstein, for example, casts doubt on all of science by way of discrediting such findings. The discipline of biology, she points out, has a history of “encoding and justifying bias” by purporting to prove that women and non-Europeans are intellectually inferior to white men. But on the issue of gender differences, Prescod-Weinstein is, like Kierkegaard’s Socrates, happy to trade knowledge for freedom.

 

Q. Who among the following would the author not tag as 'Kierkegaard's Socrates'?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 14

The situations category of individuals highlighted in Options A, B and D fulfil the criterion to be tagged as "Kierkegaard’s Socrates" - Individuals who are "happy to trade knowledge for freedom"; they are not truly invested in truth but are satisfied with their ignorance {Doubt is something we suffer insofar as we are invested in the truth but find it hard to verify our beliefs. The doubter feels alienated from reality and wants to get back in touch with it. The ironist, on the other hand, triumphs in this alienation. He does not love the truth; he loves the freedom that comes from not believing.}

Option C does not show a wilful ignoring of knowledge. The said companies might still sell those drinks for occasional consumption. 

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 15

Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Jesus said the truth will set us free. Francis Bacon said knowledge is power. Yet to recognise something as true is to be influenced by evidence or affected by the world - and in many ways knowledge limits our freedom. Climate change science calls us to alter our way of life and make sacrifices in order to avoid disaster. The urge to reject this science is strong: people try to find weak points in theories and look away from empirical evidence to maintain their freedom to eat meat or drive to work. Of course, critical scrutiny is crucial in science and an intrinsic part of scientific progress. The pursuit of knowledge goes hand in hand with doubt. The more intent a person is on obtaining knowledge, the less likely she is to have firm beliefs. That is why philosophy - the love of truth - often makes us more sceptical rather than knowledgeable. Socrates liked to say that he knew nothing except the fact that he knew nothing.
This doesn’t mean that all doubt is sound or that all scepticism is motivated by a love of knowledge. There is a form of scepticism which cannot be taken as a scientific or otherwise theoretical attitude at all. So although climate science denial presents itself as a kind of doubt, based on an alternative interpretation of evidence, much of it should be understood as a practical attitude. It is not interested in knowledge to begin with. Instead, it seeks freedom from knowledge. 

That is how the 19th-century Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard understood Socrates’s self-proclaimed ignorance: it was a rebellion against knowledge and an assertion of himself against objective reality. Kierkegaard called this attitude “irony” and he distinguished it carefully from doubt. Doubt is something we suffer insofar as we are invested in the truth but find it hard to verify our beliefs. The doubter feels alienated from reality and wants to get back in touch with it. The ironist, on the other hand, triumphs in this alienation. He does not love the truth; he loves the freedom that comes from not believing.

This notion of irony as a practical attitude different from doubt can be applied to a lot of climate science scepticism, such as cherry-picking a few dozen failed scientific predictions in order to reject all ecological science. Of course, irony manifests itself in a great deal of political thought, which has a thorny relation to facts, nature and culture. We see it at work when advocates of free immigration assert that national borders are purely imaginary and then infer from this that it is illegitimate to deny anyone entry into a territory.

Consider too the fierce resistance of some feminists to research in evolutionary biology that finds an innate basis for psychological and behavioural differences between the sexes. Chanda Prescod-Weinstein, for example, casts doubt on all of science by way of discrediting such findings. The discipline of biology, she points out, has a history of “encoding and justifying bias” by purporting to prove that women and non-Europeans are intellectually inferior to white men. But on the issue of gender differences, Prescod-Weinstein is, like Kierkegaard’s Socrates, happy to trade knowledge for freedom.

 

Q. A doubter and an ironist differ in all of the following ways, EXCEPT

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 15

The author notes the following about irony in the second paragraph-"There is a form of scepticism which cannot be taken as a scientific or otherwise theoretical attitude at all.So although climate science denial presents itself as a kind of doubt, based on an alternative interpretation of evidence, much of it should be understood as a practical attitude. It is not interested in knowledge to begin with. Instead, it seeks freedom from knowledge. " Option A can be inferred.

"Doubt is something we suffer insofar as we are invested in the truth but find it hard to verify our beliefs. The doubter feels alienated from reality and wants to get back in touch with it. The ironist, on the other hand, triumphs in this alienation. He does not love the truth; he loves the freedom that comes from not believing."

From the above lines, options B and D can be inferred. 

Though the doubter is invested in truth and seeks knowledge, this exercise has not been mentioned as an attempt to gain freedom. Furthermore, in the opening paragraph, the author states that "knowledge limits our freedom". Hence, option C cannot be concluded,

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 16

Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Jesus said the truth will set us free. Francis Bacon said knowledge is power. Yet to recognise something as true is to be influenced by evidence or affected by the world - and in many ways knowledge limits our freedom. Climate change science calls us to alter our way of life and make sacrifices in order to avoid disaster. The urge to reject this science is strong: people try to find weak points in theories and look away from empirical evidence to maintain their freedom to eat meat or drive to work. Of course, critical scrutiny is crucial in science and an intrinsic part of scientific progress. The pursuit of knowledge goes hand in hand with doubt. The more intent a person is on obtaining knowledge, the less likely she is to have firm beliefs. That is why philosophy - the love of truth - often makes us more sceptical rather than knowledgeable. Socrates liked to say that he knew nothing except the fact that he knew nothing.
This doesn’t mean that all doubt is sound or that all scepticism is motivated by a love of knowledge. There is a form of scepticism which cannot be taken as a scientific or otherwise theoretical attitude at all. So although climate science denial presents itself as a kind of doubt, based on an alternative interpretation of evidence, much of it should be understood as a practical attitude. It is not interested in knowledge to begin with. Instead, it seeks freedom from knowledge. 

That is how the 19th-century Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard understood Socrates’s self-proclaimed ignorance: it was a rebellion against knowledge and an assertion of himself against objective reality. Kierkegaard called this attitude “irony” and he distinguished it carefully from doubt. Doubt is something we suffer insofar as we are invested in the truth but find it hard to verify our beliefs. The doubter feels alienated from reality and wants to get back in touch with it. The ironist, on the other hand, triumphs in this alienation. He does not love the truth; he loves the freedom that comes from not believing.

This notion of irony as a practical attitude different from doubt can be applied to a lot of climate science scepticism, such as cherry-picking a few dozen failed scientific predictions in order to reject all ecological science. Of course, irony manifests itself in a great deal of political thought, which has a thorny relation to facts, nature and culture. We see it at work when advocates of free immigration assert that national borders are purely imaginary and then infer from this that it is illegitimate to deny anyone entry into a territory.

Consider too the fierce resistance of some feminists to research in evolutionary biology that finds an innate basis for psychological and behavioural differences between the sexes. Chanda Prescod-Weinstein, for example, casts doubt on all of science by way of discrediting such findings. The discipline of biology, she points out, has a history of “encoding and justifying bias” by purporting to prove that women and non-Europeans are intellectually inferior to white men. But on the issue of gender differences, Prescod-Weinstein is, like Kierkegaard’s Socrates, happy to trade knowledge for freedom.

 

Q. The purpose of the first two paragraphs is

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 16

The author highlights the significance of critical scrutiny in the pursuit of knowledge in the first paragraph. However, he adds that climate change denial deviates from such scepticism wherein people are invested in pursuing truth or knowledge. Instead, such individuals find denial as a way to seek freedom from knowledge. This point is correctly captured in Option D.

The statement in Option A captures just a segment of the discussion and does not present it in its entirety. 

Options B and C are not implied via the discussion and, therefore, can be eliminated.

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 17

Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Jesus said the truth will set us free. Francis Bacon said knowledge is power. Yet to recognise something as true is to be influenced by evidence or affected by the world - and in many ways knowledge limits our freedom. Climate change science calls us to alter our way of life and make sacrifices in order to avoid disaster. The urge to reject this science is strong: people try to find weak points in theories and look away from empirical evidence to maintain their freedom to eat meat or drive to work. Of course, critical scrutiny is crucial in science and an intrinsic part of scientific progress. The pursuit of knowledge goes hand in hand with doubt. The more intent a person is on obtaining knowledge, the less likely she is to have firm beliefs. That is why philosophy - the love of truth - often makes us more sceptical rather than knowledgeable. Socrates liked to say that he knew nothing except the fact that he knew nothing.
This doesn’t mean that all doubt is sound or that all scepticism is motivated by a love of knowledge. There is a form of scepticism which cannot be taken as a scientific or otherwise theoretical attitude at all. So although climate science denial presents itself as a kind of doubt, based on an alternative interpretation of evidence, much of it should be understood as a practical attitude. It is not interested in knowledge to begin with. Instead, it seeks freedom from knowledge. 

That is how the 19th-century Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard understood Socrates’s self-proclaimed ignorance: it was a rebellion against knowledge and an assertion of himself against objective reality. Kierkegaard called this attitude “irony” and he distinguished it carefully from doubt. Doubt is something we suffer insofar as we are invested in the truth but find it hard to verify our beliefs. The doubter feels alienated from reality and wants to get back in touch with it. The ironist, on the other hand, triumphs in this alienation. He does not love the truth; he loves the freedom that comes from not believing.

This notion of irony as a practical attitude different from doubt can be applied to a lot of climate science scepticism, such as cherry-picking a few dozen failed scientific predictions in order to reject all ecological science. Of course, irony manifests itself in a great deal of political thought, which has a thorny relation to facts, nature and culture. We see it at work when advocates of free immigration assert that national borders are purely imaginary and then infer from this that it is illegitimate to deny anyone entry into a territory.

Consider too the fierce resistance of some feminists to research in evolutionary biology that finds an innate basis for psychological and behavioural differences between the sexes. Chanda Prescod-Weinstein, for example, casts doubt on all of science by way of discrediting such findings. The discipline of biology, she points out, has a history of “encoding and justifying bias” by purporting to prove that women and non-Europeans are intellectually inferior to white men. But on the issue of gender differences, Prescod-Weinstein is, like Kierkegaard’s Socrates, happy to trade knowledge for freedom.

 

Q. Which of the following would cast the most doubt on the label of 'ironist' on Prescod-Weinstein?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 17

To cast a doubt on her label as an 'ironist', we need to show that she has not blindly rejected facts or scientific findings. Hence, any doubt cast on the validity of the claims of biological differences will do most to undermine the label.

Option A strengthens the label, as it proves that she is rejecting what has strong evidence in its favour.

If Option B is true, then the findings she is rejecting are far from unbiased facts. If the only research supporting biological differences is subjective research then she has reason to object to the findings. Thus, option B does most to call in to question her label as an ironist.

Option C has been stated by Prescod-Weinstein in her favour. But if it was done historically, it does not mean that it is still being done. It does not cast any doubt on the label.

Option D only slightly weakens the label against Prescod-Weinstein. She has been labelled an ironist for her stand against any research supporting biological differences and not because she is a feminist.

Hence, B is the answer.

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 18

The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’s position.

The Labour Party’s troubles in England are not isolated. Across Europe, the mainstream left’s old electoral coalition - ­spanning industrial workers, public sector employees and urban professionals - is fragmenting as class-based identities give way to multi-dimensional ones. Its more socially conservative components are turning to the centre- and far-right. Its progressive and radical ones are turning to liberals, greens and other left-wing parties. Where social democracy was the dominant force in much of the continent around the turn of the millennium, now it holds power only in a disparate handful of countries. It is to those places, where left-of-centre parties bombarded by many of those same changes nonetheless manage to wield power, that a despairing left may well now look.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 18

The author discusses a major issue plaguing the mainstream left in the passage- the growing political divide among its traditional support groups, which has led to a decline in the authority of the left across Europe. Each example mentioned in the paragraph, even the desperate measure mentioned in the last sentence, point towards the waning influence of the mainstream Left and social democracy in Europe.

Option A is a distortion. The people need not necessarily reject leftist ideals to endorse other political wings. They may simply agree more with the other alternatives.

Option B comes closest to the theme elucidated above. Option B is the answer.

Option C talks about a global decline, whereas the passage limits the discussion to the woes of the left in Europe.

Option D can be eliminated. The alternate political ideals endorsed by the supporters need not necessarily be new-age or modern. The author does not make such an assertion.

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 19

The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’s position.

Estimates vary considerably as to how much less carbon an electric car emits over its lifetime than a conventional one, and much of this depends on where it is driven; in the UK, the same car is a greener drive than in Germany or the US, where much of the mix is from coal. But a car-based society is always going to be energy-intensive and polluted because transporting people in large, private vehicles necessitates a huge infrastructure - not only of roads and parking but in the way houses, shops, offices and amenities are built and spaced. More than half of the particulate air pollution around roads in the UK comes from tyres, brakes and the road surface; this would still be the case if every vehicle was electric.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 19

The author argues that even supposedly green alternatives like electric cars have a significant impact on the environment, and the infrastructure supporting cars, including roads, tyres etc. have a significant impact on the environment. Additionally, these factors remain the same, irrespective of the type of car. Hence, the prudent argument is for a society to move away from being car-based, instead of advocating electric cars. Comparing the options, option D comes closest to this interpretation and is the correct answer.

Option A comes close but fails to highlight the part that a car-based society will always impact the environment. It simply states that the propagation is incorrect. Hence, it is an incomplete summary and can be eliminated.

Option B can be eliminated as the author does not say that both types of cars are equally energy-intensive.

Option C could be a viable solution, but the author's discussion is limited to elaborating the perils of a car-based society.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 20

DIRECTIONS for the question: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced, would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:

  1. This argument woefully ignores the neuroscience that explains why juveniles should not be treated as adults.
  2. This new ruling claims that the early teen years cast the die for how someone is likely to behave for the rest of their lives.
  3. It ignores the very scientific evidence that influenced and guided previous court decisions.
  4. The U.S. Supreme Court’s recent decision in Jones v. Mississippi makes it easier for judges to sentence children to life in prison with no chance of parole.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 20

The paragraph is about a court ruling and how it upends the status quo, while ignoring the standing scientific evidence.

Statement 4 is the opening sentence as it introduces the court ruling, which is further delved into by the other statements. Statement 2 should follow Statement 4 immediately, as it refers to the ruling directly and explains the reasoning behind the same. 1 further describes the fault in the argument, that is, the claim mentioned in 2, so 1 follows 2. 3 then further indicates that there is standing evidence against the claim, as mention in Statement 1. Hence, the correct order is 4213.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 21

DIRECTIONS for the question: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced, would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:

  1. The year 2016 was the warmest this region had experienced since 770 AD.

  2. It was found that for the last two decades, Yellowstone National Park has been warming at its most intense rates in at least 1,250 years.

  3. Tree rings can provide a variety of information about the climate and weather conditions a tree has experienced over the course of its lifetime.

  4. A study, published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, used data from tree rings to reconstruct more than a millennium of summer temperatures in the Yellowstone region.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 21

The paragraph is about how the study of tree rings can be used to reach conclusions about the state of warming in a region. 3 introduces the study by stating that tree rings can be used to study the climate and weather conditions of a region. 4 then mentions an example where the method was utilized. 2 and 1 then reach conclusions from the study. Here 21 is the appropriate order, as 2 better conjoins the two parts of the paragraph because of the presence of 'It was found that...'. Hence, the correct order is 3421.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 22

Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out.

  1. This decades-long, silent earthquake—known as a “slow-slip event”—was the longest sequence of its kind ever detected.
  2. But new research finds that the tectonic plates below the island had been slowly and quietly rumbling against each other for 32 years before the cataclysmic event.
  3. A devastating earthquake that rocked the Indonesian island of Sumatra in 1861 was long thought to be a sudden rupture on a previously quiescent fault.
  4. Near the Indonesian island of Simeulue off the coast of Sumatra, coral growth patterns record the up-and-down movements along the fault involved in the 1861 earthquake, providing a rare window into the past.
  5. It was too subtle and gradual to be noticed during its course, but a new study indicates it may have precipitated the massive 1861 temblor of at least magnitude 8.5, which in turn triggered a tsunami that killed thousands of people.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 22

After reading the passage, we find that it is about a devastating earthquake that took place in Sumatra in 1861. It was earlier considered to be a sudden rupture of a dormant fault but recent research indicates otherwise.

Statement 3 is an apt opening sentence for the paragraph, which provides the context for the rest of the discussion. Since 3 is talking about an existing misconception that has been cleared, the next sentence should contrast 3 and present this idea. Statement 2 does this correctly. Statement 5 cannot be after 3 to contrast the same because it refers to an event from the previous line using 'it', which does not fit after 3. 15 is a necessary pair because of this. Hence, the arrangement is 3215. 4 is the odd one here because it does not fit the context appropriately. Where the other sentences have a more informatory approach, 4 is an open sentence, that would fit in a discussion of coral growth recording earthquakes that took place. Hence, 4 is the answer.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 23

The question has a set of sentences, which when properly sequenced, forms a coherent paragraph. Enter the most logical order of the sentences from among the given options.
1. In discussing the period preceding the revolution of 1917, Terras links the literary movements with parallel developments in theater, music, and the visual arts, explaining that these all placed Russia in the forefront of European modernism.
2. He wraps up his survey with the dissident movement that followed Stalin's death, arguing that the movement again made literature a leader in the struggle for freedom of thought, genuine relevance, and communion with Western culture.
3. Terras traces a rich literary heritage that encompasses Russian folklore of the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries, medieval literature that in style and substances drew on the Byzantine tradition and literature of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when Russia passed through a succession of literary schools - neoclassicism, sentimentalism, romanticism, and realism - imported from the West.
4. Terras divides Russian literature after the revolution into emigre and Soviet writing, and he demonstrates how the latter acted as a propaganda tool of the Communist party.
5. Terras moves on to the masterful realist fiction of Turgenev, Dostoevsky, and Tolstoi during the second half of the nineteenth century, showing how it was a catalyst for the social and cultural advances following the reforms of Alexander II.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 23

The answer is 35142. Out of all the given options, statement 3 serves as the best introductory sentence because it tells about the rich literary heritage that includes the Russian folklore of various periods and also about the various phases of the literary schools through which Russia had passed at different points of time till the eighteenth century. Statement 1 cannot be the introductory sentence because it begins with "In discussing the ... the revolution of 1917" and there are other sentences which deals with literary heritage of different periods of time prior to the revolution. This proves that this particular sentence comes somewhere in the middle of the passage. Statement 5 cannot be the introductory sentence because it ruled out. Same is the case with 4. in sentence 2, "wraps up" indicates the final step; therefore, it has to be the concluding sentence. Statement 3 is followed by statement 5 which deals with literary works of the second half of the nineteenth century. Statement 1 is a logical extension of statement 5. In statement 1, there is a mention about the periods preceding the revolution of 1917 and the development between the literary movements and the other parallel developments which goes with 'the social and cultural advances' as mentioned in statement 5. Statement 4 brings into light what had happened after the revolution and how the Soviet writing had served as a propaganda tool of the Communist party. Statement 2 is the concluding sentence which states how literature emerged as a leader in the struggle for freedom of thought, genuine relevance and communion with the western culture. Therefore, 35142 is the answer.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 24

The five sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labelled with a number. Decide on the proper order for the sentences and key in this sequence of five numbers as your answer.

1. In the United States, the share of income going to the richest one percent grew from 8 percent in 1980 to 18 percent in 2015, while the share going to the richest tenth of one percent grew from 2 percent to 8 percent. 
2. Gini values generally range from .25 for the most egalitarian income distributions, such as in Scandinavia after taxes and benefits, to .7 for a highly unequal distribution such as the one in South Africa. 
3. In the United States, the Gini index for market income (before taxes and benefits) rose from .44 in 1984 to .51 in 2012. 
4. Inequality can also be measured by the proportion of total income that is earned by a given fraction (quantile) of the population. 
5. Economic inequality is usually measured by the Gini coefficient, a number that can vary between 0, when everyone has the same as everyone else, and 1, when one person has everything and everyone else has nothing. 


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 24

This paragraph is about measuring inequality; sentence 5, which introduces the Gini coefficient, a scale for the same, is therefore the first sentence. Sentence 2, which explains the range of Gini values, comes after 5. Sentence 3, which continues the discussion of the Gini index, follows 2. Sentence 4 mentions another method for measuring inequality, and sentence 1 provides an example of this method, so we get a 4-1 link. Hence, 52341.

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 25

A well known FMCG company mainly deals in manufacturing and selling its product in 4 different sectors which are namely, Packaged Foods, Electronics, Garments and Home Appliances. The percentage contribution to the sales they had to the year 2018, 2019 and 2020 are given as follows

Sales

Furthermore, the profit % obtained by selling the items of a particular sector year on year is given as follows

Based on the above data, answer the following questions

 

Q. If it is known that the total cost incurred for producing Goods was the same for the year 2019 and 2020. Then which among the following is the highest?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 25

Let the sales of the company for the year 2019 be 100P and the sales of the company for the year 2020 be 100 Q.

The sales of the company's individual department can be written as follows:

Furthermore, we are given profit % for a department for a given year. 

For a product sold at SP with a profit %p, the cost price = SP​/(1+p%)

Thus for 2019, the cost to manufacture goods in Packaged foods will be = 20P/1.1

2019, the cost to manufacture goods in Garments will be = 25P/1.1​ and so on

Thus the cost to manufacture good for all 4 departments for 2019 and 2020 can be tabulated as

Given that total cost of manufacturing was same for both the years,

a) Cost of manufacturing Packaged food in 2019 = 20P/1.1 ​∼ 18.18P

b) Cost of manufacturing Home Appliances in 2020 = 25Q/1.2 ​∼ 20.83Q ∼ 21.4333P

c) Cost of manufacturing Home Appliances in 2019 = 15P/1.2 ​= 12.5P

d) Cost of Manufacturing Garments in 2020 = 20Q/1.1 ​= 18.18Q ∼ 18.705P

Clearly option B is greatest among them

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 26

A well known FMCG company mainly deals in manufacturing and selling its product in 4 different sectors which are namely, Packaged Foods, Electronics, Garments and Home Appliances. The percentage contribution to the sales they had to the year 2018, 2019 and 2020 are given as follows

Sales

Furthermore, the profit % obtained by selling the items of a particular sector year on year is given as follows

Based on the above data, answer the following questions

 

Q. If it is known that the total cost incurred for producing Goods was the same for the year 2019 and 2020. Then what is the approximate percentage change in sales of the company from the year 2019 to 2020?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 26

Let the sales of the company for the year 2019 be 100P and the sales of the company for the year 2020 be 100 Q.

The sales of the company's individual department can be written as follows:

Furthermore, we are given profit % for a department for a given year. 

For a product sold at SP with a profit %p, the cost price = SP​/(1+p%)

Thus for 2019, the cost to manufacture goods in Packaged foods will be = 20P/1.1

2019, the cost to manufacture goods in Garments will be = 25P/1.1​ and so on

Thus the cost to manufacture good for all 4 departments for 2019 and 2020 can be tabulated as

Given that total cost of manufacturing was same for both the years,

% change in sales = 

% change in sales = 

% change in sales = 

% change in sales = (1.0288−1) × 100%
% change in sales = 2.88%

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 27

A well known FMCG company mainly deals in manufacturing and selling its product in 4 different sectors which are namely, Packaged Foods, Electronics, Garments and Home Appliances. The percentage contribution to the sales they had to the year 2018, 2019 and 2020 are given as follows

Sales

Furthermore, the profit % obtained by selling the items of a particular sector year on year is given as follows

Based on the above data, answer the following questions

 

Q. If the sales of home appliance remains constant for all the 3 years. Then which among the following is the maximum?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 27

Let the sale for the year 2018, 2019 and 2020 be 100P, 100Q and 100R respectively.

Hence the sale of the home appliance for these 3 years will be 20P = 15Q = 25R.

If we assume P = 15k, then Q = 20k and R = 12k

Thus the sale for the year 2018, 2019 and 2020 be 1500k, 2000k and 1200k respectively

Sales for all the appliances for different years can  be written as follows

Profit earned by Packaged food is 20% for 2018. Thus the cost price will be 225k​/1.2

Similarly, we can calculate the cost price for all the departments for all the area as follows

It can be simplified into decimal as follows

From above we can see that the cost of electronics in  2019 = 640k is the maximum amongst the options

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 28

A well known FMCG company mainly deals in manufacturing and selling its product in 4 different sectors which are namely, Packaged Foods, Electronics, Garments and Home Appliances. The percentage contribution to the sales they had to the year 2018, 2019 and 2020 are given as follows

Sales

Furthermore, the profit % obtained by selling the items of a particular sector year on year is given as follows

Based on the above data, answer the following questions

 

Q. The sale of home appliance remains constant for all the 3 years. If the ratio of profit earned by Home Appliances  in 2019 to profit of packaged foods in 2018 is m/n​ where "m" and "n" are co-prime numbers, then what is the value of n+m?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 28

Let the sale for the year 2018, 2019 and 2020 be 100P, 100Q and 100R respectively.

Hence the sale of the home appliance for these 3 years will be 20P = 15Q = 25R.

If we assume P = 15k, then Q = 20k and R = 12k

Thus the sale for the year 2018, 2019 and 2020 be 1500k, 2000k and 1200k respectively

Sales for all the appliances for different years can  be written as follows

Profit earned by Packaged food is 20% for 2018. Thus the cost price will be 225k​/1.2

Similarly, we can calculate the cost price for all the departments for all the area as follows

It can be simplified into decimal as follows

Profit = Sale - Cost

Profit earned by Home Appliances in 2019 = 300k-250k = 50k

Profit of packaged foods in 2018 = 225k-187.5k = 37.5k

Ratio = 50k/37.5k = 4/3

m/n = 4/3

m+n=4+3=7

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 29

A market surveyor was tasked to get basic information on 5 panellists who were sitting in a row. The leftmost position was numbered 1 and the rightmost was numbered 5. The details required were name, native city, current city and the car they owned. To capture the details she made a table. There were 4 interns under her and she wanted the interns to get first-hand experience of market survey, hence she sent them to the sitting area to get the details required. The first intern only got the names of the panellist. The second intern got the native city and so on. After getting the information they were to come back and fill the table accordingly. After the table was filled, it looked as follows:

After the panellists left, the surveyor figured out that each of her interns messed up the information. Exactly 1 out of 5 pieces of information provided by them is correct and the rest are wrong.

Furthermore, the following things were known:

  1. Ram sits at an extreme end and owns Elantra
  2. Nobody lives in the same city as their native city.
  3. The interns got either Shyam or his car's position correct.
  4. Parul's native city is Chennai. Qureshi has only one neighbour and he is Shyam.
  5. The native city of the person who owns an Audi is not Delhi.
  6. Person who drives Charger is one place to the right of the person whose native is Goa.
  7. Person who lives in Goa and the person whose native is Goa are sitting at the maximum possible distance.
  8. Shyam is sitting at the 2^{nd}2nd place from the right.
  9. Person who drives Charger is 1 place left of the person who lives in Hyderabad.

 

Q. Who drives Dodge?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 29

Let us make a table to show the sitting arrangements and then fill up the details as mentioned

> Shyam is sitting at 2^{nd}2nd place from right

> Qureshi has only one neighbour Shyam

> Person who lives in Goa and the person whose native is Goa is sitting at the maximum possible distance. It implies that these must be sitting at the extremes. We don't know which end

>Person who drives Charger is one place right of the person whose native is Goa. The person of Native Goa is at the leftmost place

> EIther Shyam or his car was mentioned at the correct place. Since Shyam place was incorrect. His car has to be placed correctly. Since Shyam is at position 4. Dodge which is on position 4 is placed incorrectly.  Audi can not be placed at 5. Thus Audi has to be at 3 and BMW at 5

> Also we observe that postion of Ram, Shyam and Qureshi were incorrect. So either Parul position is correct or Tiyasha position is correct. Since Tiyasha's position is already occupied. Parul is correctly placed at 2. Tiyasha correct place is 3.

>Parul native city is Chennai.

> Person who owns an Audi is not from Delhi. Thus Native Delhi is at a position 4 or 5.

Case I: If Native Delhi is at position 4. Then in the list of native cities. Position 3 or 5 has to be correctly occupied in the initial table. Position 3 is Chennai which is already taken. Position 5 is Delhi but as per this case Delhi is on 4. So this case is not possible.

Case II: Native Delhi is at position 5 which is the same as the current position. Thus position 3 and position 4 information has to be wrong. It is only possible when Bangalore is not at position 4. Thus Bangalore is at position 3. Hyderabad will be at position 4.

Now we need to fill the "Lives in" correctly.

> Person who drives Charger is 1 place left of the person who lives in Hyderabad

Thus Hyderabad is correctly placed. The rest of the 3 positions were incorrectly placed.

Position 1 cannot be Delhi or Goa or Hyderabad. It has to be Chennai or Bangalore.

Case I: Position 1 is Chennai. 

Position 2 cannot be Chennai/Hyderabad or Goa. Position 2 can be Delhi or Bangalore.

Position 4 cannot be Hyderabad/Chennai/Goa. Position 4 can be Delhi or Goa

Thus 2 possibilities are there which can be shown as 

Case 2: Position 1 is Bangalore

Then Chennai can only be at position 4 which leaves, position 2 for Delhi

Total 3 cases are possible from above-given information. Which can be as follows:

In all 3 cases, Shyam drives Dodge

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 30

A market surveyor was tasked to get basic information on 5 panellists who were sitting in a row. The leftmost position was numbered 1 and the rightmost was numbered 5. The details required were name, native city, current city and the car they owned. To capture the details she made a table. There were 4 interns under her and she wanted the interns to get first-hand experience of market survey, hence she sent them to the sitting area to get the details required. The first intern only got the names of the panellist. The second intern got the native city and so on. After getting the information they were to come back and fill the table accordingly. After the table was filled, it looked as follows:

After the panellists left, the surveyor figured out that each of her interns messed up the information. Exactly 1 out of 5 pieces of information provided by them is correct and the rest are wrong.

Furthermore, the following things were known:

  1. Ram sits at an extreme end and owns Elantra
  2. Nobody lives in the same city as their native city.
  3. The interns got either Shyam or his car's position correct.
  4. Parul's native city is Chennai. Qureshi has only one neighbour and he is Shyam.
  5. The native city of the person who owns an Audi is not Delhi.
  6. Person who drives Charger is one place to the right of the person whose native is Goa.
  7. Person who lives in Goa and the person whose native is Goa are sitting at the maximum possible distance.
  8. Shyam is sitting at the 2^{nd}2nd place from the right.
  9. Person who drives Charger is 1 place left of the person who lives in Hyderabad.

 

Q. Who lives in Hyderabad?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 30

Let us make a table to show the sitting arrangements and then fill up the details as mentioned

> Shyam is sitting at 2^{nd}2nd place from right

> Qureshi has only one neighbour Shyam

> Person who lives in Goa and the person whose native is Goa is sitting at the maximum possible distance. It implies that these must be sitting at the extremes. We don't know which end

>Person who drives Charger is one place right of the person whose native is Goa. The person of Native Goa is at the leftmost place

> EIther Shyam or his car was mentioned at the correct place. Since Shyam place was incorrect. His car has to be placed correctly. Since Shyam is at position 4. Dodge which is on position 4 is placed incorrectly.  Audi can not be placed at 5. Thus Audi has to be at 3 and BMW at 5

> Also we observe that postion of Ram, Shyam and Qureshi were incorrect. So either Parul position is correct or Tiyasha position is correct. Since Tiyasha's position is already occupied. Parul is correctly placed at 2. Tiyasha correct place is 3.

>Parul native city is Chennai.

> Person who owns an Audi is not from Delhi. Thus Native Delhi is at a position 4 or 5.

Case I: If Native Delhi is at position 4. Then in the list of native cities. Position 3 or 5 has to be correctly occupied in the initial table. Position 3 is Chennai which is already taken. Position 5 is Delhi but as per this case Delhi is on 4. So this case is not possible.

Case II: Native Delhi is at position 5 which is the same as the current position. Thus position 3 and position 4 information has to be wrong. It is only possible when Bangalore is not at position 4. Thus Bangalore is at position 3. Hyderabad will be at position 4.

Now we need to fill the "Lives in" correctly.

> Person who drives Charger is 1 place left of the person who lives in Hyderabad

Thus Hyderabad is correctly placed. The rest of the 3 positions were incorrectly placed.

Position 1 cannot be Delhi or Goa or Hyderabad. It has to be Chennai or Bangalore.

Case I: Position 1 is Chennai. 

Position 2 cannot be Chennai/Hyderabad or Goa. Position 2 can be Delhi or Bangalore.

Position 4 cannot be Hyderabad/Chennai/Goa. Position 4 can be Delhi or Goa

Thus 2 possibilities are there which can be shown as 

Case 2: Position 1 is Bangalore

Then Chennai can only be at position 4 which leaves, position 2 for Delhi

Total 3 cases are possible from above-given information. Which can be as follows:

In all 3 cases Tiyasha lives in Hyderabad.

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 31

A market surveyor was tasked to get basic information on 5 panellists who were sitting in a row. The leftmost position was numbered 1 and the rightmost was numbered 5. The details required were name, native city, current city and the car they owned. To capture the details she made a table. There were 4 interns under her and she wanted the interns to get first-hand experience of market survey, hence she sent them to the sitting area to get the details required. The first intern only got the names of the panellist. The second intern got the native city and so on. After getting the information they were to come back and fill the table accordingly. After the table was filled, it looked as follows:

After the panellists left, the surveyor figured out that each of her interns messed up the information. Exactly 1 out of 5 pieces of information provided by them is correct and the rest are wrong.

Furthermore, the following things were known:

  1. Ram sits at an extreme end and owns Elantra
  2. Nobody lives in the same city as their native city.
  3. The interns got either Shyam or his car's position correct.
  4. Parul's native city is Chennai. Qureshi has only one neighbour and he is Shyam.
  5. The native city of the person who owns an Audi is not Delhi.
  6. Person who drives Charger is one place to the right of the person whose native is Goa.
  7. Person who lives in Goa and the person whose native is Goa are sitting at the maximum possible distance.
  8. Shyam is sitting at the 2^{nd}2nd place from the right.
  9. Person who drives Charger is 1 place left of the person who lives in Hyderabad.

 

Q. If Ram lives in Bangalore, which city does Parul lives in?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 31

Let us make a table to show the sitting arrangements and then fill up the details as mentioned

> Shyam is sitting at 2^{nd}2nd place from right

> Qureshi has only one neighbour Shyam

> Person who lives in Goa and the person whose native is Goa is sitting at the maximum possible distance. It implies that these must be sitting at the extremes. We don't know which end

>Person who drives Charger is one place right of the person whose native is Goa. The person of Native Goa is at the leftmost place

> EIther Shyam or his car was mentioned at the correct place. Since Shyam place was incorrect. His car has to be placed correctly. Since Shyam is at position 4. Dodge which is on position 4 is placed incorrectly.  Audi can not be placed at 5. Thus Audi has to be at 3 and BMW at 5

> Also we observe that postion of Ram, Shyam and Qureshi were incorrect. So either Parul position is correct or Tiyasha position is correct. Since Tiyasha's position is already occupied. Parul is correctly placed at 2. Tiyasha correct place is 3.

>Parul native city is Chennai.

> Person who owns an Audi is not from Delhi. Thus Native Delhi is at a position 4 or 5.

Case I: If Native Delhi is at position 4. Then in the list of native cities. Position 3 or 5 has to be correctly occupied in the initial table. Position 3 is Chennai which is already taken. Position 5 is Delhi but as per this case Delhi is on 4. So this case is not possible.

Case II: Native Delhi is at position 5 which is the same as the current position. Thus position 3 and position 4 information has to be wrong. It is only possible when Bangalore is not at position 4. Thus Bangalore is at position 3. Hyderabad will be at position 4.

Now we need to fill the "Lives in" correctly.

> Person who drives Charger is 1 place left of the person who lives in Hyderabad

Thus Hyderabad is correctly placed. The rest of the 3 positions were incorrectly placed.

Position 1 cannot be Delhi or Goa or Hyderabad. It has to be Chennai or Bangalore.

Case I: Position 1 is Chennai. 

Position 2 cannot be Chennai/Hyderabad or Goa. Position 2 can be Delhi or Bangalore.

Position 4 cannot be Hyderabad/Chennai/Goa. Position 4 can be Delhi or Goa

Thus 2 possibilities are there which can be shown as 

Case 2: Position 1 is Bangalore

Then Chennai can only be at position 4 which leaves, position 2 for Delhi

Total 3 cases are possible from above-given information. Which can be as follows:

If Ram lives in Bangalore, only case 3 is possible. In this case Parul lives in Delhi.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 32

A market surveyor was tasked to get basic information on 5 panellists who were sitting in a row. The leftmost position was numbered 1 and the rightmost was numbered 5. The details required were name, native city, current city and the car they owned. To capture the details she made a table. There were 4 interns under her and she wanted the interns to get first-hand experience of market survey, hence she sent them to the sitting area to get the details required. The first intern only got the names of the panellist. The second intern got the native city and so on. After getting the information they were to come back and fill the table accordingly. After the table was filled, it looked as follows:

After the panellists left, the surveyor figured out that each of her interns messed up the information. Exactly 1 out of 5 pieces of information provided by them is correct and the rest are wrong.

Furthermore, the following things were known:

  1. Ram sits at an extreme end and owns Elantra
  2. Nobody lives in the same city as their native city.
  3. The interns got either Shyam or his car's position correct.
  4. Parul's native city is Chennai. Qureshi has only one neighbour and he is Shyam.
  5. The native city of the person who owns an Audi is not Delhi.
  6. Person who drives Charger is one place to the right of the person whose native is Goa.
  7. Person who lives in Goa and the person whose native is Goa are sitting at the maximum possible distance.
  8. Shyam is sitting at the 2^{nd}2nd place from the right.
  9. Person who drives Charger is 1 place left of the person who lives in Hyderabad.

 

Q. All the attributes of how many panelists can be uniquely determined?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 32

Let us make a table to show the sitting arrangements and then fill up the details as mentioned

> Shyam is sitting at 2^{nd}2nd place from right

> Qureshi has only one neighbour Shyam

> Person who lives in Goa and the person whose native is Goa is sitting at the maximum possible distance. It implies that these must be sitting at the extremes. We don't know which end

>Person who drives Charger is one place right of the person whose native is Goa. The person of Native Goa is at the leftmost place

> EIther Shyam or his car was mentioned at the correct place. Since Shyam place was incorrect. His car has to be placed correctly. Since Shyam is at position 4. Dodge which is on position 4 is placed incorrectly.  Audi can not be placed at 5. Thus Audi has to be at 3 and BMW at 5

> Also we observe that postion of Ram, Shyam and Qureshi were incorrect. So either Parul position is correct or Tiyasha position is correct. Since Tiyasha's position is already occupied. Parul is correctly placed at 2. Tiyasha correct place is 3.

>Parul native city is Chennai.

> Person who owns an Audi is not from Delhi. Thus Native Delhi is at a position 4 or 5.

Case I: If Native Delhi is at position 4. Then in the list of native cities. Position 3 or 5 has to be correctly occupied in the initial table. Position 3 is Chennai which is already taken. Position 5 is Delhi but as per this case Delhi is on 4. So this case is not possible.

Case II: Native Delhi is at position 5 which is the same as the current position. Thus position 3 and position 4 information has to be wrong. It is only possible when Bangalore is not at position 4. Thus Bangalore is at position 3. Hyderabad will be at position 4.

Now we need to fill the "Lives in" correctly.

> Person who drives Charger is 1 place left of the person who lives in Hyderabad

Thus Hyderabad is correctly placed. The rest of the 3 positions were incorrectly placed.

Position 1 cannot be Delhi or Goa or Hyderabad. It has to be Chennai or Bangalore.

Case I: Position 1 is Chennai. 

Position 2 cannot be Chennai/Hyderabad or Goa. Position 2 can be Delhi or Bangalore.

Position 4 cannot be Hyderabad/Chennai/Goa. Position 4 can be Delhi or Goa

Thus 2 possibilities are there which can be shown as 

Case 2: Position 1 is Bangalore

Then Chennai can only be at position 4 which leaves, position 2 for Delhi

Total 3 cases are possible from above-given information. Which can be as follows:

Attributes of 2 are known to be sure

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 33

In the above multiplication, A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H are the different digits of number such that none of them is divisible by 5. 

If it is known that D is twice that of F, answer the following questions

 

Q. Which digit corresponds to the alphabet "G"?

Enter -1 if the answer can't be determined.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 33

Since none of the digits is divisible by 5, Digits can be 1,2,3,4,6,7,8 and 9 only.

From the above we see that C + 0 = 6. Thus C = 6.

Looking at the second digit of the product. Unit place of C +  C = B. Thus unit digit of 6+6(12) is 2. Thus B = 2.

The product simplifies into 

We observe that unit places of D × G = 6 The pair of digits which gives 6 at unit digits on their product are (1,6), (2,3), (2,8), (4,4), (4,9) (6,6) and (7,8). Since we already know that C = 6, B = 2  and  D ≠ G only remaining possible pairs are (4,9) and (7,8). 

Thus (D,G) can be (4,9) or (9,4) or (7,8) or (8,7)

Upon further observation, we see that FGAD × 2 = HFG6 which is a 4-digit number. Thus the maximum possible value of F = 4 (if F≥5 then the product will be at least 5- digit. Thus F = 1 or 3 or 4

We are given that D=2×F Thus F = 4, D= 8 which leaves G =7

The remaining alphabets are A, E and H. The remaining digits to be allocated are 1,3 and 9. 

Since one of the numbers for the product is 27. Thus the final product E27H26 should be divisible by 27. Thus it should be divisible by 9 also. For a number to be divisible by 9, the sum of its digits has to be a multiple of 9

Thus  E+2+7+H+2+6 = 9k or E + H = 9k−17 or E + H = 9k′ + 1 where k =  k′+2

Thus E + H = 1 or 10

E + H = 1 is not possible as both are positive digts. Thus E + H = 10 and it happens when (E,H) = (1,9) or (9,1). Thus it will mean that A = 3 is the only possible scenario. Now we know that the 2 numbers whose product is taken is  4738 and 27. We can input the values and get the following

Thus we obtain the following allocation

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 34

In the above multiplication, A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H are the different digits of number such that none of them is divisible by 5. 

If it is known that D is twice that of F, answer the following questions

 

Q. Which of the following is equal to A × C?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 34

Since none of the digits is divisible by 5, Digits can be 1,2,3,4,6,7,8 and 9 only.

From the above we see that C + 0 = 6. Thus C = 6.

Looking at the second digit of the product. Unit place of C +  C = B. Thus unit digit of 6+6(12) is 2. Thus B = 2.

The product simplifies into 

We observe that unit places of D × G = 6 The pair of digits which gives 6 at unit digits on their product are (1,6), (2,3), (2,8), (4,4), (4,9) (6,6) and (7,8). Since we already know that C = 6, B = 2  and  D ≠ G only remaining possible pairs are (4,9) and (7,8). 

Thus (D,G) can be (4,9) or (9,4) or (7,8) or (8,7)

Upon further observation, we see that FGAD × 2 = HFG6 which is a 4-digit number. Thus the maximum possible value of F = 4 (if F≥5 then the product will be at least 5- digit. Thus F = 1 or 3 or 4

We are given that D = 2 × F Thus F = 4, D = 8 which leaves G = 7

The remaining alphabets are A, E and H. The remaining digits to be allocated are 1,3 and 9. 

Since one of the numbers for the product is 27. Thus the final product E27H26 should be divisible by 27. Thus it should be divisible by 9 also. For a number to be divisible by 9, the sum of its digits has to be a multiple of 9

Thus  E+2+7+H+2+6 = 9k or E + H = 9k−17 or E + H = 9k′ + 1 where k =  k′+2

Thus E + H = 1 or 10

E + H = 1 is not possible as both are positive digts. Thus E + H = 10 and it happens when (E,H) = (1,9) or (9,1). Thus it will mean that A = 3 is the only possible scenario. Now we know that the 2 numbers whose product is taken is  4738 and 27. We can input the values and get the following

Thus we obtain the following allocation

A × C = 3 × 6 = 18

C+D+F = 6+8+4 = 18. Option D is correct

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 35

In the above multiplication, A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H are the different digits of number such that none of them is divisible by 5. 

If it is known that D is twice that of F, answer the following questions

 

Q. What is the vale of DEFA × FE

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 35

Since none of the digits is divisible by 5, Digits can be 1,2,3,4,6,7,8 and 9 only.

From the above we see that C + 0 = 6. Thus C = 6.

Looking at the second digit of the product. Unit place of C +  C = B. Thus unit digit of 6+6(12) is 2. Thus B = 2.

The product simplifies into 

We observe that unit places of D × G = 6 The pair of digits which gives 6 at unit digits on their product are (1,6), (2,3), (2,8), (4,4), (4,9) (6,6) and (7,8). Since we already know that C = 6, B = 2  and  D ≠ G only remaining possible pairs are (4,9) and (7,8). 

Thus (D,G) can be (4,9) or (9,4) or (7,8) or (8,7)

Upon further observation, we see that FGAD × 2 = HFG6 which is a 4-digit number. Thus the maximum possible value of F = 4 (if F≥5 then the product will be at least 5- digit. Thus F = 1 or 3 or 4

We are given that D = 2 × F Thus F = 4, D= 8 which leaves G = 7

The remaining alphabets are A, E and H. The remaining digits to be allocated are 1,3 and 9. 

Since one of the numbers for the product is 27. Thus the final product E27H26 should be divisible by 27. Thus it should be divisible by 9 also. For a number to be divisible by 9, the sum of its digits has to be a multiple of 9

Thus  E+2+7+H+2+6 = 9k or E + H = 9k−17 or E + H = 9k′ + 1 where k =  k′+2

Thus E + H = 1 or 10

E + H = 1 is not possible as both are positive digts. Thus E + H = 10 and it happens when (E,H) = (1,9) or (9,1). Thus it will mean that A = 3 is the only possible scenario. Now we know that the 2 numbers whose product is taken is  4738 and 27. We can input the values and get the following

Thus we obtain the following allocation

A × C = 3 × 6 = 18

C+D+F = 6+8+4 = 18. Option D is correct

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 36

In the above multiplication, A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H are the different digits of number such that none of them is divisible by 5. 

If it is known that D is twice that of F, answer the following questions

 

Q. H2−F2 has a total of how many factors?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 36

Since none of the digits is divisible by 5, Digits can be 1,2,3,4,6,7,8 and 9 only.

From the above we see that C + 0 = 6. Thus C = 6.

Looking at the second digit of the product. Unit place of C +  C = B. Thus unit digit of 6+6(12) is 2. Thus B = 2.

The product simplifies into 

We observe that unit places of D × G = 6 The pair of digits which gives 6 at unit digits on their product are (1,6), (2,3), (2,8), (4,4), (4,9) (6,6) and (7,8). Since we already know that C = 6, B = 2  and  D ≠ G only remaining possible pairs are (4,9) and (7,8). 

Thus (D,G) can be (4,9) or (9,4) or (7,8) or (8,7)

Upon further observation, we see that FGAD × 2 = HFG6 which is a 4-digit number. Thus the maximum possible value of F = 4 (if F≥5 then the product will be at least 5- digit. Thus F = 1 or 3 or 4

We are given that D = 2 × F Thus F = 4, D= 8 which leaves G = 7

The remaining alphabets are A, E and H. The remaining digits to be allocated are 1,3 and 9. 

Since one of the numbers for the product is 27. Thus the final product E27H26 should be divisible by 27. Thus it should be divisible by 9 also. For a number to be divisible by 9, the sum of its digits has to be a multiple of 9

Thus  E+2+7+H+2+6 = 9k or E + H = 9k−17 or E + H = 9k′ + 1 where k =  k′+2

Thus E + H = 1 or 10

E + H = 1 is not possible as both are positive digts. Thus E + H = 10 and it happens when (E,H) = (1,9) or (9,1). Thus it will mean that A = 3 is the only possible scenario. Now we know that the 2 numbers whose product is taken is  4738 and 27. We can input the values and get the following

Thus we obtain the following allocation

H2−F2 = 92−42 =  5 ×13. Total of 4  factors are possible .

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 37

The software development team of Cracku has come up with a new spreadsheet viewing and editing application. The rows are denoted by alphabet(s) starting with A, B, C,..., Z, followed by AA, AB,..., AZ, BA,..., ZZ, followed by AAA, AAB,..... and so on. The columns are denoted in the same way. A cell, which is an intersection of a row and column is denoted by the alphabet(s) representing the row followed by '#' followed by the alphabet(s) representing the column.

For example, the cell at the intersection of the 27th row and 8th column is denoted by AA#H.

Based on the information given above, answer the questions that follow.

If there is a total of 65536 cells in a spreadsheet, such that the sum of the number of rows and the number of columns is the least possible, what is the sequence of characters denoting the last cell of the sheet? The last cell is the cell at the intersection of the last row and the last column.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 37

65536 = 256 x 256

Hence, the sum of rows and columns will be minimum when the number of rows, as well as the number of columns, is 256.

Hence the last cell should be in the form of (256,256)

256 = 260 - 4 = 26 X 10 - 4

A - Z → 26

AA - AZ → 26

BA - BZ → 26

CA - CZ → 26

DA - DZ → 26

EA - EZ → 26

FA - FZ → 26

GA - GZ → 26

HA - HZ → 26

IA - IZ → 26

IZ is the 260th term, hence the 256th term should be IV

Hence the cell should be represented as IV#IV.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 38

The software development team of Cracku has come up with a new spreadsheet viewing and editing application. The rows are denoted by alphabet(s) starting with A, B, C,..., Z, followed by AA, AB,..., AZ, BA,..., ZZ, followed by AAA, AAB,..... and so on. The columns are denoted in the same way. A cell, which is an intersection of a row and column is denoted by the alphabet(s) representing the row followed by '#' followed by the alphabet(s) representing the column.

For example, the cell at the intersection of the 27th row and 8th column is denoted by AA#H.

Based on the information given above, answer the questions that follow.

 

Q. A spreadsheet has 26 rows and 78 columns. All cells whose representations(row#column) has at least 1 vowel in them are called vowel cells. How many non-vowel cells are present in this sheet?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 38

Let us consider the 26 rows and the first 26 columns.

It is in the form of 


All the cells in column A are vowel cells, similarly, for all other vowels, all cells in that particular column are vowel cells. 

Also, all cells in row A are vowel cells, similarly, all cells in other rows denoted by vowels are vowel cells. Hence, in this 26 x 26 grid, number of vowel cells = 26 x 5 + 26 x 5 - number of cells counted twice

The number of cells counted twice = number of cells that fall in the intersection of a vowel row and a vowel column = 5 x 5 = 25.

Hence, total vowel cells = 26 x 5 + 26 x 5 - 25 = 235

Hence, non-vowel cells = 26 x 26 - 235 = 441

If we consider a similar grid, but instead of columns A to Z, we consider columns AA to AZ, in this grid, since all columns have A in them, all the cells are vowel cells. 

Considering the last grid, columns BA to BZ, and rows A to Z, it is exactly similar to the first grid. Hence, the number of non-vowel cells are 441

Hence, total count = 882.

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 39

The software development team of Cracku has come up with a new spreadsheet viewing and editing application. The rows are denoted by alphabet(s) starting with A, B, C,..., Z, followed by AA, AB,..., AZ, BA,..., ZZ, followed by AAA, AAB,..... and so on. The columns are denoted in the same way. A cell, which is an intersection of a row and column is denoted by the alphabet(s) representing the row followed by '#' followed by the alphabet(s) representing the column.

For example, the cell at the intersection of the 27th row and 8th column is denoted by AA#H.

Based on the information given above, answer the questions that follow.

 

Q. The distance between 2 cells is calculated as follows:

In the new notation, suppose all the rows and columns were numbered starting from 1, 2, 3,.... and so on instead of A, B, C,... AA,... such that A corresponds to 1, AA corresponds to 27 and so on.

The distance between 2 cells = 

where r1​, r2​ are the row numbers of the first and second cells respectively and c1​, c2​ are the column numbers of the first and second cells respectively.

Below mentioned are a few pair of points in the old notation. Which of them are farthest from each other?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 39

A#A - M#F

Difference between A and M = 12

Difference between A and F = 5

Hence,  distance = 

ZU#AAD - AAA#ZX

Difference between ZU and AAA = 6

Difference between AAD and ZX = 6

Hence, distance =  

CDE#XXA - CCX#XWT

Difference between CDE and CCX = 7

Difference between XXA and XWT = 7

Hence, distance = 

UV#AB - VA#W

Difference between UV and VA = 5

Difference between AB and W = 5

Hence, distance = 

Hence, Option (A) is the right choice.

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 40

The software development team of Cracku has come up with a new spreadsheet viewing and editing application. The rows are denoted by alphabet(s) starting with A, B, C,..., Z, followed by AA, AB,..., AZ, BA,..., ZZ, followed by AAA, AAB,..... and so on. The columns are denoted in the same way. A cell, which is an intersection of a row and column is denoted by the alphabet(s) representing the row followed by '#' followed by the alphabet(s) representing the column.

For example, the cell at the intersection of the 27th row and 8th column is denoted by AA#H.

Based on the information given above, answer the questions that follow.

 

Q. The distance between 2 cells is calculated as follows:

In the new notation, suppose all the rows and columns were numbered starting from 1, 2, 3,.... and so on instead of A, B, C,... AA,... such that A corresponds to 1, AA corresponds to 27 and so on.

The distance between 2 cells = 

where r1​, r2​ are the row numbers of the first and second cells respectively and c1​, c2​ are the column numbers of the first and second cells respectively.

If the distance between UVX#AAAZ and VAT#ZWD is d, and the distance between A#XG and XG#A is e. 

What is the value of e/d​?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 40

UVX#AAAZ and VAT#ZWD

Difference between UVX and VAT:

UVX - UWW -> 26

UWX - UXW -> 26

UXX - UYW -> 26

UYX - UZW -> 26

UZX - VAT -> 23

Hence, the difference between UVX and VAT = 26 + 26 + 26 + 26 + 23 - 1 = 126

Difference between AAAZ and ZWD:

ZWD - ZXC -> 26

ZXD - ZYC -> 26 

ZYD - ZZC -> 26

ZZD - AAAC -> 26

AAAD - AAAZ -> 23

Hence, the difference between AAAZ and ZWD = 26 + 26 + 26 + 26 + 23 - 1 = 126

Hence, distance d = 126√2​

A#XG and XG#A

Difference between A and XG

A - Z -> 26

AA - AZ -> 26

....

WA - WZ -> 26

XA - XG -> 7

Difference between A and XG = 26 + 26 X 23 + 7 - 1 = 630

Hence, the distance between A#XG and XG#A is e = 630√2​

Hence, e = 5d.

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 41

There are 4 properties available for rent in the city of Hyderabad. They are in 4 different locations among Kondapur, Madhapur, Whitefield and Gachibowli. The rents of the 4 properties are 20000 Rs/month, 24000 Rs/month, 28000 Rs/month and 30000 Rs/month in no particular order. The security deposits of the 4 properties are 1 month equivalent of rent, 2 months equivalent of rent, 3 months equivalent of rent and 4 months equivalent of rent, in no particular order. Also, there are 4 different brokers A, B, C, D who have the responsibility to rent these 4 properties. Brokers belong to 3 categories, truth-tellers, who always tell the truth, liars who always lie and alternators, who alternate between truth and a lie. It is also known that at least one of the brokers is a truth-teller. Also, each of them says 3 statements each, recorded as follows:

A: 

1. The highest amount of rent is for the Gachibowli property.

2. The lowest amount of rent is not for the Kondapur property.

3. The broker, D sometimes lies.

B:

1. The Kondapur property has a deposit equivalent to 4 months of rent.

2. The broker, C never speaks the truth.

3. The rent of Whitefield is 24000 Rs/month.

C:

1. The rent of the Whitefield property(in Rs) when divided by 1000 has 8 distinct factors. 

2. The broker, A never speaks the truth. 

3. The monthly rent of the Whitefield property is neither the highest nor the lowest.

D:

1. The average of all rents is 25500 Rs/month.

2. The broker, A is not an alternator.

3. The Madhapur property has a deposit equivalent to 3 months of rent.

Based on the information given above, answer the questions that follow.

 

Q. Which of the following is a correct match?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 41

It has been given that at least one of them is a truth-teller. So, we can assume each one of them to be a truth-teller separately, are deduce other information based on the statements they say.

Case 1: Let A be the truth-teller.

The first statement of A is that the highest amount of rent is for the Gachibowli property.

The second statement of A is that the lowest amount of rent is not for the Kondapur property.

The third statement of A is that D sometimes lies.

Hence,

Gachibowli - 30000 Rs/month

Kondapur - ~20000 Rs/month

D - Alternator

Let us now consider D's statements since we now know that D is an alternator.

D's first statement is true since the average is correct.

D's second statement is that A is not an alternator. We know that in this case, A is a truth-teller, hence, this statement of D is true. 2 consecutive statements of D are true, this implies he is a truth-teller, if A is a truth-teller, hence this case is invalidated.

Case 2: Let B be the truth-teller.

The first statement of B is that the Kondapur property has a deposit equivalent to 4 months of rent.

The second statement of B is that C never speaks the truth.

The third statement of B is that the rent of Whitefield is 24000 Rs/month.

Kondapur - 4 months deposit

C - Liar

Whitefield - 24000 Rs/month

Let us now consider C's statements, since we already know that C is a liar.

C's first statement is that the rent of the Whitefield property(in Rs), when divided by 1000, has 8 distinct factors.

24000/1000 = 24

24 = 23 × 3

Hence, it has 8 factors. So, it is a true sentence.

Hence, this case is invalidated as well.

Case 3: Let C be the truth-teller.

The first statement of C is that the rent of the Whitefield property(in Rs), when divided by 1000, has 8 distinct factors.

Among the 4 rents, if we calculate the number of factors, only 24000 and 30000 have 8 distinct factors post division by 1000.

So, the rent of the Whitefield property is either 24000 Rs/month or 30000 Rs/month.

The second statement of C is that A never speaks the truth.

The third statement of C is that the monthly rent of the Whitefield property is neither the highest nor the lowest.

Thus, we can safely conclude that the rent of the Whitefield property is 24000 Rs/month.

Hence, 

Whitefield - 24000 Rs/month

A - Liar.

Let us analyze A's statements.

The highest amount of rent is for the Gachibowli property. - This is false.

The lowest amount of rent is not for the Kondapur property. - This is false.

Kondapur - 20,000 Rs/month.

Since the Gachibowli property can't take the highest value, it takes 28,000 Rs/month.

Hence, Madhapur takes 30000 Rs/month.

Also, A's third statement is a lie which implies that D is either a truth-teller or a liar.

Let us analyze D's statements. Since we have already concluded that the first statement of D is true, we can safely say that he always speaks the truth.

Hence,

Madhapur - 3 months deposit

Also,

Hence, B - Alternator is the right choice.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 42

There are 4 properties available for rent in the city of Hyderabad. They are in 4 different locations among Kondapur, Madhapur, Whitefield and Gachibowli. The rents of the 4 properties are 20000 Rs/month, 24000 Rs/month, 28000 Rs/month and 30000 Rs/month in no particular order. The security deposits of the 4 properties are 1 month equivalent of rent, 2 months equivalent of rent, 3 months equivalent of rent and 4 months equivalent of rent, in no particular order. Also, there are 4 different brokers A, B, C, D who have the responsibility to rent these 4 properties. Brokers belong to 3 categories, truth-tellers, who always tell the truth, liars who always lie and alternators, who alternate between truth and a lie. It is also known that at least one of the brokers is a truth-teller. Also, each of them says 3 statements each, recorded as follows:

A: 

1. The highest amount of rent is for the Gachibowli property.

2. The lowest amount of rent is not for the Kondapur property.

3. The broker, D sometimes lies.

B:

1. The Kondapur property has a deposit equivalent to 4 months of rent.

2. The broker, C never speaks the truth.

3. The rent of Whitefield is 24000 Rs/month.

C:

1. The rent of the Whitefield property(in Rs) when divided by 1000 has 8 distinct factors. 

2. The broker, A never speaks the truth. 

3. The monthly rent of the Whitefield property is neither the highest nor the lowest.

D:

1. The average of all rents is 25500 Rs/month.

2. The broker, A is not an alternator.

3. The Madhapur property has a deposit equivalent to 3 months of rent.

Based on the information given above, answer the questions that follow.

 

Q. How many of the mentioned statements are true?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 42

It has been given that at least one of them is a truth-teller. So, we can assume each one of them to be a truth-teller separately, are deduce other information based on the statements they say.

Case 1: Let A be the truth-teller.

The first statement of A is that the highest amount of rent is for the Gachibowli property.

The second statement of A is that the lowest amount of rent is not for the Kondapur property.

The third statement of A is that D sometimes lies.

Hence,

Gachibowli - 30000 Rs/month

Kondapur - ~20000 Rs/month

D - Alternator

Let us now consider D's statements since we now know that D is an alternator.

D's first statement is true since the average is correct.

D's second statement is that A is not an alternator. We know that in this case, A is a truth-teller, hence, this statement of D is true. 2 consecutive statements of D are true, this implies he is a truth-teller, if A is a truth-teller, hence this case is invalidated.

Case 2: Let B be the truth-teller.

The first statement of B is that the Kondapur property has a deposit equivalent to 4 months of rent.

The second statement of B is that C never speaks the truth.

The third statement of B is that the rent of Whitefield is 24000 Rs/month.

Kondapur - 4 months deposit

C - Liar

Whitefield - 24000 Rs/month

Let us now consider C's statements, since we already know that C is a liar.

C's first statement is that the rent of the Whitefield property(in Rs), when divided by 1000, has 8 distinct factors.

24000/1000 = 24

24 = 23 × 3

Hence, it has 8 factors. So, it is a true sentence.

Hence, this case is invalidated as well.

Case 3: Let C be the truth-teller.

The first statement of C is that the rent of the Whitefield property(in Rs), when divided by 1000, has 8 distinct factors.

Among the 4 rents, if we calculate the number of factors, only 24000 and 30000 have 8 distinct factors post division by 1000.

So, the rent of the Whitefield property is either 24000 Rs/month or 30000 Rs/month.

The second statement of C is that A never speaks the truth.

The third statement of C is that the monthly rent of the Whitefield property is neither the highest nor the lowest.

Thus, we can safely conclude that the rent of the Whitefield property is 24000 Rs/month.

Hence, 

Whitefield - 24000 Rs/month

A - Liar.

Let us analyze A's statements.

The highest amount of rent is for the Gachibowli property. - This is false.

The lowest amount of rent is not for the Kondapur property. - This is false.

Kondapur - 20,000 Rs/month.

Since the Gachibowli property can't take the highest value, it takes 28,000 Rs/month.

Hence, Madhapur takes 30000 Rs/month.

Also, A's third statement is a lie which implies that D is either a truth-teller or a liar.

Let us analyze D's statements. Since we have already concluded that the first statement of D is true, we can safely say that he always speaks the truth.

Hence,

Madhapur - 3 months deposit

Also,

All 6 statements from the truth-tellers are true.

Also, 2 statements from the alternators are true.

Hence, a total of 8 statements are true.

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 43

There are 4 properties available for rent in the city of Hyderabad. They are in 4 different locations among Kondapur, Madhapur, Whitefield and Gachibowli. The rents of the 4 properties are 20000 Rs/month, 24000 Rs/month, 28000 Rs/month and 30000 Rs/month in no particular order. The security deposits of the 4 properties are 1 month equivalent of rent, 2 months equivalent of rent, 3 months equivalent of rent and 4 months equivalent of rent, in no particular order. Also, there are 4 different brokers A, B, C, D who have the responsibility to rent these 4 properties. Brokers belong to 3 categories, truth-tellers, who always tell the truth, liars who always lie and alternators, who alternate between truth and a lie. It is also known that at least one of the brokers is a truth-teller. Also, each of them says 3 statements each, recorded as follows:

A: 

1. The highest amount of rent is for the Gachibowli property.

2. The lowest amount of rent is not for the Kondapur property.

3. The broker, D sometimes lies.

B:

1. The Kondapur property has a deposit equivalent to 4 months of rent.

2. The broker, C never speaks the truth.

3. The rent of Whitefield is 24000 Rs/month.

C:

1. The rent of the Whitefield property(in Rs) when divided by 1000 has 8 distinct factors. 

2. The broker, A never speaks the truth. 

3. The monthly rent of the Whitefield property is neither the highest nor the lowest.

D:

1. The average of all rents is 25500 Rs/month.

2. The broker, A is not an alternator.

3. The Madhapur property has a deposit equivalent to 3 months of rent.

Based on the information given above, answer the questions that follow.

 

Q. For how many properties can we uniquely identify the monthly rent?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 43

It has been given that at least one of them is a truth-teller. So, we can assume each one of them to be a truth-teller separately, are deduce other information based on the statements they say.

Case 1: Let A be the truth-teller.

The first statement of A is that the highest amount of rent is for the Gachibowli property.

The second statement of A is that the lowest amount of rent is not for the Kondapur property.

The third statement of A is that D sometimes lies.

Hence,

Gachibowli - 30000 Rs/month

Kondapur - ~20000 Rs/month

D - Alternator

Let us now consider D's statements since we now know that D is an alternator.

D's first statement is true since the average is correct.

D's second statement is that A is not an alternator. We know that in this case, A is a truth-teller, hence, this statement of D is true. 2 consecutive statements of D are true, this implies he is a truth-teller, if A is a truth-teller, hence this case is invalidated.

Case 2: Let B be the truth-teller.

The first statement of B is that the Kondapur property has a deposit equivalent to 4 months of rent.

The second statement of B is that C never speaks the truth.

The third statement of B is that the rent of Whitefield is 24000 Rs/month.

Kondapur - 4 months deposit

C - Liar

Whitefield - 24000 Rs/month

Let us now consider C's statements, since we already know that C is a liar.

C's first statement is that the rent of the Whitefield property(in Rs), when divided by 1000, has 8 distinct factors.

24000/1000 = 24

24 = 23 × 3

Hence, it has 8 factors. So, it is a true sentence.

Hence, this case is invalidated as well.

Case 3: Let C be the truth-teller.

The first statement of C is that the rent of the Whitefield property(in Rs), when divided by 1000, has 8 distinct factors.

Among the 4 rents, if we calculate the number of factors, only 24000 and 30000 have 8 distinct factors post division by 1000.

So, the rent of the Whitefield property is either 24000 Rs/month or 30000 Rs/month.

The second statement of C is that A never speaks the truth.

The third statement of C is that the monthly rent of the Whitefield property is neither the highest nor the lowest.

Thus, we can safely conclude that the rent of the Whitefield property is 24000 Rs/month.

Hence, 

Whitefield - 24000 Rs/month

A - Liar.

Let us analyze A's statements.

The highest amount of rent is for the Gachibowli property. - This is false.

The lowest amount of rent is not for the Kondapur property. - This is false.

Kondapur - 20,000 Rs/month.

Since the Gachibowli property can't take the highest value, it takes 28,000 Rs/month.

Hence, Madhapur takes 30000 Rs/month.

Also, A's third statement is a lie which implies that D is either a truth-teller or a liar.

Let us analyze D's statements. Since we have already concluded that the first statement of D is true, we can safely say that he always speaks the truth.

Hence,

Madhapur - 3 months deposit

Also,

We can uniquely identify the monthly rents of all 4 properties.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 44

A committee of 3 is to be selected out of a group of 8 persons, 3 CAs, 4 MBAs and 1 CA-cum-MBA. In how many ways can the committee selection takes place, such that there is at least one CA degree and one MBA degree held, by the committee members.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 44

Let us break this problem into two broad cases:-
Case I
The CA-cum-MBA is one of the chosen members,
In that case we need to select any 2 of the remaining 7 people in 7C2 ways = 21 ways.
Case II
The CA-cum-MBA is not one of the chosen members,
In that case we need to select any 3 of the remaining 7 people, such that at least 1 CA and 1 MBA is kept.
Now we can select 2MBAs and 1 CA in 4C2.3C1 = 6*3 = 18 ways.
Now we can select 1MBA and 2 CAs in 4C1.3C2 = 4*3 = 12 ways.
Thus total number of ways = 21 + 18 + 12 = 51 ways.

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 45

Radheshyam is an alcohol bootlegger. He wants to make an extra profit on the alcohol, hence he tried to dilute the alcohol. He does this in a unique way. He takes 625 Liters of alcohol in a tank that has a large capacity. He replaces 20% of the content with water. After this, he doubles the quantity of alcohol in the tank by adding pure alcohol and then doubles the percentage of water in the mixture by adding pure water. 

His manager found this process tiresome and confusing. Therefore he suggested Radheshyamto mix the original 625L alcohol with a solution B of alcohol and water so that the resulting solution is the same as that derived from his initial process. What is the overall quantity and concentration of the suggested mixture B?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 45

Initially, Radheshyam had 625 litres of alcohol. After replacing 20% with water he has 125 Liters of water and 500 Liters of alcohol.

After doubling the alcohol content in the tank, he has 1000Liters of Alcohol and 125 Liters of water.

After this, he doubles the percentage of water in the solution by adding pure water. Let the amount of water be xx liters

As per the question

Upon rearranging and solving we get (125+x) 1125 = 250 (1125 + x)

875x = 125 x 125

Therefore the final solution has 1000L of alcohol and 

The added mixture should have 375L of alcohol and 2000/7 of water

Total quantity of mixture = 

%concentration of alcohol = 

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 46

A group of students 30 students went to the canteen to buy snacks. They all together had Rs 1,860 with them.1/3rd of the students bought samosa worth Rs 20 and remaining had Vada-Pav costing Rs 29 per serving. What is the value of the average money students have left with them?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 46

Total money students had initially = Rs 1860

1/3rd of the students bought samosa worth Rs 20, total expense = 30 x 1/3 x 20 = 200

Reaming students bought Vadapav. Total money spent for vada-pav  =  30 × 2/3 x 29 = 580
Total expense  = 200+580 = Rs 780

Money left with students = Rs 1860- Rs 780 = Rs 1080

Average of money left with students = 1080/30
 = 36

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 47

Modern Dairy is an upcoming company that aims to provide a unique type of milk derived from plant to the customer segment which is lactose intolerant. It has 2 suppliers. The first supplier gives a solution of soy milk and water which has a soy milk concentration of 87.5%. The second suppliers gives a solution of almond based milk and water in which the concentration of almond based milk is 60%. If the milk obtained by mixing these two solutions has a water concentration of 30%, then what is the percentage of soy-milk in the mixture? 

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 47

Let the x units of soy-milk solution is used and y units of an almond-based solution is used

Amount of water in soy-milk = 0.125x units

Amount of water in almond-milk = 0.4y

After the mixing, the concentration of water is 0.3

Hence 0.125x+0.4y = 0.3(x+y)

0.125x+0.4y = 0.3x+0.3y

0.1y = 0.175x

y = 1.75x

y = 47​x

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 48

f(x) is a non constant linear function such that f(f(f(f(1)))) is equal to f(f(1)). What is the value of f(3)+2f(0) if it is given that the angle between the function and the X axis is not equal to 450

 

Enter -1 if the answer can't be determined.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 48

Let the function be f(x) = mx+c, as it is given that the function, is linear, here 'm' is the slope of the function

f(f(x)) = m2x+c+mc

similarly f(f(f(x))) = f(m2x + c + m3x+c+mc+m2c

and f(f(f(f(x)))) = m4x + c + mc + m2c + m3c

f(f(f(f(1)))) = f(f(1)), Thus, m4+c+mc+m2c+m3c = m2+c+mc

On rearranging we get m4+m2c+m3c = m2

Since the function is not constant we can say that m ≠ 0

Dividing both side by m2 and shifting all term to one side we get

m+ c + mc − 1 = 0

(m2−1)+(c+mc) = 0

(m+1)(m−1)+c(1+m)=0

(m+1)(m+c−1) = 0

Since the function does not make 450 with x-axis the value of m can not be 1 or -1

Thus m+c-1 = 0 or m+c = 1....(I)

f(3) = 3m+c and f(0) = c

f(3)+2f(0) = 3m+c+2c 

= 3m+c+2c = 3(m+c) = 3 (inputting m+c = 1 from (I))

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 49

The equation = 4 cos (π/2 (x2  + 2x)) has how many distinct real solutions for x ≥  0


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 49

If x ≥ 0 it implies that x+2 is also always positive.

The minimum value the LHS will be

thus x = 0 as we are given that x ≥ 0
The RHS has a cos term and the maximum value of RHS is 4 when the 

It is possible when cos 

or x2 + 2x = 4n

Thus there are many solutions for the equation but LHS achieves the value only once when x = 0. There is one solution possible.

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 50

A kite is a quadrilateral whose four sides can be grouped into two pairs of equal-length sides that are adjacent to each other. A kite is formed with length  of uncommon sides as 7 and 24. If length of one of its diagonal is 25 what is the length of other diagonal?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 50

Let ABCD be a kite with the uncommon sides be 7 and 24. And point at which diagonals intersect is O.

It can be shown as

One of the diagonal has a length of 25. It is possible when AC =25 only. If DB = 25 then AD+BD =14 < DB=25 which violates triangle inequality.

Thus we observe that ADB and ABC is a right-triangle as 7+ 24= 252

Area of the kite = 2 × 1/2​(7)(24) =168  sq units.

From symmetry △AOD and △AOB are congruent and hence ∠AOB = 900

Area of kite = 1/2​(AC)(DO) + 1/2​(AC)(OB) = 1/2​(AC)(DB) = 168

1/2 ​(25)(DB)= 168

DB = 168​/12.5 = 13.44 units

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 51

In a regular hexagon ABCDEF, What is the ratio AD: AC?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 51

Let the side be aa of Hexagon ABCDEF

Since we know that diagonals divide the hexagon on 6-equilateral triangle, AD = AO+OD = a + a = 2a

Since it is a regular polygon, the internal angle = 180 - 360/6 = 180 - 60 = 120 degrees

∠ABC = 1200

in ΔAB, AB = BC and ∠ABC = 120. This is an isoceles triangle so  ∠BAC = ∠BCA = 300 Applying sin rule

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 52

What is the number of common tangents between the two circles C1 and C2 where C1: x2−8x+y2−12y+16 = 0 and C2 : x2−8x+y2−18y+88 = 0


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 52

Let us take the curve C1: Upon inspection, we see that it is an equation of a circle. 

It can be written as (x−4)+ (y−6)= 62. Thus center is (4,6) and radius =6

Similarly, C2 is also a circle that can be written as (x−4)2+(y−9)= 32. Thus center = (4,9) and radius = 3

Distance between center = 

The difference in radius = 6-3 = 3 units. 

We observe that distance between centre = difference of radius. Thus One circle is inside the second circle and have exactly 1 point common. 

1 tangent can be drawn,

The same can be seen from the graph as well

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 53

How many odd natural numbers are possible which satisfy the inequality

(x−2) (x−6) (x−10) (x−14)  (x−18) < 0

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 53

We can see that at x= 2,6,10,14,18 the function becomes 0

After every root, the function changes its value. 

for x > 18; the equation is always positive hence no solution 

for 14<x<18, the equation is negative and 15 & 17 are 2 odd numbers satisfying it

for 10<x<14; the equation is always positive

for 6 < x < 10 ; the equation is negative and 7 & 9 are 2 odd numbers satisfying it

for 2<x<6, the function will be always positive hence no solution

For 0<x<2 the function will be negative. 1 is the only odd number in this range

Total 5 such numbers are there.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 54

It is given that xx and yy are integers such that   ∣x+3∣ < 7 and ∣y − 4∣ < 8. What is the difference of maximum and minimum value of x + xy + y ?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 54

Let us look at the inequality

|x+3| < 7 or -7 <  x + 3 < 7 or -10 < x < 4 ...(I)

Similarly |y-4| < 8, -8 < y-4 < 8 or -4 < y < 12 $$ ...(II)

Coming to the equation,

x + xy  + y = x + xy + y + 1 − 1

x+ xy +  y = (x + 1) (y + 1) -1

The value will be max when both (x+1) and (y+1) are either positive or negative. for it to be minimum, one has to be positive and other has to be negative

From (I) and (II) we can say that,

-9 < x+1 < 5 and −3 <y + 1 < 13

Therefore (x+1) = [-8,-7,-6,-5,......2,3,4] and (y+1) = [-2,-1,0,....11,12] as xx and yy are integers

(x+1)(y+1) will have max value of 48 and min value -96

(x+1)(y+1)-1  will have max value of 47 and min value -97

Difference = 47-(-97) = 47+97 = 144

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 55

Sita went to a nearby village and wanted to buy fruits. The village market only sold apples, oranges and mangoes. The cost of the apple was Rs 5/piece. The cost of the orange was Rs 13/piece and the cost of the mango was Rs 15/piece.  She has to buy at least 1 fruit of each kind. Her overall purchase of fruits coster her Rs 98.

 

Q. What is the sum of the minimum possible number of fruits and the maximum possible number of fruits she could buy

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 55

Atleast 1 fruit has to be bought, the cost incurred for purchasing exactly a fruit of each type = 13+5+15 = 33.

Let the extra number of apples bought be x, number of oranges bought be y and number of mangoes bought be z

Then 

5x + 13y + 15z ≤ 98−33 = 65

To buy the maximum number of possible fruit we can take x = 13x = 13

After which Sita will be left with Rs.2 Total number of fruits bought = 13+3 =16

When she has Rs 98 with her and wants to buy the minimum number of fruits such that all the money is spent. After buying 1 fruit of each type she will be left with 98-33 = 65

To buy the minimum number of possible fruit we can take z = 4z = 4. After which Sita will have Rs5, she'll buy an apple 

Total fruits bought = 4+1+3 = 8

Sum = 16+8 = 24

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 56

If log49​2 =a, log9​2 =b and log2​48 = c then what is the value of (c − 1/2b​)(1/a​−1/b​)

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 56

Let us start with calculating the value of c − 1/2b​

Now we need to calculate the value of (1/a​−1/b​)

Putting (I) and (II) in original equation

we get 

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 57

What is the remainder when 9157 is divided by 21


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 57

91 has factors 7 and 13

We have to find 9157 mod 21.

We can divide both numerator and denominator by 7 and get 13× 1956 mod 3

Which is equal to  (13 mod 3)(9156mod3)

It is equal to ( (12+1)mod 3) ( (90+1) mod 3) ((90+1)mod3).......56 times

= 1*1*1*1...57 times

=1

Actual remainder will be 1*7 = 7 as we divided the initial fraction by 7

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 58

N people can sit on 4 chairs in 5040 ways. In how many ways can 4 people be selected out of n-2 people.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 58

We are given that nP4​=5040

This can be written as 

Multiply numerator and denominator by 6! we get

Hence n = 10

n-2 = 8

4 people can be selected out of 8 in  = 70  ways

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 59

Harsh has 2 types of sugar. He bought the sugar of type I at the cost of Rs 50/kg and sugar of type II at Rs 35/kg. He marked up the price of type I sugar by 8% and type II by 20%. After this, he gave a 5% discount on both while selling. Overal profit he earned from this was 9.25%. What is the ratio (by weight) of type I sugar to type II sugar he sold?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 59

Let the ratio be x:y

Amount of type I sugar bought = x kgs

Amount of type II sugar bought = y kgs

Total cost incurred to buy the sugar = 50x+35y

Revenue after marking up the price and giving the discount  = (0.95)(1.08× 50x + 1.20× 35y)

Revenue after marking up the price and giving the discount = 51.3x + 39.9y

Profit % = 9.25%

Hence (1+9.25%)(50x+35y)= 51.3x+39.9y

(1.0925)(50x+35y) = 51.3x+39.9y

54.625x+38.2375y = 51.3x+39.9y

3.325x = 1.6625y

2x = y

x/y ​= 1/2

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 60

Ram has Rs 1,00,000 with him which he wants to invest. His financial advisor advised him to split the investment into 2 scheme. 

The scheme I had a return of 10% compounded annually. Whereas scheme II had the interest of 20%per annum compounded half-yearly. If after the end of 2 years he had received a total amount of Rs 1,36,246 How much money did he invest in the scheme I?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 60

Let the amount invested in the scheme I  xx

The return from scheme I at the end of year 2 (1.1)2x = 1.21

Let the amount invested in scheme II be yy

Since it is compounded half-yearly, the rate of interest per half-year will be 20%/2 ​= 10%

The return from scheme II will be y(1.1)4 = 1.4641y

Hence 1.21x+1.4641y=136246 ...(I)

Also, x+y = 100000 ...(II)

1.4641(II)-(I)  gives

0.2541x=10164

x=40,000

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 61

Ram sells only jeans of a particular make all of which he bought at the same price. During the Diwali festival, he started the "Buy 4 get 1 free " offer and on top of that, he gave 10% off on the bill. Despite such discounts, he made a profit of 5%. By, what percent was the cost of jeans marked up if all the customers availed both the offers?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 61

Let us  assume he bought each jeans at the price of P

Cost price for 4+1 =5 Jeans = 5P

He makes a profit of 5%, therefore the selling price of 5 Jeans = 1.05× 5 = 5.25P...(i)

Let the price after Markup be M.

Selling Price of 5 Jeans before discount = 44M

Selling price after discount = (0.9)4M = 3.6M .....(ii)

Equating (i) and (ii)

3.6M = 5.25 P

M = 1.4583 P

Therefore the markup percent is 45.83%

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 62

For an investment with a fixed rate of return, interest received in 3rd  year is 1440 and 4th year is 1728. What is the rate of compound interest per annum?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 62

For compound interest, the interest gained per year is in G.P with a common ratio of (1+r%) where r is the rate of interest

Let the rate be R%

Then, 1+R%) = 1728/1440 ​= 1.2

R% = 0.2 or 20%

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 63

There are 2 Arithmetic Progression series :

A1​ = 1,5,9,...............481

A2​ = 5,11,17..............479

What is the sum of common terms of the 2 Arithmetic Progressions?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 63

A1​ has a common difference of 4 whereas A2​ = 6

Let us identify the first common term. Visually we can see that the first term will be 5

The series formed by taking the common terms of the series will also be an AP with the common difference of the A.P = lcm(4,6) = 12

nth term of this series will be = 5+(n−1)12

The maximum possible value of the last common number will be 479

Therefore, 5+(n−1)12 ≤ 479

(n−1)12 ≤ 474

(n−1) ≤ 5474​=39.5

(n) ≤ 40.5

Therefore n  = 40 is the number of terms in the resulting series

Sum of all the common 40 terms = 40​/2(2(5)+(40−1)12)

Sum of all the common 40 terms = 20(10+39× 12)

Sum of all the common 40 terms = 20(478) = 9560

CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 64

In the above triangle, AD is angle-bisector. If the value of BD is α  which of the following relation is true?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 64

Since Angle bisectors of the two sides divide the third side in the same ratio, Let's assume BD = α  = 9x and CD = 13x

Applying cosine rule on \bigtriangleup △ADC 

On putting value and rearranging we get −13xy = 169x2 + y2−169 ....(I)

On rearranging  we get,

9xy = 81x+ y2−81 ......(II)

9(I) + 13(II) to remove the xy term we get 0 = 2574x2 + 22y− 2574

Or 117x+ y2−117 = 0 ...(III)

We are given that 9x = α  or x = α​/9

Putting it in (III)

117/81 ​α2 + y2−117=0

Multiply both side by 81

17α2  + 81y2  − 9477  = 0

Diving overall equation by common factor of coeficients i.e. 9

13α2 + 9y2−1053 = 0

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 65

Out of 15 points that lie in a plane, 3 points lie on a straight line and another 4 points lie on another straight line parallel to it. If no other 3 points are collinear, find the total number of triangles that can be formed?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 65

We can select any three points as vertices of the triangle, such that all 3 points cannot belong to a particular straight line
We can select any 3 points out of 15 points in a plane in 15C3 = 455 ways
We can select 3 points from the 1st straight line in 3C3 = 1 way
We can select 3 points from the 2nd straight line in 4C3 = 4 ways
Thus total number of triangles that can be formed is = 455 - (1 + 4) = 450

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 66

What is the remainder when 203 + 213 + 223 + 233 + 243 + 253 is divided by 180?


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 4 (31/07/2022) - Question 66

203 + 213 + 223 + 233 + 243 + 253 is divisible by 45 because 203 + 253, 213 + 243 and 223 + 233 are individually divisible by 45. So we can write this number as 45a, a multiple of 45.
At the same time we observe that remainder when 203 + 213 + 223 + 233 + 243 + 253 is divided by 4 is 1. So 45a when divided by 4 leaves a remainder 1; this implies that 'a' leaves a remainder 1 when divided by 4. On dividing 45a by 180, first we cancel the common factor 45; we are left with finding remainder of a from 4 which is 1. Multiplying it with the cancelled factor 45, we get 45 as the answer.

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