CAT Mock Test - 5 (New Pattern)


75 Questions MCQ Test CAT Mock Test Series | CAT Mock Test - 5 (New Pattern)


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This mock test of CAT Mock Test - 5 (New Pattern) for CAT helps you for every CAT entrance exam. This contains 75 Multiple Choice Questions for CAT CAT Mock Test - 5 (New Pattern) (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this CAT Mock Test - 5 (New Pattern) quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. CAT students definitely take this CAT Mock Test - 5 (New Pattern) exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other CAT Mock Test - 5 (New Pattern) extra questions, long questions & short questions for CAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

The passages given below are followed by a set of question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.  

I do not pretend that the development of trust in leadership is a science or something that may be perfected " far from it. And I am not suggesting that the development of genuine humility, and finally trust, in leadership is by any means easy. It is the hardest thing the human creature called man can do. Anyone suggesting that he is, in fact, a person or leader of humility, moves farther from it.

Warren Bennis argues that leaders rarely fail because of technical incompetence. Instead, where leaders predominantly fail is weakness on the softer issues such as people skills, taste, judgment, and above all, character.

The most compelling leaders lead and keep their trust when they start with a proper view of themselves. By embracing this essential humility, leaders will not only influence and lead, but will transform the lives of those around them, reproducing leadership in others. This essence is what Professor Lewis would have referred to as 'mereness'.

Applied to leadership, this mereness occurs, first, when leaders develop a core understanding of their humanity; second, when they understand their depraved nature; and third, when leaders finally grasp that the purpose of leadership is not leadership itself. When this mereness is revealed in leaders, they build trust. This, is turn, properly allows them to serve others.

Whether you hold a materialistic view of the universe (that matter and space have always existed and nobody know why) or the theistic view (that there is something behind the universe that has a mind and a conscious purpose) we are in fact alike. Nothing like stating the obvious, but it must be stated in leadership. It is the foundation.

Even Sigmund Freud, who rejected a theistic view of the universe in favour of a materialistic or scientific  one, still seemed to acknowledge some kind of unexplainable force in the universe. Freud experienced 'strange, secret longings' that he described as sechsucht. C.S. Lewis characterized his sechsucht as an unsatisfied desire which is itself more desirable than any other satisfaction.

Whether we are born in poverty or into wealth; whether we are born in Beverly Hills or in Calcutta; whether we are born with disabilities or not; whether we are born white, yellow, brown, or black; we are, in terms of these longings, and our human nature, intrinsically alike.

In terms of pain " regardless of our backgrounds, lifestyles, and worldviews " we all have, like the apostle Paul, a thorn somewhere in our flesh. While some acknowledge those thorns, others bury them deep within their souls not only to conceal them from others, but also to pretend that they do not exist. Do not deny for a minute that they are not real. We are the creatures called man.

Moreover, there are certain decent moral behaviours to which we all adhere. There are, in fact, laws of decent behaviour that without formal moral or religious instruction ought to naturally govern our behaviour.
Men have differed as regards what people who ought to be unselfish to "whether it was your family, or your fellow countrymen, or everyone, wrote Lewis. But they have always agreed that you ought not to put yourself first. Selfishness has never been admired.

Look at the corporate life: one of the common business practices over the last decade has been to manipulate accounting rules in order to maximize the earnings of public companies. Enron's former treasurer Jeffrey McMahon declared that Enron decided to obey only the accounting rules that got them the results they wanted. Inherent in his argument is the insinuation that rules may have been broken, but until he is caught or told otherwise, he will continue to practice.

While other energy companies also practised such accounting, it didn't make Enron's use of mark to market, and other creative accounting gimmicks (such as hiding debt in special-purpose entities), any more correct. Some of the blame for the corporate fraud of the 90s must be placed at the feet of regulators who made changes in the method of accounting standards, the culture of Wall Street that demanded aggressive earnings growth, and executives whose compensation targets were tied to the price of their own personal options.

Blame could be spread far and wide, but the fact remains that at some point some leader (not accounting rule) had to make a conscious decision to inflate earnings. Whether other competitors were doing it or not or whether the accounting standards were loose enough to enable them, most leaders knew such actions were questionable, if not outright wrong.

Excerpted from: 'Trust' by Les T. Csorba.

Q. The primary focus of the passage is on

Solution:

The author initially says that humility is one of the important factors on which successful leadership depends as leaders are able to serve others properly. He then goes on to talk about decent moral behaviours and by giving the example of Enron says that systems and rules cannot be apportioned blame as ultimately it is a person taking them.

QUESTION: 2

The passages given below are followed by a set of question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.  

I do not pretend that the development of trust in leadership is a science or something that may be perfected " far from it. And I am not suggesting that the development of genuine humility, and finally trust, in leadership is by any means easy. It is the hardest thing the human creature called man can do. Anyone suggesting that he is, in fact, a person or leader of humility, moves farther from it.

Warren Bennis argues that leaders rarely fail because of technical incompetence. Instead, where leaders predominantly fail is weakness on the softer issues such as people skills, taste, judgment, and above all, character.

The most compelling leaders lead and keep their trust when they start with a proper view of themselves. By embracing this essential humility, leaders will not only influence and lead, but will transform the lives of those around them, reproducing leadership in others. This essence is what Professor Lewis would have referred to as 'mereness'.

Applied to leadership, this mereness occurs, first, when leaders develop a core understanding of their humanity; second, when they understand their depraved nature; and third, when leaders finally grasp that the purpose of leadership is not leadership itself. When this mereness is revealed in leaders, they build trust. This, is turn, properly allows them to serve others.

Whether you hold a materialistic view of the universe (that matter and space have always existed and nobody know why) or the theistic view (that there is something behind the universe that has a mind and a conscious purpose) we are in fact alike. Nothing like stating the obvious, but it must be stated in leadership. It is the foundation.

Even Sigmund Freud, who rejected a theistic view of the universe in favour of a materialistic or scientific  one, still seemed to acknowledge some kind of unexplainable force in the universe. Freud experienced 'strange, secret longings' that he described as sechsucht. C.S. Lewis characterized his sechsucht as an unsatisfied desire which is itself more desirable than any other satisfaction.

Whether we are born in poverty or into wealth; whether we are born in Beverly Hills or in Calcutta; whether we are born with disabilities or not; whether we are born white, yellow, brown, or black; we are, in terms of these longings, and our human nature, intrinsically alike.

In terms of pain " regardless of our backgrounds, lifestyles, and worldviews " we all have, like the apostle Paul, a thorn somewhere in our flesh. While some acknowledge those thorns, others bury them deep within their souls not only to conceal them from others, but also to pretend that they do not exist. Do not deny for a minute that they are not real. We are the creatures called man.

Moreover, there are certain decent moral behaviours to which we all adhere. There are, in fact, laws of decent behaviour that without formal moral or religious instruction ought to naturally govern our behaviour.
Men have differed as regards what people who ought to be unselfish to "whether it was your family, or your fellow countrymen, or everyone, wrote Lewis. But they have always agreed that you ought not to put yourself first. Selfishness has never been admired.

Look at the corporate life: one of the common business practices over the last decade has been to manipulate accounting rules in order to maximize the earnings of public companies. Enron's former treasurer Jeffrey McMahon declared that Enron decided to obey only the accounting rules that got them the results they wanted. Inherent in his argument is the insinuation that rules may have been broken, but until he is caught or told otherwise, he will continue to practice.

While other energy companies also practised such accounting, it didn't make Enron's use of mark to market, and other creative accounting gimmicks (such as hiding debt in special-purpose entities), any more correct. Some of the blame for the corporate fraud of the 90s must be placed at the feet of regulators who made changes in the method of accounting standards, the culture of Wall Street that demanded aggressive earnings growth, and executives whose compensation targets were tied to the price of their own personal options.

Blame could be spread far and wide, but the fact remains that at some point some leader (not accounting rule) had to make a conscious decision to inflate earnings. Whether other competitors were doing it or not or whether the accounting standards were loose enough to enable them, most leaders knew such actions were questionable, if not outright wrong.

Excerpted from: 'Trust' by Les T. Csorba.

Q.  By giving example of Enron's Jeffrey McMahon, the author wants to highlight the fact that

Solution:

The author states that Jeffery insinuated that if not caught malpractices were okay. The author does not agree to this and he says that it is leaders who made decisions to inflate earnings and hence the system cannot be held at ransom.

The author does not state the example of Jeffrey to state that the Enron corporation was being made a scapegoat when all others we doing the same. Wall Street culture demanded aggressive earnings growth but that didn''t mean it was mandatory i.e. absolutely necessary. The author does not agree with option 4.

QUESTION: 3

The passages given below are followed by a set of question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.  

I do not pretend that the development of trust in leadership is a science or something that may be perfected " far from it. And I am not suggesting that the development of genuine humility, and finally trust, in leadership is by any means easy. It is the hardest thing the human creature called man can do. Anyone suggesting that he is, in fact, a person or leader of humility, moves farther from it.

Warren Bennis argues that leaders rarely fail because of technical incompetence. Instead, where leaders predominantly fail is weakness on the softer issues such as people skills, taste, judgment, and above all, character.

The most compelling leaders lead and keep their trust when they start with a proper view of themselves. By embracing this essential humility, leaders will not only influence and lead, but will transform the lives of those around them, reproducing leadership in others. This essence is what Professor Lewis would have referred to as 'mereness'.

Applied to leadership, this mereness occurs, first, when leaders develop a core understanding of their humanity; second, when they understand their depraved nature; and third, when leaders finally grasp that the purpose of leadership is not leadership itself. When this mereness is revealed in leaders, they build trust. This, is turn, properly allows them to serve others.

Whether you hold a materialistic view of the universe (that matter and space have always existed and nobody know why) or the theistic view (that there is something behind the universe that has a mind and a conscious purpose) we are in fact alike. Nothing like stating the obvious, but it must be stated in leadership. It is the foundation.

Even Sigmund Freud, who rejected a theistic view of the universe in favour of a materialistic or scientific  one, still seemed to acknowledge some kind of unexplainable force in the universe. Freud experienced 'strange, secret longings' that he described as sechsucht. C.S. Lewis characterized his sechsucht as an unsatisfied desire which is itself more desirable than any other satisfaction.

Whether we are born in poverty or into wealth; whether we are born in Beverly Hills or in Calcutta; whether we are born with disabilities or not; whether we are born white, yellow, brown, or black; we are, in terms of these longings, and our human nature, intrinsically alike.

In terms of pain " regardless of our backgrounds, lifestyles, and worldviews " we all have, like the apostle Paul, a thorn somewhere in our flesh. While some acknowledge those thorns, others bury them deep within their souls not only to conceal them from others, but also to pretend that they do not exist. Do not deny for a minute that they are not real. We are the creatures called man.

Moreover, there are certain decent moral behaviours to which we all adhere. There are, in fact, laws of decent behaviour that without formal moral or religious instruction ought to naturally govern our behaviour.
Men have differed as regards what people who ought to be unselfish to "whether it was your family, or your fellow countrymen, or everyone, wrote Lewis. But they have always agreed that you ought not to put yourself first. Selfishness has never been admired.

Look at the corporate life: one of the common business practices over the last decade has been to manipulate accounting rules in order to maximize the earnings of public companies. Enron's former treasurer Jeffrey McMahon declared that Enron decided to obey only the accounting rules that got them the results they wanted. Inherent in his argument is the insinuation that rules may have been broken, but until he is caught or told otherwise, he will continue to practice.

While other energy companies also practised such accounting, it didn't make Enron's use of mark to market, and other creative accounting gimmicks (such as hiding debt in special-purpose entities), any more correct. Some of the blame for the corporate fraud of the 90s must be placed at the feet of regulators who made changes in the method of accounting standards, the culture of Wall Street that demanded aggressive earnings growth, and executives whose compensation targets were tied to the price of their own personal options.

Blame could be spread far and wide, but the fact remains that at some point some leader (not accounting rule) had to make a conscious decision to inflate earnings. Whether other competitors were doing it or not or whether the accounting standards were loose enough to enable them, most leaders knew such actions were questionable, if not outright wrong.

Excerpted from: 'Trust' by Les T. Csorba.

Q.  According the passage we can infer all of the following, except

Solution:

The author terms mereness as a quality which leaders need to transform the lives of those around them.

Hence a leader who is servile i.e. having a slave like or submissive disposition is hardly going to be able to lead.

QUESTION: 4

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

To teach is to create a space in which obedience to truth is practiced. Space may sound a vague, poetic metaphor until we realize that it describes experiences of everyday life. We know what it means to be in a green and open field; we know what it means to be on a crowded rush hour bus. These experiences of physical space have parallels in our relations with others. On our jobs we know what it is to be pressed and crowded, our working space diminished by the urgency of deadlines and competitiveness of colleagues. But then there are times when deadlines disappear and colleagues cooperate, when everyone has a space to move, invent and produce with energy and enthusiasm. With family and friends, we know how it feels to have unreasonable demands placed upon us, to be boxed in by the expectations of those nearest to us. But then there are times when we feel accepted for who we are (or forgiven for who we are not), times when a spouse or a child or a friend gives us the space, both to be and to become.

Similar experiences of crowding and space are found in education. To sit in a class where the teacher stuffs our minds with information, organizes it with finality, insists on having the answers while being utterly uninterested in our views, and focus us into a grim competition for grades - to sit in such a class is to experience a lack of space for learning. But to study with a teacher, who not only speaks but also listens, who not only answers but asks questions and welcomes our insights, who provides information and theories that do not close doors but open new ones, who encourages students to help each other learn - to study with such a teacher is to know the power of a learning space.

A learning space has three essential dimensions: openness, boundaries and an air of hospitality. To create open learning space is to remove the impediments to learning that we find around and within us; we often create them ourselves to evade the challenge of truth and transformation. One source of such impediments is our fear of appearing ignorant to others or to ourselves. The oneness of a space is created by the firmness of its boundaries. A learning space cannot extend indefinitely; if it did, it would not be a structure for learning but an invitation for confusion and chaos. When space boundaries are violated, the quality of space suffers. The teacher who wants to create an open learning space must define and defend its boundaries with care. Because the pursuit of truth can be painful and discomforting, the learning space must be hospitable.Hospitable means receiving each other, our struggles, our new-born ideas with openness and care. It means creating an ethos in which the community of truth can form and the pain of its transformation be borne. A learning space needs to be hospitable not to make learning painless, but to make painful things possible, things without which no learning can occur, things like exposing ignorance, testing tentative hypotheses, challenging false or partial information, and mutual criticism of thought.

The task of creating learning space with qualities of openness, boundaries and hospitality can be approached at several levels. The most basic level is the physical arrangement of the classroom, Consider the traditional classroom setting with row of chairs facing the lectern where learning space is confined to the narrow alley of attention between each student and teacher. In this space, there is no community of truth, hospitality of room for students to relate to the thoughts of each other. Contrast it with the chairs placed in a circular arrangement creating an open space within which learners can interconnect. At another level, the teacher can create conceptual space-space with words in two ways. One is through assigned reading; the other is through lecturing, assigned reading, not in the form of speed reading several hundred pages but contemplative reading which opens, not fills, our learning space. A teacher can also create a learning space by means of lectures. By providing critical information and a framework of interpretation, a lecturer can lay down boundaries within which learning occurs.

We also create learning space through the kind of speech we utter and the silence from which true speech emanates. Speech is a precious gift and a vital tool, but too often our speaking is an evasion of truth, a way of buttressing our self-serving reconstructions of reality. Silence must therefore be an integral part of learning space. In silence, more than in arguments, our mind made world falls away and we are open to the truth that seeks us. Words often divide us, but silence can unite. Finally teachers must also create emotional space in the class-room, space that allows feelings to arise and be dealt with because submerged feelings can undermine learning. In an emotionally honest learning space, one created by a teacher who does not fear dealing with feelings, the community of truth can flourish between us and we can flourish in it.

Q. According to the author, silence must be an integral part of learning space because

Solution:

Refer to last paragraph - In silence, more than in arguments, our mind made world falls away and we are open to the truth that seeks us. Words often divide us, but silence can unite.

QUESTION: 5

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

To teach is to create a space in which obedience to truth is practiced. Space may sound a vague, poetic metaphor until we realize that it describes experiences of everyday life. We know what it means to be in a green and open field; we know what it means to be on a crowded rush hour bus. These experiences of physical space have parallels in our relations with others. On our jobs we know what it is to be pressed and crowded, our working space diminished by the urgency of deadlines and competitiveness of colleagues. But then there are times when deadlines disappear and colleagues cooperate, when everyone has a space to move, invent and produce with energy and enthusiasm. With family and friends, we know how it feels to have unreasonable demands placed upon us, to be boxed in by the expectations of those nearest to us. But then there are times when we feel accepted for who we are (or forgiven for who we are not), times when a spouse or a child or a friend gives us the space, both to be and to become.

Similar experiences of crowding and space are found in education. To sit in a class where the teacher stuffs our minds with information, organizes it with finality, insists on having the answers while being utterly uninterested in our views, and focus us into a grim competition for grades - to sit in such a class is to experience a lack of space for learning. But to study with a teacher, who not only speaks but also listens, who not only answers but asks questions and welcomes our insights, who provides information and theories that do not close doors but open new ones, who encourages students to help each other learn - to study with such a teacher is to know the power of a learning space.

A learning space has three essential dimensions: openness, boundaries and an air of hospitality. To create open learning space is to remove the impediments to learning that we find around and within us; we often create them ourselves to evade the challenge of truth and transformation. One source of such impediments is our fear of appearing ignorant to others or to ourselves. The oneness of a space is created by the firmness of its boundaries. A learning space cannot extend indefinitely; if it did, it would not be a structure for learning but an invitation for confusion and chaos. When space boundaries are violated, the quality of space suffers. The teacher who wants to create an open learning space must define and defend its boundaries with care. Because the pursuit of truth can be painful and discomforting, the learning space must be hospitable.Hospitable means receiving each other, our struggles, our new-born ideas with openness and care. It means creating an ethos in which the community of truth can form and the pain of its transformation be borne. A learning space needs to be hospitable not to make learning painless, but to make painful things possible, things without which no learning can occur, things like exposing ignorance, testing tentative hypotheses, challenging false or partial information, and mutual criticism of thought.

The task of creating learning space with qualities of openness, boundaries and hospitality can be approached at several levels. The most basic level is the physical arrangement of the classroom, Consider the traditional classroom setting with row of chairs facing the lectern where learning space is confined to the narrow alley of attention between each student and teacher. In this space, there is no community of truth, hospitality of room for students to relate to the thoughts of each other. Contrast it with the chairs placed in a circular arrangement creating an open space within which learners can interconnect. At another level, the teacher can create conceptual space-space with words in two ways. One is through assigned reading; the other is through lecturing, assigned reading, not in the form of speed reading several hundred pages but contemplative reading which opens, not fills, our learning space. A teacher can also create a learning space by means of lectures. By providing critical information and a framework of interpretation, a lecturer can lay down boundaries within which learning occurs.

We also create learning space through the kind of speech we utter and the silence from which true speech emanates. Speech is a precious gift and a vital tool, but too often our speaking is an evasion of truth, a way of buttressing our self-serving reconstructions of reality. Silence must therefore be an integral part of learning space. In silence, more than in arguments, our mind made world falls away and we are open to the truth that seeks us. Words often divide us, but silence can unite. Finally teachers must also create emotional space in the class-room, space that allows feelings to arise and be dealt with because submerged feelings can undermine learning. In an emotionally honest learning space, one created by a teacher who does not fear dealing with feelings, the community of truth can flourish between us and we can flourish in it.

Q.  Another way of describing the author’s notion of learning space can be summarized in the following manner

Solution:

As mentioned in the last paragraph  - An effective teacher would be one who is not afraid of dealing with feelings i.e. one who recognizes the value of empathy.

QUESTION: 6

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

To teach is to create a space in which obedience to truth is practiced. Space may sound a vague, poetic metaphor until we realize that it describes experiences of everyday life. We know what it means to be in a green and open field; we know what it means to be on a crowded rush hour bus. These experiences of physical space have parallels in our relations with others. On our jobs we know what it is to be pressed and crowded, our working space diminished by the urgency of deadlines and competitiveness of colleagues. But then there are times when deadlines disappear and colleagues cooperate, when everyone has a space to move, invent and produce with energy and enthusiasm. With family and friends, we know how it feels to have unreasonable demands placed upon us, to be boxed in by the expectations of those nearest to us. But then there are times when we feel accepted for who we are (or forgiven for who we are not), times when a spouse or a child or a friend gives us the space, both to be and to become.

Similar experiences of crowding and space are found in education. To sit in a class where the teacher stuffs our minds with information, organizes it with finality, insists on having the answers while being utterly uninterested in our views, and focus us into a grim competition for grades - to sit in such a class is to experience a lack of space for learning. But to study with a teacher, who not only speaks but also listens, who not only answers but asks questions and welcomes our insights, who provides information and theories that do not close doors but open new ones, who encourages students to help each other learn - to study with such a teacher is to know the power of a learning space.

A learning space has three essential dimensions: openness, boundaries and an air of hospitality. To create open learning space is to remove the impediments to learning that we find around and within us; we often create them ourselves to evade the challenge of truth and transformation. One source of such impediments is our fear of appearing ignorant to others or to ourselves. The oneness of a space is created by the firmness of its boundaries. A learning space cannot extend indefinitely; if it did, it would not be a structure for learning but an invitation for confusion and chaos. When space boundaries are violated, the quality of space suffers. The teacher who wants to create an open learning space must define and defend its boundaries with care. Because the pursuit of truth can be painful and discomforting, the learning space must be hospitable.Hospitable means receiving each other, our struggles, our new-born ideas with openness and care. It means creating an ethos in which the community of truth can form and the pain of its transformation be borne. A learning space needs to be hospitable not to make learning painless, but to make painful things possible, things without which no learning can occur, things like exposing ignorance, testing tentative hypotheses, challenging false or partial information, and mutual criticism of thought.

The task of creating learning space with qualities of openness, boundaries and hospitality can be approached at several levels. The most basic level is the physical arrangement of the classroom, Consider the traditional classroom setting with row of chairs facing the lectern where learning space is confined to the narrow alley of attention between each student and teacher. In this space, there is no community of truth, hospitality of room for students to relate to the thoughts of each other. Contrast it with the chairs placed in a circular arrangement creating an open space within which learners can interconnect. At another level, the teacher can create conceptual space-space with words in two ways. One is through assigned reading; the other is through lecturing, assigned reading, not in the form of speed reading several hundred pages but contemplative reading which opens, not fills, our learning space. A teacher can also create a learning space by means of lectures. By providing critical information and a framework of interpretation, a lecturer can lay down boundaries within which learning occurs.

We also create learning space through the kind of speech we utter and the silence from which true speech emanates. Speech is a precious gift and a vital tool, but too often our speaking is an evasion of truth, a way of buttressing our self-serving reconstructions of reality. Silence must therefore be an integral part of learning space. In silence, more than in arguments, our mind made world falls away and we are open to the truth that seeks us. Words often divide us, but silence can unite. Finally teachers must also create emotional space in the class-room, space that allows feelings to arise and be dealt with because submerged feelings can undermine learning. In an emotionally honest learning space, one created by a teacher who does not fear dealing with feelings, the community of truth can flourish between us and we can flourish in it.

Q. According to the author, an effective teacher does not allow

Solution:

Refer to second last paragraph - One is through assigned reading; the other is through lecturing, assigned reading, not in the form of speed reading several hundred pages but contemplative reading which opens, not fills, our learning space.

QUESTION: 7

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

To teach is to create a space in which obedience to truth is practiced. Space may sound a vague, poetic metaphor until we realize that it describes experiences of everyday life. We know what it means to be in a green and open field; we know what it means to be on a crowded rush hour bus. These experiences of physical space have parallels in our relations with others. On our jobs we know what it is to be pressed and crowded, our working space diminished by the urgency of deadlines and competitiveness of colleagues. But then there are times when deadlines disappear and colleagues cooperate, when everyone has a space to move, invent and produce with energy and enthusiasm. With family and friends, we know how it feels to have unreasonable demands placed upon us, to be boxed in by the expectations of those nearest to us. But then there are times when we feel accepted for who we are (or forgiven for who we are not), times when a spouse or a child or a friend gives us the space, both to be and to become.

Similar experiences of crowding and space are found in education. To sit in a class where the teacher stuffs our minds with information, organizes it with finality, insists on having the answers while being utterly uninterested in our views, and focus us into a grim competition for grades - to sit in such a class is to experience a lack of space for learning. But to study with a teacher, who not only speaks but also listens, who not only answers but asks questions and welcomes our insights, who provides information and theories that do not close doors but open new ones, who encourages students to help each other learn - to study with such a teacher is to know the power of a learning space.

A learning space has three essential dimensions: openness, boundaries and an air of hospitality. To create open learning space is to remove the impediments to learning that we find around and within us; we often create them ourselves to evade the challenge of truth and transformation. One source of such impediments is our fear of appearing ignorant to others or to ourselves. The oneness of a space is created by the firmness of its boundaries. A learning space cannot extend indefinitely; if it did, it would not be a structure for learning but an invitation for confusion and chaos. When space boundaries are violated, the quality of space suffers. The teacher who wants to create an open learning space must define and defend its boundaries with care. Because the pursuit of truth can be painful and discomforting, the learning space must be hospitable.Hospitable means receiving each other, our struggles, our new-born ideas with openness and care. It means creating an ethos in which the community of truth can form and the pain of its transformation be borne. A learning space needs to be hospitable not to make learning painless, but to make painful things possible, things without which no learning can occur, things like exposing ignorance, testing tentative hypotheses, challenging false or partial information, and mutual criticism of thought.

The task of creating learning space with qualities of openness, boundaries and hospitality can be approached at several levels. The most basic level is the physical arrangement of the classroom, Consider the traditional classroom setting with row of chairs facing the lectern where learning space is confined to the narrow alley of attention between each student and teacher. In this space, there is no community of truth, hospitality of room for students to relate to the thoughts of each other. Contrast it with the chairs placed in a circular arrangement creating an open space within which learners can interconnect. At another level, the teacher can create conceptual space-space with words in two ways. One is through assigned reading; the other is through lecturing, assigned reading, not in the form of speed reading several hundred pages but contemplative reading which opens, not fills, our learning space. A teacher can also create a learning space by means of lectures. By providing critical information and a framework of interpretation, a lecturer can lay down boundaries within which learning occurs.

We also create learning space through the kind of speech we utter and the silence from which true speech emanates. Speech is a precious gift and a vital tool, but too often our speaking is an evasion of truth, a way of buttressing our self-serving reconstructions of reality. Silence must therefore be an integral part of learning space. In silence, more than in arguments, our mind made world falls away and we are open to the truth that seeks us. Words often divide us, but silence can unite. Finally teachers must also create emotional space in the class-room, space that allows feelings to arise and be dealt with because submerged feelings can undermine learning. In an emotionally honest learning space, one created by a teacher who does not fear dealing with feelings, the community of truth can flourish between us and we can flourish in it.

Q. An emotionally honest learning space can only be created by

Solution:

Refer to last lines of last paragraph - In an emotionally honest learning space, one created by a teacher who does not fear dealing with feelings.

QUESTION: 8

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

To teach is to create a space in which obedience to truth is practiced. Space may sound a vague, poetic metaphor until we realize that it describes experiences of everyday life. We know what it means to be in a green and open field; we know what it means to be on a crowded rush hour bus. These experiences of physical space have parallels in our relations with others. On our jobs we know what it is to be pressed and crowded, our working space diminished by the urgency of deadlines and competitiveness of colleagues. But then there are times when deadlines disappear and colleagues cooperate, when everyone has a space to move, invent and produce with energy and enthusiasm. With family and friends, we know how it feels to have unreasonable demands placed upon us, to be boxed in by the expectations of those nearest to us. But then there are times when we feel accepted for who we are (or forgiven for who we are not), times when a spouse or a child or a friend gives us the space, both to be and to become.

Similar experiences of crowding and space are found in education. To sit in a class where the teacher stuffs our minds with information, organizes it with finality, insists on having the answers while being utterly uninterested in our views, and focus us into a grim competition for grades - to sit in such a class is to experience a lack of space for learning. But to study with a teacher, who not only speaks but also listens, who not only answers but asks questions and welcomes our insights, who provides information and theories that do not close doors but open new ones, who encourages students to help each other learn - to study with such a teacher is to know the power of a learning space.

A learning space has three essential dimensions: openness, boundaries and an air of hospitality. To create open learning space is to remove the impediments to learning that we find around and within us; we often create them ourselves to evade the challenge of truth and transformation. One source of such impediments is our fear of appearing ignorant to others or to ourselves. The oneness of a space is created by the firmness of its boundaries. A learning space cannot extend indefinitely; if it did, it would not be a structure for learning but an invitation for confusion and chaos. When space boundaries are violated, the quality of space suffers. The teacher who wants to create an open learning space must define and defend its boundaries with care. Because the pursuit of truth can be painful and discomforting, the learning space must be hospitable.Hospitable means receiving each other, our struggles, our new-born ideas with openness and care. It means creating an ethos in which the community of truth can form and the pain of its transformation be borne. A learning space needs to be hospitable not to make learning painless, but to make painful things possible, things without which no learning can occur, things like exposing ignorance, testing tentative hypotheses, challenging false or partial information, and mutual criticism of thought.

The task of creating learning space with qualities of openness, boundaries and hospitality can be approached at several levels. The most basic level is the physical arrangement of the classroom, Consider the traditional classroom setting with row of chairs facing the lectern where learning space is confined to the narrow alley of attention between each student and teacher. In this space, there is no community of truth, hospitality of room for students to relate to the thoughts of each other. Contrast it with the chairs placed in a circular arrangement creating an open space within which learners can interconnect. At another level, the teacher can create conceptual space-space with words in two ways. One is through assigned reading; the other is through lecturing, assigned reading, not in the form of speed reading several hundred pages but contemplative reading which opens, not fills, our learning space. A teacher can also create a learning space by means of lectures. By providing critical information and a framework of interpretation, a lecturer can lay down boundaries within which learning occurs.

We also create learning space through the kind of speech we utter and the silence from which true speech emanates. Speech is a precious gift and a vital tool, but too often our speaking is an evasion of truth, a way of buttressing our self-serving reconstructions of reality. Silence must therefore be an integral part of learning space. In silence, more than in arguments, our mind made world falls away and we are open to the truth that seeks us. Words often divide us, but silence can unite. Finally teachers must also create emotional space in the class-room, space that allows feelings to arise and be dealt with because submerged feelings can undermine learning. In an emotionally honest learning space, one created by a teacher who does not fear dealing with feelings, the community of truth can flourish between us and we can flourish in it.

Q. Conceptual space with words can be created by

Solution:

Refer to fourth paragraph - the teacher can create conceptual space-(space with words) in two ways.

One is through assigned reading; the other is through lecturing, assigned reading.

QUESTION: 9

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

I want to stress this personal helplessness we are all stricken with in the face of a system that has passed beyond our knowledge and control. To bring it nearer home, I propose that we switch off from the big things like empires and their wars to more familiar little things. Take pins for example! I do not know why it is that I so seldom use a pin when my wife cannot get on without boxes of them at hand; but it is so; and I will therefore take pins as being for some reason specially important to women.

There was a time when pinmakers would buy the material; shape it; make the head and the point; ornament it; and take it to the market, and sell it and the making required skill in several operations. They not only knew how the thing was done from beginning to end, but could do it all by themselves. But they could not afford to sell you a paper of pins for the farthing. Pins cost so much that a woman's dress allowance was calling pin money.

By the end of the 18th century Adam Smith boasted that it took 18 men to make a pin, each man doing a little bit of the job and passing the pin on to the next, and none of them being able to make a whole pin or to buy the materials or to sell it when it was made. The most you could say for them was that at least they had some idea of how it was made, though they could not make it. Now as this meant that they were clearly less capable and knowledgeable men than the old pin-makers, you may ask why Adam Smith boasted of it as a triumph of civilisation when its effect had so clearly a degrading effect. The reason was that by setting each man to do just one little bit of the work and nothing but that, over and over again, he became very quick at it. The men, it is said, could turn out nearly 5000 pins a day each; and thus pins became plentiful and cheap. The country was supposed to be richer because it had more pins, though it had turned capable men into mere machines doing their work without intelligence and being fed by the spare food of the capitalist just as an engine is fed with coals and oil. That was why the poet Goldsmith, who was a farsighted economist as well as a poet, complained that 'wealth accumulates, and men decay'.

Nowadays Adam Smith's 18 men are as extinct as the diplodocus. The 18 flesh-and-blood men have been replaced by machines of steel which spout out pins by the hundred million. Even sticking them into pink papers is done by machinery. The result is that with the exception of a few people who design the machines, nobody knows how to make a pin or how a pin is made: that is to say, the modern worker in pin manufacture need not be one-tenth so intelligent, skilful and accomplished as the old pin-maker; and the only compensation we have for this deterioration is that pins are so cheap that a single pin has no expressible value at all. Even with a big profit stuck on to the cost-price you can buy dozens for a farthing; and pins are so recklessly thrown away and wasted that verses have to be written to persuade children (without success) that it is a sin to steal, even if it’s a pin.

Many serious thinkers, like John Ruskin and William Morris, have been greatly troubled by this, just as Goldsmith was, and have asked whether we really believe that it is an advance in wealth to lose our skill and degrade our workers for the sake of being able to waste pins by the ton. We shall see later on, when we come to consider the Distribution of Leisure, that the cure for this is not to go back to the old free for higher work than pin-making or the like. But in the meantime the fact remains that the workers are now not able to make anything themselves even in little bits. They are ignorant and helpless, and cannot lift their finger to begin their day's work until it has all been arranged for them by their employer's who themselves do not understand the machines they buy, and simply pay other people to set them going by carrying out the machine maker's directions.

The same is true for clothes. Earlier the whole work of making clothes, from the shearing of the sheep to the turning out of the finished and washed garment ready to put on, had to be done in the country by the men and women of the household, especially the women; so that to this day an unmarried woman is called a spinster. Nowadays nothing is left of all this but the sheep shearing; and even that, like the milking of cows, is being done by machinery, as the sewing is. Give a woman a sheep today and ask her to produce a woolen dress for you; and not only will she be quite unable to do it, but you are likely to find that she is not even aware of any connection between sheep and clothes. When she gets her clothes, which she does by buying them at the shop, she knows that there is a difference between wool and cotton and silk, between flannel and merino, perhaps even between stockinet and other wefts; but as to how they are made, or what they are made of, or how they came to be in the shop ready for her to buy, she knows hardly anything. And the shop assistant from whom she buys is no wiser. The people engaged in the making of them know even less; for many of them are too poor to have much choice of materials when they buy their own clothes.

Thus the capitalist system has produced an almost universal ignorance of how things are made and done, whilst at the same time it has caused them to be made and done on a gigantic scale. We have to buy books and encyclopedias to find out what it is we are doing all day; and as the books are written by people who are not doing it, and who get their information from other books, what they tell us is twenty to fifty years out of date knowledge and almost impractical today. And of course most of us are too tired of our work when we come home to want to read about it; what we need is cinema to take our minds off it and feel our imagination.

It is a funny place, this word of capitalism, with its astonishing spread of education and enlightenment. There stand the thousands of property owners and the millions of wage workers, none of them able to make anything, none of them knowing what to do until somebody tells them, none of them having the least notion of how it is made that they find people paying them money, and things in the shops to buy with it. And when they travel they are surprised to find that savages and Esquimaux and villagers who have to make everything for themselves are more intelligent and resourceful! The wonder would be if they were anything else. We should die of idiocy through disuse of our mental faculties if we did not fill our heads with romantic nonsense out of illustrated newspapers and novels and plays and films. Such stuff keeps us alive, but it falsifies everything for us so absurdly that it leaves us more or less dangerous lunatics in the real world.

Excuse my going on like this; but as I am a writer of books and plays myself, I know the folly and peril of it better than you do. And when I see that this moment of our utmost ignorance and helplessness, delusion and folly, has been stumbled on by the blind forces of capitalism as the moment for giving votes to everybody, so that the few wise women are hopelessly overruled by the thousands whose political minds, as far as they can be said to have any political minds at all, have been formed in the cinema, I realise that I had better stop writing plays for a while to discuss political and social realities in this book with those who are intelligent enough to listen to me.

Excerpted from 'An Intelligent Women’s Guide to Capitalism and Sovietism' by George Bernard Shaw

Q. Which of the following is not against the modern capitalistic system of mass production?

Solution:

Adam Smith was a supporter of mass production.

QUESTION: 10

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

I want to stress this personal helplessness we are all stricken with in the face of a system that has passed beyond our knowledge and control. To bring it nearer home, I propose that we switch off from the big things like empires and their wars to more familiar little things. Take pins for example! I do not know why it is that I so seldom use a pin when my wife cannot get on without boxes of them at hand; but it is so; and I will therefore take pins as being for some reason specially important to women.

There was a time when pinmakers would buy the material; shape it; make the head and the point; ornament it; and take it to the market, and sell it and the making required skill in several operations. They not only knew how the thing was done from beginning to end, but could do it all by themselves. But they could not afford to sell you a paper of pins for the farthing. Pins cost so much that a woman's dress allowance was calling pin money.

By the end of the 18th century Adam Smith boasted that it took 18 men to make a pin, each man doing a little bit of the job and passing the pin on to the next, and none of them being able to make a whole pin or to buy the materials or to sell it when it was made. The most you could say for them was that at least they had some idea of how it was made, though they could not make it. Now as this meant that they were clearly less capable and knowledgeable men than the old pin-makers, you may ask why Adam Smith boasted of it as a triumph of civilisation when its effect had so clearly a degrading effect. The reason was that by setting each man to do just one little bit of the work and nothing but that, over and over again, he became very quick at it. The men, it is said, could turn out nearly 5000 pins a day each; and thus pins became plentiful and cheap. The country was supposed to be richer because it had more pins, though it had turned capable men into mere machines doing their work without intelligence and being fed by the spare food of the capitalist just as an engine is fed with coals and oil. That was why the poet Goldsmith, who was a farsighted economist as well as a poet, complained that 'wealth accumulates, and men decay'.

Nowadays Adam Smith's 18 men are as extinct as the diplodocus. The 18 flesh-and-blood men have been replaced by machines of steel which spout out pins by the hundred million. Even sticking them into pink papers is done by machinery. The result is that with the exception of a few people who design the machines, nobody knows how to make a pin or how a pin is made: that is to say, the modern worker in pin manufacture need not be one-tenth so intelligent, skilful and accomplished as the old pin-maker; and the only compensation we have for this deterioration is that pins are so cheap that a single pin has no expressible value at all. Even with a big profit stuck on to the cost-price you can buy dozens for a farthing; and pins are so recklessly thrown away and wasted that verses have to be written to persuade children (without success) that it is a sin to steal, even if it’s a pin.

Many serious thinkers, like John Ruskin and William Morris, have been greatly troubled by this, just as Goldsmith was, and have asked whether we really believe that it is an advance in wealth to lose our skill and degrade our workers for the sake of being able to waste pins by the ton. We shall see later on, when we come to consider the Distribution of Leisure, that the cure for this is not to go back to the old free for higher work than pin-making or the like. But in the meantime the fact remains that the workers are now not able to make anything themselves even in little bits. They are ignorant and helpless, and cannot lift their finger to begin their day's work until it has all been arranged for them by their employer's who themselves do not understand the machines they buy, and simply pay other people to set them going by carrying out the machine maker's directions.

The same is true for clothes. Earlier the whole work of making clothes, from the shearing of the sheep to the turning out of the finished and washed garment ready to put on, had to be done in the country by the men and women of the household, especially the women; so that to this day an unmarried woman is called a spinster. Nowadays nothing is left of all this but the sheep shearing; and even that, like the milking of cows, is being done by machinery, as the sewing is. Give a woman a sheep today and ask her to produce a woolen dress for you; and not only will she be quite unable to do it, but you are likely to find that she is not even aware of any connection between sheep and clothes. When she gets her clothes, which she does by buying them at the shop, she knows that there is a difference between wool and cotton and silk, between flannel and merino, perhaps even between stockinet and other wefts; but as to how they are made, or what they are made of, or how they came to be in the shop ready for her to buy, she knows hardly anything. And the shop assistant from whom she buys is no wiser. The people engaged in the making of them know even less; for many of them are too poor to have much choice of materials when they buy their own clothes.

Thus the capitalist system has produced an almost universal ignorance of how things are made and done, whilst at the same time it has caused them to be made and done on a gigantic scale. We have to buy books and encyclopedias to find out what it is we are doing all day; and as the books are written by people who are not doing it, and who get their information from other books, what they tell us is twenty to fifty years out of date knowledge and almost impractical today. And of course most of us are too tired of our work when we come home to want to read about it; what we need is cinema to take our minds off it and feel our imagination.

It is a funny place, this word of capitalism, with its astonishing spread of education and enlightenment. There stand the thousands of property owners and the millions of wage workers, none of them able to make anything, none of them knowing what to do until somebody tells them, none of them having the least notion of how it is made that they find people paying them money, and things in the shops to buy with it. And when they travel they are surprised to find that savages and Esquimaux and villagers who have to make everything for themselves are more intelligent and resourceful! The wonder would be if they were anything else. We should die of idiocy through disuse of our mental faculties if we did not fill our heads with romantic nonsense out of illustrated newspapers and novels and plays and films. Such stuff keeps us alive, but it falsifies everything for us so absurdly that it leaves us more or less dangerous lunatics in the real world.

Excuse my going on like this; but as I am a writer of books and plays myself, I know the folly and peril of it better than you do. And when I see that this moment of our utmost ignorance and helplessness, delusion and folly, has been stumbled on by the blind forces of capitalism as the moment for giving votes to everybody, so that the few wise women are hopelessly overruled by the thousands whose political minds, as far as they can be said to have any political minds at all, have been formed in the cinema, I realise that I had better stop writing plays for a while to discuss political and social realities in this book with those who are intelligent enough to listen to me.

Excerpted from 'An Intelligent Women’s Guide to Capitalism and Sovietism' by George Bernard Shaw

Q. Goldsmith's dictum, "wealth accumulates, and men decay," in the context of the passage, probably means

Solution:

The statement means that as people get richer they lose out on individual abilities.

QUESTION: 11

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

I want to stress this personal helplessness we are all stricken with in the face of a system that has passed beyond our knowledge and control. To bring it nearer home, I propose that we switch off from the big things like empires and their wars to more familiar little things. Take pins for example! I do not know why it is that I so seldom use a pin when my wife cannot get on without boxes of them at hand; but it is so; and I will therefore take pins as being for some reason specially important to women.

There was a time when pinmakers would buy the material; shape it; make the head and the point; ornament it; and take it to the market, and sell it and the making required skill in several operations. They not only knew how the thing was done from beginning to end, but could do it all by themselves. But they could not afford to sell you a paper of pins for the farthing. Pins cost so much that a woman's dress allowance was calling pin money.

By the end of the 18th century Adam Smith boasted that it took 18 men to make a pin, each man doing a little bit of the job and passing the pin on to the next, and none of them being able to make a whole pin or to buy the materials or to sell it when it was made. The most you could say for them was that at least they had some idea of how it was made, though they could not make it. Now as this meant that they were clearly less capable and knowledgeable men than the old pin-makers, you may ask why Adam Smith boasted of it as a triumph of civilisation when its effect had so clearly a degrading effect. The reason was that by setting each man to do just one little bit of the work and nothing but that, over and over again, he became very quick at it. The men, it is said, could turn out nearly 5000 pins a day each; and thus pins became plentiful and cheap. The country was supposed to be richer because it had more pins, though it had turned capable men into mere machines doing their work without intelligence and being fed by the spare food of the capitalist just as an engine is fed with coals and oil. That was why the poet Goldsmith, who was a farsighted economist as well as a poet, complained that 'wealth accumulates, and men decay'.

Nowadays Adam Smith's 18 men are as extinct as the diplodocus. The 18 flesh-and-blood men have been replaced by machines of steel which spout out pins by the hundred million. Even sticking them into pink papers is done by machinery. The result is that with the exception of a few people who design the machines, nobody knows how to make a pin or how a pin is made: that is to say, the modern worker in pin manufacture need not be one-tenth so intelligent, skilful and accomplished as the old pin-maker; and the only compensation we have for this deterioration is that pins are so cheap that a single pin has no expressible value at all. Even with a big profit stuck on to the cost-price you can buy dozens for a farthing; and pins are so recklessly thrown away and wasted that verses have to be written to persuade children (without success) that it is a sin to steal, even if it’s a pin.

Many serious thinkers, like John Ruskin and William Morris, have been greatly troubled by this, just as Goldsmith was, and have asked whether we really believe that it is an advance in wealth to lose our skill and degrade our workers for the sake of being able to waste pins by the ton. We shall see later on, when we come to consider the Distribution of Leisure, that the cure for this is not to go back to the old free for higher work than pin-making or the like. But in the meantime the fact remains that the workers are now not able to make anything themselves even in little bits. They are ignorant and helpless, and cannot lift their finger to begin their day's work until it has all been arranged for them by their employer's who themselves do not understand the machines they buy, and simply pay other people to set them going by carrying out the machine maker's directions.

The same is true for clothes. Earlier the whole work of making clothes, from the shearing of the sheep to the turning out of the finished and washed garment ready to put on, had to be done in the country by the men and women of the household, especially the women; so that to this day an unmarried woman is called a spinster. Nowadays nothing is left of all this but the sheep shearing; and even that, like the milking of cows, is being done by machinery, as the sewing is. Give a woman a sheep today and ask her to produce a woolen dress for you; and not only will she be quite unable to do it, but you are likely to find that she is not even aware of any connection between sheep and clothes. When she gets her clothes, which she does by buying them at the shop, she knows that there is a difference between wool and cotton and silk, between flannel and merino, perhaps even between stockinet and other wefts; but as to how they are made, or what they are made of, or how they came to be in the shop ready for her to buy, she knows hardly anything. And the shop assistant from whom she buys is no wiser. The people engaged in the making of them know even less; for many of them are too poor to have much choice of materials when they buy their own clothes.

Thus the capitalist system has produced an almost universal ignorance of how things are made and done, whilst at the same time it has caused them to be made and done on a gigantic scale. We have to buy books and encyclopedias to find out what it is we are doing all day; and as the books are written by people who are not doing it, and who get their information from other books, what they tell us is twenty to fifty years out of date knowledge and almost impractical today. And of course most of us are too tired of our work when we come home to want to read about it; what we need is cinema to take our minds off it and feel our imagination.

It is a funny place, this word of capitalism, with its astonishing spread of education and enlightenment. There stand the thousands of property owners and the millions of wage workers, none of them able to make anything, none of them knowing what to do until somebody tells them, none of them having the least notion of how it is made that they find people paying them money, and things in the shops to buy with it. And when they travel they are surprised to find that savages and Esquimaux and villagers who have to make everything for themselves are more intelligent and resourceful! The wonder would be if they were anything else. We should die of idiocy through disuse of our mental faculties if we did not fill our heads with romantic nonsense out of illustrated newspapers and novels and plays and films. Such stuff keeps us alive, but it falsifies everything for us so absurdly that it leaves us more or less dangerous lunatics in the real world.

Excuse my going on like this; but as I am a writer of books and plays myself, I know the folly and peril of it better than you do. And when I see that this moment of our utmost ignorance and helplessness, delusion and folly, has been stumbled on by the blind forces of capitalism as the moment for giving votes to everybody, so that the few wise women are hopelessly overruled by the thousands whose political minds, as far as they can be said to have any political minds at all, have been formed in the cinema, I realise that I had better stop writing plays for a while to discuss political and social realities in this book with those who are intelligent enough to listen to me.

Excerpted from 'An Intelligent Women’s Guide to Capitalism and Sovietism' by George Bernard Shaw

Q. When the author says that a woman now is likely to know about any connection between sheep and clothes, he is probably being

Solution:

He is attacking this fact by making fun of it.

QUESTION: 12

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

What is more likely to be the cause of death in the U.S.: being killed by a shark or by pieces falling from an airplane? Most people will answer that shark attacks are more probable. Shark attacks receive far more publicity that deaths from falling plane parts, and they are certainly far more graphic to imagine, especially if you've seen JAWS. Yet dying from falling airplane parts is thirty times more likely than being killed by a shark attack.

This is an example of availability, a heuristic which causes major investor errors. As with most heuristic, or mental shortcuts, availability usually works quite well. By relying on availability to estimate the frequency or probability of an event, decision-makers are able to simplify what might otherwise be very difficult judgments.

This judgmental shortcut is accurate most of the time because we normally recall events more easily that have occurred frequently. Unfortunately our recall is influenced by other factors besides frequency, such as how recently the events have occurred, or how salient or emotionally charged they are. The chances of being mauled by a grizzly bear at a national park are only one or two per million visitors and the death rate is lower. Casualties from shark attacks are probably an even smaller percentage of swimmers in coastal waters. But because of the emotionally charged nature of the dangers, we think such attacks happen much oftener that they really do.

It is the occurrence of disaster, rather than their probabilities of happening, that has an important impact on our buying of casualty insurance. The purchase of earthquake and airline insurance goes up sharply after a calamity, as does flood insurance. As a result, the availability rule of thumb breaks down, leading to systematic biases. The bottom line is that availability, like most heuristics, causes us to frequently misread probabilities, and get into investment difficulties as a result.

Recently, saliency, and emotionally charged events often dominate decision-making in the stock market. Statements by experts, crowd participation, and recent experience strongly incline the investor to follow the prevailing trend. In the 1990's small-capitalization growth stocks rocketed ahead of other equities. By early July 1996 this was almost the only game in town. The experience is repeated and salient to the investor, while the disastrous aftermath of the earlier speculation in aggressive growth issues in the sixties, seventies, and eighties has receded far back into memory.

The tendency of recent and salient events to move people away from the base-rate or long-term probabilities cannot be exaggerated. Time and again, we toss aside our long-term valuation guidelines because of the spectacular performance of seemingly sure winners. As psychologists have pointed out, this bias is tenacious. A moment's reflection shows that this judgmental bias reinforces the others. Recent and salient events, whether positive or negative, strongly influence judgments of the future. People, it appears, become prisoners of such experience and view the future as an extension of the immediate past. The more memorable the circumstances, the more they are expected to persist, no matter how out-of-line with prior norms.

Excerpted from “Heuristics in Investor Decision Making” by David Dreman.

Q. All of the following are Availability Heuristic examples, except

Solution:

Refer to the sentences “By relying ………………….difficult judgments. This judgmental ……………….. frequently”.

In 1, 2 and 4, availability heuristic is followed.

In 1, Jim is an available example;

In 2, TV news cover murder more than suicides;

In 4, English-speaking people could immediately think of many words that begin with the letters "R" (roar, rusty, ribald) or "K" (kangaroo, kitchen, kale), but it would take a more concentrated effort to think of any words where "R" or "K" is the third letter (street, care, borrow, acknowledge).

QUESTION: 13

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

What is more likely to be the cause of death in the U.S.: being killed by a shark or by pieces falling from an airplane? Most people will answer that shark attacks are more probable. Shark attacks receive far more publicity that deaths from falling plane parts, and they are certainly far more graphic to imagine, especially if you've seen JAWS. Yet dying from falling airplane parts is thirty times more likely than being killed by a shark attack.

This is an example of availability, a heuristic which causes major investor errors. As with most heuristic, or mental shortcuts, availability usually works quite well. By relying on availability to estimate the frequency or probability of an event, decision-makers are able to simplify what might otherwise be very difficult judgments.

This judgmental shortcut is accurate most of the time because we normally recall events more easily that have occurred frequently. Unfortunately our recall is influenced by other factors besides frequency, such as how recently the events have occurred, or how salient or emotionally charged they are. The chances of being mauled by a grizzly bear at a national park are only one or two per million visitors and the death rate is lower. Casualties from shark attacks are probably an even smaller percentage of swimmers in coastal waters. But because of the emotionally charged nature of the dangers, we think such attacks happen much oftener that they really do.

It is the occurrence of disaster, rather than their probabilities of happening, that has an important impact on our buying of casualty insurance. The purchase of earthquake and airline insurance goes up sharply after a calamity, as does flood insurance. As a result, the availability rule of thumb breaks down, leading to systematic biases. The bottom line is that availability, like most heuristics, causes us to frequently misread probabilities, and get into investment difficulties as a result.

Recently, saliency, and emotionally charged events often dominate decision-making in the stock market. Statements by experts, crowd participation, and recent experience strongly incline the investor to follow the prevailing trend. In the 1990's small-capitalization growth stocks rocketed ahead of other equities. By early July 1996 this was almost the only game in town. The experience is repeated and salient to the investor, while the disastrous aftermath of the earlier speculation in aggressive growth issues in the sixties, seventies, and eighties has receded far back into memory.

The tendency of recent and salient events to move people away from the base-rate or long-term probabilities cannot be exaggerated. Time and again, we toss aside our long-term valuation guidelines because of the spectacular performance of seemingly sure winners. As psychologists have pointed out, this bias is tenacious. A moment's reflection shows that this judgmental bias reinforces the others. Recent and salient events, whether positive or negative, strongly influence judgments of the future. People, it appears, become prisoners of such experience and view the future as an extension of the immediate past. The more memorable the circumstances, the more they are expected to persist, no matter how out-of-line with prior norms.

Excerpted from “Heuristics in Investor Decision Making” by David Dreman.

Q. According to the passage which of the following best describes the “Availability” heuristic?

Solution:

The author states that we use frequently recalled examples to envisage the frequency of an event. 

People do not deduce the frequency and moreover the prediction is on the  recollection of an example which first comes to their mind.

People do not evaluate the intervals of frequency but the frequency itself.
Option 4 contradicts the sentence “ By relying ………….. judgements”.

QUESTION: 14

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

What is more likely to be the cause of death in the U.S.: being killed by a shark or by pieces falling from an airplane? Most people will answer that shark attacks are more probable. Shark attacks receive far more publicity that deaths from falling plane parts, and they are certainly far more graphic to imagine, especially if you've seen JAWS. Yet dying from falling airplane parts is thirty times more likely than being killed by a shark attack.

This is an example of availability, a heuristic which causes major investor errors. As with most heuristic, or mental shortcuts, availability usually works quite well. By relying on availability to estimate the frequency or probability of an event, decision-makers are able to simplify what might otherwise be very difficult judgments.

This judgmental shortcut is accurate most of the time because we normally recall events more easily that have occurred frequently. Unfortunately our recall is influenced by other factors besides frequency, such as how recently the events have occurred, or how salient or emotionally charged they are. The chances of being mauled by a grizzly bear at a national park are only one or two per million visitors and the death rate is lower. Casualties from shark attacks are probably an even smaller percentage of swimmers in coastal waters. But because of the emotionally charged nature of the dangers, we think such attacks happen much oftener that they really do.

It is the occurrence of disaster, rather than their probabilities of happening, that has an important impact on our buying of casualty insurance. The purchase of earthquake and airline insurance goes up sharply after a calamity, as does flood insurance. As a result, the availability rule of thumb breaks down, leading to systematic biases. The bottom line is that availability, like most heuristics, causes us to frequently misread probabilities, and get into investment difficulties as a result.

Recently, saliency, and emotionally charged events often dominate decision-making in the stock market. Statements by experts, crowd participation, and recent experience strongly incline the investor to follow the prevailing trend. In the 1990's small-capitalization growth stocks rocketed ahead of other equities. By early July 1996 this was almost the only game in town. The experience is repeated and salient to the investor, while the disastrous aftermath of the earlier speculation in aggressive growth issues in the sixties, seventies, and eighties has receded far back into memory.

The tendency of recent and salient events to move people away from the base-rate or long-term probabilities cannot be exaggerated. Time and again, we toss aside our long-term valuation guidelines because of the spectacular performance of seemingly sure winners. As psychologists have pointed out, this bias is tenacious. A moment's reflection shows that this judgmental bias reinforces the others. Recent and salient events, whether positive or negative, strongly influence judgments of the future. People, it appears, become prisoners of such experience and view the future as an extension of the immediate past. The more memorable the circumstances, the more they are expected to persist, no matter how out-of-line with prior norms.

Excerpted from “Heuristics in Investor Decision Making” by David Dreman.

Q. According to the passage which of the following is /are true?
I. People tend to use others’ experiences to predict future events.
II. People recall good or bad events out of proportion to their actual frequency.
III. Immediacy and Saliency are more important than frequency in judging the probability of occurrence of an event.

Solution:

In the given case, each of these statements is correct.

Statement I can be inferred from the first paragraph.

Statement II can be inferred from the examples given in the passage, that reflect how people percieve different situations.

Statement III can be inferred from the last paragraph of the passage.

QUESTION: 15

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Back in the 19th century, the great American psychologist William James proposed that our facial expressions and other bodily changes are not the consequence of our emotional feelings, but the cause. Something positive happens, you smile, and this — that is, the act of smiling rather than the event itself — causes you to feel joy. Modern science has partially backed this up – there’s evidence that smiling can lift your mood, and in one study, women who had botox treatment, stiffening their facial muscles, show less emotional activity in their brains.

There’s also evidence that our facial expressions change the way we perceive the world. In the 1980s, for example, researchers showed that people found cartoons funnier when they bit a pen in a way that exercised the facial muscles that are involved in smiling (and found the cartoons less funny when they pouted). More recently, psychologists at the University of Sussex in England reported that when we smile, we see other people’s frowns as less severe, and that when we frown we see their smiling faces as less happy.

Now, in a new paper in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, a research team based in London and Madrid has further explored the possibility that when we smile it actually changes the way our brains process other people’s emotions. To do this, they used a technique called EEG (electroencephalography) to record the brainwaves of 25 participants as they looked at photographs of faces that were either smiling or showing a neutral expression.

Specifically, the researchers, led by Dr. Tina Forster at the Cognitive Neuroscience Research Unit at City University London, focused on two spikes of electrical activity in the brain that typically occur between 150 and 170 milliseconds after looking at a face, known as the VPP and N170, respectively. These particular spikes are unique to the processing of faces, and are more pronounced when the faces in question have emotional expressions, as compared to neutral ones.

When the participants adopted a neutral facial expression themselves, Sel’s team found that these signatures were enhanced after looking at happy faces compared with neutral faces – just as we’d expect. But what’s especially intriguing is that when the participants smiled, their neural activity was enhanced just the same whether they looked at neutral faces or smiley faces. In other words, when the participant smiled, their brain processed, or partially processed, a neutral face as if it were smiling.

The researchers say their results provide “novel evidence for a fundamental role of one’s own facial expressions in the visual processing of the observed facial expressions of other people and provides support for the colloquial phrase that ‘if you smile, the world will smile back to you.’” It's just the latest finding in a fascinating field of research. A German study from 2000, for example, showed when people were instructed to frown, they rated celebrities (depicted in photos) as less famous. The idea is that frowning simulates the experience of effort, which tricks the brain into thinking the celebrity is not so familiar.

Taken together, these studies show how our own emotions can lead to spiraling effects. Imagine arriving nervously at a party with a frown on your face and how that could negatively affect your feelings of familiarity when mixing with the other guests. Conversely, arrive with a smile and you’re likely to view other people’s facial expressions through a positive lens. And just think: If you can make other guests at the party smile, you might actually be changing how they see the world.

Q. The author of the passage adopts a style which can be labeled as:

Solution:

In the given case, we need an option that is positive in nature as the author does not exhibit negative sentiments in the passage.

Option 2 is the only option that does not imply any negativity or bias on part of the author and is therefore the correct answer. The meanings of the words given in the options are:

  • Figurative: not literal; using figures of speech.
  • Hyperbolic: enlarged beyond truth or reasonableness.
  • Descriptive: serving to describe, inform or characterized by description.
  • Analytical: using or skilled in using analysis.
  • Astute: marked by practical hardheaded intelligence.
  • Subjective: taking place within the mind and modified by individual bias.
  • Opinionated: obstinate in your opinions.
  • Firm: marked by firm determination or resolution; not shakable.
QUESTION: 16

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Back in the 19th century, the great American psychologist William James proposed that our facial expressions and other bodily changes are not the consequence of our emotional feelings, but the cause. Something positive happens, you smile, and this — that is, the act of smiling rather than the event itself — causes you to feel joy. Modern science has partially backed this up – there’s evidence that smiling can lift your mood, and in one study, women who had botox treatment, stiffening their facial muscles, show less emotional activity in their brains.

There’s also evidence that our facial expressions change the way we perceive the world. In the 1980s, for example, researchers showed that people found cartoons funnier when they bit a pen in a way that exercised the facial muscles that are involved in smiling (and found the cartoons less funny when they pouted). More recently, psychologists at the University of Sussex in England reported that when we smile, we see other people’s frowns as less severe, and that when we frown we see their smiling faces as less happy.

Now, in a new paper in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, a research team based in London and Madrid has further explored the possibility that when we smile it actually changes the way our brains process other people’s emotions. To do this, they used a technique called EEG (electroencephalography) to record the brainwaves of 25 participants as they looked at photographs of faces that were either smiling or showing a neutral expression.

Specifically, the researchers, led by Dr. Tina Forster at the Cognitive Neuroscience Research Unit at City University London, focused on two spikes of electrical activity in the brain that typically occur between 150 and 170 milliseconds after looking at a face, known as the VPP and N170, respectively. These particular spikes are unique to the processing of faces, and are more pronounced when the faces in question have emotional expressions, as compared to neutral ones.

When the participants adopted a neutral facial expression themselves, Sel’s team found that these signatures were enhanced after looking at happy faces compared with neutral faces – just as we’d expect. But what’s especially intriguing is that when the participants smiled, their neural activity was enhanced just the same whether they looked at neutral faces or smiley faces. In other words, when the participant smiled, their brain processed, or partially processed, a neutral face as if it were smiling.

The researchers say their results provide “novel evidence for a fundamental role of one’s own facial expressions in the visual processing of the observed facial expressions of other people and provides support for the colloquial phrase that ‘if you smile, the world will smile back to you.’” It's just the latest finding in a fascinating field of research. A German study from 2000, for example, showed when people were instructed to frown, they rated celebrities (depicted in photos) as less famous. The idea is that frowning simulates the experience of effort, which tricks the brain into thinking the celebrity is not so familiar.

Taken together, these studies show how our own emotions can lead to spiraling effects. Imagine arriving nervously at a party with a frown on your face and how that could negatively affect your feelings of familiarity when mixing with the other guests. Conversely, arrive with a smile and you’re likely to view other people’s facial expressions through a positive lens. And just think: If you can make other guests at the party smile, you might actually be changing how they see the world.

Q. As per the information given in the passage:

Solution:

The answer can be determined from the lines: Imagine arriving nervously at a party with a frown on your face and how that could negatively affect your feelings of familiarity when mixing with the other guests.

Conversely, arrive with a smile and you’re likely to view other people’s facial expressions through a positive lens.

And just think: If you can make other guests at the party smile, you might actually be changing how they see the world.

Also, option 1 represents the general idea of the passage and option 2 is derived from the last line of the passage. Remember, both options use ''may'' and therefore imply possibility.

QUESTION: 17

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Back in the 19th century, the great American psychologist William James proposed that our facial expressions and other bodily changes are not the consequence of our emotional feelings, but the cause. Something positive happens, you smile, and this — that is, the act of smiling rather than the event itself — causes you to feel joy. Modern science has partially backed this up – there’s evidence that smiling can lift your mood, and in one study, women who had botox treatment, stiffening their facial muscles, show less emotional activity in their brains.

There’s also evidence that our facial expressions change the way we perceive the world. In the 1980s, for example, researchers showed that people found cartoons funnier when they bit a pen in a way that exercised the facial muscles that are involved in smiling (and found the cartoons less funny when they pouted). More recently, psychologists at the University of Sussex in England reported that when we smile, we see other people’s frowns as less severe, and that when we frown we see their smiling faces as less happy.

Now, in a new paper in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, a research team based in London and Madrid has further explored the possibility that when we smile it actually changes the way our brains process other people’s emotions. To do this, they used a technique called EEG (electroencephalography) to record the brainwaves of 25 participants as they looked at photographs of faces that were either smiling or showing a neutral expression.

Specifically, the researchers, led by Dr. Tina Forster at the Cognitive Neuroscience Research Unit at City University London, focused on two spikes of electrical activity in the brain that typically occur between 150 and 170 milliseconds after looking at a face, known as the VPP and N170, respectively. These particular spikes are unique to the processing of faces, and are more pronounced when the faces in question have emotional expressions, as compared to neutral ones.

When the participants adopted a neutral facial expression themselves, Sel’s team found that these signatures were enhanced after looking at happy faces compared with neutral faces – just as we’d expect. But what’s especially intriguing is that when the participants smiled, their neural activity was enhanced just the same whether they looked at neutral faces or smiley faces. In other words, when the participant smiled, their brain processed, or partially processed, a neutral face as if it were smiling.

The researchers say their results provide “novel evidence for a fundamental role of one’s own facial expressions in the visual processing of the observed facial expressions of other people and provides support for the colloquial phrase that ‘if you smile, the world will smile back to you.’” It's just the latest finding in a fascinating field of research. A German study from 2000, for example, showed when people were instructed to frown, they rated celebrities (depicted in photos) as less famous. The idea is that frowning simulates the experience of effort, which tricks the brain into thinking the celebrity is not so familiar.

Taken together, these studies show how our own emotions can lead to spiraling effects. Imagine arriving nervously at a party with a frown on your face and how that could negatively affect your feelings of familiarity when mixing with the other guests. Conversely, arrive with a smile and you’re likely to view other people’s facial expressions through a positive lens. And just think: If you can make other guests at the party smile, you might actually be changing how they see the world.

Q. If the information given in the passage is correct, which one of the following will be a valid inference?

Solution:

Refer to the following lines to identify the answer: Back in the 19th century, the great American psychologist William James proposed that our facial expressions and other bodily changes are not the consequence of our emotional feelings, but the cause.

Something positive happens, you smile, and this — that is, the act of smiling rather than the event itself — causes you to feel joy.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 18

The five sentences (labelled 1,2,3,4 and 5) given in this question, when properly sequenced, from a coherent paragraph. Arrange them in the correct order.

1. The Arab Spring exhilarated many human rights activists and made many others very nervous that the bug could spread.
2. So the Internet has transformed politics, society, religion, culture and tradition, and is increasingly becoming the medium of choice through which people work, socialize, get involved, associate, act, and express themselves globally.
3. While the Arab Spring was not an Internet or twitter revolution, it was probably the first historical example of the incredibly crucial role that information technology can play in liberating people's voices, spreading them around the world, and empowering others to take action.
4. These transformations have come with a range of problems and challenges not only for governments around the world, but also for private and civil society actors.
5. The Internet knows few boundaries but exists of course in an international system, dominated by nation- states and their corollary: national sovereignty.


Solution:

Note the word transformed in line B, which is an idea further picked by line 4 with these transformations. Thus the lines 2 and 4 given here form a logical pair (2-4). A range of problems and challenges alluded to in line 4 is further explained in line 5. Therefore, the trio 2-4-5 are strongly inter-linked.

Further, line 3 talks of the Arab Spring in general, while line 1 offers some conclusions based on this development, thus yielding the combine 3-1.

Since line 2 begins with so, it is quite understandable that it should follow line 3 here. Therefore, the combination 3-1 should be followed by line 2.

QUESTION: 19

Identify the most appropriate summary for the paragraph.

The fact is, Naipaul provides powerful ammunition for all sides of the debate. Were Naipaul simply a monster, he (and his writing) would not be so compelling. Revealing himself to be a monster in one instance, he will use that very quality to his own advantage in the next. This protean quality makes Naipaul larger, as a character, a novelist, and a thinker, than any of the categories meant to encompass him. Those, for instance, who want to dismiss Naipaul for what Wood calls his “conservatism”, find themselves, more often than not, moved by his “radical eyesight.” And vice versa. Inevitably, to read Naipaul is to experience a rather exciting push/pull of attraction and repulsion. You can see this even in the short quote from Packer’s review of the French biography above. Naipaul describes extremely ugly behavior. Further, he seems to take narcissistic pleasure (the word ‘narcissism’ comes up often in discussions of Naipaul) in doing so. But he ends with a thought that is sensitive and vulnerable. “I was utterly helpless. I have enormous sympathy for people who do strange things out of passion.” By turning his sympathy around, he elicits it from us.

Solution:

Option 4: This is a paragraph about Naipaul and the conflicting nature of his. The paragraph goes on to explain that he is a protean (taking on different forms) personality and his extreme range of qualities (good or bad) make a compelling figure to follow. This sentiment is best expressed by option 4, which is the only which captures all the aspects of the paragraph.

Option 1 only emphasizes his work.

Option 2 is convoluted and simply picks on a phrase from the paragraph but does not actually convey the actual essence of the paragraph.

Option 3 makes a comparison between Naipaul the person and the novelist whereas no such comparison is made in the paragraph.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 20

Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer.

1. Life on the rebel side"the only side I had access to"was perilous and miserable.
2. At the time, Aleppo was divided roughly in half, one side held by the rebels, the other by the regime.
3. There was a river that snaked through Aleppo from the regime side to the rebel side, and occasionally bodies dumped in the former would wash up in the latter.
4. In the spring of 2013, I spent a month in the Syrian city of Aleppo, reporting an article about the protests that had become an uprising that had become a war.
5. Almost every day, regime jets and mortars and missiles randomly obliterated civilian targets: homes, markets, hospitals, and schools.


Solution:

In this case, you need to follow the flow of information to identify the correct answer.

Statement 4 introduces the given subject;

Statement 2 takes the subject forward and provides greater detail for it;

Statement 1 then describes life on the rebel side and statement 5 completes the information.

Statement 3 is the odd one out here as it does not directly connect with the other statements.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 21

Four sentences related to a topic are given below. Three of them can be put together  to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer.

1. The first method to attack the issue is to crunch numbers, and reduce the statistics of hungry people
2. While hasty techno-fixes to deal with the crisis in the farming community are afoot, malnutrition and genuine problems in the agricultural sector in the country fail to be seriously addressed
3. Increasing production is not the only solution to hunger in an unequal society
4. Farmers committing suicide are linked to the commercial pressures of tech dependent agriculture, along with the controls of companies, the market, and credit agencies


Solution:

The paragraph talks about technology and agriculture and their effect on farmers'' lives.

2-4-3 is the sequence.

1 is not only out of scope, but is also a very fallacious way to attack the problem.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 22

The five sentences (labelled 1,2,3,4, and 5) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentence and write this sequence of five numbers as your answer.

1. If it is to appeal to practical men and civic workers, it is important that the methods for the systematic study of cities be not only the product of the study, but also be those which may be acquired through local observation and practical effort.
2. This point of view has next to be correlated with the corresponding practical experience.
3. My problem is thus to outline such ideas as may crystallize from the experience of any moderately-travelled observer, so that his panoramic observations should gradually develop towards an orderly Regional Survey.
4. Practical experience may be acquired through varied experiences of citizenship, which rise towards a larger, more orderly conception of civic action as Regional Service.
5. This department of sociological studies should evidently be, as far as possible, concrete in treatment.
(in numerical value)


Solution:

Notice how the lines 3 and 2 are linked logically with the words "My problem.. and This point of view".

The word next in line 2 clearly indicates that it should be preceded by line 3.

The words practical experience in line 2 find an echo in line 4, which serves to further explain the given idea.

Thus, line 2 should be followed by line 4.

Line 5 is a fairly general comment, which deserves a place in the beginning.

QUESTION: 23

Identify the most appropriate summary for the paragraph.

According to a 2006 poll conducted by Newsweek, a whopping 43% of Americans believe that dreams reveal unconscious desires and wishes. Famed psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud described dreams as the royal road to the unconscious and suggested that by studying the obvious content of dreams, we could then bring to light the hidden and unconscious desires that lead to neurosis.  Analyzing dream symbols and ascribing meaning has become a popular source of both entertainment and self-reflection in popular culture. Do dreams really have hidden meanings? Can you learn your unconscious wishes and desires by interpreting your dreams? While most modern theories of dreams would suggest that the answer is no, this hasn't stopped interpreters and analysts from publishing a whole host of dream dictionaries that purport to identify what these common dream themes and symbols really mean.

Solution:

Option 1 simply narrates the context but does not highlight any viewpoint on analysis of dream content (as done by the paragraph).

Option 3 is too extreme to begin with (the mention of futility of analyzing dreams) and that does not gel with the sentiment expressed in the passage. Also, the passage does not suggest that modern theorists use the works of Freud.

Option 4 reverses the intent of the paragraph, which clearly downplays the importance of dream analysis.

Option 2 is the apt choice here, as it represents the central idea of the paragraph

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 24

Four sentences related to a topic are given below. Three of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.

1. International inspectors have unprecedented access to Iranian facilities.
2. American diplomats know all too well the danger Iran poses to American security and our allies around the world, and they have been working tirelessly to keep nuclear weapons far out of Iran’s reach.
3. This tough diplomacy has already made us safer: Iran’s nuclear program has been frozen for more than a year.
4. The political stunt that occurred last week threatens to undo all that we have achieved, and genuinely puts American security at risk.


Solution:
  • Statement 2 becomes the obvious opener as it lays the concept of Iran being a danger and how American diplomats have been working hard to keep Nuclear weapons away from Iran’s hands. Followed by statement 3 follows, as effect of the actions taken by American diplomat.
  • Statement 1, adds another dimension of curbs that has helped International inspectors have access to the Iranian facilities.
  • Statement 4 is a misfit as it digresses the topic at hand, from taking affirmative action curtail Iran’s nuclear ambition to something that endangers the American security. 
*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 25

The four sentences (labelled 1,2,3 and 4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, from a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentence and write this sequence of four numbers as your answer.

1. It is all too easy to underestimate the role played by the humble index, and its more elaborate variants, in the history of human knowledge.
2. There is a terrific book to be written on the history of alphabetical order, for example, which is sketched out here by Lynch in an all too tantalizing three pages.
3. In his delightful new history, subtitled The reference shelf from ancient Babylon to Wikipedia, Jack Lynch neatly defines the reference work as a text designed for users rather than readers: plenty of people read Herodotus straight through (and so should you), but no one has ever read Powell's Lexicon from cover to cover.
4. Concordances are among the simplest life forms in the rich and complex phylum of reference works " dictionaries, encyclopedias, atlases and so forth.


Solution:

In this case, statement 4 introduces the subject of the jumbled paragraph, concordances (lists of all the words appearing in a given text) in reference works.

Statement 3 then takes this forward by illustrating the use of reference works.

Statement 1 then further explains what role can be played by reference works and then

Statement 2 completes the given sequence of information.

QUESTION: 26

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

Mr. Pyare Lal has to schedule six different seminars, one each on a different subject among Management Applications, Qualitative Research, Entrepreneurship, Strategic Marketing, Change Management and Cashless Transactions. Each of these seminars is organized on a different day from Monday to Saturday in a week and each of these seminars is handled by a different professor among Govind Rajan, Amit Shukla, Bharat Jain, Prakash Jha, Sravan Murthy and Gokul Roy.

The following information is also known.
(i) Amit Shukla handled the seminar on Entrepreneurship but not before the seminar handled by Bharat Jain.

(ii) The seminar on Change Management is held either on the first day or on the last day of the week

(iii) Gokul Roy handled the seminar on Thursday.

(iv) The seminars on Strategic Marketing and Qualitative Research are to be organized on two consecutive days and neither of them is organized on Wednesday.

(v) Govind Rajan will handle his seminar on exactly the 3rd day after the day on which Sravan Murthy handles his seminar,

(vi) The seminar on Strategic Marketing is to be held on the immediately next day after Bharat Jain handles his seminar and Bharat Jain will not handle his seminar on the first day.

Q. Who handled the seminar on Qualitative Research?

Solution:

Bharat Jain did not handle the seminar on first day but before Amit Shukla who handled seminar on entrepreneurship.

Bharat Jain would have handled Seminar on Wednesday and strategic marketing was handled by Gokul Roy and qualitative Research seminar was organised on Friday and Amit Shukla should have handled seminar on Saturday.

Remaining information can also be filled in the same manner. The final table will be as follows:

QUESTION: 27

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

Mr. Pyare Lal has to schedule six different seminars, one each on a different subject among Management Applications, Qualitative Research, Entrepreneurship, Strategic Marketing, Change Management and Cashless Transactions. Each of these seminars is organized on a different day from Monday to Saturday in a week and each of these seminars is handled by a different professor among Govind Rajan, Amit Shukla, Bharat Jain, Prakash Jha, Sravan Murthy and Gokul Roy.

The following information is also known.

(i) Amit Shukla handled the seminar on Entrepreneurship but not before the seminar handled by Bharat Jain.

(ii) The seminar on Change Management is held either on the first day or on the last day of the week

(iii) Gokul Roy handled the seminar on Thursday.

(iv) The seminars on Strategic Marketing and Qualitative Research are to be organized on two consecutive days and neither of them is organized on Wednesday.

(v) Govind Rajan will handle his seminar on exactly the 3rd day after the day on which Sravan Murthy handles his seminar,

(vi) The seminar on Strategic Marketing is to be held on the immediately next day after Bharat Jain handles his seminar and Bharat Jain will not handle his seminar on the first day.

Q. On which day is the seminar on Entrepreneurship organized?

Solution:

Bharat Jain did not handle the seminar on first day but before Amit Shukla who handled seminar on entrepreneurship.

Bharat Jain would have handled Seminar on Wednesday and strategic marketing was handled by Gokul Roy and qualitative Research seminar was organised on Friday.and Amit Shukla should have handled seminar on Saturday.

Remaining information can also be filled in the same manner. The final table will be as follows:

It was handled on Saturday

QUESTION: 28

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

Mr. Pyare Lal has to schedule six different seminars, one each on a different subject among Management Applications, Qualitative Research, Entrepreneurship, Strategic Marketing, Change Management and Cashless Transactions. Each of these seminars is organized on a different day from Monday to Saturday in a week and each of these seminars is handled by a different professor among Govind Rajan, Amit Shukla, Bharat Jain, Prakash Jha, Sravan Murthy and Gokul Roy.

The following information is also known.
(i) Amit Shukla handled the seminar on Entrepreneurship but not before the seminar handled by Bharat Jain.

(ii) The seminar on Change Management is held either on the first day or on the last day of the week

(iii) Gokul Roy handled the seminar on Thursday.

(iv) The seminars on Strategic Marketing and Qualitative Research are to be organized on two consecutive days and neither of them is organized on Wednesday.

(v) Govind Rajan will handle his seminar on exactly the 3rd day after the day on which Sravan Murthy handles his seminar,

(vi) The seminar on Strategic Marketing is to be held on the immediately next day after Bharat Jain handles his seminar and Bharat Jain will not handle his seminar on the first day.

Q. If Bharat Jain handled the seminar on Cashless Transactions, then who handled the seminar on Management Applications?

Solution:

Bharat Jain did not handle the seminar on first day but before Amit Shukla who handled seminar on entrepreneurship.

Bharat Jain would have handled Seminar on Wednesday and strategic marketing was handled by Gokul Roy and qualitative Research seminar was organised on Friday and Amit Shukla should have handled seminar on Saturday.

Remaining information can also be filled in the same manner. The final table will be as follows:

Sravan Murthy handled the seminar on Management Applications

QUESTION: 29

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

During the Up To 60% Off sale at the Furniture Store, each of the five salespeople - Bill, Cynthia, Fred, Jenna and Rick - sold one item off the floor - coffee table, loveseat, nightstand, painting and sideboard -  with each piece of furniture selling for a different price and the five sales totalling $10,000. The last names of the five salespeople are Broyhill, Drexel, Harris, Moore and Stickley, not necessarily in the same order.

  • Jenna, who isn't Stickley, didn't sell the nightstand.
  • The piece Moore sold cost half as much as the coffee table another salesperson sold.
  • Stickley's sale brought in $500 more than the item sold by Rick, whose sale was for $1,000 more than the painting one customer bought.
  • The salesperson who sold the sideboard didn't have the day's biggest sale.
  • Jenna's sale item cost twice as much money as the piece of furniture Harris sold.
  • Stickley sale to one customer wasn't the coffee table.
  • Salesperson Drexel and the person who sold the loveseat have been with Friendly Furniture since it opened.
  • Cynthia, whose sale item didn't have the lowest price, isn't the one who sold a customer the sideboard.
  • Fred, who didn't sell the painting, and Harris had their first sales of the week yesterday.
  • The lowest-priced item sold for $1,000.

Q. Which of the following statements is true?

Solution:

We know that the value of the item sold by Rick is a minimum of $ 2000 (assuming that the painting was sold for $ 1000); Jenna sold an item for a value that was twice that of the item sold by Harris.

If Rick is Harris, then Jenna would have sold her item for a minimum of $ 4000.
The sum of the values of these 3 items will be a minimum of $ 7000 and the remaining 2 items must be sold for a total of $ 3000. Since the coffee table was sold for a value that was twice the value of the item sold by Moore, we could infer that the remaining 2 items were sold for $ 1000 and $ 2000.
This would mean that the painting was not sold for $ 1000 and we therefore have a contradiction.  

Suppose Moore sold the painting for $ 1000, then Rick sold his item of furniture for $ 2000 and Stickley sold his item of furniture for $ 2500.

The sale of these 3 items adds up to $ 5500 and the remaining two items are sold for a total of $ 4500.
Jenna sold her item of furniture for twice the value of the item that Harris sold.
So, the remaining 2 items were sold for $ 1500 and $ 3000.

Since Moore sold the painting for $ 1000 and Rick sold his item of furniture for $ 2000, we know that Rick sold the coffee table.
Jenna sold her item of furniture for $ 3000 and Harris sold his item of furniture for $ 1500.

We know that Jenna did not sell the nightstand, the painting or the coffee table and she had the biggest sale; since the person who sold the sideboard did not have the biggest sale, we can conclude that Jenna sold the loveseat for $ 3000.

Fred did not sell the painting; Cynthia did not have the lowest sale implies that she did not sell the painting; Rick sold the coffee table; we can therefore conclude that Bill sold the painting.
We can now collate all the above information and match the given data as follows:

  • Bill Moore sold the painting for $ 1000.
  • Cynthia Harris sold the nightstand for $ 1500.
  • Rick Drexel sold the coffee table for $ 2000.
  • Fred Stickley sold the sideboard for $ 2500.
  • Jenna Broyhill sold the loveseat for $ 3000.

Thus option 1 is true.

QUESTION: 30

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

During the Up To 60% Off sale at the Furniture Store, each of the five salespeople - Bill, Cynthia, Fred, Jenna and Rick - sold one item off the floor - coffee table, loveseat, nightstand, painting and sideboard -  with each piece of furniture selling for a different price and the five sales totalling $10,000. The last names of the five salespeople are Broyhill, Drexel, Harris, Moore and Stickley, not necessarily in the same order.

  • Jenna, who isn't Stickley, didn't sell the nightstand.
  • The piece Moore sold cost half as much as the coffee table another salesperson sold.
  • Stickley's sale brought in $500 more than the item sold by Rick, whose sale was for $1,000 more than the painting one customer bought.
  • The salesperson who sold the sideboard didn't have the day's biggest sale.
  • Jenna's sale item cost twice as much money as the piece of furniture Harris sold.
  • Stickley sale to one customer wasn't the coffee table.
  • Salesperson Drexel and the person who sold the loveseat have been with Friendly Furniture since it opened.
  • Cynthia, whose sale item didn't have the lowest price, isn't the one who sold a customer the sideboard.
  • Fred, who didn't sell the painting, and Harris had their first sales of the week yesterday.
  • The lowest-priced item sold for $1,000.

Q. Who sold the least expensive item of furniture?

Solution:

We know that the value of the item sold by Rick is a minimum of $ 2000 (assuming that the painting was sold for $ 1000); Jenna sold an item for a value that was twice that of the item sold by Harris.

If Rick is Harris, then Jenna would have sold her item for a minimum of $ 4000.
The sum of the values of these 3 items will be a minimum of $ 7000 and the remaining 2 items must be sold for a total of $ 3000. Since the coffee table was sold for a value that was twice the value of the item sold by Moore, we could infer that the remaining 2 items were sold for $ 1000 and $ 2000.
This would mean that the painting was not sold for $ 1000 and we therefore have a contradiction.

Suppose Moore sold the painting for $ 1000, then Rick sold his item of furniture for $ 2000 and Stickley sold his item of furniture for $ 2500.
The sale of these 3 items adds up to $ 5500 and the remaining two items are sold for a total of $ 4500.

Jenna sold her item of furniture for twice the value of the item that Harris sold.
So, the remaining 2 items were sold for $ 1500 and $ 3000.
Since Moore sold the painting for $ 1000 and Rick sold his item of furniture for $ 2000, we know that Rick sold the coffee table.

Jenna sold her item of furniture for $ 3000 and Harris sold his item of furniture for $ 1500.

We know that Jenna did not sell the nightstand, the painting or the coffee table and she had the biggest sale; since the person who sold the sideboard did not have the biggest sale, we can conclude that Jenna sold the loveseat for $ 3000.

Fred did not sell the painting; Cynthia did not have the lowest sale implies that she did not sell the painting; Rick sold the coffee table; we can therefore conclude that Bill sold the painting.
We can now collate all the above information and match the given data as follows:

  • Bill Moore sold the painting for $ 1000.
  • Cynthia Harris sold the nightstand for $ 1500.
  • Rick Drexel sold the coffee table for $ 2000.
  • Fred Stickley sold the sideboard for $ 2500.
  • Jenna Broyhill sold the loveseat for $ 3000.

Thus Bill sold the least expensive item of furniture.

QUESTION: 31

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

During the Up To 60% Off sale at the Furniture Store, each of the five salespeople - Bill, Cynthia, Fred, Jenna and Rick - sold one item off the floor - coffee table, loveseat, nightstand, painting and sideboard -  with each piece of furniture selling for a different price and the five sales totalling $10,000. The last names of the five salespeople are Broyhill, Drexel, Harris, Moore and Stickley, not necessarily in the same order.

  • Jenna, who isn't Stickley, didn't sell the nightstand.
  • The piece Moore sold cost half as much as the coffee table another salesperson sold.
  • Stickley's sale brought in $500 more than the item sold by Rick, whose sale was for $1,000 more than the painting one customer bought.
  • The salesperson who sold the sideboard didn't have the day's biggest sale.
  • Jenna's sale item cost twice as much money as the piece of furniture Harris sold.
  • Stickley sale to one customer wasn't the coffee table.
  • Salesperson Drexel and the person who sold the loveseat have been with Friendly Furniture since it opened.
  • Cynthia, whose sale item didn't have the lowest price, isn't the one who sold a customer the sideboard.
  • Fred, who didn't sell the painting, and Harris had their first sales of the week yesterday.
  • The lowest-priced item sold for $1,000.

Q. The most expensive item of furniture sold fetched how much more than the item of furniture sold by Drexel?

Solution:

We know that the value of the item sold by Rick is a minimum of $ 2000 (assuming that the painting was sold for $ 1000); Jenna sold an item for a value that was twice that of the item sold by Harris.

If Rick is Harris, then Jenna would have sold her item for a minimum of $ 4000.
The sum of the values of these 3 items will be a minimum of $ 7000 and the remaining 2 items must be sold for a total of $ 3000. Since the coffee table was sold for a value that was twice the value of the item sold by Moore, we could infer that the remaining 2 items were sold for $ 1000 and $ 2000.
This would mean that the painting was not sold for $ 1000 and we therefore have a contradiction.

Suppose Moore sold the painting for $ 1000, then Rick sold his item of furniture for $ 2000 and Stickley sold his item of furniture for $ 2500.
The sale of these 3 items adds up to $ 5500 and the remaining two items are sold for a total of $ 4500.

Jenna sold her item of furniture for twice the value of the item that Harris sold.
So, the remaining 2 items were sold for $ 1500 and $ 3000.
Since Moore sold the painting for $ 1000 and Rick sold his item of furniture for $ 2000, we know that Rick sold the coffee table.

Jenna sold her item of furniture for $ 3000 and Harris sold his item of furniture for $ 1500.

We know that Jenna did not sell the nightstand, the painting or the coffee table and she had the biggest sale; since the person who sold the sideboard did not have the biggest sale, we can conclude that Jenna sold the loveseat for $ 3000.

Fred did not sell the painting; Cynthia did not have the lowest sale implies that she did not sell the painting; Rick sold the coffee table; we can therefore conclude that Bill sold the painting.
We can now collate all the above information and match the given data as follows:

  • Bill Moore sold the painting for $ 1000.
  • Cynthia Harris sold the nightstand for $ 1500.
  • Rick Drexel sold the coffee table for $ 2000.
  • Fred Stickley sold the sideboard for $ 2500.
  • Jenna Broyhill sold the loveseat for $ 3000.

The most expensive item of furniture was the loveseat which was sold for $ 3000.
Drexel sold the coffee table for $ 2000.
Thus the loveseat fetched 3000 - 2000 = $ 1000 more.

QUESTION: 32

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

The US President has invited the heads of state of seven Asian countries, China, India, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, Singapore and Thailand, to a summit on Economic Stability in the region. The summit will be followed by dinner at the White House. Four of these seven heads of state will be seated at the same table as the US President. In order to avoid animosity at the table, the four heads of state must be chosen on the basis of the following:
1. Either India or Pakistan must be selected, but India and Pakistan cannot both be selected.
2. Either China or Japan must be selected, but China and Japan cannot both be selected.
3. China is selected only if Thailand is selected.
4. Singapore cannot be selected unless India is selected.

Q. If the head of state of Japan is not selected to be seated at the US President’s table for dinner, how many different groups of four heads of state could be formed so that there is no animosity at the table?

Solution:

Since the head of state of Japan is not selected, the head of state of China must be selected.

From the 3rd clue, we know that the head of state of Thailand must be selected.

From clue 1, if the head of state of India is selected, the fourth head of state could be from either Singapore or Malaysia.

So, these are 2 different groups of 4. From the 1st clue, if the head of state of Pakistan is selected, then the fourth head of state must be the head of state of Malaysia.

Thus, there are 3 different groups of heads of state that can be seated at the US President’s table.

QUESTION: 33

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

The US President has invited the heads of state of seven Asian countries, China, India, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, Singapore and Thailand, to a summit on Economic Stability in the region. The summit will be followed by dinner at the White House. Four of these seven heads of state will be seated at the same table as the US President. In order to avoid animosity at the table, the four heads of state must be chosen on the basis of the following:
1. Either India or Pakistan must be selected, but India and Pakistan cannot both be selected.
2. Either China or Japan must be selected, but China and Japan cannot both be selected.
3. China is selected only if Thailand is selected.
4. Singapore cannot be selected unless India is selected.

Q. The heads of state of which of the following countries must be seated at the US President’s table so that there is only one group of four that can be seated at this table?

Solution:

Consider option 1. If the head of state of Singapore is selected, we know that the head of state of India must be selected.

Since the head of state of Thailand is not selected, the head of state of China cannot be selected.

So the fourth head of state must be from Japan.

Since this is the only group of four that can be formed, option 1 is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 34

Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

Refer to the following information on prices and production of crude oil for the period 1973 – 80 and answer the questions given below. In the first graph, the lines show the prices of crude oil per barrel for domestic production and imports while the bars show the domestic price as a percentage of the import price. In the second graph, the bars show average production of barrels per day in the US and Non-OPEC countries, while the line shows the consumption of oil in the US.

Q. In 1979, if the US imported crude oil in order to meet demands, what is the total cost of imported crude oil?

Solution:

The total consumption of crude oil in the US in 1979 is 21,200 barrels per day while the total domestic production of crude oil is 9,500 barrels per day.

This means that the US has to import 11,700 barrels of crude oil per day.
In 1979, the cost of imported crude oil was $ 21.5 per barrel.

So the total cost of imported oil is
11700 × 21.5 = $ 251,550 per day.

QUESTION: 35

Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

Refer to the following information on prices and production of crude oil for the period 1973 – 80 and answer the questions given below. In the first graph, the lines show the prices of crude oil per barrel for domestic production and imports while the bars show the domestic price as a percentage of the import price. In the second graph, the bars show average production of barrels per day in the US and Non-OPEC countries, while the line shows the consumption of oil in the US.

Q. What is the difference between the total cost of domestic production of crude oil in the US in 1975 and the total cost of crude oil imported by the US in order to meet demands in this year?

Solution:

In 1975, the domestic production of crude oil in the US was 8250 barrels per day while the consumption was 18000 barrels per day.

This means that the US had to import 9750 barrels per day.

The price of domestic and imported oil in 1975 was $ 8 and $ 13.5 per barrel respectively.

So the total cost of domestic oil was $ 66,000 / day while the cost of imported oil was $ 131,625 per day.

Thus the required difference is $ 65,625 per day.

QUESTION: 36

Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

Refer to the following information on prices and production of crude oil for the period 1973 – 80 and answer the questions given below. In the first graph, the lines show the prices of crude oil per barrel for domestic production and imports while the bars show the domestic price as a percentage of the import price. In the second graph, the bars show average production of barrels per day in the US and Non-OPEC countries, while the line shows the consumption of oil in the US.

Q. Which of the following statements is/are true?
I. The percentage change in the price of imported crude oil in 1974 is 120%.
II. In 1977, the absolute difference between the percentage change in the price of domestic oil and the percentage change in the price of imported oil is approximately 2.
III. The percentage change in the consumption of oil by the US from 1973 to 1979 is -80%.
IV. In 1977, the ratio of production of oil by non-OPEC countries to that by the US is 4.25.

Solution:

The percentage change in the price of imported crude oil in 1974 is (12.5 – 4.5)/4.5 » 177%.
So statement I is false.

The percentage change in the price of domestic crude oil is (9 - 8.5)/8.5 » 5.88% while the percentage change in the price of imported crude oil is (14 – 13)/13 = 7.69%. 

The difference is 5.88 - 7.69 = -1.81.
So statement II is true.

The consumption of crude oil by the US has changed by (21200 – 19000)/ 19000 » 11.57%.
So statement III is false.

The production of crude oil by non-OPEC countries and the US in 1977 is 28,000 and 9,000 respectively. The required ratio is 3.11.
So statement IV is false.

QUESTION: 37

Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

Refer to the following information on prices and production of crude oil for the period 1973 – 80 and answer the questions given below. In the first graph, the lines show the prices of crude oil per barrel for domestic production and imports while the bars show the domestic price as a percentage of the import price. In the second graph, the bars show average production of barrels per day in the US and Non-OPEC countries, while the line shows the consumption of oil in the US.

Q. What is the approximate difference between the percentage change in the price of imported oil and the price of domestic oil in 1976?

Solution:

The price of imported oil has changed by (13 - 13.5)/13.5 = -3.7%, while the change in the price of domestic oil is (8.5 – 8)/8 = 6.25%.

The difference between these values is difference = – 3.7 – 6.25 = – 9.95.

As the questions asks about the difference, and difference is always a modulus function i.e. always positive.

Hence answer is 9.95.

QUESTION: 38

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

Last week, Miles Stewart took his daughter Robin and four of her friends, including the Martinez girl, to see Hannah Idaho in concert at the Summerset Hippodrome. After the performance, Mr. Stewart bought each of the girls a different item of Hannah Idaho merchandise, buying one an autographed photo of the teen star. Each memento cost a different sum, with Mr. Stewart spending a total of $400 on the five items. Given the clues below, can you solve this Challenger Logic Puzzle by finding each girl's full name, the memento she took home from the Hannah Idaho concert, and how much the item cost Mr. Stewart?
1. The item costing the most, $120, isn't the jacket.
2. Mr. Stewart spent twice as much for his daughter's merchandise as he did for the sweatshirt, which Margot didn't pick.
3. Lily and the Oken girl both wore their hair exactly like Hannah Idaho does.
4. The jacket cost Mr. Stewart more than the DVD did.
5. Sarah's memento cost twice as much as the Truscott girl's did.
6. Mr. Stewart paid $60 more for the bracelet than he did for the item Margot took home.

Amber's merchandise cost $20 more than the item the Addison girl picked, which isn't the sweatshirt.

Q. Which of the following is not the correct name of one of the girls?

Solution:

From the introduction, Miles Stewart bought his daughter Robin and her four friends each a different Hannah Idaho item for a different price, with the five items costing him a total of $400.
By clue 2, the item he bought his daughter Robin Stewart cost twice as much as the sweatshirt he bought another girl; while by clue 5, the item Sarah got cost twice as much as what the Truscott girl took home.
Either four different girls are named between the two clues, or Sarah got the sweatshirt.

If Sarah had gotten the sweatshirt, by clue 7, Amber would be the Truscott girl or would be the fourth girl to the three in clues 2 and 5.

If Amber were the Truscott girl, given that Mr. Stewart spent the most, $120 (clue 1), on his daughter Robin, he would have spent $60 on Sarah's sweatshirt (2), $30 on the Amber Truscott's item (5), and $10 on the Addison girl's choice (7)--a total of $220, leaving $180 for the fifth item and a conflict with clue 1.

So, Amber would be the fourth girl.
Since the Addison girl didn't get the sweatshirt, she would be the fifth girl (7).
Either Robin's or Amber's merchandise would have cost the $120 (1).

If Robin's did, Sarah's would have cost $60 (2) and the Truscott girl's would have cost $30 (5)--a total of $210, leaving $190 for Amber and the Addison girl, who would have spent $105 and $85 respectively (7).

However, there then is no way for clue 6 to work.

If Amber's item had cost $120 (1) and the Addison girl's $100 (7), leaving $180, Robin's would have cost approximately $102.84, Sarah's $51.42, and the Truscott girl's $25.71 (2, 5)--and again clue 6 could not work.
So, Sarah did not take home the Hannah Idaho sweatshirt; and four different girls are named in clues 2 and 5: Robin Stewart, the girl who took home the sweatshirt, Sarah, and the Truscott girl.

The Addison girl is either Sarah or the fifth girl to the four named (7).
If the Addison girl were the fifth to the four in clues 2 and 5, Amber would be the one who wanted a sweatshirt or the Truscott girl.

If Amber had gotten the sweatshirt, either Robin's or Sarah's merchandise would have cost the $120 high (1).
If Robin's item had cost $120, Amber's sweatshirt would have cost $60 (2) and the Addison girl's gift $40--leaving $180 for Sarah and the Truscott girl.
However, their merchandise would have cost $120 and $60 (5) and contradict the introduction.

If Sarah's merchandise had cost $120, the Truscott girl's would have cost $60 (5)--leaving $220, which by clues 2 and 7 would make Robin's gift cost $120, Amber's sweatshirt $60, and the Addison girl's $40 and again contradicting the introduction.
If Amber were the Truscott girl, either Robin's or Sarah's merchandise would have cost the $120 (1).

If Sarah's item had cost $120, Amber's would have cost $60 (2) and the Addison girl's gift $40 (7)--leaving $180 for Robin's item and the sweatshirt.
However, those two items would have cost $120 and $60 (5) and contradict the introduction. If Robin's merchandise had cost $120,

the sweatshirt would have cost $60 (5)--leaving $220, which by clues 5 and 7 would make Sarah's gift cost $120, Amber Truscott's $60, and the Addison girl's $40 and again contradicting the introduction.

Therefore, the Addison girl in clue 7 isn't the fifth girl to the four in clues 2 and 5; she is Sarah.

If Amber had picked the sweatshirt, even if Robin's gift had cost the most, $120, Amber's sweatshirt would have cost $60 (2), Sarah Addison's $40 (7), and the Truscott girl's $20 (5)--a total of $240, with the fifth item then costing $160--no (1).
So, Amber is the fifth girl to the four named.

Either Amber's or Robin's merchandise cost the $120.
If Amber's did, Sarah Addison's would have cost $100 (7) and the Truscott girl's $50 (5)--leaving $130 for the two in clue 2 to have cost approximately $86.67 and $43.33.
But there is again no way for clue 6 to work.

So, Robin's item cost $120 and the sweatshirt $60 (2), leaving $220 for the three in clues 5 and 7 to divide: Amber's item cost $100,
Sarah Addison's cost $80, and the Truscott girl's cost $40.

By clues 2 and 6, Amber got a bracelet and Margot is the Truscott girl.
Lily took home a Hannah Idaho sweatshirt.
Lily's last name is Martinez and Amber's is Oken (3).
Since the jacket didn't cost the most (1), by clue 4, Sarah got the jacket and Margot the DVD.

Robin Stewart took home the Hannah Idaho autographed photo.
In sum, Miles Stewart bought the five girls Hannah Idaho merchandise as follows:

  • Robin Stewart, autographed photo, $120
  • Amber Oken, bracelet, $100
  • Sarah Addison, jacket, $80
  • Lily Martinez, sweatshirt, $60
  • Margot Truscott, DVD, $40

Clearly, Margot Martinez is not the correct name of  any of the girls.

QUESTION: 39

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

Last week, Miles Stewart took his daughter Robin and four of her friends, including the Martinez girl, to see Hannah Idaho in concert at the Summerset Hippodrome. After the performance, Mr. Stewart bought each of the girls a different item of Hannah Idaho merchandise, buying one an autographed photo of the teen star. Each memento cost a different sum, with Mr. Stewart spending a total of $400 on the five items. Given the clues below, can you solve this Challenger Logic Puzzle by finding each girl's full name, the memento she took home from the Hannah Idaho concert, and how much the item cost Mr. Stewart?
1. The item costing the most, $120, isn't the jacket.
2. Mr. Stewart spent twice as much for his daughter's merchandise as he did for the sweatshirt, which Margot didn't pick.
3. Lily and the Oken girl both wore their hair exactly like Hannah Idaho does.
4. The jacket cost Mr. Stewart more than the DVD did.
5. Sarah's memento cost twice as much as the Truscott girl's did.
6. Mr. Stewart paid $60 more for the bracelet than he did for the item Margot took home.
Amber's merchandise cost $20 more than the item the Addison girl picked, which isn't the sweatshirt.

Q. Which of the following statements is true?

Solution:

From the introduction, Miles Stewart bought his daughter Robin and her four friends each a different Hannah Idaho item for a different price, with the five items costing him a total of $400.

By clue 2, the item he bought his daughter Robin Stewart cost twice as much as the sweatshirt he bought another girl; while by clue 5, the item Sarah got cost twice as much as what the Truscott girl took home.

Either four different girls are named between the two clues, or Sarah got the sweatshirt.

If Sarah had gotten the sweatshirt, by clue 7, Amber would be the Truscott girl or would be the fourth girl to the three in clues 2 and 5.

If Amber were the Truscott girl, given that Mr. Stewart spent the most, $120 (clue 1), on his daughter Robin, he would have spent $60 on Sarah's sweatshirt (2), $30 on the Amber Truscott's item (5), and $10 on the Addison girl's choice (7)--a total of $220, leaving $180 for the fifth item and a
conflict with clue 1.

So, Amber would be the fourth girl.
Since the Addison girl didn't get the sweatshirt, she would be the fifth girl (7).
Either Robin's or Amber's merchandise would have cost the $120 (1).

If Robin's did, Sarah's would have cost $60 (2) and the Truscott girl's would have cost $30 (5)--a total of $210, leaving $190 for Amber and the Addison girl, who would have spent $105 and $85 respectively (7).

However, there then is no way for clue 6 to work.

If Amber's item had cost $120 (1) and the Addison girl's $100 (7), leaving $180, Robin's would have cost approximately $102.84, Sarah's $51.42, and the Truscott girl's $25.71 (2, 5)--and again clue 6 could not work.

So, Sarah did not take home the Hannah Idaho sweatshirt; and four different girls are named in
clues 2 and 5: Robin Stewart, the girl who took home the sweatshirt, Sarah, and the Truscott girl.

The Addison girl is either Sarah or the fifth girl to the four named (7).

If the Addison girl were the fifth to the four in clues 2 and 5, Amber would be the one who wanted a sweatshirt or the Truscott girl.

If Amber had gotten the sweatshirt, either Robin's or Sarah's merchandise would have cost the $120 high (1).

If Robin's item had cost $120, Amber's sweatshirt would have cost $60 (2) and the Addison girl's gift $40--leaving $180 for Sarah and the Truscott girl.

However, their merchandise would have cost $120 and $60 (5) and contradict the introduction.

If Sarah's merchandise had cost $120, the Truscott girl's would have cost $60 (5)--leaving $220, which by clues 2 and 7 would make Robin's gift cost $120, Amber's sweatshirt $60, and the Addison girl's $40 and again contradicting the introduction.

If Amber were the Truscott girl, either Robin's or Sarah's merchandise would have cost the $120 (1).

If Sarah's item had cost $120, Amber's would have cost $60 (2) and the Addison girl's gift $40 (7)--leaving $180 for Robin's item and the sweatshirt.
However, those two items would have cost $120 and $60 (5) and contradict the introduction. If Robin's merchandise had cost $120, the sweatshirt would have cost $60 (5)--leaving $220, which by clues 5 and 7 would make Sarah's gift cost $120, Amber Truscott's $60, and the Addison girl's $40 and again contradicting the introduction.

Therefore, the Addison girl in clue 7 isn't the fifth girl to the four in clues 2 and 5; she is Sarah.

If Amber had picked the sweatshirt, even if Robin's gift had cost the most, $120, Amber's sweatshirt would have cost $60 (2), Sarah Addison's $40 (7), and the Truscott girl's $20 (5)--a total of $240, with the fifth item then costing $160--no (1).

So, Amber is the fifth girl to the four named.

Either Amber's or Robin's merchandise cost the $120.

If Amber's did, Sarah Addison's would have cost $100 (7) and the Truscott girl's $50 (5)--leaving $130 for the two in clue 2 to have cost approximately $86.67 and $43.33.

But there is again no way for clue 6 to work.

So, Robin's item cost $120 and the sweatshirt $60 (2), leaving $220 for the three in clues 5 and 7 to divide: Amber's item cost $100, Sarah Addison's cost $80, and the Truscott girl's cost $40.
By clues 2 and 6, Amber got a bracelet and Margot is the Truscott girl.

Lily took home a Hannah Idaho sweatshirt.

Lily's last name is Martinez and Amber's is Oken (3).

Since the jacket didn't cost the most (1), by clue 4, Sarah got the jacket and Margot the DVD.

Robin Stewart took home the Hannah Idaho autographed photo.

In sum, Miles Stewart bought the five girls Hannah Idaho merchandise as follows:

  • Robin Stewart, autographed photo, $120
  • Amber Oken, bracelet, $100
  • Sarah Addison, jacket, $80
  • Lily Martinez, sweatshirt, $60
  • Margot Truscott, DVD, $40

So, only statement 4 i.e.  ''Lily Martinez got the sweatshirt worth $ 60'' is true.

QUESTION: 40

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

Last week, Miles Stewart took his daughter Robin and four of her friends, including the Martinez girl, to see Hannah Idaho in concert at the Summerset Hippodrome. After the performance, Mr. Stewart bought each of the girls a different item of Hannah Idaho merchandise, buying one an autographed photo of the teen star. Each memento cost a different sum, with Mr. Stewart spending a total of $400 on the five items. Given the clues below, can you solve this Challenger Logic Puzzle by finding each girl's full name, the memento she took home from the Hannah Idaho concert, and how much the item cost Mr. Stewart?
1. The item costing the most, $120, isn't the jacket.
2. Mr. Stewart spent twice as much for his daughter's merchandise as he did for the sweatshirt, which Margot didn't pick.
3. Lily and the Oken girl both wore their hair exactly like Hannah Idaho does.
4. The jacket cost Mr. Stewart more than the DVD did.
5. Sarah's memento cost twice as much as the Truscott girl's did.
6. Mr. Stewart paid $60 more for the bracelet than he did for the item Margot took home.
Amber's merchandise cost $20 more than the item the Addison girl picked, which isn't the sweatshirt.

Q. How much did Amber’s merchandise cost?

Solution:

From the introduction, Miles Stewart bought his daughter Robin and her four friends each a different Hannah Idaho item for a different price, with the five items costing him a total of $400.
By clue 2, the item he bought his daughter Robin Stewart cost twice as much as the sweatshirt he bought another girl; while by clue 5, the item Sarah got cost twice as much as what the Truscott girl took home.
Either four different girls are named between the two clues, or Sarah got the sweatshirt.

If Sarah had gotten the sweatshirt, by clue 7, Amber would be the Truscott girl or would be the fourth girl to the three in clues 2 and 5.

If Amber were the Truscott girl, given that Mr. Stewart spent the most, $120 (clue 1), on his daughter Robin, he would have spent $60 on Sarah's sweatshirt (2), $30 on the Amber Truscott's item (5), and $10 on the Addison girl's choice (7)--a total of $220, leaving $180 for the fifth item and a
conflict with clue 1.

So, Amber would be the fourth girl.
Since the Addison girl didn't get the sweatshirt, she would be the fifth girl (7).
Either Robin's or Amber's merchandise would have cost the $120 (1).

If Robin's did, Sarah's would have cost $60 (2) and the Truscott girl's would have cost $30 (5)--a total of $210, leaving $190 for Amber and the Addison girl, who would have spent $105 and $85 respectively (7).
However, there then is no way for clue 6 to work.

If Amber's item had cost $120 (1) and the Addison girl's $100 (7), leaving $180, Robin's would have cost approximately $102.84, Sarah's $51.42, and the Truscott girl's $25.71 (2, 5)--and again clue 6 could not work.

So, Sarah did not take home the Hannah Idaho sweatshirt; and four different girls are named in clues 2 and 5: Robin Stewart, the girl who took home the sweatshirt, Sarah, and the Truscott girl.

The Addison girl is either Sarah or the fifth girl to the four named (7).
If the Addison girl were the fifth to the four in clues 2 and 5, Amber would be the one who wanted a sweatshirt or the Truscott girl.

If Amber had gotten the sweatshirt, either Robin's or Sarah's merchandise would have cost the $120 high (1).
If Robin's item had cost $120, Amber's sweatshirt would have cost $60 (2) and the Addison girl's gift $40--leaving $180 for Sarah and the Truscott girl.
However, their merchandise would have cost $120 and $60 (5) and contradict the introduction.

If Sarah's merchandise had cost $120, the Truscott girl's would have cost $60 (5)--leaving $220, which by clues 2 and 7 would make Robin's gift cost $120, Amber's sweatshirt $60, and the Addison girl's $40 and again contradicting the introduction.

If Amber were the Truscott girl, either Robin's or Sarah's merchandise would have cost the $120 (1).
If Sarah's item had cost $120, Amber's would have cost $60 (2) and the Addison girl's gift $40 (7)--leaving $180 for Robin's item and the sweatshirt.
However, those two items would have cost $120 and $60 (5) and contradict the introduction. If Robin's merchandise had cost $120, the sweatshirt would have cost $60 (5)--leaving $220, which by clues 5 and 7 would make Sarah's gift cost $120, Amber Truscott's $60, and the Addison girl's $40 and again contradicting the introduction.
Therefore, the Addison girl in clue 7 isn't the fifth girl to the four in clues 2 and 5; she is Sarah.

If Amber had picked the sweatshirt, even if Robin's gift had cost the most, $120, Amber's sweatshirt would have cost $60 (2), Sarah Addison's $40 (7), and the Truscott girl's $20 (5)--a total of $240, with the fifth item then costing $160--no (1).
So, Amber is the fifth girl to the four named.

Either Amber's or Robin's merchandise cost the $120.
If Amber's did, Sarah Addison's would have cost $100 (7) and the Truscott girl's $50 (5)--leaving $130 for the two in clue 2 to have cost approximately $86.67 and $43.33.
But there is again no way for clue 6 to work.

So, Robin's item cost $120 and the sweatshirt $60 (2), leaving $220 for the three in clues 5 and 7 to divide: Amber's item cost $100, Sarah Addison's cost $80, and the Truscott girl's cost $40.
By clues 2 and 6, Amber got a bracelet and Margot is the Truscott girl. Lily took home a Hannah Idaho sweatshirt.

Lily's last name is Martinez and Amber's is Oken (3).
Since the jacket didn't cost the most (1), by clue 4, Sarah got the jacket and Margot the DVD.

Robin Stewart took home the Hannah Idaho autographed photo.
In sum, Miles Stewart bought the five girls Hannah Idaho merchandise as follows:

  • Robin Stewart, autographed photo, $120
  • Amber Oken, bracelet, $100
  • Sarah Addison, jacket, $80
  • Lily Martinez, sweatshirt, $60
  • Margot Truscott, DVD, $40

Therefore,  Amber’s merchandise costs $100.

QUESTION: 41

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

Last week, Miles Stewart took his daughter Robin and four of her friends, including the Martinez girl, to see Hannah Idaho in concert at the Summerset Hippodrome. After the performance, Mr. Stewart bought each of the girls a different item of Hannah Idaho merchandise, buying one an autographed photo of the teen star. Each memento cost a different sum, with Mr. Stewart spending a total of $400 on the five items. Given the clues below, can you solve this Challenger Logic Puzzle by finding each girl's full name, the memento she took home from the Hannah Idaho concert, and how much the item cost Mr. Stewart?
1. The item costing the most, $120, isn't the jacket.
2. Mr. Stewart spent twice as much for his daughter's merchandise as he did for the sweatshirt, which Margot didn't pick.
3. Lily and the Oken girl both wore their hair exactly like Hannah Idaho does.
4. The jacket cost Mr. Stewart more than the DVD did.
5. Sarah's memento cost twice as much as the Truscott girl's did.
6. Mr. Stewart paid $60 more for the bracelet than he did for the item Margot took home.
Amber's merchandise cost $20 more than the item the Addison girl picked, which isn't the sweatshirt.

Q. Who had the cheapest merchandise?

Solution:

From the introduction, Miles Stewart bought his daughter Robin and her four friends each a different Hannah Idaho item for a different price, with the five items costing him a total of $400.

By clue 2, the item he bought his daughter Robin Stewart cost twice as much as the sweatshirt he bought another girl; while by clue 5, the item Sarah got cost twice as much as what the Truscott girl took home.
Either four different girls are named between the two clues, or Sarah got the sweatshirt.

If Sarah had gotten the sweatshirt, by clue 7, Amber would be the Truscott girl or would be the fourth girl to the three in clues 2 and 5.

If Amber were the Truscott girl, given that Mr. Stewart spent the most, $120 (clue 1), on his daughter Robin, he would have spent $60 on Sarah's sweatshirt (2), $30 on the Amber Truscott's item (5), and $10 on the Addison girl's choice (7)--a total of $220, leaving $180 for the fifth item and a conflict with clue 1.
So, Amber would be the fourth girl.
Since the Addison girl didn't get the sweatshirt, she would be the fifth girl (7).
Either Robin's or Amber's merchandise would have cost the $120 (1).

If Robin's did, Sarah's would have cost $60 (2) and the Truscott girl's would have cost $30 (5)--a total of $210, leaving $190 for Amber and the Addison girl, who would have spent $105 and $85 respectively (7).
However, there then is no way for clue 6 to work.

If Amber's item had cost $120 (1) and the Addison girl's $100 (7), leaving $180, Robin's would have cost approximately $102.84, Sarah's $51.42, and the Truscott girl's $25.71 (2, 5)--and again clue 6 could not work.

So, Sarah did not take home the Hannah Idaho sweatshirt; and four different girls are named in clues 2 and 5: Robin Stewart, the girl who took home the sweatshirt, Sarah, and the Truscott girl.

The Addison girl is either Sarah or the fifth girl to the four named (7).
If the Addison girl were the fifth to the four in clues 2 and 5, Amber would be the one who wanted a sweatshirt or the Truscott girl.

If Amber had gotten the sweatshirt, either Robin's or Sarah's merchandise would have cost the $120 high (1).
If Robin's item had cost $120, Amber's sweatshirt would have cost $60 (2) and the Addison girl's gift $40--leaving $180 for Sarah and the Truscott girl.
However, their merchandise would have cost $120 and $60 (5) and contradict the introduction.

If Sarah's merchandise had cost $120, the Truscott girl's would have cost $60 (5)--leaving $220, which by clues 2 and 7 would make Robin's gift cost $120, Amber's sweatshirt $60, and the Addison girl's $40 and again contradicting the introduction.

If Amber were the Truscott girl, either Robin's or Sarah's merchandise would have cost the $120 (1).
If Sarah's item had cost $120, Amber's would have cost $60 (2) and the Addison girl's gift $40 (7)--leaving $180 for Robin's item and the sweatshirt.
However, those two items would have cost $120 and $60 (5) and contradict the introduction. If Robin's merchandise had cost $120, the sweatshirt would have cost $60 (5)--leaving $220, which by clues 5 and 7 would make Sarah's gift cost $120, Amber Truscott's $60, and the Addison girl's $40 and again contradicting the introduction.
Therefore, the Addison girl in clue 7 isn't the fifth girl to the four in clues 2 and 5; she is Sarah.

If Amber had picked the sweatshirt, even if Robin's gift had cost the most, $120, Amber's sweatshirt would have cost $60 (2), Sarah Addison's $40 (7), and the Truscott girl's $20 (5)--a total of $240, with the fifth item then costing $160--no (1).
So, Amber is the fifth girl to the four named.

Either Amber's or Robin's merchandise cost the $120.
If Amber's did, Sarah Addison's would have cost $100 (7) and the Truscott girl's $50 (5)--leaving $130 for the two in clue 2 to have cost approximately $86.67 and $43.33.
But there is again no way for clue 6 to work.

So, Robin's item cost $120 and the sweatshirt $60 (2), leaving $220 for the three in clues 5 and 7 to divide: Amber's item cost $100, Sarah Addison's cost $80, and the Truscott girl's cost $40.
By clues 2 and 6, Amber got a bracelet and Margot is the Truscott girl. Lily took home a Hannah Idaho sweatshirt.

Lily's last name is Martinez and Amber's is Oken (3).
Since the jacket didn't cost the most (1), by clue 4, Sarah got the jacket and Margot the DVD.
Robin Stewart took home the Hannah Idaho autographed photo.
In sum, Miles Stewart bought the five girls Hannah Idaho merchandise as follows:

  • Robin Stewart, autographed photo, $120
  • Amber Oken, bracelet, $100
  • Sarah Addison, jacket, $80
  • Lily Martinez, sweatshirt, $60
  • Margot Truscott, DVD, $40

Clearly,  Margot Truscott had the cheapest merchandise.

QUESTION: 42

Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

Last week, Miles Stewart took his daughter Robin and four of her friends, including the Martinez girl, to see Hannah Idaho in concert at the Summerset Hippodrome. After the performance, Mr. Stewart bought each of the girls a different item of Hannah Idaho merchandise, buying one an autographed photo of the teen star. Each memento cost a different sum, with Mr. Stewart spending a total of $400 on the five items. Given the clues below, can you solve this Challenger Logic Puzzle by finding each girl's full name, the memento she took home from the Hannah Idaho concert, and how much the item cost Mr. Stewart?
1. The item costing the most, $120, isn't the jacket.
2. Mr. Stewart spent twice as much for his daughter's merchandise as he did for the sweatshirt, which Margot didn't pick.
3. Lily and the Oken girl both wore their hair exactly like Hannah Idaho does.
4. The jacket cost Mr. Stewart more than the DVD did.
5. Sarah's memento cost twice as much as the Truscott girl's did.
6. Mr. Stewart paid $60 more for the bracelet than he did for the item Margot took home.
Amber's merchandise cost $20 more than the item the Addison girl picked, which isn't the sweatshirt.

Q. Which item was the most expensive?

Solution:

From the introduction, Miles Stewart bought his daughter Robin and her four friends each a different Hannah Idaho item for a different price, with the five items costing him a total of $400.

By clue 2, the item he bought his daughter Robin Stewart cost twice as much as the sweatshirt he bought another girl; while by clue 5, the item Sarah got cost twice as much as what the Truscott girl took home.
Either four different girls are named between the two clues, or Sarah got the sweatshirt.

If Sarah had gotten the sweatshirt, by clue 7, Amber would be the Truscott girl or would be the fourth girl to the three in clues 2 and 5.

If Amber were the Truscott girl, given that Mr. Stewart spent the most, $120 (clue 1), on his daughter Robin, he would have spent $60 on Sarah's sweatshirt (2), $30 on the Amber Truscott's item (5), and $10 on the Addison girl's choice (7)--a total of $220, leaving $180 for the fifth item and a
conflict with clue 1.
So, Amber would be the fourth girl.
Since the Addison girl didn't get the sweatshirt, she would be the fifth girl (7).
Either Robin's or Amber's merchandise would have cost the $120 (1).

If Robin's did, Sarah's would have cost $60 (2) and the Truscott girl's would have cost $30 (5)--a total of $210, leaving $190 for Amber and the Addison girl, who would have spent $105 and $85 respectively (7).
However, there then is no way for clue 6 to work.

If Amber's item had cost $120 (1) and the Addison girl's $100 (7), leaving $180, Robin's would have cost approximately $102.84, Sarah's $51.42, and the Truscott girl's $25.71 (2, 5)--and again clue 6 could not work.

So, Sarah did not take home the Hannah Idaho sweatshirt; and four different girls are named in clues 2 and 5: Robin Stewart, the girl who took home the sweatshirt, Sarah, and the Truscott girl.

The Addison girl is either Sarah or the fifth girl to the four named (7).
If the Addison girl were the fifth to the four in clues 2 and 5, Amber would be the one who wanted a sweatshirt or the Truscott girl.

If Amber had gotten the sweatshirt, either Robin's or Sarah's merchandise would have cost the $120 high (1).
If Robin's item had cost $120, Amber's sweatshirt would have cost $60 (2) and the Addison girl's gift $40--leaving $180 for Sarah and the Truscott girl.
However, their merchandise would have cost $120 and $60 (5) and contradict the introduction.

If Sarah's merchandise had cost $120, the Truscott girl's would have cost $60 (5)--leaving $220, which by clues 2 and 7 would make Robin's gift cost $120, Amber's sweatshirt $60, and the Addison girl's $40 and again contradicting the introduction.

If Amber were the Truscott girl, either Robin's or Sarah's merchandise would have cost the $120 (1).
If Sarah's item had cost $120, Amber's would have cost $60 (2) and the Addison girl's gift $40 (7)--leaving $180 for Robin's item and the sweatshirt.
However, those two items would have cost $120 and $60 (5) and contradict the introduction. If Robin's merchandise had cost $120, the sweatshirt would have cost $60 (5)--leaving $220, which by clues 5 and 7 would make Sarah's gift cost $120, Amber Truscott's $60, and the Addison girl's $40 and again contradicting the introduction.
Therefore, the Addison girl in clue 7 isn't the fifth girl to the four in clues 2 and 5; she is Sarah.

If Amber had picked the sweatshirt, even if Robin's gift had cost the most, $120, Amber's sweatshirt would have cost $60 (2), Sarah Addison's $40 (7), and the Truscott girl's $20 (5)--a total of $240, with the fifth item then costing $160--no (1).
So, Amber is the fifth girl to the four named.

Either Amber's or Robin's merchandise cost the $120.
If Amber's did, Sarah Addison's would have cost $100 (7) and the Truscott girl's $50 (5)--leaving $130 for the two in clue 2 to have cost approximately $86.67 and $43.33.
But there is again no way for clue 6 to work.

So, Robin's item cost $120 and the sweatshirt $60 (2), leaving $220 for the three in clues 5 and 7 to divide: Amber's item cost $100, Sarah Addison's cost $80, and the Truscott girl's cost $40.
By clues 2 and 6, Amber got a bracelet and Margot is the Truscott girl. Lily took home a Hannah Idaho sweatshirt.

Lily's last name is Martinez and Amber's is Oken (3).
Since the jacket didn't cost the most (1), by clue 4, Sarah got the jacket and Margot the DVD.
Robin Stewart took home the Hannah Idaho autographed photo.
In sum, Miles Stewart bought the five girls Hannah Idaho merchandise as follows:

  • Robin Stewart, autographed photo, $120
  • Amber Oken, bracelet, $100
  • Sarah Addison, jacket, $80
  • Lily Martinez, sweatshirt, $60
  • Margot Truscott, DVD, $40

So, Autographed photo was the most expensive item

QUESTION: 43

Go through the pie chart/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The pie-charts show the distribution of sports played by students of class 9th and 10th. The figures in both the pie charts are given in degree.

Q. Cricket Players in class 9th are

Solution:

To convert central angle into percentage, 160/360 x 100 = 14.44% i.e less than 50%

QUESTION: 44

Go through the pie chart/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The pie-charts show the distribution of sports played by students of class 9th and 10th. The figures in both the pie charts are given in degree.

Q. How many more students play Tennis in class 10th as compared to class 9th?

Solution:

We cannot answer this question, as we are not aware of the total number of students in class 9th and 10th.

QUESTION: 45

Go through the pie chart/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The pie-charts show the distribution of sports played by students of class 9th and 10th. The figures in both the pie charts are given in degree.

Q. If there are 15 students who play Judo in 10th class, then the total number of students in 10th is:

Solution:

In class 10th , let total number of students = x

QUESTION: 46

Go through the pie chart/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The pie-charts show the distribution of sports played by students of class 9th and 10th. The figures in both the pie charts are given in degree.

Q. If there are 360 students in each of 9th and 10th, then approximately what percentage of total students plays Football?

Solution:

In class 9th, students playing football

90/360 x 360 = 90.

Similarly, in class 10th is 70
Total students playing football

= 90 + 70 = 160

total students in both classes

= 360+360 = 720

%age playing football

= 160/720 x 100 ≈ 20%

QUESTION: 47

Go through the pie chart/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The pie-charts show the distribution of sports played by students of class 9th and 10th. The figures in both the pie charts are given in degree.

Q. If there are 360 students in each of class 9th and 10th, then number of students playing Tennis in class 10th is what percentage of students playing Judo in class 9th?

Solution:

In class 10th students playing tennis are 80 and in class 9th, students playing judo are 40

∴    80/40 x 100 = 200%

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 48

Study the table/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The table below gives the Number of students who failed in the test of NSC during following 5 days in the 6 tests. One student can only give next test if he cleared the previous test.

An all rounder is the one who cleared all the tests.

Q. What is the least number of students who have cleared test 1?


Solution:

The Least number of students who cleared test 1 are those who have cleared test 1 but might failed in the subsequent tests :

Number of student who cleared Test on Monday = 23 +12+ 8+ 18 + 5 = 66

Number of student who cleared Test on Tuesday = 10+17+14+8+7 = 56

Number of student who cleared Test on Wednesday = 19+18+9+13+5 = 64

Number of student who cleared Test on Thursday = 13+6+13+12+3 = 47

Number of student who cleared Test on Friday = 12+13+11+19+7 = 62

Total student cleared should be at least = 295

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 49

Study the table/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The table below gives the Number of students who failed in the test of NSC during following 5 days in the 6 tests. One student can only give next test if he cleared the previous test.

An all rounder is the one who cleared all the tests.

Q. On Thursday if the number of students who cleared the test 4 was twice the number of student who is all rounder. How many students have cleared the test 2?


Solution:

Let the students who appeared in test 1 on Thursday be “ m “

Number of students who cleared test 4 = (m – 7 - 13 - 6 - 13) = m – 39

Also given that 2 (m - 54) = m – 39

Therefore m = 69            

Number of students who cleared round 2 on Thursday = m-7-13 = 69 -20 = 49

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 50

Study the table/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The table below gives the Number of students who failed in the test of NSC during following 5 days in the 6 tests. One student can only give next test if he cleared the previous test.

An all rounder is the one who cleared all the tests.

Q. If the number of students who are all rounders for day Monday and Wednesday are same, find the difference between the number of students who cleared Test 1 on Monday and Wednesday?


Solution:

Let the number of students who cleared the test NSC on Monday and Wednesday be ‘a’ & ‘b’ respectively. Number of students selected on Monday and Wednesday will be (a – 88) and (b – 75)

And as (a – 88) = (b – 75) ⇒ a – b = 13
Difference between the student who cleared the test 1 on Monday and Wednesday

= (a – 22) – (b – 11)
⇒ a – b - 11 

As we know a- b = 13;
hence difference = 13 - 11 = 2.

QUESTION: 51

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

If (k – 2)x2 + 4x – 2k + 1 = 0 has two distinct real roots, find the range of values of real number k.

Solution:

The given expression can be rewritten as (k – 2)x2 + 4x + 1 – 2k = 0.
Since the expression has two distinct real roots, we know that 42 – 4(k – 2)(1 –2k) > 0.

On dividing by 4, we get 4 – (k – 2)(1 –2k) > 0

⇒ 4 + (2 –  k)(1 – 2k) > 0
⇒ 4 + 2 – 5k + 2k2 > 0
⇒ 2k2 – 5k + 6 > 0.

It is easy to verify that this expression is true for all real values of k.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 52

All the terminal zeros of 300! are removed to get a new number Q. If all 12's are removed from Q to get a new number R. What is the highest power of 9 in R? (numerical value).


Solution:

300! = 2296 × 3148 x 574 x k.
Since all zeros are knocked out ⇒ all 10''s are removed

⇒ 574 x 274 is removed.

So, Q = 2296-74 x 3148 x k

⇒ Q = 2222 x 3148 x k

Now all 12''s are removed & 12 = 22 × 3.
Highest power of 2 used is = 222
Highest power of 3 used is = 111
So, R = 3148-111 x k = 337 x k
Since, 9 = 32
So, highest power of 9 in R = 37/2 = 18

QUESTION: 53

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

(x – 1) and (x + 1) are factors of A = x3 + ax2 + bx + c. When divided by (x – 2), A leaves a remainder of 12. What are the values of a, b and c respectively?

Solution:

Since (x – 1) and (x + 1) are factors of x3 + ax2 + bx + c, substituting x = 1 and x = –1, we get a + b + c = –1 and a – b + c = 1.

Adding these equations,
we get a + c = 0
So a = –c.

Substituting a + c = 0, we get b = –1.

When divided by (x – 2), the expression leaves a remainder of 12.

So, substituting x = 2,
we get 8 + 4a + 2b + c = 12

Hence, 3a + 2b = 4 (since c = –a)
3a – 2 = 4
3a = 6
a = 2
c = –2

Option 1 is correct

QUESTION: 54

How many 3 element subsets of the set {1, 2, 3, .... , 19, 20} are there such that product of the 3 numbers in the subset  is divisible by 4?

Solution:

We''ll go by reverse approach. We count the 3 elements subsets say {a, b, c,} such that 4 does not divide abc. This is possible if

(i) all a, b, c are odd
(ii) Two of a, b, c are odd other is multiple of 2.

There are  10 odd nos. & 5 even nos. which are not multiple of 4.

So, case (i) will give 10C3 = 120

Case (ii) will give 5C1 × 10C2 = 225

So, number of cases where abc is not divisible by 4 = 120 + 225 = 345.

Total number of {a, b, c} possible are = 20C3 = 1140

So, required answer = 1140 - 345 = 795

QUESTION: 55

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

7 cannibals of XYZ island, decide to throw a party. As you may be aware, cannibals are guys who eat human beings. The senior among them – Father Cannibal decides that any 6 of them will eat up one cannibal, then out of the remaining six – five of them will eat up one cannibal and so on till one is left. What is the time until one cannibal is left, if it takes one cannibal 3 hours to eat up one cannibal independently?

Solution:

At the beginning 6 cannibals will eat one, so time required will be 180/6 = 30 min.

Then out of the remaining six – five will devour one, so time required will be 180/5 = 36 min.

Thus the time until one cannibal is left will be:

= (180/6 + 180/5 + 180/4 + 180/3 + 180/2 + 180/1) min
= (30 + 36 + 45 + 60 + 90 + 180) min
= 441 min
= 7 hrs 21 min.

Hence option 3.

QUESTION: 56

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

How many 3-term geometric progressions can be made from the series 1, 3, 32, ....., 348.

Solution:

Let us count 3 term G.P''s with common ratios 3, 32, 33......

Case-I: 3 term G.P''s with common ratio 3 are
(1,3,32), (3,32,33),.............., (346,347,348), i.e., 47 G.P.''s

Case-II:  The 3 term G.P''s with common ratio32 are
(1,32,34), (3,33,35),.............., (344,346,348), i.e., 45 G.P.''s

If we go on counting cases, possible number of G.P''s are 47 + 45 + 43 +.....+ 3 + 1 = 242 = 576

∵ All the above mentioned G.P''s are only in increasing order. We''ll take the decreasing G.P.''s too.
So, Answer = 576 x 2 = 1152.

QUESTION: 57

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Three articles are purchased for ₹ 1050, each with a different cost. The first article was sold at a loss of 20%, the second at 1/3rd gain and the third at 60% gain. Later he found that their SPs were same. What was his net gain/loss?

Solution:

Let us assume that their CPs are x, y & z respectively.

According to the given condition 0.8x = 1.33y = 1.6z

⇒ (80/100)x = 400y/(3 × 100) = (160/100)z
⇒ x : y = 5 : 3 & y : z = 6 : 5
Thus x : y : z = 10 : 6 : 5

Hence CPs of the articles are

x = (10/21) × 1050 = 500,
y = (6/21) × 1050 = 300 &
z = (5/21) × 1050 = 250.

SP of the article with CP Rs. x is 0.8x = 0.8 × 500 = 400.

Since SPs are same, the total SP will be 400 × 3 = 1200.

Hence the gain %

= (SP – CP)/CP × 100
= (1200 – 1050)/1050 × 100
= 14.28%.

QUESTION: 58

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

A certain city has only two newspapers – one in English and one in Marathi. 25% of the population reads the English Daily and 20% reads the Marathi Daily, while 8% reads both the newspapers. 30% of those who read the English Daily but not the Marathi daily look at advertisements, 40% of those who read the Marathi Daily but not the English Daily look at advertisements and 50% of those who read both newspapers look at advertisements. Approximately what percent of the population looks at advertisements?

Solution:

Suppose the population is 100.
Of these, 25 read English, 20 read Marathi and 8 read both.
So, 17 read English but not Marathi.
Of these 30% = 5.1 look at advertisements.

Similarly, 12 read Marathi but not English.
Of these 40% = 4.8 look at advertisements.

Of the 8 who read both, 50% = 4 look at advertisements.

So, the total number of people who look at advertisements is 5.1 + 4.8 + 4 = 13.9.
Thus approximately 14% of the population looks at advertisements. 

QUESTION: 59

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

A square, S1, circumscribes the circumcircle of an equilateral triangle of side 10 cm. A square, S2, is inscribed in the incircle of the triangle. What is the ratio of the area of S1 to the area of S2?

Solution:

Option 3

The height of the equilateral triangle is 5√3 cm.
Since the height is also the median, we know that the circum-radius is 2/3 × 5√3 = 10√3/3 and the in-radius is 1/3 × 5√3 = 5√3/3.
The diameter of the circumcircle is the side of square S1.

So the area of S1 is (2 × 10√3/3)2 = 1200/9.
The diameter of the in-circle is the diagonal of square S2.

So the area of S2 is ½ × (2 × 5√3/3)2 = 300/18.
Thus the ratio of areas S1 : S2 is 1200/9 : 300/18 = 8 : 1.

QUESTION: 60

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Three casks of equal capacities contain three liquids A, B & C in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3, 3 : 4 : 5 & 5 : 6 : 7 respectively. The mixtures from these casks are taken in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3 and poured into a 4th cask with the same capacity as that of the three casks and the cask is completely filled. What is the ratio of the liquids A, B and C in the resulting mixture?

Solution:

(1 + 2 + 3) = 6, (3 + 4 + 5) = 12 & (5 + 6 + 7) = 18.
Common multiple of (6, 12, 18) = 36.
So let us fix the capacities of the four casks as 36 litres each.

Since the mixtures are taken in the ratio 1:2:3, 6litres, 12 litres and 18 litres mixture are drawn from the three casks respectively.

Hence the ratio of the liquids in the resulting mixture is 9 : 12 : 15 = 3 : 4 : 5
Hence option 3

QUESTION: 61

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

A worker is kept on a contract for 100 days to make some toys. On any of these 100 days he does not make more than 20 toys. If on any day, he makes more than 12 toys, then he makes at most 6 toys each on the next two days. What is the maximum possible number of toys that he can make over the period of 100 days?

Solution:

If the worker makes more than 12 toys on any day then in three days period he can make a maximum of  20 + 6 + 6 = 32 toys.

On the other hand he could have made 36 toys over this span by making 12 toys each day. So to achieve the maximum he must not make more than 12 toys on any day except possibly the last day.

So, maximum number of toys he could have made =  99 × 12 + 20
= 1208

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 62

The average age of three friends A, B and C is 7 years. Five years later, the average age of A and C will be 1½ years more than B’s age then. How old will B be 10 years hence (in years)?


Solution:

Suppose the present ages of the three friends are A, B and C respectively. We know that A + B + C = 21.

Five years later, their ages would be (A + 5), (B + 5) and (C + 5) respectively. So, (A + 5 + C + 5) / 2 = (B + 5) + 3/2, which on simplifying gives A + C + 10 = 2B + 13.

From the first expression we know that A + C = 21 – B.

Substituting this value in the second expression,
we get 21 – B + 10 = 2B + 13 or 3B = 18, which yields B = 6 years.

Thus, 10 years hence, B will be 16 years old.

QUESTION: 63

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

An intelligent shopkeeper uses a special weighing balance in which one pan is heavier than the other. While purchasing the material, he places a 1 kg weight on the heavier side but while selling the same product, he places 1 kg weight on the lighter side. If he decides to sell his goods at the cost price and gets an overall gain of 50%, then find the value by which one side of the balance is heavier than the other?

Solution:

Let one of the pan is heavier than the other pan by x grams when 1 kg quantity is purchased /sold.

Now, if (1000 + x) quantity is purchased at price Rs. P, then (1000 – x) quantity is sold at the same price i.e. Rs. P.

Thus, by unitary method, (1000 + x) quantity is sold at Rs.[(1000 + x)P / (1000 – x)].

Also, when overall there is a profit of 50%, thus (1000 + x) quantity is sold at Rs. 1.5P

Hence, comparing the two values: [(1000 + x) / (1000 – x)]P = 1.5P
On solving this equation we get x = 200 gm

QUESTION: 64

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

The least value of x2 + 5xy + 4y2 given x + y = 2 and x, y are non negative, is:

Solution:

Equation is x2 + 5xy + 4y2 = (x + y) (x + 4y),

(x + y) = 2 given, so (x + y)(x + y + 3y) = 2 (2 + 3y)

The values of x & y are non-negative i.e. x & y are greater than or equal to 0.

Therefore minimum value of equation = 2 (2 + 0) = 4, by taking y = 0, which is the least possible value of y.

QUESTION: 65

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Find the co-ordinates of the point where the perpendicular from point (- 4, 5) intersects the line 3x – 5y + 15 = 0.

Solution:

Let the co-ordinates of the point be (a, b)

Since this point lies on the line 3x – 5y + 15 = 0, thus 3a – 5b + 15 = 0

Slope of the given line = 3/5 and the slope of perpendicular on this line = - 5/3

Thus, Slope = (5 – b)/(– 4 – a) = – 5/3
⇒ 5a + 3b = -5

Solving the two equations simultaneously, we get
a = - 35/17 and b = 30/17

QUESTION: 66

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Mr. Joshi jogged along a lake for 90 km and walked for 10 km. He spent 4 hours less on walking than on jogging. Had he walked as long as he jogged and jogged as long as he walked, the distances would have been equal. How long did he walk and how long did he jog respectively?

Solution:

Suppose the speeds while jogging and walking are J and W respectively. The times spend jogging and walking are 90/J and 10/W. respectively. So

If he walks for as long as he jogged, the distance covered will be W x (90/J). I f he jogs for as long as he walked, the distance covered will be J x (10/W). Since these distances are equal.


Solving these equations, we get J = 15 kmph and W = 5 kmph
Thus, he walked for 2 hours and jogged for 6 hours.
Alternate solution.

When the distances are equal, we have

Assuming J = 3 and W = 1, we get the times spent jogging 90 km and walking 10 km as 30 hrs and 10 lirs respectively. Hie difference m timings is 20. So, if the difference in timings is 4, then the tmie spent jogging is (30 x 4)/20 = 6 hr. and the time spent walking is 2 hrs.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 67

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

A mixture of 80 L of alcohol and water contains 30% water. How much water should be added to this mixture, so that the new mixture contains 60% water? (numerical value in litres)


Solution:

Mixture of 80 litres of alcohol and water contains 30% of water.
⇒ Water = 24 litres

Now let quantity of water to be added be x litres.
So that new mixture contains 60% of water.

⇒ (24 + x) / (80 + x) = 60 / 100
∴ x = 60 litres.

QUESTION: 68

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Train A, travelling at 60 km/hr, leaves Mumbai for Delhi at 6 P.M. Train B, travelling at 90 km/hr, also leaves Mumbai for Delhi at 9 P.M. Train C leaves Delhi for Mumbai at 9 P.M. If all three trains meet at the same time between Mumbai and Delhi, what is the speed of Train C, if the distance between Delhi and Mumbai is 1260 km?

Solution:

All three trains meet at the same time between Delhi and Mumbai. This means Train A and Train B are at the same point at that time.

This will happen when B is overtaking Train A. Train A starts 3 hours before Train B. Therefore, by the time Train B leaves Mumbai, Train A has covered 3 × 60 = 180 km. The relative speed between Train A and Train B = 90 – 60 = 30 kmph.

Therefore, Train B will overtake train A in 180/30 = 6 hours from the time B leaves Mumbai. That is at 3 A.M, B will overtake A. The point between Mumbai and Delhi at which Train B overtakes Train A will be 6 × 90=540 km from Mumbai.

Train C will also be at that point at 3 A.M while Train B is overtaking Train A. And Train C would have travelled 1260 - 540 = 720 km in these 6 hours.

Therefore, the speed of C = 720/6 = 120 km/hr.

QUESTION: 69

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

A man can row his boat downstream at a rate of 15 m/s and upstream at 16 kmph. What will be the speed of the man in still water?

Solution:

Let the speed of the boat in still water be SB and speed of the river be SR.

According to the given question, Upstream speed, SU = SB - SR = 16 kmph

And downstream speed, SD = SB + SR = 15m/s = 15×18/5 = 54 kmph

Solving the two equations simultaneously, SB = 35 and SR = 19
Speed of man in still water is 35 kmph

Hence, option C is the correct answer.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 70

A takes 10 days to lift m bricks while B takes 9 days to lift m bricks. If they lift the bricks together, they lift 10 bricks per day less than what they would actually have lifted together. If together they lift m bricks in 5 days, what is the value of m? (in numerical value)


Solution:

Suppose the total number of bricks is 90. Then, A alone can lift the bricks in 10 days at a rate of 9 bricks per day and B alone can lift the bricks in 9 days at a rate of 10 bricks per day. If they lift the bricks together, they should ideally pick up (9 + 10) = 19 bricks per day.

Since, together they pick up 90 bricks in 5 days, they end up picking up 90/5 = 18 bricks per day. This tells us that if the total number of bricks is 90, then together they end up picking 1 brick less than what they should have picked up together.

Using the unitary method, if together they pick up 10 bricks less than what they should have picked up, the total number of bricks must be 90 - 10 = 900.

QUESTION: 71

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

What is the average of all 6-digit natural numbers that leave remainders of 3, 7, 10, 13 and 16 when divided by 8, 12, 15, 18 and 21 respectively?

Solution:

Option 1.
The number is of the form n × LCM(8, 12, 15, 18, 21) – 5 = 2520n – 5.
The smallest 6-digit number can be written as 100000 = 2520 × 39 + 1720 and the largest 6-digit number can be written as 999999 = 2520 × 396 + 2079.

So, the smallest 6-digit number satisfying the above conditions is 2520 x 40 – 5 = 100795 and the largest 6-digit such number is 2520 x 396 – 5 = 997915.

All the required numbers that fall in between these two will form an AP with a common difference of 2520.

When we have an AP of say, 5 numbers, the the average of this AP is the same as the average of the first and last terms.

To illustrate - Average of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 is (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5) / 5 = 15 / 5 = 3, which is the same as average of first and last terms - (1 + 5)/2 = 3

So we will determine the average of numbers with common difference by averaging only first and last term.
Thus the required average is (100795 + 997915)/2 = 549,355.

QUESTION: 72

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option

Find the range of value of x if
   

Solution:

If x > 0, the given expression can be written as x3 – 4x + 3 < 0. If we substitute x = 1, we get x3 – 4x + 3 = 0, i.e., x3 – 4x + 3 is divisible by (x – 1). So, x3 – 4x + 3 = (x – 1) (x2 + x – 3) < 0.

This leads us to 2 cases:
Case I: (x – 1) > 0 and (x2 + x – 3) < 0. The roots of (x2 + x – 3) are

The range of value is x > 1, - 2.3 < x < 1.3.
Combining these, we get 1 < x < 1.3.

Case II: (x – 1) < 0 and (x2 + x – 3) > 0. The range of values is x < 1, x > 1.3, x < - 2.3.
Since x > 0, we do not have any common region for values in this case.
If x < 0, then given expression can be rewritten as x3 – 4x + 3 > 0 or (x – 1) (x2 + x – 3) > 0. This leads us to 2 cases:

Case I: (x – 1) > 0 and (x2 + x – 3) > 0. The range of values is x > 1, x > 1.3 or x < - 2.3.
Since x < 0, we do not have any common region for values in this case.

Case II: (x – 1) < 0 and (x2 + x – 3) < 0. The range of values is x < 1, - 2.3 < x < 1.3.
Since x < 0, we get the range as – 2.3 < x < 0.
Thus the entire range of values that will satisfy the given expression is – 2.3 < x < 0 and 1 < x < 1.3.

QUESTION: 73

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Sequence is given as
1, (1 + 2), (1 + 2 + 22) ……………… (1 +2 + 22 + …….2n-1)
Find sum of 1st n terms (in terms of n)

Solution:

Kth term = (1 + 2 + 22 + …..2k – 1) = 2k – 1
Sum of 1st n terms = (21 – 1) + (22 – 1) + (23 – 1) + …..(2n – 1)

= 2(2n – 1) - n = 2 × 2n - 2 - n = 2n + 1 – 2 – n

QUESTION: 74

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

A cask of capacity 30 litres, consists of a mixture of three liquids A, B and C in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3. Now 2 litres mixture is drawn from the cask and is replaced with 2 litres mixture containing only liquids B and C in the ratio 2 : 3. Find the ratio of liquids A, B and C in the resulting mixture?

Solution:

Hence the ratio of Liquids A : B : C in the resulting mixture is 35 : 76 : 114.
Hence option  1.

QUESTION: 75

Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

How many six-letter words can be formed from the letters of the word HINDUSTAN so that the words contain exactly 2 vowels and 4 consonants

Solution:

There are 3 vowels and 6 consonants with 2 N's among them. 2 vowels can be chosen in 3C2 = 3 ways.

If the word has 4 distinct consonants, these 4 consonants can be chosen in 5C4 = 5 ways.

If the consonants contain 2 N’s, the remaining 2 consonants can be chosen in 4C2 = 6 ways.

Once the vowels and consonants have been chosen. we can arrange these 6 letters in 6! = 720 ways. So, there are 3 x 720 x 5 = 10800 words that contain 4 distinct consonants and 3 x 6 x 720/2! = 6480 words that contain 2 N ’s.

Thus, the total number o f wrords is 10800 + 6480 = 17280.

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