CAT Mock Test - 8 (New Pattern)


75 Questions MCQ Test CAT Mock Test Series | CAT Mock Test - 8 (New Pattern)


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This mock test of CAT Mock Test - 8 (New Pattern) for CAT helps you for every CAT entrance exam. This contains 75 Multiple Choice Questions for CAT CAT Mock Test - 8 (New Pattern) (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this CAT Mock Test - 8 (New Pattern) quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. CAT students definitely take this CAT Mock Test - 8 (New Pattern) exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other CAT Mock Test - 8 (New Pattern) extra questions, long questions & short questions for CAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

The stylization underlying all existing writing systems is at the root of orthography, which literally means "drawing right" As long as writing was based on drawing a recognizable picture, its exact shape could vary. Once written symbols became a matter of convention, there was only a single way to spell them properly, or a single "orthography".

A second factor that drew writing away from pictography was the problem of drawing pictures of abstract ideas. No picture could possibly depict freedom, master and slave, victory, or god. Frequently, an association of ideas did the trick. In cuneiform writing, a divinity was a star; the profile of a face with the mouth touching a bowl meant a ration of food. Unfortunately, clever as they were, these conventions only meant anything to the trained eye --the direct connection from picture to meaning was lost.

Another trick consisted of exploiting the similarity between certain sounds to draw what were essentially visual puns. This is known by historians as the rebus principle. It involves the use of a pictogram to represent a syllabic sound. This procedure converts pictograms into phonograms. This kind of transcription of meaning progressively gave way to writing sounds. With the rebus principle, the Sumerians and the Egyptians gradually created an array of symbols that could transcribe any speech sound in their languages.

The Egyptians and the Sumerians thus came very close to the alphabetic principle, but neither managed to extract this gem from their overblown writing systems. The rebus strategy would have allowed them to write a word or sentence with a compact set of phonetic signs, but they continued to sup­plement them with a vast array of pictograms. This unfortunate mixture of two systems, one primarily based on sound, the other on meaning, created considerable ambiguity.

With the wisdom of hindsight, it is clear that the scribes could have simplified their system vastly by choosing to stick to speech sounds alone. Unfortunately, cultural evolution suffers from inertia and does not make rational decisions. Consequently, both the Egyptians and the Sumerians simply followed the natural slope of increasing complexity. Cuneiform notation added "determinative" ideograms to clarify the concept of the accompanying signs. Each marked the semantic categories of words: city, man, stone, wood, God, and so on. For instance, the character for "plow:' accompanied by the deter­minative "wood;' meant the agricultural tool. Determinatives also helped specify the meanings of words written in syllabic notation -a useful trick since any given syllable often corresponded to several homophone words (much like "one" and "won").

Why do mixed writing systems appear to constitute such a stable attractor for societies throughout the world? The reason for this probably lies at the crossroads of multiple constraints: the way our memory is structured, how language is organized, and the availability of certain brain connections. Our memory is poorly equipped for purely pic­tographic or logographic script, where each word has its own symbol. The mere notation of sounds would be equally unsatisfactory. Reading would be comparable to decoding a rebus-it wood bee two in knee fish hunt. A mixed system using fragments of both sound and meaning appears to be the best solution.
Excerpted from ‘Reading in the Brain' by Stanislas Dehaene Page 184-193

Q. In the fifth paragraph, the word ‘determinative' can be replaced by

Solution:

The passage states that determinative ideograms helped to clarify the concept of the accompanying signs, which means that the ideograms described the accompanying signs or gave some additional information of the signs or assisted in understanding the meaning.

► Option1 - Determined means resolute or solved or decided which cannot fit in the context.
►Option 3 - Portentous means ominously significant - there is nothing threatening that is talked about in the passage.
►Option 4 - Influential means domination or importance which also doesn't fit the meaning.

QUESTION: 2

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

The stylization underlying all existing writing systems is at the root of orthography, which literally means "drawing right" As long as writing was based on drawing a recognizable picture, its exact shape could vary. Once written symbols became a matter of convention, there was only a single way to spell them properly, or a single "orthography".

A second factor that drew writing away from pictography was the problem of drawing pictures of abstract ideas. No picture could possibly depict freedom, master and slave, victory, or god. Frequently, an association of ideas did the trick. In cuneiform writing, a divinity was a star; the profile of a face with the mouth touching a bowl meant a ration of food. Unfortunately, clever as they were, these conventions only meant anything to the trained eye --the direct connection from picture to meaning was lost.

Another trick consisted of exploiting the similarity between certain sounds to draw what were essentially visual puns. This is known by historians as the rebus principle. It involves the use of a pictogram to represent a syllabic sound. This procedure converts pictograms into phonograms. This kind of transcription of meaning progressively gave way to writing sounds. With the rebus principle, the Sumerians and the Egyptians gradually created an array of symbols that could transcribe any speech sound in their languages.

The Egyptians and the Sumerians thus came very close to the alphabetic principle, but neither managed to extract this gem from their overblown writing systems. The rebus strategy would have allowed them to write a word or sentence with a compact set of phonetic signs, but they continued to sup­plement them with a vast array of pictograms. This unfortunate mixture of two systems, one primarily based on sound, the other on meaning, created considerable ambiguity.

With the wisdom of hindsight, it is clear that the scribes could have simplified their system vastly by choosing to stick to speech sounds alone. Unfortunately, cultural evolution suffers from inertia and does not make rational decisions. Consequently, both the Egyptians and the Sumerians simply followed the natural slope of increasing complexity. Cuneiform notation added "determinative" ideograms to clarify the concept of the accompanying signs. Each marked the semantic categories of words: city, man, stone, wood, God, and so on. For instance, the character for "plow:' accompanied by the deter­minative "wood;' meant the agricultural tool. Determinatives also helped specify the meanings of words written in syllabic notation -a useful trick since any given syllable often corresponded to several homophone words (much like "one" and "won").

Why do mixed writing systems appear to constitute such a stable attractor for societies throughout the world? The reason for this probably lies at the crossroads of multiple constraints: the way our memory is structured, how language is organized, and the availability of certain brain connections. Our memory is poorly equipped for purely pic­tographic or logographic script, where each word has its own symbol. The mere notation of sounds would be equally unsatisfactory. Reading would be comparable to decoding a rebus-it wood bee two in knee fish hunt. A mixed system using fragments of both sound and meaning appears to be the best solution.
Excerpted from ‘Reading in the Brain' by Stanislas Dehaene Page 184-193

Q. What is the purpose of using this line in the passage - it wood bee two in knee fish hunt.'?

Solution:

The Rebus principle is where sound of words is used to write in any language. The sentence also shows that if words are written simply according to sounds, the sentence can be completely different from what one wants to convey.

►Option 1 - The example is of homophones and not homographs - a word of the same written form as another but of different meaning and usually origin, whether pronounced the same way or not, as bear - "to carry; support" and bear - "animal" or lead - "to conduct" and lead - "metal."
►Option 2 - The sentence should correctly read - It would be too inefficient. The sentence is supposed to explain how writing words using sounds can create nonsensical sentences.
►Option 4 -  Unequivocalness means clarity. What the sentence shows is actually equivocalness or ambiguity.

QUESTION: 3

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

The stylization underlying all existing writing systems is at the root of orthography, which literally means "drawing right" As long as writing was based on drawing a recognizable picture, its exact shape could vary. Once written symbols became a matter of convention, there was only a single way to spell them properly, or a single "orthography".

A second factor that drew writing away from pictography was the problem of drawing pictures of abstract ideas. No picture could possibly depict freedom, master and slave, victory, or god. Frequently, an association of ideas did the trick. In cuneiform writing, a divinity was a star; the profile of a face with the mouth touching a bowl meant a ration of food. Unfortunately, clever as they were, these conventions only meant anything to the trained eye --the direct connection from picture to meaning was lost.

Another trick consisted of exploiting the similarity between certain sounds to draw what were essentially visual puns. This is known by historians as the rebus principle. It involves the use of a pictogram to represent a syllabic sound. This procedure converts pictograms into phonograms. This kind of transcription of meaning progressively gave way to writing sounds. With the rebus principle, the Sumerians and the Egyptians gradually created an array of symbols that could transcribe any speech sound in their languages.

The Egyptians and the Sumerians thus came very close to the alphabetic principle, but neither managed to extract this gem from their overblown writing systems. The rebus strategy would have allowed them to write a word or sentence with a compact set of phonetic signs, but they continued to sup­plement them with a vast array of pictograms. This unfortunate mixture of two systems, one primarily based on sound, the other on meaning, created considerable ambiguity.

With the wisdom of hindsight, it is clear that the scribes could have simplified their system vastly by choosing to stick to speech sounds alone. Unfortunately, cultural evolution suffers from inertia and does not make rational decisions. Consequently, both the Egyptians and the Sumerians simply followed the natural slope of increasing complexity. Cuneiform notation added "determinative" ideograms to clarify the concept of the accompanying signs. Each marked the semantic categories of words: city, man, stone, wood, God, and so on. For instance, the character for "plow:' accompanied by the deter­minative "wood;' meant the agricultural tool. Determinatives also helped specify the meanings of words written in syllabic notation -a useful trick since any given syllable often corresponded to several homophone words (much like "one" and "won").

Why do mixed writing systems appear to constitute such a stable attractor for societies throughout the world? The reason for this probably lies at the crossroads of multiple constraints: the way our memory is structured, how language is organized, and the availability of certain brain connections. Our memory is poorly equipped for purely pic­tographic or logographic script, where each word has its own symbol. The mere notation of sounds would be equally unsatisfactory. Reading would be comparable to decoding a rebus-it wood bee two in knee fish hunt. A mixed system using fragments of both sound and meaning appears to be the best solution.
Excerpted from ‘Reading in the Brain' by Stanislas Dehaene Page 184-193

Q. From its inception in Mesopotamia, the "virus" of writing spread quickly to the surrounding cultures. The epidemic, however, remained confined, in all societies, to a small group of specialists. The complexity of this invention curbed its capacity to spread. Even in present-day China, scholars must learn several thousand signs. As recently as the 1950s, the rate of illiteracy in the adult Chinese population was close to 80 percent-before _________ and massive investment in education brought this figure down to about 10 percent.

Solution:

The paragraph given is of course related to the passage given. The Chinese language has several thousand signs which one has to learn. Obviously the illiteracy rate would be high as our memory is poorly equipped for purely pictographic script. Hence simplification of writing would be able to get down the rate from 80 percent to 10 percent.

►Option 1 - Cultural evolution is not going to help in remembering several thousand signs.
►Option 3 – Literacy is more about the written language – a dialect is usually a spoken language – so it would not have too much of impact on literacy.
►Option 4 - Making learning mandatory without looking into the fact that several thousand signs are to be memorized and that too by adult population will not bring the rate down to 10%.

QUESTION: 4

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Why should we be concerned with symmetry? In the first place, symmetry is fascinating to the human mind, and everyone likes objects or patterns that are in some way symmetrical. It is an interesting fact that nature often exhibits certain kinds of symmetry in the objects we find in the world around us. Perhaps the most symmetrical object imaginable is a sphere, and nature is full of spheres—stars, planets, water droplets in clouds. The crystals found in rocks exhibit many different kinds of symmetry, the study of which tells us some important things about the structure of solids.

But our main concern here is not with the fact that the objects of nature are often symmetrical. Rather, we wish to examine some of the even more remarkable symmetries of the universe—the symmetries that exist in the basic laws themselves which govern the operation of the physical world.

First, what is symmetry? How can a physical law be “symmetrical”? The problem of defining symmetry is an interesting one and we have already noted that Weyl gave a good definition, the substance of which is that a thing is symmetrical if there is something we can do to it so that after we have done it, it looks the same as it did before. For example, a symmetrical vase is of such a kind that if we reflect or turn it, it will look the same as it did before. The question we wish to consider here is what we can do to physical phenomena, or to a physical situation in an experiment, and yet leave the result the same.

The first thing we might try to do, for example, is to translate the phenomenon in space. If we do an experiment in a certain region, and then build another apparatus at another place in space (or move the original one over) then, whatever went on in one apparatus, in a certain order in time, will occur in the same way if we have arranged the same condition, with all due attention to the restrictions that we mentioned before: that all of those features of the environment which make it not behave the same way have also been moved over.

In the same way, we also believe today that displacement in time will have no effect on physical laws. Another thing that we discussed in considerable detail was rotation in space: if we turn an apparatus at an angle it works just as well, provided we turn everything else that is relevant along with it. On a more advanced level we had another symmetry—the symmetry under uniform velocity in a straight line. That is to say—a rather remarkable effect—that if we have a piece of apparatus working a certain way and then take the same apparatus and put it in a car, and move the whole car, plus all the relevant surroundings, at a uniform velocity in a straight line, then so far as the phenomena inside the car are concerned there is no difference: all the laws of physics appear the same. 
Excerpted from the Feynman Lecture on Physics, Vol I

Q. You would ask the author all the questions given below, except,

Solution:

The answer to this is given in the example of the moving car and the apparatus mentioned at the end of the passage.

We have been discussing that symmetry in space is not affected by displacement in time hence we would want to know whether a change in scale makes a difference – which is what both 1 and 2 are asking.

We would also be interested in knowing if any other symmetry exists.

QUESTION: 5

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Why should we be concerned with symmetry? In the first place, symmetry is fascinating to the human mind, and everyone likes objects or patterns that are in some way symmetrical. It is an interesting fact that nature often exhibits certain kinds of symmetry in the objects we find in the world around us. Perhaps the most symmetrical object imaginable is a sphere, and nature is full of spheres—stars, planets, water droplets in clouds. The crystals found in rocks exhibit many different kinds of symmetry, the study of which tells us some important things about the structure of solids.

But our main concern here is not with the fact that the objects of nature are often symmetrical. Rather, we wish to examine some of the even more remarkable symmetries of the universe—the symmetries that exist in the basic laws themselves which govern the operation of the physical world.

First, what is symmetry? How can a physical law be “symmetrical”? The problem of defining symmetry is an interesting one and we have already noted that Weyl gave a good definition, the substance of which is that a thing is symmetrical if there is something we can do to it so that after we have done it, it looks the same as it did before. For example, a symmetrical vase is of such a kind that if we reflect or turn it, it will look the same as it did before. The question we wish to consider here is what we can do to physical phenomena, or to a physical situation in an experiment, and yet leave the result the same.

The first thing we might try to do, for example, is to translate the phenomenon in space. If we do an experiment in a certain region, and then build another apparatus at another place in space (or move the original one over) then, whatever went on in one apparatus, in a certain order in time, will occur in the same way if we have arranged the same condition, with all due attention to the restrictions that we mentioned before: that all of those features of the environment which make it not behave the same way have also been moved over.

In the same way, we also believe today that displacement in time will have no effect on physical laws. Another thing that we discussed in considerable detail was rotation in space: if we turn an apparatus at an angle it works just as well, provided we turn everything else that is relevant along with it. On a more advanced level we had another symmetry—the symmetry under uniform velocity in a straight line. That is to say—a rather remarkable effect—that if we have a piece of apparatus working a certain way and then take the same apparatus and put it in a car, and move the whole car, plus all the relevant surroundings, at a uniform velocity in a straight line, then so far as the phenomena inside the car are concerned there is no difference: all the laws of physics appear the same. 
Excerpted from the Feynman Lecture on Physics, Vol I

Q. What can you say about the laws of physics with reference to the passage?

Solution:

The only thing we can say is that displacement of time does not affect the physical laws.

The other three options are incorrect, because the first option is vague as it is not certain it is talking with reference to symmetry, the third option is incorrect – refer to if we have a piece of apparatus ............ no difference: all the laws of physics appear the same and option 4 is incorrect because it is not mentioned in the passage that in all types of symmetry the laws are adhered to.

QUESTION: 6

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Why should we be concerned with symmetry? In the first place, symmetry is fascinating to the human mind, and everyone likes objects or patterns that are in some way symmetrical. It is an interesting fact that nature often exhibits certain kinds of symmetry in the objects we find in the world around us. Perhaps the most symmetrical object imaginable is a sphere, and nature is full of spheres—stars, planets, water droplets in clouds. The crystals found in rocks exhibit many different kinds of symmetry, the study of which tells us some important things about the structure of solids.

But our main concern here is not with the fact that the objects of nature are often symmetrical. Rather, we wish to examine some of the even more remarkable symmetries of the universe—the symmetries that exist in the basic laws themselves which govern the operation of the physical world.

First, what is symmetry? How can a physical law be “symmetrical”? The problem of defining symmetry is an interesting one and we have already noted that Weyl gave a good definition, the substance of which is that a thing is symmetrical if there is something we can do to it so that after we have done it, it looks the same as it did before. For example, a symmetrical vase is of such a kind that if we reflect or turn it, it will look the same as it did before. The question we wish to consider here is what we can do to physical phenomena, or to a physical situation in an experiment, and yet leave the result the same.

The first thing we might try to do, for example, is to translate the phenomenon in space. If we do an experiment in a certain region, and then build another apparatus at another place in space (or move the original one over) then, whatever went on in one apparatus, in a certain order in time, will occur in the same way if we have arranged the same condition, with all due attention to the restrictions that we mentioned before: that all of those features of the environment which make it not behave the same way have also been moved over.

In the same way, we also believe today that displacement in time will have no effect on physical laws. Another thing that we discussed in considerable detail was rotation in space: if we turn an apparatus at an angle it works just as well, provided we turn everything else that is relevant along with it. On a more advanced level we had another symmetry—the symmetry under uniform velocity in a straight line. That is to say—a rather remarkable effect—that if we have a piece of apparatus working a certain way and then take the same apparatus and put it in a car, and move the whole car, plus all the relevant surroundings, at a uniform velocity in a straight line, then so far as the phenomena inside the car are concerned there is no difference: all the laws of physics appear the same. 
Excerpted from the Feynman Lecture on Physics, Vol I

Q. What is the tone of the passage?

Solution:

Analytical writing is simple, direct, concise, and to-the-point and which means looking at something in a logical manner, which is exactly how the passage has been written.

Option A – A critical tone would mean a fault finding tone, which the author is not using.
Option B – The author makes no harsh, taunting or cutting remarks. Hence the tone cannot be sardonic.
Option D – The author does not express any doubt, or skepticism, about anything he is saying, hence we can rule out this option.

QUESTION: 7

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Workhouses have long assumed a central place in studies on the poor laws. While we know that the majority of relief claimants were actually given outdoor relief in money or in kind from the parish pay-table, welfare historians have shown that many individuals entered workhouses during moments of both short and long-term need. This dynamic has a long history. The Elizabethan poor laws permitted parishes to find accommodation for ‘poor impotent people’ in addition to the requirement to ‘set to work’ their poor. Some cities had obtained their own ‘Local Acts’ which contained specific legislation designed for the specific welfare needs of that locale. Central to these Acts was the workhouse. The first Local Act was passed in 1696 for the Civic Incorporation of Bristol.

Born in Staffordshire, Gilbert was a chief land agent to Lord Gower and a keen poor law reformer. Through his work, he developed an immense political, legal, commercial and industrial knowledge which enabled the Gower estate to become one of the most prosperous in England. Gilbert’s concern for the poor may have stemmed out of his role as agent, which had allowed him to take onboard the role of paymaster for a charity of naval officers’ widows. As Marshall noted, Gilbert thought old parish workhouses were ‘dens of horror’.  Such workhouses were too uncomfortable for those who were in poverty due to no fault of their own and places where the young were susceptible to ‘Habits of Virtue and Vice’ learnt from ‘bad characters’. For the sake of both the poor and the rates, Gilbert thought that workhouses should be reformed to promote industrious behavior.

These ideas culminated in a new bill and the subsequent Act of 1782 which enabled parishes to provide a workhouse solely for the accommodation of the vulnerable.  Although such residents were, as Gilbert put it, ‘not able to maintain themselves by their Labor’ outside of the workhouse they were still to ‘be employed in doing as much Work as they can’ within the workhouse.  Work was therefore a part of everyday life within a Gilbert’s Act workhouse. The able-bodied were only to be offered temporary shelter and instead were to be found employment and provided with outdoor relief. Those who refused such work (the ‘idle’) were to endure ‘hard Labor in the Houses of Correction’.

How was such a workhouse to be established and managed? Gilbert wanted to allow parishes to unite together so that they could combine their resources and provide a well built and maintained workhouse. According to Steve King, Gilbert’s Act was the first real breach of the Old Poor Law principle ‘local problem - local treatment’.  Yet, any ‘Parish, Town, or Township’ was also permitted to implement the law alone, and hence concerns over poverty did not always transcend parish boundaries. Gilbert’s Act workhouses were to be managed in a different way compared to the older parish workhouses. Gilbert believed that the poor laws had been ‘unhappily’ executed ‘through the misconduct of overseers’. Such officers, he claimed ‘gratify themselves and their Favorites, and to neglect the more deserving Objects’. This dim view of overseers was shared by many others at the time.
 excerpted from 'Welfare of the vulnerable' by Samantha Shave

Q. What question would you like to ask the author after reading the passage?

Solution:

Regarding these types of questions one should consider that issues/facts already mentioned in the passage do not entitle to be asked as questions.

Refer to last lines of second paragraph” Such workhouses were too uncomfortable for those who were in poverty due to no fault of their own and places ……….” Hence option D is ruled out.

Also in the second passage line “Gilbert’s concern for the poor may have stemmed out of his role as agent. …..” makes option A invalid.  

As no one was as concerned as Gilbert that’s why the Act was named after him, so no such amendments were made hence Option B is wrong.

The Obvious questions that stems is what provisions were made under the act to better the plight of workhouses/Parishes

QUESTION: 8

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Workhouses have long assumed a central place in studies on the poor laws. While we know that the majority of relief claimants were actually given outdoor relief in money or in kind from the parish pay-table, welfare historians have shown that many individuals entered workhouses during moments of both short and long-term need. This dynamic has a long history. The Elizabethan poor laws permitted parishes to find accommodation for ‘poor impotent people’ in addition to the requirement to ‘set to work’ their poor. Some cities had obtained their own ‘Local Acts’ which contained specific legislation designed for the specific welfare needs of that locale. Central to these Acts was the workhouse. The first Local Act was passed in 1696 for the Civic Incorporation of Bristol.

Born in Staffordshire, Gilbert was a chief land agent to Lord Gower and a keen poor law reformer. Through his work, he developed an immense political, legal, commercial and industrial knowledge which enabled the Gower estate to become one of the most prosperous in England. Gilbert’s concern for the poor may have stemmed out of his role as agent, which had allowed him to take onboard the role of paymaster for a charity of naval officers’ widows. As Marshall noted, Gilbert thought old parish workhouses were ‘dens of horror’.  Such workhouses were too uncomfortable for those who were in poverty due to no fault of their own and places where the young were susceptible to ‘Habits of Virtue and Vice’ learnt from ‘bad characters’. For the sake of both the poor and the rates, Gilbert thought that workhouses should be reformed to promote industrious behavior.

These ideas culminated in a new bill and the subsequent Act of 1782 which enabled parishes to provide a workhouse solely for the accommodation of the vulnerable.  Although such residents were, as Gilbert put it, ‘not able to maintain themselves by their Labor’ outside of the workhouse they were still to ‘be employed in doing as much Work as they can’ within the workhouse.  Work was therefore a part of everyday life within a Gilbert’s Act workhouse. The able-bodied were only to be offered temporary shelter and instead were to be found employment and provided with outdoor relief. Those who refused such work (the ‘idle’) were to endure ‘hard Labor in the Houses of Correction’.

How was such a workhouse to be established and managed? Gilbert wanted to allow parishes to unite together so that they could combine their resources and provide a well built and maintained workhouse. According to Steve King, Gilbert’s Act was the first real breach of the Old Poor Law principle ‘local problem - local treatment’.  Yet, any ‘Parish, Town, or Township’ was also permitted to implement the law alone, and hence concerns over poverty did not always transcend parish boundaries. Gilbert’s Act workhouses were to be managed in a different way compared to the older parish workhouses. Gilbert believed that the poor laws had been ‘unhappily’ executed ‘through the misconduct of overseers’. Such officers, he claimed ‘gratify themselves and their Favorites, and to neglect the more deserving Objects’. This dim view of overseers was shared by many others at the time.

excerpted from 'Welfare of the vulnerable' by Samantha Shave

Q. What does the term ‘poor impotent people’ imply contextually?

Solution:

‘Impotent’ as used contextually does not signify incapability to procreate.

Hence, option A, B & D are not relevant contextually rather impotency herein implies incapacity to sustain due to lack of work/money.

QUESTION: 9

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Workhouses have long assumed a central place in studies on the poor laws. While we know that the majority of relief claimants were actually given outdoor relief in money or in kind from the parish pay-table, welfare historians have shown that many individuals entered workhouses during moments of both short and long-term need. This dynamic has a long history. The Elizabethan poor laws permitted parishes to find accommodation for ‘poor impotent people’ in addition to the requirement to ‘set to work’ their poor. Some cities had obtained their own ‘Local Acts’ which contained specific legislation designed for the specific welfare needs of that locale. Central to these Acts was the workhouse. The first Local Act was passed in 1696 for the Civic Incorporation of Bristol.

Born in Staffordshire, Gilbert was a chief land agent to Lord Gower and a keen poor law reformer. Through his work, he developed an immense political, legal, commercial and industrial knowledge which enabled the Gower estate to become one of the most prosperous in England. Gilbert’s concern for the poor may have stemmed out of his role as agent, which had allowed him to take onboard the role of paymaster for a charity of naval officers’ widows. As Marshall noted, Gilbert thought old parish workhouses were ‘dens of horror’.  Such workhouses were too uncomfortable for those who were in poverty due to no fault of their own and places where the young were susceptible to ‘Habits of Virtue and Vice’ learnt from ‘bad characters’. For the sake of both the poor and the rates, Gilbert thought that workhouses should be reformed to promote industrious behavior.

These ideas culminated in a new bill and the subsequent Act of 1782 which enabled parishes to provide a workhouse solely for the accommodation of the vulnerable.  Although such residents were, as Gilbert put it, ‘not able to maintain themselves by their Labor’ outside of the workhouse they were still to ‘be employed in doing as much Work as they can’ within the workhouse.  Work was therefore a part of everyday life within a Gilbert’s Act workhouse. The able-bodied were only to be offered temporary shelter and instead were to be found employment and provided with outdoor relief. Those who refused such work (the ‘idle’) were to endure ‘hard Labor in the Houses of Correction’.

How was such a workhouse to be established and managed? Gilbert wanted to allow parishes to unite together so that they could combine their resources and provide a well built and maintained workhouse. According to Steve King, Gilbert’s Act was the first real breach of the Old Poor Law principle ‘local problem - local treatment’.  Yet, any ‘Parish, Town, or Township’ was also permitted to implement the law alone, and hence concerns over poverty did not always transcend parish boundaries. Gilbert’s Act workhouses were to be managed in a different way compared to the older parish workhouses. Gilbert believed that the poor laws had been ‘unhappily’ executed ‘through the misconduct of overseers’. Such officers, he claimed ‘gratify themselves and their Favorites, and to neglect the more deserving Objects’. This dim view of overseers was shared by many others at the time.

excerpted from 'Welfare of the vulnerable' by Samantha Shave

Q. Which among the following is not true as per the passage?

Solution:

Option A is clearly mentioned in the opening lines of second paragraph.

Nepotism means favoritism as the aversion for such attitude by Gilbert is mentioned in the concluding lines of the passage hence option B is ruled out.

Option C is mentioned in the last lines of second & Third paragraph - “Gilbert thought that workhouses should be reformed to promote industrious behavior.” & “Those who refused such work (the ‘idle’) were to endure ‘hard Labor in the Houses of Correction’.”

Sixteenth century will mean era from 1501 to 1599 and the first Local Act was passed in 1696 which implies late seventeenth century. As per the question Option D is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 10

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Consider these recent headlines: “Want to be Happier? Be More Grateful,”  “The Formula for Happiness: Gratitude Plays a Part,” “Teaching Gratitude, Bringing Happiness to Children,” and my personal favorite “Key to Happiness is Gratitude, and Men May be Locked Out.”

Buoyed by research findings from the field of positive psychology, the happiness industry is alive and flourishing in America. Each of these headlines includes the explicit assumption that gratitude should be part of any 12-step, 30-day, or 10-key program to develop happiness. But how does this bear on the question toward which this essay is directed? Is gratitude queen of the virtues? In modern times gratitude has become untethered from its moral moorings and collectively, we are worse off because of this. When the Roman philosopher Cicero stated that gratitude was the queen of the virtues, he most assuredly did not mean that gratitude was merely a stepping-stone toward personal happiness. Gratitude is a morally complex disposition, and reducing this virtue to a technique or strategy to improve one’s mood is to do it an injustice.

Even restricting gratitude to an inner feeling is insufficient. In the history of ideas, gratitude is considered an action (returning a favor) that is not only virtuous in and of itself, but valuable to society. To reciprocate is the right thing to do. “There is no duty more indispensable that that of returning a kindness” wrote Cicero in a book whose title translates “On Duties.” Cicero’s contemporary, Seneca, maintained that “He who receives a benefit with gratitude repays the first installment on his debt.”  Neither believed that the emotion felt in a person returning a favor was particularly crucial. Conversely, across time, ingratitude has been treated as a serious vice, a greater vice than gratitude is a virtue. Ingratitude is the “essence of vileness,” wrote the great German philosopher Immanuel Kant while David Hume opined that ingratitude is “the most horrible and unnatural crime that a person is capable of committing.”

Gratitude does matter for happiness. As someone who for the past decade has contributed to the scientific literature on gratitude and well-being, I would certainly grant that.  The tools and techniques of modern science have been brought to bear on understanding the nature of gratitude and why it is important for human flourishing more generally. From childhood to old age, accumulating evidence documents the wide array of psychological, physical, and relational benefits associated with gratitude.  Yet I have come to the realization that by taking a “gratitude lite” approach we have cheapened gratitude. Gratitude is important not only because it helps people feel good, but also because it inspires them to do good. Gratitude heals, energizes, and transforms lives in a myriad of ways consistent with the notion that virtue is both its own reward and produces other rewards.

To give a flavor of these research findings, dispositional gratitude has been found to be positively associated qualities such as empathy, forgiveness, and the willingness to help others.  For example, people who rated themselves as having a grateful disposition perceived themselves as having more prosocial characteristics, expressed by their empathetic behavior, and emotional support for friends within the last month.  When people report feeling grateful, thankful, and appreciative in studies of daily experience, they also feel more loving, forgiving, joyful, and enthusiastic. Notably, the family, friends, partners and others that surround them consistently report that people who practice gratitude are viewed as more helpful, more outgoing, more optimistic, and more trustworthy. On a larger level, gratitude is the adhesive that binds members of society together. Gratitude is the “moral memory of mankind” wrote noted sociologist Georg Simmel.

Q. With reference to the passage, what does the author mean by a ‘gratitude-lite’ approach?

Solution:

First, let us look at the meaning of lite. It denotes a low-fat or low-sugar version of a manufactured food or drink product. When coupled with a soft-drink, it would mean a low-fat or calorie version of the soft drink, that is something that does not have its full impact.

When used with gratitude, it would refer to a version of gratitude that does not have the full impact or force and is a watered down version of the same.

The clue to the correct answer also lies in the following line: Yet I have come to the realization that by taking a “gratitude lite” approach we have cheapened gratitude.

QUESTION: 11

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Consider these recent headlines: “Want to be Happier? Be More Grateful,”  “The Formula for Happiness: Gratitude Plays a Part,” “Teaching Gratitude, Bringing Happiness to Children,” and my personal favorite “Key to Happiness is Gratitude, and Men May be Locked Out.”

Buoyed by research findings from the field of positive psychology, the happiness industry is alive and flourishing in America. Each of these headlines includes the explicit assumption that gratitude should be part of any 12-step, 30-day, or 10-key program to develop happiness. But how does this bear on the question toward which this essay is directed? Is gratitude queen of the virtues? In modern times gratitude has become untethered from its moral moorings and collectively, we are worse off because of this. When the Roman philosopher Cicero stated that gratitude was the queen of the virtues, he most assuredly did not mean that gratitude was merely a stepping-stone toward personal happiness. Gratitude is a morally complex disposition, and reducing this virtue to a technique or strategy to improve one’s mood is to do it an injustice.

Even restricting gratitude to an inner feeling is insufficient. In the history of ideas, gratitude is considered an action (returning a favor) that is not only virtuous in and of itself, but valuable to society. To reciprocate is the right thing to do. “There is no duty more indispensable that that of returning a kindness” wrote Cicero in a book whose title translates “On Duties.” Cicero’s contemporary, Seneca, maintained that “He who receives a benefit with gratitude repays the first installment on his debt.”  Neither believed that the emotion felt in a person returning a favor was particularly crucial. Conversely, across time, ingratitude has been treated as a serious vice, a greater vice than gratitude is a virtue. Ingratitude is the “essence of vileness,” wrote the great German philosopher Immanuel Kant while David Hume opined that ingratitude is “the most horrible and unnatural crime that a person is capable of committing.”

Gratitude does matter for happiness. As someone who for the past decade has contributed to the scientific literature on gratitude and well-being, I would certainly grant that.  The tools and techniques of modern science have been brought to bear on understanding the nature of gratitude and why it is important for human flourishing more generally. From childhood to old age, accumulating evidence documents the wide array of psychological, physical, and relational benefits associated with gratitude.  Yet I have come to the realization that by taking a “gratitude lite” approach we have cheapened gratitude. Gratitude is important not only because it helps people feel good, but also because it inspires them to do good. Gratitude heals, energizes, and transforms lives in a myriad of ways consistent with the notion that virtue is both its own reward and produces other rewards.

To give a flavor of these research findings, dispositional gratitude has been found to be positively associated qualities such as empathy, forgiveness, and the willingness to help others.  For example, people who rated themselves as having a grateful disposition perceived themselves as having more prosocial characteristics, expressed by their empathetic behavior, and emotional support for friends within the last month.  When people report feeling grateful, thankful, and appreciative in studies of daily experience, they also feel more loving, forgiving, joyful, and enthusiastic. Notably, the family, friends, partners and others that surround them consistently report that people who practice gratitude are viewed as more helpful, more outgoing, more optimistic, and more trustworthy. On a larger level, gratitude is the adhesive that binds members of society together. Gratitude is the “moral memory of mankind” wrote noted sociologist Georg Simmel.

Q. The author of the passage will agree with the statement:

Solution:

This is a question which is based on the overall idea of the passage. The author of the passage clearly states the social approach to gratitude is required. But he does not state the personal approach is not needed. He, in fact, quotes that both are required.

Refer to the lines: Gratitude does matter for happiness. As someone who for the past decade has contributed to the scientific literature on gratitude and well-being, I would certainly grant that. 
In these lines, the author does accept the contribution of gratitude towards personal happiness.

Also, right through the passage, he emphasis the need of keeping the society in mind while thinking of gratitude. This makes option 3 the apt answer in this case.

QUESTION: 12

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Consider these recent headlines: “Want to be Happier? Be More Grateful,”  “The Formula for Happiness: Gratitude Plays a Part,” “Teaching Gratitude, Bringing Happiness to Children,” and my personal favorite “Key to Happiness is Gratitude, and Men May be Locked Out.”

Buoyed by research findings from the field of positive psychology, the happiness industry is alive and flourishing in America. Each of these headlines includes the explicit assumption that gratitude should be part of any 12-step, 30-day, or 10-key program to develop happiness. But how does this bear on the question toward which this essay is directed? Is gratitude queen of the virtues? In modern times gratitude has become untethered from its moral moorings and collectively, we are worse off because of this. When the Roman philosopher Cicero stated that gratitude was the queen of the virtues, he most assuredly did not mean that gratitude was merely a stepping-stone toward personal happiness. Gratitude is a morally complex disposition, and reducing this virtue to a technique or strategy to improve one’s mood is to do it an injustice.

Even restricting gratitude to an inner feeling is insufficient. In the history of ideas, gratitude is considered an action (returning a favor) that is not only virtuous in and of itself, but valuable to society. To reciprocate is the right thing to do. “There is no duty more indispensable that that of returning a kindness” wrote Cicero in a book whose title translates “On Duties.” Cicero’s contemporary, Seneca, maintained that “He who receives a benefit with gratitude repays the first installment on his debt.”  Neither believed that the emotion felt in a person returning a favor was particularly crucial. Conversely, across time, ingratitude has been treated as a serious vice, a greater vice than gratitude is a virtue. Ingratitude is the “essence of vileness,” wrote the great German philosopher Immanuel Kant while David Hume opined that ingratitude is “the most horrible and unnatural crime that a person is capable of committing.”

Gratitude does matter for happiness. As someone who for the past decade has contributed to the scientific literature on gratitude and well-being, I would certainly grant that.  The tools and techniques of modern science have been brought to bear on understanding the nature of gratitude and why it is important for human flourishing more generally. From childhood to old age, accumulating evidence documents the wide array of psychological, physical, and relational benefits associated with gratitude.  Yet I have come to the realization that by taking a “gratitude lite” approach we have cheapened gratitude. Gratitude is important not only because it helps people feel good, but also because it inspires them to do good. Gratitude heals, energizes, and transforms lives in a myriad of ways consistent with the notion that virtue is both its own reward and produces other rewards.

To give a flavor of these research findings, dispositional gratitude has been found to be positively associated qualities such as empathy, forgiveness, and the willingness to help others.  For example, people who rated themselves as having a grateful disposition perceived themselves as having more prosocial characteristics, expressed by their empathetic behavior, and emotional support for friends within the last month.  When people report feeling grateful, thankful, and appreciative in studies of daily experience, they also feel more loving, forgiving, joyful, and enthusiastic. Notably, the family, friends, partners and others that surround them consistently report that people who practice gratitude are viewed as more helpful, more outgoing, more optimistic, and more trustworthy. On a larger level, gratitude is the adhesive that binds members of society together. Gratitude is the “moral memory of mankind” wrote noted sociologist Georg Simmel.

Q. As per the context of the passage, identify the correct statements:

I. According to the author, the happiness industry has over-used the concept of gratitude for its own benefit.
II. According to Cicero, gratitude induces a feeling of debt in the benefactor.
III. The rewards obtained from gratitude cannot be limited to one sphere of human life.

Solution:

Statement I can be directly derived from the lines: Buoyed by research findings from the field of positive psychology, the happiness industry is alive and flourishing in America. Each of these headlines includes the explicit assumption that gratitude should be part of any 12-step, 30-day, or 10-key program to develop happiness.

Statement II can be negated from the lines: Cicero’s contemporary, Seneca, maintained that “He who receives a benefit with gratitude repays the first installment on his debt.” 

The line actually means that if someone recieves a benefit with a feeling of gratitude, he has partially paid his debt already. The given statement states the opposite.

Statement III can be derived from the lines: Gratitude heals, energizes, and transforms lives in a myriad of ways consistent with the notion that virtue is both its own reward and produces other rewards.

QUESTION: 13

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

When you visit your doctor you enter a world of queues and disjointed processes. Why? Because your doctor and health care planner think about health care from the standpoint of organization charts, functional expertise, and "efficiency." Each of the centers of expertise in the health care system —the specialist physician, the single-purpose diagnostic tool, the centralized laboratory—is extremely expensive. Therefore, efficiency demands that it be completely utilized.

To get full utilization, it's necessary to route you around from specialist to machine to laboratory and to over schedule the specialists, machines, and labs to make sure they are always fully occupied. Elaborate computerized information systems are needed to make sure you find your place in the right line and to get your records from central storage to the point of diagnosis or treatment.

How would things work if the medical system embraced lean thinking? First, the patient would be placed in the foreground, with time and comfort included as key performance measures of the system. These can only be addressed by flowing the patient through the system.

Next, the medical system would rethink its departmental structure and reorganize much of its expertise into multi skilled teams. The idea would be very simple: When the patient enters the system, via a multi skilled, co-located team, she or he receives steady attention and treatment until the problem is solved.

To do this, the skills of nurses and doctors would need to be broadened so that a smaller team of more broadly skilled people can solve most patient problems. At the same time, the tools of medicine—machines, labs, and record-keeping units—would need to be rethought and "right-sized" so that they are smaller, more flexible, and faster, with a full complement of tools dedicated to every treatment team.

Finally, the "patient" would need to be actively involved in the process and up-skilled—made a member of the team—so that many problems can be solved through prevention or addressed from home without need to physically visit the medical team, and so that visits can be better predicted. Over time, it will surely be possible to transfer some of the equipment to the home as well, through teleconferencing, remote sensing, and even a home laboratory, the same way most of us now have a complete complement of office equipment in our home offices.

What would happen if lean thinking was introduced as a fundamental principle of health care? The time and steps needed to solve a problem should fall dramatically. The quality of care should improve because less information would be lost in handoffs to the next specialist, fewer mistakes would be made, less elaborate information tracking and scheduling systems would be needed, and less backtracking and rework would be required. The cost of each "cure" and of the total system could fall substantially.
Excerpted from page numbers 289-290 of ‘Lean Thinking’ by Womack and Jones

Q. What is the skill enhancement required in healthcare professionals in order to make the transition to lean?

Solution:

To do this, the skills of nurses and doctors would need to be broadened (in contrast to the narrow deepening of skills encouraged by the current system) so that a smaller team of more broadly skilled people can solve most patient problems.

►Option 1 – goes against the theme of generalisation.
►Option 3 – the passage indicates that most hospitals already have adequate IT systems.
►Option 4 – If mere training programs were solutions to our problems, we would all be living in heaven.

QUESTION: 14

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

When you visit your doctor you enter a world of queues and disjointed processes. Why? Because your doctor and health care planner think about health care from the standpoint of organization charts, functional expertise, and "efficiency." Each of the centers of expertise in the health care system —the specialist physician, the single-purpose diagnostic tool, the centralized laboratory—is extremely expensive. Therefore, efficiency demands that it be completely utilized.

To get full utilization, it's necessary to route you around from specialist to machine to laboratory and to over schedule the specialists, machines, and labs to make sure they are always fully occupied. Elaborate computerized information systems are needed to make sure you find your place in the right line and to get your records from central storage to the point of diagnosis or treatment.

How would things work if the medical system embraced lean thinking? First, the patient would be placed in the foreground, with time and comfort included as key performance measures of the system. These can only be addressed by flowing the patient through the system.

Next, the medical system would rethink its departmental structure and reorganize much of its expertise into multi skilled teams. The idea would be very simple: When the patient enters the system, via a multi skilled, co-located team, she or he receives steady attention and treatment until the problem is solved.

To do this, the skills of nurses and doctors would need to be broadened so that a smaller team of more broadly skilled people can solve most patient problems. At the same time, the tools of medicine—machines, labs, and record-keeping units—would need to be rethought and "right-sized" so that they are smaller, more flexible, and faster, with a full complement of tools dedicated to every treatment team.

Finally, the "patient" would need to be actively involved in the process and up-skilled—made a member of the team—so that many problems can be solved through prevention or addressed from home without need to physically visit the medical team, and so that visits can be better predicted. Over time, it will surely be possible to transfer some of the equipment to the home as well, through teleconferencing, remote sensing, and even a home laboratory, the same way most of us now have a complete complement of office equipment in our home offices.

What would happen if lean thinking was introduced as a fundamental principle of health care? The time and steps needed to solve a problem should fall dramatically. The quality of care should improve because less information would be lost in handoffs to the next specialist, fewer mistakes would be made, less elaborate information tracking and scheduling systems would be needed, and less backtracking and rework would be required. The cost of each "cure" and of the total system could fall substantially.
Excerpted from page numbers 289-290 of ‘Lean Thinking’ by Womack and Jones

Q. What philosophy is implied when the article advises that the patient should also be part of the healthcare team?

Solution:

Refer: Finally, the "patient" would need to be actively involved in the process and up-skilled—made a member of the team—so that many problems can be solved through prevention

The rest of the options, though true, are not relevant to the patient being part of the healthcare team.

QUESTION: 15

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

When you visit your doctor you enter a world of queues and disjointed processes. Why? Because your doctor and health care planner think about health care from the standpoint of organization charts, functional expertise, and "efficiency." Each of the centers of expertise in the health care system —the specialist physician, the single-purpose diagnostic tool, the centralized laboratory—is extremely expensive. Therefore, efficiency demands that it be completely utilized.

To get full utilization, it's necessary to route you around from specialist to machine to laboratory and to over schedule the specialists, machines, and labs to make sure they are always fully occupied. Elaborate computerized information systems are needed to make sure you find your place in the right line and to get your records from central storage to the point of diagnosis or treatment.

How would things work if the medical system embraced lean thinking? First, the patient would be placed in the foreground, with time and comfort included as key performance measures of the system. These can only be addressed by flowing the patient through the system.

Next, the medical system would rethink its departmental structure and reorganize much of its expertise into multi skilled teams. The idea would be very simple: When the patient enters the system, via a multi skilled, co-located team, she or he receives steady attention and treatment until the problem is solved.

To do this, the skills of nurses and doctors would need to be broadened so that a smaller team of more broadly skilled people can solve most patient problems. At the same time, the tools of medicine—machines, labs, and record-keeping units—would need to be rethought and "right-sized" so that they are smaller, more flexible, and faster, with a full complement of tools dedicated to every treatment team.

Finally, the "patient" would need to be actively involved in the process and up-skilled—made a member of the team—so that many problems can be solved through prevention or addressed from home without need to physically visit the medical team, and so that visits can be better predicted. Over time, it will surely be possible to transfer some of the equipment to the home as well, through teleconferencing, remote sensing, and even a home laboratory, the same way most of us now have a complete complement of office equipment in our home offices.

What would happen if lean thinking was introduced as a fundamental principle of health care? The time and steps needed to solve a problem should fall dramatically. The quality of care should improve because less information would be lost in handoffs to the next specialist, fewer mistakes would be made, less elaborate information tracking and scheduling systems would be needed, and less backtracking and rework would be required. The cost of each "cure" and of the total system could fall substantially.
Excerpted from page numbers 289-290 of ‘Lean Thinking’ by Womack and Jones

Q. What can be inferred to be the central philosophy of lean thinking?

Solution:

The philosophy is expressed in the concluding paragraph. fewer mistakes would be made; less backtracking and rework would be required. These point to a cost reduction based on waste reduction.

►Option 1 – is a philosophy related to lean, but which focusses on reducing Work in Progress inventory.
►Option 3 – is discussed in the passage in the context of equipment size, but is not the central idea.
►Option 4 – Not mentioned in the passage.

QUESTION: 16

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

When you visit your doctor you enter a world of queues and disjointed processes. Why? Because your doctor and health care planner think about health care from the standpoint of organization charts, functional expertise, and "efficiency." Each of the centers of expertise in the health care system —the specialist physician, the single-purpose diagnostic tool, the centralized laboratory—is extremely expensive. Therefore, efficiency demands that it be completely utilized.

To get full utilization, it's necessary to route you around from specialist to machine to laboratory and to over schedule the specialists, machines, and labs to make sure they are always fully occupied. Elaborate computerized information systems are needed to make sure you find your place in the right line and to get your records from central storage to the point of diagnosis or treatment.

How would things work if the medical system embraced lean thinking? First, the patient would be placed in the foreground, with time and comfort included as key performance measures of the system. These can only be addressed by flowing the patient through the system.

Next, the medical system would rethink its departmental structure and reorganize much of its expertise into multi skilled teams. The idea would be very simple: When the patient enters the system, via a multi skilled, co-located team, she or he receives steady attention and treatment until the problem is solved.

To do this, the skills of nurses and doctors would need to be broadened so that a smaller team of more broadly skilled people can solve most patient problems. At the same time, the tools of medicine—machines, labs, and record-keeping units—would need to be rethought and "right-sized" so that they are smaller, more flexible, and faster, with a full complement of tools dedicated to every treatment team.

Finally, the "patient" would need to be actively involved in the process and up-skilled—made a member of the team—so that many problems can be solved through prevention or addressed from home without need to physically visit the medical team, and so that visits can be better predicted. Over time, it will surely be possible to transfer some of the equipment to the home as well, through teleconferencing, remote sensing, and even a home laboratory, the same way most of us now have a complete complement of office equipment in our home offices.

What would happen if lean thinking was introduced as a fundamental principle of health care? The time and steps needed to solve a problem should fall dramatically. The quality of care should improve because less information would be lost in handoffs to the next specialist, fewer mistakes would be made, less elaborate information tracking and scheduling systems would be needed, and less backtracking and rework would be required. The cost of each "cure" and of the total system could fall substantially.
Excerpted from page numbers 289-290 of ‘Lean Thinking’ by Womack and Jones

Q. Based on a reading of this article, what prediction can we make about the technology of the homes of the future?

Solution:

This is in keeping with the ‘Prevention is better than cure’ philosophy.

►Option 2, 3 – will not reduce costs for the system, as the hospital staff is still required.
►Option 4 – if this option had specified the sensors were being used for measuring health parameters, this option would have been Ok.

QUESTION: 17

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

Last semester I tried to create a college classroom that was a technological desert. I wanted the space to be a respite from the demands and distractions of smartphones, tablets, and computers. So I banned the use of technology " because asking students to be professional digital citizens had not worked.

Simply requesting that students put away their phones was an exercise in futility. Adding a line in the syllabus that there would be grade penalties for unprofessional use of technology brought about no change in their habits of swiping and clicking. They meant no disrespect. Technology pulled at them " and pulls at us " creating a sense of urgency that few can ignore. I get it. This is not a college-student problem (I've been to faculty meetings). It's a human problem.

Solution:

Option 1 is too extreme in nature and the extreme negative sentiment expressed by it is not expressed in the paragraph.

 Option 2 is the apt answer in this case. It reflects the general tone and tenor of the author of the passage and highlights the most essential aspect of the paragraph: the problem in the classroom is one that the whole society faces right now.

► Option 3 reverses the causation in this case. The problem is one that society suffers from and classrooms are not explicitly targeted.

► Option 4 presents incorrect information. The author at no point quotes that education has been disrupted.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 18

DIRECTIONS for the question:
The five sentences (labelled 1,2,3,4, and 5) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentence and key in this sequence of five numbers as your answer.

1.  The Trump administration’s health-care reform bill now in the Senate, and the version that passed the House this May, will force some women to pay more again.
2.  Specifically, American women of child-bearing age paid somewhere between 52% and 69% more in out-of-pocket healthcare costs than men.
3.  Despite the incontrovertible fact that men are biologically just as responsible as women for a pregnancy happening, before the Affordable Care Act passed in 2010, women in the US paid more for health care and insurance because they are the ones who can get pregnant.
4.  Specifically, it strips out hundreds of billions of dollars from Medicaid, the insurance for the poor, which now covers over 50% of all births in many US states, and allows states to opt out of covering “essential” healthcare that includes maternity and newborn care.
5. The Senate bill was crafted behind closed doors, by 13 men and no women. A search of the language used in the 142-page draft document shows that womanhood and motherhood are, quite literally, also omitted from most of the bill itself.


Solution:

Statements 3 &2 form a mandatory pair as 3 talks about women and men being equally responsible for pregnancy but women end up paying more. The exact numbers are being mentioned in 5. Also, statement 1,4& 5 (not in that order) talk about Trump’s administrations health care bill. ‘It’in statement 4 talks about the bill mentioned in statement 1.
So, 4 follows 1. Statement 5 would come in the end to provide an additional information in the passage.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 19

DIRECTIONS for the question:
The five sentences (labelled 1,2,3,4, and 5) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentence and key in this sequence of five numbers as your answer.

1. Tellingly, as the city’s resources shrank and conquests grew, Rome’s agricultural deity, Mars, became the god of war.
2. Rome’s imperialism emerged in part in response to nutrient losses, the center expanding to support its vast needs with timber, food, and other resources elsewhere.
3. In Imperial Rome service people took wastes away from public spaces and the toilets of the wealthy and piled them outside the city.
4. Agriculture and tree-felling drained soils of nutrients and led to erosion, and the landscape became drier and more arid, with less fertile cropland.
5. There is an old Roman saying, pecunia non olet: “money doesn’t stink.”


Solution:

►Statement 5 is a good opening sentence – and the stink of Statement 5 carries on to the wastes of Statement 3.
►Statement 4, 2 is a pair because of ‘nutrients’.
►Statement 2,1 is a pair because of ‘resources’.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 20

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.

1. Neruda's family and supporters have been divided over whether the case should be closed or whether researchers should continue carrying out tests.
2. Neruda's chauffeur claimed Pinochet's agents took advantage of the poet's illness to inject poison into his stomach as he lay in hospital.
3. Luna also said that tests indicated that death from prostrate cancer was not likely at the moment when Neruda died.
4. Spanish forensic specialist Aurelio Luna from the University of Murcia told journalists that his team discovered something that could possibly be laboratory-cultivated bacteria.
5. We cannot confirm if the nature of Pablo Neruda's death was natural or violent.


Solution:

ODD sentence is 1. (It is odd sentence in this context. The theme revolves around trying to ascertain the cause of his death). However, sentence 1 talks of what is to be done with the case. The right order of the other sentences is 2435.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 21

DIRECTIONS for the question:
The five sentences (labelled 1,2,3,4, and 5) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentence and key in this sequence of five numbers as your answer.

1. To cope with its chronic water shortages, India employs electric groundwater pumps, diesel-powered water tankers and coal-fed power plants. If the country increasingly relies on these energy-intensive short-term fixes, the whole planet's climate will bear the consequences.
2. What India does with its water will be a test of whether that combination is possible.
3. If a country fails to keep up with the water needs of its growing cities, those cities will be unable to sustain the robust economic growth that has become a magnet for global investment.
4. Without sensible water policies, political agitation — like the recent controversies over Coca-Cola's use of groundwater in rural communities in southern and western India — will become more frequent and river-sharing negotiations with India's neighbors Pakistan and Bangladesh more tense.
5. India is under enormous pressure to develop its economic potential while also protecting its environment — something few, if any, countries have accomplished.


Solution:

Two sentences can mark the opening of the paragraph. Sentence 3 and sentence 5.

Now, the best way to handle this question is to make pairs and then arrange them together.  

Look at the key words in sentence 3 ‘economic growth + magnet + global investment’ and ‘sensible+ policies+ Coca- Cola’ in sentence 4. Since these two sentences are sharing the same line of thoughts, 34 becomes a pair.

Sentence 1 talks about, ''what we are trying to overcome water shortage i.e. ‘planet’s climate+ consequences’ and this will put huge pressure on the evironment.

Sentence 5 talks about ‘while+ protecting environment’ i.e. the effect of cause shown in sentence 1.‘That combination’ in 2 is used for the task of developing economic potential and protecting environment. Thus 152 is a trio.

Well this makes the task easy as 5 can’t mark the opening of the paragraph ,therefore 3 will begin the paragraph . And the answer will be 34152.

QUESTION: 22

DIRECTIONS for the question: Identify the most appropriate summary for the paragraph.

Uber fits neatly into the mythology of the tech industry, which portrays itself as surfing one of the waves of "creative destruction" through which capitalism periodically renews itself. In this narrative, industrial progress involves a good deal of destruction in order to make way for new, creative, wealth-creating industries. The abolition of old timers such as licensed taxi cabs, travel agents and bookshops etc is merely the collateral damage of an essentially benign process " regrettable but necessary casualties of innovation. You don't have to be much of a sceptic to spot that this is self-serving cant. Far from being a radical innovation, Uber is a classic example of something as old as the internet itself, namely our old friend 'disintermediation'. The idea is to find a business in which the need of buyers to find sellers (and vice versa) has traditionally been handled by an intermediary, and then use networking technology to eliminate said middle man. It happened a very long time ago to travel agents and bookshops. Now it's happening to taxi firms. If this is technological innovation, then it's a pretty low-IQ manifestation of it.

Solution:

Option 4 is the best answer.

 Option 1 is incorrect, as Uber brings something to the table, though not to the degree it claims.

► Option 2 is a close option but commits the mistake of highlighting ''economics'' instead of ''businesses''. Business models are being discussed in the paragraph, and not economics.

► Option 3 is incorrect as ''no periodic cycles'' have been mentioned in the given paragraph.

► Option 4 is the perfect representation for the paragraph as it essentially points out the significant points of the paragraph.

QUESTION: 23

DIRECTIONS for the question: Identify the most appropriate summary for the paragraph.

The advent of cooking enabled humans to eat more kinds of food, to devote less time to eating, and to make do with smaller teeth and shorter intestines. Some scholars believe there is a direct link between the advent of cooking, the shortening of the human intestinal track, and the growth of the human brain. Since long intestines and large brains are both massive energy consumers, it’s hard to have both.

Solution:

The message is that we could afford to have larger brains – and feed them with more energy, because the stomach and digestive system did not need too much, post our diet being converted to cooked food. Option 2 captures this idea quite well.

► Option 1 – what is stated is actually the reverse – cooking led to intellect.

► Option 3 – it actually gave many more choices than just these two.

► Option 4 – what the driver of evolution is, is a moot point. The passage does not throw too much light on this.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 24

DIRECTIONS for the question:
The five sentences (labelled 1,2,3,4, and 5) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentence and key in this sequence of five numbers as your answer.

1. The first people any rational society locks up are the most dangerous criminals, such as murderers and rapists.
2. The more people a country imprisons, the less dangerous each additional prisoner is likely to be.
3. At some point, the costs of incarceration start to outweigh the benefits: Prisons are expensive—cells must be built, guards hired, prisoners fed. The inmate, while confined, is unlikely to work, support his family or pay tax.
4. Money spent on prisons cannot be spent on other things that might reduce crime more, such as hiring extra police or improving pre-school in rough neighborhoods.
5. And—crucially—locking up minor offenders can make them more dangerous, since they learn felonious habits from the hard cases they meet inside.


Solution:

The passage talks about imprisoning dangerous criminals and how it is beneficial to the country. However, sometimes the costs of imprisonment outweigh the benefits – money could have been spent on reduction of crime. Also when minor offenders and hardened criminals are put together, they become more dangerous. 

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 25

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Four sentences related to a topic are given below. Three of them can be put together  to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.

1. What do some well-meaning shareholders and I want from the Infosys board?
2. No other company that has demonstrated a CAGR of 53.9% in market capitalization over twenty one years in the history of corporate India.
3. We just do not want the board to drive this institution to death through serious governance deficits in our own life time.
4. Not money, not position for our children and not power. 


Solution:

Sentence 2.
Order is 143.

We start with a question, which is in statement 1.

We need to look out for an answer to this question.

Statement 4 and 3 both are possible answers – though more about what they do not want, than what they want.

Statement 2 is a misfit because it talks about past growth rather than current needs of its shareholders.

QUESTION: 26

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

Teams from seven states – Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujrat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal – are participating in the national basketball championship. After the inauguration ceremony, the reporter from 11 Sports spoke to nine players – Akshay Kumar, Anil Thakur, David D’Souza, Jayesh Patel, Rahul Jha, Rajeev Sinha, Ramesh Nayudu, Sachdev Sharma and Subhash Divyundu – from these seven teams. Additional information about the interviews is as follows.

  • Each player interviewed wore a jersey with a unique number.
  • David D’Souza with jersey number 31 plays for Andhra Pradesh and is also known as a 3-pointer.
  • Rajeev Sinha with jersey number 23 is the eldest player and Subhash Divyundu is the heaviest player.
  • Sachdev Sharma has jersey number 30, while Jayesh Patel has jersey number 40.
  • Rahul Jha is one of the dunkers and he is from West Bengal.
  • The player from UP and one player from Andhra Pradesh have single digit jersey numbers.
  • Both the players with jersey numbers 40 and 34 play for Gujrat.
  • Rahul Jha was interviewed after Ramesh Nayudu, but was not the last player to be interviewed.
  • Both the players from Andhra Pradesh were interviewed one after the other and they were followed by both players from Gujrat.
  • The players from Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and West Bengal were interviewed one after the other in that order.
  • The player with jersey number 23 plays for Bihar.
  • The heaviest player has jersey number 34.
  • Ramesh Nayudu is a passer for Andhra Pradesh.
  • Jersey numbers 2 and 3 were the only single digit jersey numbers.
  • The player from Maharashtra was interviewed 7th.

Q. If David D’Souza was the first to be interviewed, who could not be interviewed 2nd?

Solution:

We can collate the given information as follows:

  • David, the 3-pointer, plays for AP and wears jersey number 31.
  • Ramesh, the passer, plays for AP and wears jersey number 2 or 3.
  • Jayesh plays for GJ and wears jersey number 40.
  • Subhash, the heaviest player, plays for GJ and wears jersey number 34.
  • Rajeev, the eldest player, plays for BR and wears jersey number 23.
  • Rahul, the dunker, plays for WB.
  • The player from UP wears jersey number 2 or 3.
  • Sachdev wears jersey number 30.
  • David plays for AP.

Since the players from AP are interviewed one after the other, the 2nd player to be interviewed must be from AP.
So, the 2nd player is Ramesh, who is a passer and wears jersey number 2 or 3.
So, Rahul or Rajeev, who is the eldest player, cannot be interviewed 2nd.

QUESTION: 27

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.
Teams from seven states – Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujrat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal – are participating in the national basketball championship. After the inauguration ceremony, the reporter from 11 Sports spoke to nine players – Akshay Kumar, Anil Thakur, David D’Souza, Jayesh Patel, Rahul Jha, Rajeev Sinha, Ramesh Nayudu, Sachdev Sharma and Subhash Divyundu – from these seven teams. Additional information about the interviews is as follows.

  • Each player interviewed wore a jersey with a unique number.
  • David D’Souza with jersey number 31 plays for Andhra Pradesh and is also known as a 3-pointer.
  • Rajeev Sinha with jersey number 23 is the eldest player and Subhash Divyundu is the heaviest player.
  • Sachdev Sharma has jersey number 30, while Jayesh Patel has jersey number 40.
  • Rahul Jha is one of the dunkers and he is from West Bengal.
  • The player from UP and one player from Andhra Pradesh have single digit jersey numbers.
  • Both the players with jersey numbers 40 and 34 play for Gujrat.
  • Rahul Jha was interviewed after Ramesh Nayudu, but was not the last player to be interviewed.
  • Both the players from Andhra Pradesh were interviewed one after the other and they were followed by both players from Gujrat.
  • The players from Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and West Bengal were interviewed one after the other in that order.
  • The player with jersey number 23 plays for Bihar.
  • The heaviest player has jersey number 34.
  • Ramesh Nayudu is a passer for Andhra Pradesh.
  • Jersey numbers 2 and 3 were the only single digit jersey numbers.
  • The player from Maharashtra was interviewed 7th.

Q. If Anil Thakur, Akshay Kumar and Sachdev Sharma were players who got interviewed in order, then who will not be wearing Jersey number 2?

Solution:

We can collate the given information as follows:

  • David, the 3-pointer, plays for AP and wears jersey number 31.
  • Ramesh, the passer, plays for AP and wears jersey number 2 or 3.
  • Jayesh plays for GJ and wears jersey number 40.
  • Subhash, the heaviest player, plays for GJ and wears jersey number 34.
  • Rajeev, the eldest player, plays for BR and wears jersey number 23.
  • Rahul, the dunker, plays for WB.
  • The player from UP wears jersey number 2 or 3.
  • Sachdev wears jersey number 30.
  • Ramesh could wear jersey number 2.
  • Sachdev with jersey number 30 could play for MH or MP.
  • The player from MP could be interviewed after the players from GJ, after the player from WB or after the player from BR.

Since Anil, Akshay and Sachdev are interviewed one after the other in that order, Sachdev plays for MH, and Akshay who plays for UP could could wear jersey number 2.
Thus, the dunker cannot wear jersey number 2.

QUESTION: 28

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.
Teams from seven states – Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujrat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal – are participating in the national basketball championship. After the inauguration ceremony, the reporter from 11 Sports spoke to nine players – Akshay Kumar, Anil Thakur, David D’Souza, Jayesh Patel, Rahul Jha, Rajeev Sinha, Ramesh Nayudu, Sachdev Sharma and Subhash Divyundu – from these seven teams. Additional information about the interviews is as follows.

  • Each player interviewed wore a jersey with a unique number.
  • David D’Souza with jersey number 31 plays for Andhra Pradesh and is also known as a 3-pointer.
  • Rajeev Sinha with jersey number 23 is the eldest player and Subhash Divyundu is the heaviest player.
  • Sachdev Sharma has jersey number 30, while Jayesh Patel has jersey number 40.
  • Rahul Jha is one of the dunkers and he is from West Bengal.
  • The player from UP and one player from Andhra Pradesh have single digit jersey numbers.
  • Both the players with jersey numbers 40 and 34 play for Gujrat.
  • Rahul Jha was interviewed after Ramesh Nayudu, but was not the last player to be interviewed.
  • Both the players from Andhra Pradesh were interviewed one after the other and they were followed by both players from Gujrat.
  • The players from Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and West Bengal were interviewed one after the other in that order.
  • The player with jersey number 23 plays for Bihar.
  • The heaviest player has jersey number 34.
  • Ramesh Nayudu is a passer for Andhra Pradesh.
  • Jersey numbers 2 and 3 were the only single digit jersey numbers.
  • The player from Maharashtra was interviewed 7th.

Q. Referring to the previous two questions, which of the following may be the correct order of the interviewees?

Solution:

We can collate the given information as follows:

  • David, the 3-pointer, plays for AP and wears jersey number 31.
  • Ramesh, the passer, plays for AP and wears jersey number 2 or 3.
  • Jayesh plays for GJ and wears jersey number 40.
  • Subhash, the heaviest player, plays for GJ and wears jersey number 34.
  • Rajeev, the eldest player, plays for BR and wears jersey number 23.
  • Rahul, the dunker, plays for WB.
  • The player from UP wears jersey number 2 or 3.
  • Sachdev wears jersey number 30.

we know that Sachdev plays for MH and Akshay plays for UP. Anil is interviewed before Akshay.

Since the players from GJ are Jayesh and Subhash, we can conclude that Anil plays for MP and is interviewed after the players from GJ.
Only option 3 satisfies these conditions.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 29

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.


Overall, brands A, B, C, and D's men's watches constitute 10 percent of all watches; their ladies watches constitute 20.25 percent of all watches, and kids Watches constitute 10.5 percent of all-watches.

Q. p = ?(in numerical value)


Solution:

Overall, brands A, B, C, and D’s ladies watches constitute 20.25% of all watches.

► 0.3 × 10 + 0.5 × 20 + P / 100 × 15 + 0.25 × 5 = 20.25.
► 0.15p = 20.25 – 14.25 = 6

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 30

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.


Overall, brands A, B, C, and D's men's watches constitute 10 percent of all watches; their ladies watches constitute 20.25 percent of all watches, and kids Watches constitute 10.5 percent of all-watches.

Q. z = ?(in numerical value)


Solution:

► r = 15 \ s = ½ [100 – (r + 25)] = 30.

► Also q = 100 – (30 + p + 10) = 100 – 80 = 20.

Overall brands A, B, C and D’s, kids watches constitute 10.5% of all watches.

∴ 0.2 × 10 + z / 100 × 20 + 0.2 × 15 + 0.3 × 5 = 10.5.
∴ 0.2z = 10.5 – 6.5 = 4.
∴  z = 4/0.2 = 20.
Hence, 3.

QUESTION: 31

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.


Overall, brands A, B, C, and D's men's watches constitute 10 percent of all watches; their ladies watches constitute 20.25 percent of all watches, and kids Watches constitute 10.5 percent of all-watches.

Q. What percentage of clocks are wall clocks? Assume that 'other' brands do not have wall clocks

Solution:

9.25% of all clocks are wall clocks. Hence. 1

QUESTION: 32

DIRECTIONS for the question: Study the following Graph & table given below and answer the question that follows.

The table below shows the power purchased, billing of power and number of connections of a power distribution company for different years in a particular city. All figures are given for a population of 1000 i.e., electricity purchased per 1000 population, or number of connections per 1000 population. Population of the city has been increasing @ 20% every 10 years. Transmission losses are taken as 12% of electricity purchased. Except transmission losses all losses are considered as theft of electricity.  1 MWH = 1000 KWH. There is only one connection per family.

Q. What is the average electricity consumption per month per connection in 2000, as per the billing data?

Solution:

Monthly billing per 1000 persons = 40 MWH = 40000 KWH

Number of connections per  1000 persons = 180

Average consumption per connection = 40000/180 = 222.2.

Hence, [4]

QUESTION: 33

DIRECTIONS for the question: Study the following Graph & table given below and answer the question that follows.

The table below shows the power purchased, billing of power and number of connections of a power distribution company for different years in a particular city. All figures are given for a population of 1000 i.e., electricity purchased per 1000 population, or number of connections per 1000 population. Population of the city has been increasing @ 20% every 10 years. Transmission losses are taken as 12% of electricity purchased. Except transmission losses all losses are considered as theft of electricity.  1 MWH = 1000 KWH. There is only one connection per family.

Q. What percent increase is there in total electricity theft from 1980 to 2000?

Solution:

Electricity theft = electricity purchased - transmission loss - electricity billed

► Theft in 2000 = 55 - (55 × 0.12) – 40 = 8.4 MWH/1000 persons

► Theft in 1980 = 42 - (42 × 0.12) – 30 = 6.96 MWH/1000 persons
Assuming population in 1980 as 1000X thousands,
Population in 2000 = 1.2 × 1.2 × 1000X = 1440X

► Total theft in  1980 - 6.96X

► Total theft in 2000 = 8.4 × 1.44 × X = 12.096X

Hence, percentage increase   =   74%.

QUESTION: 34

DIRECTIONS for the question: Study the following Graph & table given below and answer the question that follows.

The table below shows the power purchased, billing of power and number of connections of a power distribution company for different years in a particular city. All figures are given for a population of 1000 i.e., electricity purchased per 1000 population, or number of connections per 1000 population. Population of the city has been increasing @ 20% every 10 years. Transmission losses are taken as 12% of electricity purchased. Except transmission losses all losses are considered as theft of electricity.  1 MWH = 1000 KWH. There is only one connection per family.

Q. What was the percentage of illegal connections to that of legal connections in 1960, assuming average electricity consumption of illegal connections is same as that of legal connections?

Solution:

Since average electricity consumption of legal and illegal connections is same, the ratio of illegal connection to legal connections = electricity theft to electricity billed = 

Hence, 10%. Hence 1

QUESTION: 35

DIRECTIONS for the question: Study the following Graph & table given below and answer the question that follows.

The table below shows the power purchased, billing of power and number of connections of a power distribution company for different years in a particular city. All figures are given for a population of 1000 i.e., electricity purchased per 1000 population, or number of connections per 1000 population. Population of the city has been increasing @ 20% every 10 years. Transmission losses are taken as 12% of electricity purchased. Except transmission losses all losses are considered as theft of electricity.  1 MWH = 1000 KWH. There is only one connection per family.

Q. What is the average family size in 1980 assuming all persons in the city have connection i.e., legal or illegal, and also assumption of Q 12 to be true?

Solution:


 Total connections per 1000 persons 


= Number of families/1000 persons

QUESTION: 36

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

P, Q, R, S, T, U and V are seven students whose pet dogs are standing in a row. The pets are numbered 1 to 7 from left to right.
Neither P's pet nor U's pet are at the ends of the row.
R's pet is to the right of S's pet.
T and Q's pets are adjacent to each other.
V's pet is among the three middle pets in the row.
Q's pet is not adjacent to R's pet but it is one of the two pets between R's and V's pets.

Q. Whose among the following can be pet no. 2?

Solution:

From (iii) we get that T's pet and Q's pet are immediately next to each other from (iv), we get V' pet is no. 3 or 4 or 5.

From (V), we know that there are two pets between R's and V's pets and that Q's  pet is adjacent to V. Further, since Q's pet is adjacent to V. Further, since Q's pet and T's pet should be together, the orders should be RTQV or VQTR, if it is RTQV, the right most position V's pet can occupy is no. 5 and hence, R will be the second pet.

From condition (ii), S's pet should be in no. 1 position, 6th pet will be P's, which will not satisfy condition (i) So, RTQV is not possible.

We have only VQTR. Since S's pet is on the left side of R's pet, only P's and U's pet can then come to the right. But then condition (i) will not be satisfied. So we should ensure R's pet is in the right most position which means VQTR will be in 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th houses. To satisfy conditions i) and (ii), we need to have S's pet in the first place. Thus, P's and U's pets will be in 2nd and 3rd position in any order.

Thus the two possible arrangements are SPUVQTR or SUPVQTR.

P's or U's pet can be in position No. 2.

QUESTION: 37

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

P, Q, R, S, T, U and V are seven students whose pet dogs are standing in a row. The pets are numbered 1 to 7 from left to right.
Neither P's pet nor U's pet are at the ends of the row.
R's pet is to the right of S's pet.
T and Q's pets are adjacent to each other.
V's pet is among the three middle pets in the row.
Q's pet is not adjacent to R's pet but it is one of the two pets between R's and V's pets.

Q. Which pet belongs to U?

Solution:

From (iii) we get that T's pet and Q's pet are immediately next to each other from (iv), we get V' pet is no. 3 or 4 or 5. From (V), we know that there are two pets between R's and V's pets and that Q's  pet is adjacent to V. Further, since Q's pet is adjacent to V. Further, since Q's pet and T's pet should be together, the orders should be RTQV or VQTR, if it is RTQV, the right most position V's pet can occupy is no. 5 and hence, R will be the second pet. From condition (ii), S's pet should be in no. 1 position, 6th pet will be P's, which will not satisfy condition (i) So, RTQV is not possible.

We have only VQTR. Since S's pet is on the left side of R's pet, only P's and U's pet can then come to the right. But then condition (i) will not be satisfied. So we should ensure R's pet is in the right most position which means VQTR will be in 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th houses. To satisfy conditions i) and (ii), we need to have S's pet in the first place. Thus, P's and U's pets will be in 2nd and 3rd position in any order.

Thus the two possible arrangements are SPUVQTR or SUPVQTR.
U's pet is either 2nd or 3rd.

QUESTION: 38

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

Given below are two graphs giving information about the number of rallies held by some political in India from 1995-2001 and the money spent by them on these rallies over the period.

Q. Which of the following indicates the most amount of money spent per rally by a party in any particular year?

Solution:

Hence option 4

QUESTION: 39

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

Given below are two graphs giving information about the number of rallies held by some political in India from 1995-2001 and the money spent by them on these rallies over the period.

Q. If the values of Kongress is interchanged with value of PJB in the year 1998 with respect to the number of rallies organized by them and compared with the original values of Kongress and PJB in 1997, then who would have spent more money per rally? (The amount spend by Kongress and PJB is not interchanged in year 1998)

Solution:


The above figures are the original figures before interchanging for the year 1998.
After Interchanging the figures (Amount spend is not to be interchanged)

The figures for the year 1997

Thus, by comparing the above figures we get the answer as Kongress 1998.

Hence, [2]

QUESTION: 40

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

Given below are two graphs giving information about the number of rallies held by some political in India from 1995-2001 and the money spent by them on these rallies over the period.

Q. Assume that the money spent per rally by Semata P goes on decreasing and increasing in alternate years from the year 1997 to 2001 by 10%, keeping 1997 as the base year then the money spent by Semata P per rally in 2001 would be:

Solution:

Correct Answer :- a

Explanation : The money per rally spent by Semata P in the year 1997

The money spent by Semata P in 2001.
≈ 444444 × 0.9 × 1.1  × 0.9  × 1.1 ≈ 435600.
 

QUESTION: 41

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

Given below are two graphs giving information about the number of rallies held by some political in India from 1995-2001 and the money spent by them on these rallies over the period.

Q. The Indian government has imposed restriction that from the year 2002 there would not be more than 650 rallies in totality by all the parties. There are 4 parties other than Kongress, PJB and Semata P. These three have been allotted a share of maximum 63%, based on their seniority. If, after their allotment and respective acceptance, the remaining rallies can be distributed amongst other parties, the rallies held by each one of them in 2002 based on this distribution would be: (Assume each decides to hold -rallies based on average growth numbers per year from 1995-2001 only.)

Solution:

63% share of 650 rallies ≈ 410.
Thus, 410 rallies are to be distributed amongst the three based on their average growth for the period gained by each one of them.
Average growth of Kongress

Thus rallies held by Kongress in 2002 = 97 + 11.2 ≈ 108 ..............(1)
Average growth of PJB

Thus rallies held by PJB in  2002 = 90 + 10.3 = 100 .....................(2)
Average growth of Semata Party

Thus, rallies held by Semata in 2002 = 78 + 9.7 ≈ 88 ......................(3)
Thus, Kongress - 108, PJB - 100, Semata - 88.
Hence, [1].

QUESTION: 42

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

Given below are two graphs giving information about the number of rallies held by some political in India from 1995-2001 and the money spent by them on these rallies over the period.

Q. In the year 2002, 88 rallies will be held by Semata P. The party has to distribute the funds for holding these rallies in over 27 states evenly. How much fund should be allocated per state for rallies? (Assume each state will be holding approximately the same number of rallies and money spent on rallies was in the year 2002 was 15% more than that of the year 2000.)

Solution:

Amount spend on rallies in 2000 = Rs. 4 crores

Amount to be spend on rallies in 2002 = (4 × 1.15) crores  = Rs. 4.6 crores

Amount to be allocated to each state = 4.6/27 = Rs. 1703703.
Hence [4]

QUESTION: 43

DIRECTIONS for the question:

Study the following Graph & table given below and answer the question that follows.

Q. Which share traded the highest total volume in money terms (i.e., volume number ´ closing price) on BSE and NSE combined?

Solution:


From table Infosys has the maximum volume in money terms. Hence, [4]

QUESTION: 44

DIRECTIONS for the question:

Study the following Graph & table given below and answer the question that follows.

Q. If variance is defined as difference between highest and lowest value of a scrip expressed as percentage of lowest value, then which scrip showed the highest variance on which stock exchange?

Solution:

Variance for Infosys on  BSE = 

From the table, it can be seen that highest variance is shown by Infosys on BSE. (In fact, you just need to calculate variance for given 4 options). Hence. [2]

QUESTION: 45

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Study the following Graph & table given below and answer the question that follows.

Q. Market capital of any company at a given point of time, is given by the product of number of shares of the company and the share price at that time. The market capital given in the tables are calculated on closing price. Based on this, which of the following are true?
I. The market capital of Infosys increased marginally during the day
II. Wipro's market capital growth was the highest during the day
III. At NSE, market capital of Satyam and NIIT grew at the same rate.
IV. NIIT's market cap growth was higher at BSE compared to that at NSE

Solution:

Market Capital  = Number of shares  × share price
As, no. of shares are constant, all changes in market capital are corresponding to share price.
∴ Market capital change during the day is equivalent to change in stock price i.e., change in closing price over the opening price of any stock.
I. Infosys' price is coming down during the day implying a fall in market capital. Hence I is False

From table, growth of HCL Tech at NSE is the highest. II is not true.
III. From above table, III is true
IV. From above table, NIIT's growth at BSE is higher than that at NSE. Hence, IV is true
Hence, [3]

QUESTION: 46

DIRECTIONS for the question:
Study the following Graph & table given below and answer the question that follows.

Q. Which company has the highest number of shares?

Solution:

Market Capital = Number of shares × Closing price


From the table, Satyam has the highest number of share. Hence, [1]

QUESTION: 47

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Go through the pie chart/s given below and answer the question that follows.

In the Trankanian presidential election, if no single candidate secures a simple majority of more than 50% in the first round, then the top five candidates in terms of votes polled proceed to the next round. If no one still gets a simple majority, then the top three of that round go into the next round. If the decision is still not decisive in favour of one candidate, only the top two proceed to the (hopefully) last round. Shown below are the results of Elections '72.

Q. Candidate B made gains only at the expense of 'C and 'Others'. If all the voters in favour of candidate C voted for candidate B in Round 2, then how much percentage of the 'Others' category votes did candidate B get?

Solution:

In Round 1, B got 22% votes
⇒  22% of 1850000 = 407000; C got 5% votes = 5% of 1850000 = 92500.

Others got 35% votes ⇒ 35% of 1850000 = 647500.

In Round 2, B got 53% votes ⇒ 53% of 2050000 = 1086500

QUESTION: 48

DIRECTIONS for the question: Go through the pie chart/s given below and answer the question that follows.

In the Trankanian presidential election, if no single candidate secures a simple majority of more than 50% in the first round, then the top five candidates in terms of votes polled proceed to the next round. If no one still gets a simple majority, then the top three of that round go into the next round. If the decision is still not decisive in favour of one candidate, only the top two proceed to the (hopefully) last round. Shown below are the results of Elections '72.

Q. In the second round, at some additional constituencies (total votes = 140000), the ballot-boxes were sent late to the counting centre. If only 10000 votes were not in favour of B or F, then what minimum percentage of the new votes must go to candidate F in order to call for a third round?

Solution:

In order for Round 3 to be called, candidate B must get 50% or less of the new total of (2050000 + 140000) = 2190000.

∴ 50% of 2190000 = 1095000
B already has 1086500 votes (53%), thus if it gets more than 8500 votes out of the new ballot, it gets a simple majority. Thus, in order to call for Round 3, F must get (140000 - 10000 - 8500) = 121500 votes.

► 121500/140000 @ 86.8%.
Hence, [2]

QUESTION: 49

DIRECTIONS for the question: Go through the pie chart/s given below and answer the question that follows.

In the Trankanian presidential election, if no single candidate secures a simple majority of more than 50% in the first round, then the top five candidates in terms of votes polled proceed to the next round. If no one still gets a simple majority, then the top three of that round go into the next round. If the decision is still not decisive in favour of one candidate, only the top two proceed to the (hopefully) last round. Shown below are the results of Elections '72.

Q. Because of pending criminal cases against them, candidates E and D are disqualified in the first round of voting and all votes cast in their favour are nullified. What is candidate C's new share of votes (in percentage)?

Solution:

Candidates C got 5% votes = 0.05 × 1.85 = 0.0925 mn votes

Candidate D and E together got  10 + 6 = 16%

These were nullified ⇒ 16% of 1850000 = 296000 .......................(i)


Hence, [2]

QUESTION: 50

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Go through the pie chart/s given below and answer the question that follows.

In the Trankanian presidential election, if no single candidate secures a simple majority of more than 50% in the first round, then the top five candidates in terms of votes polled proceed to the next round. If no one still gets a simple majority, then the top three of that round go into the next round. If the decision is still not decisive in favour of one candidate, only the top two proceed to the (hopefully) last round. Shown below are the results of Elections '72.

Q. The law states that every candidate other than the top five candidates in Round 1, must pay 2.5 kroners for every vote less than the votes of the lowest of top five. How much will the government earn through this source? [Round off the votes to the nearest 500.]

Solution:

While candidate C's fined amount can be calculated. We do not know how many candidate comprise the category 'Others' and what are their number of votes, thus their individual fines cannot be computed.
Hence, [4]

QUESTION: 51

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

If a3x – 2b3x = ax + 3b5x, what is the value of

Solution:

The given expression can be rewritten as a(3x – 2) – (x + 3) = b(5x – 3x) 
⇒ a2x – 5 = b2x.

Taking log on both sides, we get log10 (a2x – 5) = log10 (b2x) ⇒ (2x – 5) log10 a = 2x log10 b
⇒ 2x log10 a – 5 log10 a = 2x log10 b
⇒  2x log10 a – 2x log10 b = 5 log10 a

QUESTION: 52

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Two circles intersect each other at C and D. Line AB is their common tangent. What is the sum of measures of ∠ACB and ∠ADB?

Solution:

∠BAC = ∠ADC (as both intercept same arc)
∠ABC = 1/2m (arc BC) = ∠BDC
∴ ∠BAC + ∠ABC = ∠ADC + ∠BDC
Add ∠ACB to both sides,
∠BAC + ∠ABC + ∠ACB
=∠ADC + ∠BDC +∠ACB
∴ ∠ADB + ∠ACB = 1800
[ the sum of all angles of a triangle = 1800].

Hence, [1]

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 53

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question.

By selling 45 m of cloth a shopkeeper gets a profit of selling price of 15 m of cloth .Find his real profit %?(in %, in numerical value)


Solution:

SP of 45 m =CP of 45m +SP of 15 m
SP of 45m – SP of 15 m =CP of 45 m
SP of 30 m =CP of 30m +CP of 15 m
Therefore by selling 30m he gets a CP of 30m and CP of 15m

QUESTION: 54

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Venkat borrowed Rs. 45,000 from bank at 10% compound interest. He repaid the sum in three annual instalments, which were in arithmetic progression. He ended up paying Rs. 54,000 in all. How much did he pay in the first year?

Solution:

Let the repayments be Rs. "a – d", Rs. "a" and Rs. "a + d"
a – d + a + a + d = 54000
3a = 54000
a = 18000

The payment at the end of year 2 is Rs. 18,000.
Borrowed amount = Rs. 45,000
Amount outstanding at the end of Year 1 = (45000 × 1.1) – (18000 – d)
=31500 + d

Amount outstanding at the end of Year 2
= {(31500 + d) × 1.1} – 18000
= 34650 + 1.1d – 18000 = 16650 + 1.1d
Amount outstanding at the end of Year  3 = {(16650 + 1.1d) × 1.1} = 18000 + d
18315 + 1.21d = 18000 + d
0.21d = – 315 ⇒ d = –1500

The payments are Rs. 19500, Rs. 18000 and Rs. 16500

QUESTION: 55

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

A typical Puneri daily diet is in the neighborhood of 2000 kcal.
1 kcal per day translates to 0.05 W.
10% is the maximum energy content available in human excreta.
Pune Municipal Corporation is planning to set up a bio-gas plant running on the excreta produced by the 31 lakh residents of Pune city. What would be the maximum rated capacity of this plant?

Solution:

2000 kcal translates to 2000 × 0.05 = 100 W of human power.

Out of this 10% × 100 W = 10 W of power is available in excreta.

31,00,000 × 10 = 31,000,000 W of power can thus be generated.
This amounts to 31 MW.

QUESTION: 56

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Preet covered a distance of 100 kms on her first journey. On a later journey she travelled 600 kms while going 3 times as fast. If her new time is equal to x times the old time, find x.

Solution:

Let t1, t2 and s be the old time, new time and old speed.

QUESTION: 57

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

If the expression x2 + 9  and x + 5 are to have a common odd factor other than 1 such that x is a natural number less than 301, then how many values of x are possible.

Solution:

Let the required common odd factor be K, now x2 + 9 = (x + 5)2 – (10x + 16).

Now 10x + 16 must also be divisible by K, 10x + 16 = 10(x+5) – 34. So 34 must also be divisible by K. So k clearly has to be 17.

Now x + 5 is divisible by 17, so x + 5 = 17, 34, 51, 68 and so on, which gives x = 12, 29, 46, 63, 80, 97 ...284.
So there will be total 17 values.

QUESTION: 58

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

A dozen pairs of socks quoted at Rs. 180 are available at discount of 20%. How many pairs of socks can be bought for Rs. 48 ?

Solution:

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 59

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question.

The sum of the first 8 terms of an AP is equal to the sum of first 13 terms of the same AP. The product of the first three terms is a perfect square. What is the 11th term of the AP?(in numerical value)


Solution:

Sum of 8 terms = Sum of 13 terms, that means sum of 9th to 13th term is zero.
Hence sum of five consecutive terms of an AP is zero.

This is possible only when middle term that is 11th term is zero.

QUESTION: 60

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Three partners shared the profit in a business in a ratio 5:6:7. They had partnered for 12 months, 9 months and 8 months respectively. What was the ratio of their investments?

Solution:

Let their investment be Rs x for 12 months, Rs y for 9 months and Rsz for 8 months respectively.
Then, 12x:9y:8z = 5 : 6 : 7

Hence, option A is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 61

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

A shopkeeper mixes two varieties of Tea, one costing Rs. 40/kg and another Rs. 50/kg in the ratio 3 : 2. If he sells the mixed variety of Tea at Rs. 48/kg, his gain or loss percent is :

Solution:

Using alligations,

Hence, required profit percentage

= 9.09%
Thus, approximate gain is 10%.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 62

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question.

It takes an HP Printer 4 more minutes than an Epson printer to print 40 pages. Working together, the two printers can print 50 pages in 6 minutes. How long will it take the HP printer to print 80 pages (in minutes, in numerical value)?


Solution:

If it takes the Epson printer x minutes to print 40 pages, then the rates for the printers are:
HP: 40 / (x + 4)
Epson: 40 / x
HP + Epson: 50 /6

When we have two things working together, we can add their rates:
[40 / (x + 4)] + (40 / x) = (50 / 6)
Solving this, you get x = 8.

So HP printer will take 12 minutes to print 40 pages.

Hence it will take 24 minutes to print 80 pages.

QUESTION: 63

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

The diagram shows square PQRS and a regular hexagon PQTUVW.

What is the size of ∠PSW?

Solution:

∠WPQ  = 120° ( interior angle of a regular hexagon),
So ∠WPS = (360 – 120 – 90)° = 150°.

Now PW = PQ (sides of a regular hexagon) and PS = PQ (sides of a square) so PW = PS.

Therefore, triangle PSW is isosceles, therefore
2∠PSW + 150° = 180 ° 
► ∠PSW =30°/ 2
► ∠PSW = 15°.

QUESTION: 64

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Find the 200th term of the series 3 + 4 + 6 + 9 + 13 + 18 ...... + 200 terms.

Solution:

► Sn = 3 + 4 + 6 + 9 + 13 + 18 .....Tn

► Sn = 3 + 4 + 6 + 9   + 13 ......Tn-1 + Tn
Subtracting these 2 we get :

► 0 = 3 + ( 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 .......n-1 terms) – Tn
► 
Put n = 200 and T200 = 19903

QUESTION: 65

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

A semi-circle of diameter 1 unit sits at the top of a semi-circle of diameter 2 units. The shaded region inside the smaller semi-circle but outside the larger semi-circle is called a lune. The area of the lune is

Solution:


Required Area = Area of Semi circle - Area of segment

Now, since ΔAOB is equilateral
∴ ∠AOB = 60º, Area of segment AB = Area of Sector AOB - Area ΔAOB

∴ the shaded area

 So option B is answer.

QUESTION: 66

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.
If x, y, z are positive real numbers, such that x + y + z = 25, then the minimum value of  is

Solution:

We have AM ≥ HM

Hence minimum value of 

QUESTION: 67

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

If the simple interest on Rs. x at a rate of a % for m years is same as that on Rs y at a rate of  a2 %  for m2 years, then x : y is equal to

Solution:

We know that,
Simple interest = 
Applying the same, we have

= am : 1

QUESTION: 68

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

If ax = by, then

Solution:

► ax = by
► log ax = log by
► x log a = y log b
► log a/log b = y/x
Hence, option C is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 69

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Divide 1370 oranges in 3 parts such that 3/4 of the first part, 5/7 of the second part and 6/11 of the third part are equal. Third part is:

Solution:

Since we need to calculate the third part and we have been given that 6/11 of the third part is equal to the other two values.

So we can start by assuming the third part to be a multiple of 11.

Thus going by the options:
Let third part= 550

Thus second part= 420 & First part=400
Sum comes out to be 1370 and this is the actual number given.

Thus our assumption is correct.
Hence option C.

QUESTION: 70

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

The year next to 1990 having the same calendar as that of 1990 is :

Solution:

2 different years will have the same calendar if the total number of odd days from one year to the other is 7 or multiple of 7.

► So from 1990, if we go forward, odd days in 1991–1, 1992 – 2, 1993 – 1, 1994 – 1, 1995 – 1, 1996 – 2, 1997 – 1, 1998 – 1, 1999 – 1, 2000 – 2, 2001 – 1.
Total number of odd days up to 2001= 1 + 2 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 = 14.

Hence 2001 will have same calendar as 1990.

QUESTION: 71

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question
S(a, b) is a function which computes the least common multiple (LCM) of two positive integers a and b. P is a set of 12 positive integers and L(P) is the LCM of all the elements of P. If L(P) is computed by using the function S respectively, find the minimum number of times S needs to be used to compute L(P).

Solution:

Every time we use the function S(a,b) we get the L.C.M. of a and b. Hence the total number of elements is reduced by one each time the function is applied. Since P has 12 elements the function should be used 12-1 = 11 times to reduce the values to one i.e., the L.C.M. of all the 12 elements of P.
For example , if there are four elements a1, az, a3, a4 = S(a1, S(a2 S(a3 a4))) i.e., S is used three times.

QUESTION: 72

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

The graph of x2 + y2 = 29 and the curve xy = 10 interest at certain number of points. All these points of intersection are joined successively by line segments to form a convex polygon. Which of the following best describes the polygon thus obtained?

Solution:

Given equation x2 + y2 = 29 is a circle with radius  units and the given equation xy = 10 is a rectangular hyperbola. The graphs of these two equations are as follows.

 

Given x2 + y2 = 29 and xy = 10

► (x+y)2 = x2 + y2 +2xy = 49
► x + y = 7 or -7   →  (i)
► (x-y)2 = x2 + y2 – 2xy = 9
► ∴ x – y = 3 or -3  →  (ii)

Form (i) and (ii), we get

► (x, y) = (5,2) or (2,5) or (-5, -2) or (-2, -5).

Distance between (5, 2) or (2, 5) = Distance between (-5, -2) and (-2, -5)   → (i)
Distance between (5, 2) and (-2, -5) = Distance between (-5, -2) and (2,5)  → (ii)
As the pairs of opposite sides are equal and (ii) > (i), i.e., adjacent sides are not equal, the points of intersection can either form a rectangle or a parallelgram, but only rectangle is given in the options.

► Note: Even if the above graph cannot be visualized, the question can still be answered by solving the two equations.

QUESTION: 73

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Find the value of 

Solution:

► 
► log2(log46) + log2(log68) + log2(log810) + .....+ log2 (log810) +......+ log2(log254256)
► log2(log46 log68 log810........ log254256)
► ► 
► log2(log4256)
► log2(log444) = log24= 2

QUESTION: 74

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Observation over a period of 1 year has established. The following pattern of sales in Fencer (a retail chain) In Bharani Colony.

What is the probability that of any four customers, exactly two have a bill between Rs.200 and Rs.300?

Solution:

For any customer, the probability that the bill is between Rs,200 and Rs.300 is 10%, while the probability that it is
something else is 90%.

∴ The required probability is 4C2 (0.1)2 (0.9)2

►  6(0.01(0.81) = 0.0486 = 4.86%

QUESTION: 75

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

The lines 4x + 5y = 134 and y = mx + 16 intersect at points whose coordinates are integers. Find the number of positive integer values that m can assume.

Solution:

Given 4x + 5y = 134

► 5mx + 80 = 134 - 4x ⇒ (5m + 4) = 54
Since m ∈ N, x ∈ N.
► Now consider the factors of 54 i.e., 1, 2, 3, 6, 9,18, 27 and 54.
► Out of these only 9 and 54 can be expressed as 5m + 4
► i.e., = 1 and m = 10 are the two possible values.

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