CAT Verbal And RC MCQ - 3


34 Questions MCQ Test CAT Mock Test Series 2020 | CAT Verbal And RC MCQ - 3


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This mock test of CAT Verbal And RC MCQ - 3 for CAT helps you for every CAT entrance exam. This contains 34 Multiple Choice Questions for CAT CAT Verbal And RC MCQ - 3 (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this CAT Verbal And RC MCQ - 3 quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. CAT students definitely take this CAT Verbal And RC MCQ - 3 exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other CAT Verbal And RC MCQ - 3 extra questions, long questions & short questions for CAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

Group Question

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

The UK-India relationship is strong, with a shared history going back centuries, and now a shared vision of the future. Since 2010, UK Prime Minister David Cameron has visited India three times, and the UK diplomatic network in India is now the largest in the world. Investment in each other's countries has grown, and there has been a renewed energy in collaborations. The UK is the third largest source of foreign direct investment in India. And India is the third largest source of FDI (in terms of the number of projects) in the UK, after the US and France. The UK imports more and more from India, though the level of its exports to the country has recently begun to stutter after several years of growth.

Indian companies are playing an increasingly important role in the UK economy. Remittances from the UK to India are high. While it is difficult to know the exact level, a 2013 report in the Guardian, based on World Bank data, suggested remittances from the UK to India, including unrecorded transfers through formal and informal channels, could be worth up to $3.9bn (£2.6bn).More than 21,000 students from India study in the UK and there has been an increase in Chevening and other scholarships for Indian students. New initiatives in science and education such as the Newton-Bhabha Fund and an increase in research collaboration from £1m to £150m all add to a strengthening of the relationship and growth in trade.

Since India's government made a significant shift in the early 1990s to liberalise and internationalise its economy, which led to a period of growth that continues today, the UK has steadily faced increased international competition for its attention. Fifteen years ago, the UK was India's third biggest trading partner; today it is its 12th. Mr Modi has already travelled to 27 countries in his first 18 months in office, developing relationships and signing new agreements. With its "Look East" policy, India's attention has also shifted to Japan, Korea and China, which is now India's biggest trading partner- Mr Modi's China visit this year yielded $22bn worth of deals. And just last month, India hosted a major summit of 50 African leaders, as they look to improve ties and trade with that continent. Meanwhile, young Indians are increasingly turning to the US, Australia and Germany for educational, employment and investment opportunities. 

"Investment in each other's countries has grown, and there has been a renewed energy in collaborations."

We can assume from the above statement that:

Solution:

Option 1 is ruled out as the statement mentions investments have "grown" which means that India and Britain have had investments with each other in the past.

Option 2 is vague.

Option 4 misquotes the highlighted text. The statement says there is a renewed energy for collaboration meaning a new enthusiasm or zest to come together for business.

Option 3 is a safe assumption. The fact that investments with each other have increased, means both India and Britain have been investing in each other's economy for the past years.

Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 2

The UK-India relationship is strong, with a shared history going back centuries, and now a shared vision of the future. Since 2010, UK Prime Minister David Cameron has visited India three times, and the UK diplomatic network in India is now the largest in the world. Investment in each other's countries has grown, and there has been a renewed energy in collaborations. The UK is the third largest source of foreign direct investment in India. And India is the third largest source of FDI (in terms of the number of projects) in the UK, after the US and France. The UK imports more and more from India, though the level of its exports to the country has recently begun to stutter after several years of growth.

Indian companies are playing an increasingly important role in the UK economy. Remittances from the UK to India are high. While it is difficult to know the exact level, a 2013 report in the Guardian, based on World Bank data, suggested remittances from the UK to India, including unrecorded transfers through formal and informal channels, could be worth up to $3.9bn (£2.6bn).More than 21,000 students from India study in the UK and there has been an increase in Chevening and other scholarships for Indian students. New initiatives in science and education such as the Newton-Bhabha Fund and an increase in research collaboration from £1m to £150m all add to a strengthening of the relationship and growth in trade.

Since India's government made a significant shift in the early 1990s to liberalise and internationalise its economy, which led to a period of growth that continues today, the UK has steadily faced increased international competition for its attention. Fifteen years ago, the UK was India's third biggest trading partner; today it is its 12th. Mr Modi has already travelled to 27 countries in his first 18 months in office, developing relationships and signing new agreements. With its "Look East" policy, India's attention has also shifted to Japan, Korea and China, which is now India's biggest trading partner- Mr Modi's China visit this year yielded $22bn worth of deals. And just last month, India hosted a major summit of 50 African leaders, as they look to improve ties and trade with that continent. Meanwhile, young Indians are increasingly turning to the US, Australia and Germany for educational, employment and investment opportunities.

"Remittances from the UK to India are high." implies:

Solution:

The word "remittances" means 'a sum of money sent in payment or as a gift.' If the remittances from the UK to India are high it means that India is getting an economic advantage or boost because of the UK. Thus, eliminate options 1, 2 and 4.

Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 3

The UK-India relationship is strong, with a shared history going back centuries, and now a shared vision of the future. Since 2010, UK Prime Minister David Cameron has visited India three times, and the UK diplomatic network in India is now the largest in the world. Investment in each other's countries has grown, and there has been a renewed energy in collaborations. The UK is the third largest source of foreign direct investment in India. And India is the third largest source of FDI (in terms of the number of projects) in the UK, after the US and France. The UK imports more and more from India, though the level of its exports to the country has recently begun to stutter after several years of growth.

Indian companies are playing an increasingly important role in the UK economy. Remittances from the UK to India are high. While it is difficult to know the exact level, a 2013 report in the Guardian, based on World Bank data, suggested remittances from the UK to India, including unrecorded transfers through formal and informal channels, could be worth up to $3.9bn (£2.6bn).More than 21,000 students from India study in the UK and there has been an increase in Chevening and other scholarships for Indian students. New initiatives in science and education such as the Newton-Bhabha Fund and an increase in research collaboration from £1m to £150m all add to a strengthening of the relationship and growth in trade.

Since India's government made a significant shift in the early 1990s to liberalise and internationalise its economy, which led to a period of growth that continues today, the UK has steadily faced increased international competition for its attention. Fifteen years ago, the UK was India's third biggest trading partner; today it is its 12th. Mr Modi has already travelled to 27 countries in his first 18 months in office, developing relationships and signing new agreements. With its "Look East" policy, India's attention has also shifted to Japan, Korea and China, which is now India's biggest trading partner- Mr Modi's China visit this year yielded $22bn worth of deals. And just last month, India hosted a major summit of 50 African leaders, as they look to improve ties and trade with that continent. Meanwhile, young Indians are increasingly turning to the US, Australia and Germany for educational, employment and investment opportunities.

Which of the following can be inferred from the 'Look East' policy?

Solution:

Option 1 can be ruled out as it is talking about the Eastern states of India.

The passage states- "Look East" policy, India's attention has also shifted to Japan, Korea and China, which is now India's biggest trading partner- Mr Modi's China visit this year yielded $22bn worth of deals. This helps rule out option 2 which states "Japan" instead of "China".

Option 3 with "growing" is erroneous as the passage talks about India's attention being shifted to Japan, Korea and China, and nothing about its trade relations with these countries.

Option 4 is correct. The fact that India is looking to Asian countries for economic trade, threatens UK's position among India's international partnerships. The second part of the passage is evidence for the same.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 4

The UK-India relationship is strong, with a shared history going back centuries, and now a shared vision of the future. Since 2010, UK Prime Minister David Cameron has visited India three times, and the UK diplomatic network in India is now the largest in the world. Investment in each other's countries has grown, and there has been a renewed energy in collaborations. The UK is the third largest source of foreign direct investment in India. And India is the third largest source of FDI (in terms of the number of projects) in the UK, after the US and France. The UK imports more and more from India, though the level of its exports to the country has recently begun to stutter after several years of growth.

Indian companies are playing an increasingly important role in the UK economy. Remittances from the UK to India are high. While it is difficult to know the exact level, a 2013 report in the Guardian, based on World Bank data, suggested remittances from the UK to India, including unrecorded transfers through formal and informal channels, could be worth up to $3.9bn (£2.6bn).More than 21,000 students from India study in the UK and there has been an increase in Chevening and other scholarships for Indian students. New initiatives in science and education such as the Newton-Bhabha Fund and an increase in research collaboration from £1m to £150m all add to a strengthening of the relationship and growth in trade.

Since India's government made a significant shift in the early 1990s to liberalise and internationalise its economy, which led to a period of growth that continues today, the UK has steadily faced increased international competition for its attention. Fifteen years ago, the UK was India's third biggest trading partner; today it is its 12th. Mr Modi has already travelled to 27 countries in his first 18 months in office, developing relationships and signing new agreements. With its "Look East" policy, India's attention has also shifted to Japan, Korea and China, which is now India's biggest trading partner- Mr Modi's China visit this year yielded $22bn worth of deals. And just last month, India hosted a major summit of 50 African leaders, as they look to improve ties and trade with that continent. Meanwhile, young Indians are increasingly turning to the US, Australia and Germany for educational, employment and investment opportunities.

Q.

India’s outlook towards the African continent could be described as:  

Solution:

He passage mention “India hosted a major summit of 50 African leaders, as they look to improve ties and trade with that continent.” “Idealistic” is ruled out as it is out of scope of the given text.

“Lackadaisical” meaning lacking enthusiasm would be contrary to what evidence is provided in the passage. “Undemocratic” is not supported in the passage.

If India has hosted a summit comprising so many established leaders of Africa, there would be a reason to make the most of this opportunity. The opportunity is mentioned clearly - to improve ties and trade with that continent.

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 5

The UK-India relationship is strong, with a shared history going back centuries, and now a shared vision of the future. Since 2010, UK Prime Minister David Cameron has visited India three times, and the UK diplomatic network in India is now the largest in the world. Investment in each other's countries has grown, and there has been a renewed energy in collaborations. The UK is the third largest source of foreign direct investment in India. And India is the third largest source of FDI (in terms of the number of projects) in the UK, after the US and France. The UK imports more and more from India, though the level of its exports to the country has recently begun to stutter after several years of growth.

Indian companies are playing an increasingly important role in the UK economy. Remittances from the UK to India are high. While it is difficult to know the exact level, a 2013 report in the Guardian, based on World Bank data, suggested remittances from the UK to India, including unrecorded transfers through formal and informal channels, could be worth up to $3.9bn (£2.6bn).More than 21,000 students from India study in the UK and there has been an increase in Chevening and other scholarships for Indian students. New initiatives in science and education such as the Newton-Bhabha Fund and an increase in research collaboration from £1m to £150m all add to a strengthening of the relationship and growth in trade.

Since India's government made a significant shift in the early 1990s to liberalise and internationalise its economy, which led to a period of growth that continues today, the UK has steadily faced increased international competition for its attention. Fifteen years ago, the UK was India's third biggest trading partner; today it is its 12th. Mr Modi has already travelled to 27 countries in his first 18 months in office, developing relationships and signing new agreements. With its "Look East" policy, India's attention has also shifted to Japan, Korea and China, which is now India's biggest trading partner- Mr Modi's China visit this year yielded $22bn worth of deals. And just last month, India hosted a major summit of 50 African leaders, as they look to improve ties and trade with that continent. Meanwhile, young Indians are increasingly turning to the US, Australia and Germany for educational, employment and investment opportunities.

Q.

The passage talks about all of the following except:

Solution:

The passage talks about Indian and British politicians, FDI, science, research, education, trade and commerce.

However it does not talk about cultural interest at all. Thus, the odd statement is option 4.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 6

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.
There can't be a bigger alarm for citizens than what is being currently witnessed in Mumbai and parts of Maharashtra. The city and state is reeling under a severe water crisis, leading to widespread cuts across all areas. With the issue being predominant on everyone's minds, citizens, restaurant owners and students are finding ways to conserve water.

One of the biggest culprits sits right in your home and office — a leaky faucet or tap that you have been ignoring so far. "Did you know 40 per cent of water is lost via leakage every day?" asks city- based water conservationist, Aabid Surti. The 80-year-old Mira Road resident has been repairing taps and plumbing issues in Mumbai for free. He adds, "Just cutting the quota is a quick solution, but if you plug the leak, you save millions of litres each day. This has been a growing problem as people are too lazy to fix leaking taps. As plumbers charge money per visit and are sometimes not available, this problem goes unattended." The daily tank overflow in societies is also a major concern. "As watchmen leave the taps open, there is a huge wastage of water. I wrote to the Municipal Commissioner that we should have two-member flying squads to check for overflows, and fine the guilty parties after issuing a warning," he adds.

Another big wastage comes from asking for water at restaurants and simply taking a sip or two while leaving the rest. Mumbai citizen Prajakta Samant recently highlighted the need to take action about the half-drunk glass by starting the hashtag movement, 'JitniPyaasUtnaGlass'.

Santosh Shetty (General Secretary, Indian Hotel And Restaurant Association) says, "This is a huge problem and people don't realise it. We have asked waiters and staff not to fill the glass up to the brim, but just a little more than half, each time they serve it. This will help to curtail waste. We will also been putting up posters with messages in restaurants soon."

Q.

What is the primary concern of the passage?

Solution:

The passage talks about the city dealing with a water crisis and then goes on to talk about water wastage at home, office and restaurants.

Option 2 with “severely punished” is an exaggeration as the passage talks only about fines as a consequence.

Option 3 with “environment” is out of context.

Option 4 is an unreasonable statement besides people waste water at homes which is not a public space.

Option 1 aptly relates to the theme of the passage.

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 7

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.
There can't be a bigger alarm for citizens than what is being currently witnessed in Mumbai and parts of Maharashtra. The city and state is reeling under a severe water crisis, leading to widespread cuts across all areas. With the issue being predominant on everyone's minds, citizens, restaurant owners and students are finding ways to conserve water.

One of the biggest culprits sits right in your home and office — a leaky faucet or tap that you have been ignoring so far. "Did you know 40 per cent of water is lost via leakage every day?" asks city- based water conservationist, Aabid Surti. The 80-year-old Mira Road resident has been repairing taps and plumbing issues in Mumbai for free. He adds, "Just cutting the quota is a quick solution, but if you plug the leak, you save millions of litres each day. This has been a growing problem as people are too lazy to fix leaking taps. As plumbers charge money per visit and are sometimes not available, this problem goes unattended." The daily tank overflow in societies is also a major concern. "As watchmen leave the taps open, there is a huge wastage of water. I wrote to the Municipal Commissioner that we should have two-member flying squads to check for overflows, and fine the guilty parties after issuing a warning," he adds.

Another big wastage comes from asking for water at restaurants and simply taking a sip or two while leaving the rest. Mumbai citizen Prajakta Samant recently highlighted the need to take action about the half-drunk glass by starting the hashtag movement, 'JitniPyaasUtnaGlass'.

Santosh Shetty (General Secretary, Indian Hotel And Restaurant Association) says, "This is a huge problem and people don't realise it. We have asked waiters and staff not to fill the glass up to the brim, but just a little more than half, each time they serve it. This will help to curtail waste. We will also been putting up posters with messages in restaurants soon."

Q.

A suitable title for the passage would be?

Solution:

The passage mainly focuses on solutions that one can adopt to avert the water crisis. This validates option 2.

Option 1 is too pessimistic.

Option 3 is a universal fact but the passage goes beyond this to state the challenges we face with water conservation.

Option 4 falls short for the same reason as it only mentions water crisis.

Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 8

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.
There can't be a bigger alarm for citizens than what is being currently witnessed in Mumbai and parts of Maharashtra. The city and state is reeling under a severe water crisis, leading to widespread cuts across all areas. With the issue being predominant on everyone's minds, citizens, restaurant owners and students are finding ways to conserve water.

One of the biggest culprits sits right in your home and office — a leaky faucet or tap that you have been ignoring so far. "Did you know 40 per cent of water is lost via leakage every day?" asks city- based water conservationist, Aabid Surti. The 80-year-old Mira Road resident has been repairing taps and plumbing issues in Mumbai for free. He adds, "Just cutting the quota is a quick solution, but if you plug the leak, you save millions of litres each day. This has been a growing problem as people are too lazy to fix leaking taps. As plumbers charge money per visit and are sometimes not available, this problem goes unattended." The daily tank overflow in societies is also a major concern. "As watchmen leave the taps open, there is a huge wastage of water. I wrote to the Municipal Commissioner that we should have two-member flying squads to check for overflows, and fine the guilty parties after issuing a warning," he adds.

Another big wastage comes from asking for water at restaurants and simply taking a sip or two while leaving the rest. Mumbai citizen Prajakta Samant recently highlighted the need to take action about the half-drunk glass by starting the hashtag movement, 'JitniPyaasUtnaGlass'.

Santosh Shetty (General Secretary, Indian Hotel And Restaurant Association) says, "This is a huge problem and people don't realise it. We have asked waiters and staff not to fill the glass up to the brim, but just a little more than half, each time they serve it. This will help to curtail waste. We will also been putting up posters with messages in restaurants soon."

Q.

Which of the following weakens the need for the movement “ J itn i Pyaas UtnaGlass”?

Solution:

The movement is meant to make people realize water wastage.

Option 1 and option 3 will strengthen the movement as it talks about people making positive changes towards wasting water.

Option 4 with “environment” does not capture the essence of the movement.

Option 2 is apt as the movement highlights the issue of water wastage at restaurants. Hence, people purchasing packaged water will defeat the purpose of the hashtag movement about the half drunk glass issue.

Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 9

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

Organic advocates often credit manure composting as the solution for returning lost carbon back into soil. Additionally, they say it reduces the need for the use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer that is generated through a process that depends on burning fossil fuels. It’s estimated, in fact, that the amount of energy it takes to synthesize nitrogen to grow an acre of corn is about 30 gallons of gasoline. So, the use of manure compost is chalked up as the answer to avoiding the use of fossil fuels. Because manure compost holds more of the nitrogen inside the soil, preventing pooling or runoff, the manure compost also helps build up soil carbon while reducing emissions of nitrous oxide and methane.

For all of fanfare about large-scale manure composting, however, Savage said it’s like having a “leaky pipe” releasing greenhouse gases into the environment long before it ever reaches the soil. The process of creating compost, for instance, is going to emit not only carbon dioxide, but also large amounts of methane and nitrous oxide that are far more concerning for the environment. “When you actually do the math on those emissions, it can be pretty substantial and that adds up over time. It becomes a lot greater number than what it takes to make synthetic nitrogen,” said Savage in a phone interview.

Savage has calculated that organic use of manure composts releases about 12 to 14 times more in the equivalence of carbon emissions compared to conventional agriculture using synthetic nitrogen from fossil fuels. These are greenhouse gas emissions that are largely ignored in the Rodale Institute’s life-cycle assessments, he said. In fact, one global meta-analysis from the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture of Switzerland determined that organic farming led to greater nitrous oxide emissions, while having only a relatively small methane uptake, as compared to conventional farming from the soil.

Still, there are other emissions released indirectly due to large-scale composting that are also not necessarily considered. These include emissions released during the act of hauling the manure from feedlots, food waste from recycling plants for compost, and the compost around itself to farms. It includes emissions released during the use of a tractor to turn the compost to maintain aerobic conditions. And it includes emissions released when tilling manure compost into the soil.

Q.

From the passage, Savage can be assumed to be a part of: 

Solution:

There is no mention of wildlife in the passage. Thus, eliminate option 1.

Savage’s findings do not exactly support organic agriculture. Thus, eliminate option 3.

Savage’s findings do not encourage large scale composting. Thus, eliminate option 4.

The lines - “Savage has calculated that organic use of manure composts releases about 12 to 14 times more in the equivalence of carbon emissions compared to conventional agriculture using synthetic nitrogen from fossil fuels...” clearly validates option 2.

Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 10

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

Organic advocates often credit manure composting as the solution for returning lost carbon back into soil. Additionally, they say it reduces the need for the use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer that is generated through a process that depends on burning fossil fuels. It’s estimated, in fact, that the amount of energy it takes to synthesize nitrogen to grow an acre of corn is about 30 gallons of gasoline. So, the use of manure compost is chalked up as the answer to avoiding the use of fossil fuels. Because manure compost holds more of the nitrogen inside the soil, preventing pooling or runoff, the manure compost also helps build up soil carbon while reducing emissions of nitrous oxide and methane.

For all of fanfare about large-scale manure composting, however, Savage said it’s like having a “leaky pipe” releasing greenhouse gases into the environment long before it ever reaches the soil. The process of creating compost, for instance, is going to emit not only carbon dioxide, but also large amounts of methane and nitrous oxide that are far more concerning for the environment. “When you actually do the math on those emissions, it can be pretty substantial and that adds up over time. It becomes a lot greater number than what it takes to make synthetic nitrogen,” said Savage in a phone interview.

Savage has calculated that organic use of manure composts releases about 12 to 14 times more in the equivalence of carbon emissions compared to conventional agriculture using synthetic nitrogen from fossil fuels. These are greenhouse gas emissions that are largely ignored in the Rodale Institute’s life-cycle assessments, he said. In fact, one global meta-analysis from the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture of Switzerland determined that organic farming led to greater nitrous oxide emissions, while having only a relatively small methane uptake, as compared to conventional farming from the soil.

Still, there are other emissions released indirectly due to large-scale composting that are also not necessarily considered. These include emissions released during the act of hauling the manure from feedlots, food waste from recycling plants for compost, and the compost around itself to farms. It includes emissions released during the use of a tractor to turn the compost to maintain aerobic conditions. And it includes emissions released when tilling manure compost into the soil.

Q.

Which of the following can be inferred from the sentence “Large-scale manure composting is like having a “leaky pipe” releasing greenhouse gases into the environment long before it ever reaches the soil.” ?

Solution:

Option 1 with “agriculture” is very specific.

Option 2 is a fact which is already mentioned in the given statement.

Option 3 is incorrect as the text states that it harms the air before the soil.

Option 4 is an apt inference. If composting is harming the environment slowly, it is important for it to be kept in check for ecological sustainability.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 11

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

Organic advocates often credit manure composting as the solution for returning lost carbon back into soil. Additionally, they say it reduces the need for the use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer that is generated through a process that depends on burning fossil fuels. It’s estimated, in fact, that the amount of energy it takes to synthesize nitrogen to grow an acre of corn is about 30 gallons of gasoline. So, the use of manure compost is chalked up as the answer to avoiding the use of fossil fuels. Because manure compost holds more of the nitrogen inside the soil, preventing pooling or runoff, the manure compost also helps build up soil carbon while reducing emissions of nitrous oxide and methane.

For all of fanfare about large-scale manure composting, however, Savage said it’s like having a “leaky pipe” releasing greenhouse gases into the environment long before it ever reaches the soil. The process of creating compost, for instance, is going to emit not only carbon dioxide, but also large amounts of methane and nitrous oxide that are far more concerning for the environment. “When you actually do the math on those emissions, it can be pretty substantial and that adds up over time. It becomes a lot greater number than what it takes to make synthetic nitrogen,” said Savage in a phone interview.

Savage has calculated that organic use of manure composts releases about 12 to 14 times more in the equivalence of carbon emissions compared to conventional agriculture using synthetic nitrogen from fossil fuels. These are greenhouse gas emissions that are largely ignored in the Rodale Institute’s life-cycle assessments, he said. In fact, one global meta-analysis from the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture of Switzerland determined that organic farming led to greater nitrous oxide emissions, while having only a relatively small methane uptake, as compared to conventional farming from the soil.

Still, there are other emissions released indirectly due to large-scale composting that are also not necessarily considered. These include emissions released during the act of hauling the manure from feedlots, food waste from recycling plants for compost, and the compost around itself to farms. It includes emissions released during the use of a tractor to turn the compost to maintain aerobic conditions. And it includes emissions released when tilling manure compost into the soil.

Q.

Which of these weakens the theory that nitrogen released from fossil fuels is less harmful than carbon emissions?

A. The organic use of manure composts releases about 12 to 14 times less in the equivalence of carbon emissions compared to conventional agriculture using synthetic nitrogen from fossil fuels.

B. The process of creating compost releases large amounts of methane and nitrous oxide as compared to nitrogen produced from fossil fuels.

Solution:

Statement A mentions composts releasing 12 to 14 times less carbon emission, this would weaken the position of nitrogen released from fossil fuels with respect to carbon emissions.

The passage states that nitrogen released from fossil fuels turns out to be less harmful than the gases released due to large manure composting. Statement B strengthens this view as composting is said to release larger amounts of greenhouse gases.

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 12

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

Organic advocates often credit manure composting as the solution for returning lost carbon back into soil. Additionally, they say it reduces the need for the use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer that is generated through a process that depends on burning fossil fuels. It’s estimated, in fact, that the amount of energy it takes to synthesize nitrogen to grow an acre of corn is about 30 gallons of gasoline. So, the use of manure compost is chalked up as the answer to avoiding the use of fossil fuels. Because manure compost holds more of the nitrogen inside the soil, preventing pooling or runoff, the manure compost also helps build up soil carbon while reducing emissions of nitrous oxide and methane.

For all of fanfare about large-scale manure composting, however, Savage said it’s like having a “leaky pipe” releasing greenhouse gases into the environment long before it ever reaches the soil. The process of creating compost, for instance, is going to emit not only carbon dioxide, but also large amounts of methane and nitrous oxide that are far more concerning for the environment. “When you actually do the math on those emissions, it can be pretty substantial and that adds up over time. It becomes a lot greater number than what it takes to make synthetic nitrogen,” said Savage in a phone interview.

Savage has calculated that organic use of manure composts releases about 12 to 14 times more in the equivalence of carbon emissions compared to conventional agriculture using synthetic nitrogen from fossil fuels. These are greenhouse gas emissions that are largely ignored in the Rodale Institute’s life-cycle assessments, he said. In fact, one global meta-analysis from the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture of Switzerland determined that organic farming led to greater nitrous oxide emissions, while having only a relatively small methane uptake, as compared to conventional farming from the soil.

Still, there are other emissions released indirectly due to large-scale composting that are also not necessarily considered. These include emissions released during the act of hauling the manure from feedlots, food waste from recycling plants for compost, and the compost around itself to farms. It includes emissions released during the use of a tractor to turn the compost to maintain aerobic conditions. And it includes emissions released when tilling manure compost into the soil.

Q.

According to the passage, the release of harmful gases from composting is possible in all the following cases except:

Solution:

The passage states, “These include emissions released during the act of hauling the manure from feedlots, food waste from recycling plants for compost, and the compost around itself to farms. It includes emissions released during the use of a tractor to turn the compost to maintain aerobic conditions. And it includes emissions released when tilling manure compost into the soil.” This validates options 1,2 and 3.

Nothing is mentioned about ‘animal waste’.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 13

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

Organic advocates often credit manure composting as the solution for returning lost carbon back into soil. Additionally, they say it reduces the need for the use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer that is generated through a process that depends on burning fossil fuels. It’s estimated, in fact, that the amount of energy it takes to synthesize nitrogen to grow an acre of corn is about 30 gallons of gasoline. So, the use of manure compost is chalked up as the answer to avoiding the use of fossil fuels. Because manure compost holds more of the nitrogen inside the soil, preventing pooling or runoff, the manure compost also helps build up soil carbon while reducing emissions of nitrous oxide and methane.

For all of fanfare about large-scale manure composting, however, Savage said it’s like having a “leaky pipe” releasing greenhouse gases into the environment long before it ever reaches the soil. The process of creating compost, for instance, is going to emit not only carbon dioxide, but also large amounts of methane and nitrous oxide that are far more concerning for the environment. “When you actually do the math on those emissions, it can be pretty substantial and that adds up over time. It becomes a lot greater number than what it takes to make synthetic nitrogen,” said Savage in a phone interview.

Savage has calculated that organic use of manure composts releases about 12 to 14 times more in the equivalence of carbon emissions compared to conventional agriculture using synthetic nitrogen from fossil fuels. These are greenhouse gas emissions that are largely ignored in the Rodale Institute’s life-cycle assessments, he said. In fact, one global meta-analysis from the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture of Switzerland determined that organic farming led to greater nitrous oxide emissions, while having only a relatively small methane uptake, as compared to conventional farming from the soil.

Still, there are other emissions released indirectly due to large-scale composting that are also not necessarily considered. These include emissions released during the act of hauling the manure from feedlots, food waste from recycling plants for compost, and the compost around itself to farms. It includes emissions released during the use of a tractor to turn the compost to maintain aerobic conditions. And it includes emissions released when tilling manure compost into the soil.

Q.

Which of the following statements is least descriptive of the passage?

Solution:

The passage compares carbon footprints of organic and conventional agriculture and talks about the loopholes of large scale manure composting. In the light of this, options 1 and 4 are validated.

Option 2 questions the sustainability of organic farming which is in line with the passage as compost manure is releasing harmful gases which will be hazardous in the future.

Option 3 seems odd among all the other options. The passage gives no solution or plans for agriculture in future.

Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 14

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

Organic advocates often credit manure composting as the solution for returning lost carbon back into soil. Additionally, they say it reduces the need for the use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer that is generated through a process that depends on burning fossil fuels. It’s estimated, in fact, that the amount of energy it takes to synthesize nitrogen to grow an acre of corn is about 30 gallons of gasoline. So, the use of manure compost is chalked up as the answer to avoiding the use of fossil fuels. Because manure compost holds more of the nitrogen inside the soil, preventing pooling or runoff, the manure compost also helps build up soil carbon while reducing emissions of nitrous oxide and methane.

For all of fanfare about large-scale manure composting, however, Savage said it’s like having a “leaky pipe” releasing greenhouse gases into the environment long before it ever reaches the soil. The process of creating compost, for instance, is going to emit not only carbon dioxide, but also large amounts of methane and nitrous oxide that are far more concerning for the environment. “When you actually do the math on those emissions, it can be pretty substantial and that adds up over time. It becomes a lot greater number than what it takes to make synthetic nitrogen,” said Savage in a phone interview.

Savage has calculated that organic use of manure composts releases about 12 to 14 times more in the equivalence of carbon emissions compared to conventional agriculture using synthetic nitrogen from fossil fuels. These are greenhouse gas emissions that are largely ignored in the Rodale Institute’s life-cycle assessments, he said. In fact, one global meta-analysis from the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture of Switzerland determined that organic farming led to greater nitrous oxide emissions, while having only a relatively small methane uptake, as compared to conventional farming from the soil.

Still, there are other emissions released indirectly due to large-scale composting that are also not necessarily considered. These include emissions released during the act of hauling the manure from feedlots, food waste from recycling plants for compost, and the compost around itself to farms. It includes emissions released during the use of a tractor to turn the compost to maintain aerobic conditions. And it includes emissions released when tilling manure compost into the soil.

Q.

Which of the following is mentioned as a benefit of manure composting in the passage?

Solution:

Option 1 can be ruled out as the first paragraph mentions - “Because manure compost holds more of the nitrogen inside the soil”.

Option 2 can be ruled out as it is not a benefit of manure composting but a disadvantage of carbon emission.

Option 3 is mentioned in the first paragraph - “The manure compost also helps build up soil carbon while reducing emissions of nitrous oxide and methane.”

Option 4 misquotes what is mentioned in the passage - “ The use of manure compost is chalked up as the answer to avoiding the use of fossil fuels.” Null and void would mean fossil fuels would never be used.

Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 15

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

In the Malian film Guimba the Tyrant directed by Cheick Oumar Sissoko, the storytelling is done through the village griot, who also serves to provide comic relief. In the late novels of the Ivorian writer Ahmadou Kourouma, Waiting for the Wild Beasts to Vote takes the form of a praise-song by the Sora, the Griot, Bingo to the President- Dictator of the fictitious Republique du Golfe. His final novel Allah is not Obliged also prominently features a griot character. There are also references in the Alex Haley's book Roots of a griot who passed his family history through oral tradition. When Haley traces back his history, passing from his previous generation through the slave time, back to Africa, he thought there should be griots telling his history and the history of his ancestor, known in the family as “The African”, who was captured in the bushes when he was seeking timber to make a talking drum.

When he arrived in Africa to do research for his book, he believed he had actually found griots telling his history. Through them he learned the ancestor's identity, Kunta Kinte. Since he had first heard the story from his grandmother and later refreshed by his older cousin, he believed that they were griots in their own way until someone put the story to writing. He later learned that his cousin had died within the hour of his arrival at the village. In fact, however, this story illustrates the problems and complexities of oral tradition, especially when approached without expert knowledge. In 1981, it was shown (Wright, 1981) that the story of Kunta Kinte had been manufactured by a well-wisher. Following the publication of Roots, the story was being told in multiple versions with differing embellishments, having entered the stock of general stories. In Paule Marshall's

Praisesong for the Widow, the protagonist Avatara (Avey) might take on some of the characteristics of a griot, especially in her commitment to passing on to her grandchildren her aunt's oral story of the Ibos at the Landing, in which Africans brought to the U.S. Sea Islands to be slaves promptly turned around and walked back to Africa over the water. Griot is the name of an instrumental track on Jon Hassell and Brian Eno's ambient music album Possible Musics. Innercity Griots is the second album by Los Angeles Hip Hop group Freestyle Fellowship, released in 1993 through 4th & B'way Records. The group, consisting of four emcees:

Aceyalone, P.E.A.C.E., Mikah 9and Self Jupiter, received worldwide acclaim with their second project. Released during the prominent gangsta era of West Coast hip hop, Innercity Griots, along with albums like The Pharcyde's Bizarre Ride II the Pharcyde and Del tha Funkee Homosapien's I Wish My Brother George Was Here, established an acclaimed era of alternative hip hop in California.

Q.

What don’t we learn about Griots from the passage?

Solution:

Alex Haley’s case, on the contrary, provided evidence against the reliability of griots as sources of information, “In fact, however, this story illustrates the problems and complexities of oral tradition, especially when approached without expert knowledge. In 1981, it was shown (Wright, 1981) that the story of Kunta Kinte had been manufactured by a well-wisher.” This points to option 1 as being the correct answer option. The above mentioned extract also provides sufficient reasons for option 3 to be incorrect.

Option 2 is incorrect as “In the Malian film, Guimba the Tyrant directed by Cheick Oumar Sissoko, the storytelling is done through the village griot, who also serves to provide comic relief.”

Option 4 is incorrect as the passage supports it - “In the late novels of the Ivorian writer Ahmadou Kourouma, Waiting for the Wild Beasts to Vote takes the form of a praise-song by the Sora, the Griot.”

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 16

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

In the Malian film Guimba the Tyrant directed by Cheick Oumar Sissoko, the storytelling is done through the village griot, who also serves to provide comic relief. In the late novels of the Ivorian writer Ahmadou Kourouma, Waiting for the Wild Beasts to Vote takes the form of a praise-song by the Sora, the Griot, Bingo to the President- Dictator of the fictitious Republique du Golfe. His final novel Allah is not Obliged also prominently features a griot character. There are also references in the Alex Haley's book Roots of a griot who passed his family history through oral tradition. When Haley traces back his history, passing from his previous generation through the slave time, back to Africa, he thought there should be griots telling his history and the history of his ancestor, known in the family as “The African”, who was captured in the bushes when he was seeking timber to make a talking drum.

When he arrived in Africa to do research for his book, he believed he had actually found griots telling his history. Through them he learned the ancestor's identity, Kunta Kinte. Since he had first heard the story from his grandmother and later refreshed by his older cousin, he believed that they were griots in their own way until someone put the story to writing. He later learned that his cousin had died within the hour of his arrival at the village. In fact, however, this story illustrates the problems and complexities of oral tradition, especially when approached without expert knowledge. In 1981, it was shown (Wright, 1981) that the story of Kunta Kinte had been manufactured by a well-wisher. Following the publication of Roots, the story was being told in multiple versions with differing embellishments, having entered the stock of general stories. In Paule Marshall's

Praisesong for the Widow, the protagonist Avatara (Avey) might take on some of the characteristics of a griot, especially in her commitment to passing on to her grandchildren her aunt's oral story of the Ibos at the Landing, in which Africans brought to the U.S. Sea Islands to be slaves promptly turned around and walked back to Africa over the water. Griot is the name of an instrumental track on Jon Hassell and Brian Eno's ambient music album Possible Musics. Innercity Griots is the second album by Los Angeles Hip Hop group Freestyle Fellowship, released in 1993 through 4th & B'way Records. The group, consisting of four emcees:

Aceyalone, P.E.A.C.E., Mikah 9and Self Jupiter, received worldwide acclaim with their second project. Released during the prominent gangsta era of West Coast hip hop, Innercity Griots, along with albums like The Pharcyde's Bizarre Ride II the Pharcyde and Del tha Funkee Homosapien's I Wish My Brother George Was Here, established an acclaimed era of alternative hip hop in California.

Q.

At least how many novels have griots been mentioned in, according to the passage?

Solution:

The passage mentions four books prominently- Waiting for the Wild Beasts to Vote, Roots, Allah is not Obliged and Praisesong for the Widow.

There might be more books with griots in them, but there are at least four, as mentioned in the passage. Hence, we can eliminate options 2,3 and 4.

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 17

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

In the Malian film Guimba the Tyrant directed by Cheick Oumar Sissoko, the storytelling is done through the village griot, who also serves to provide comic relief. In the late novels of the Ivorian writer Ahmadou Kourouma, Waiting for the Wild Beasts to Vote takes the form of a praise-song by the Sora, the Griot, Bingo to the President- Dictator of the fictitious Republique du Golfe. His final novel Allah is not Obliged also prominently features a griot character. There are also references in the Alex Haley's book Roots of a griot who passed his family history through oral tradition. When Haley traces back his history, passing from his previous generation through the slave time, back to Africa, he thought there should be griots telling his history and the history of his ancestor, known in the family as “The African”, who was captured in the bushes when he was seeking timber to make a talking drum.

When he arrived in Africa to do research for his book, he believed he had actually found griots telling his history. Through them he learned the ancestor's identity, Kunta Kinte. Since he had first heard the story from his grandmother and later refreshed by his older cousin, he believed that they were griots in their own way until someone put the story to writing. He later learned that his cousin had died within the hour of his arrival at the village. In fact, however, this story illustrates the problems and complexities of oral tradition, especially when approached without expert knowledge. In 1981, it was shown (Wright, 1981) that the story of Kunta Kinte had been manufactured by a well-wisher. Following the publication of Roots, the story was being told in multiple versions with differing embellishments, having entered the stock of general stories. In Paule Marshall's

Praisesong for the Widow, the protagonist Avatara (Avey) might take on some of the characteristics of a griot, especially in her commitment to passing on to her grandchildren her aunt's oral story of the Ibos at the Landing, in which Africans brought to the U.S. Sea Islands to be slaves promptly turned around and walked back to Africa over the water. Griot is the name of an instrumental track on Jon Hassell and Brian Eno's ambient music album Possible Musics. Innercity Griots is the second album by Los Angeles Hip Hop group Freestyle Fellowship, released in 1993 through 4th & B'way Records. The group, consisting of four emcees:

Aceyalone, P.E.A.C.E., Mikah 9and Self Jupiter, received worldwide acclaim with their second project. Released during the prominent gangsta era of West Coast hip hop, Innercity Griots, along with albums like The Pharcyde's Bizarre Ride II the Pharcyde and Del tha Funkee Homosapien's I Wish My Brother George Was Here, established an acclaimed era of alternative hip hop in California.

Q.

Which of the following statements is true about the Freestyle Fellowship?

Solution:

The passage states, “Released during the prominent gangsta era of West Coast hip hop, Innercity Griots, along with albums like The Pharcyde's Bizarre Ride II the Pharcyde and Del tha Funkee Homosapien's I Wish My Brother George Was Here, established an acclaimed era of alternative hip hop in California.” Since Inner City Griots was an album by the Freestyle Fellowship, option 3 is the correct answer option.

Option 1 is incorrect. The passage states that they helped establish an era of alternative hip hop, and that the album was released during the gangsta era, which means that the era was already popular before the album- thus they couldn’t possibly have led to its (gangsta era) inception.

Option 2 has not been mentioned in the passage.

Option 4 is incorrect. The group consisted of four emcees, “The group, consisting of four emcees: Aceyalone, P.E.A.C.E., Mikah 9 and Self Jupiter.”

Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 18

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

In the Malian film Guimba the Tyrant directed by Cheick Oumar Sissoko, the storytelling is done through the village griot, who also serves to provide comic relief. In the late novels of the Ivorian writer Ahmadou Kourouma, Waiting for the Wild Beasts to Vote takes the form of a praise-song by the Sora, the Griot, Bingo to the President- Dictator of the fictitious Republique du Golfe. His final novel Allah is not Obliged also prominently features a griot character. There are also references in the Alex Haley's book Roots of a griot who passed his family history through oral tradition. When Haley traces back his history, passing from his previous generation through the slave time, back to Africa, he thought there should be griots telling his history and the history of his ancestor, known in the family as “The African”, who was captured in the bushes when he was seeking timber to make a talking drum.

When he arrived in Africa to do research for his book, he believed he had actually found griots telling his history. Through them he learned the ancestor's identity, Kunta Kinte. Since he had first heard the story from his grandmother and later refreshed by his older cousin, he believed that they were griots in their own way until someone put the story to writing. He later learned that his cousin had died within the hour of his arrival at the village. In fact, however, this story illustrates the problems and complexities of oral tradition, especially when approached without expert knowledge. In 1981, it was shown (Wright, 1981) that the story of Kunta Kinte had been manufactured by a well-wisher. Following the publication of Roots, the story was being told in multiple versions with differing embellishments, having entered the stock of general stories. In Paule Marshall's

Praisesong for the Widow, the protagonist Avatara (Avey) might take on some of the characteristics of a griot, especially in her commitment to passing on to her grandchildren her aunt's oral story of the Ibos at the Landing, in which Africans brought to the U.S. Sea Islands to be slaves promptly turned around and walked back to Africa over the water. Griot is the name of an instrumental track on Jon Hassell and Brian Eno's ambient music album Possible Musics. Innercity Griots is the second album by Los Angeles Hip Hop group Freestyle Fellowship, released in 1993 through 4th & B'way Records. The group, consisting of four emcees:

Aceyalone, P.E.A.C.E., Mikah 9and Self Jupiter, received worldwide acclaim with their second project. Released during the prominent gangsta era of West Coast hip hop, Innercity Griots, along with albums like The Pharcyde's Bizarre Ride II the Pharcyde and Del tha Funkee Homosapien's I Wish My Brother George Was Here, established an acclaimed era of alternative hip hop in California.

Q.

Why did Kunta Kinte’s story become a general one?

Solution:

The passage states, “In 1981, it was shown (Wright, 1981) that the story of Kunta Kinte had been manufactured by a well-wisher. Following the publication of Roots, the story was being told in multiple versions with differing embellishments, having entered the stock of general stories.”

Option 1 is incorrect. The above extract establishes the fact that Kunta Kinte's story was untrue.

Option 2 is beyond the scope and purview of the passage.

Option 4 is incorrect. Although Alex Haley probably did lie about his ancestry, there is no proof in the passage to suggest that it was a deliberate act on his part.

Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 19

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

In the Malian film Guimba the Tyrant directed by Cheick Oumar Sissoko, the storytelling is done through the village griot, who also serves to provide comic relief. In the late novels of the Ivorian writer Ahmadou Kourouma, Waiting for the Wild Beasts to Vote takes the form of a praise-song by the Sora, the Griot, Bingo to the President- Dictator of the fictitious Republique du Golfe. His final novel Allah is not Obliged also prominently features a griot character. There are also references in the Alex Haley's book Roots of a griot who passed his family history through oral tradition. When Haley traces back his history, passing from his previous generation through the slave time, back to Africa, he thought there should be griots telling his history and the history of his ancestor, known in the family as “The African”, who was captured in the bushes when he was seeking timber to make a talking drum.

When he arrived in Africa to do research for his book, he believed he had actually found griots telling his history. Through them he learned the ancestor's identity, Kunta Kinte. Since he had first heard the story from his grandmother and later refreshed by his older cousin, he believed that they were griots in their own way until someone put the story to writing. He later learned that his cousin had died within the hour of his arrival at the village. In fact, however, this story illustrates the problems and complexities of oral tradition, especially when approached without expert knowledge. In 1981, it was shown (Wright, 1981) that the story of Kunta Kinte had been manufactured by a well-wisher. Following the publication of Roots, the story was being told in multiple versions with differing embellishments, having entered the stock of general stories. In Paule Marshall's

Praisesong for the Widow, the protagonist Avatara (Avey) might take on some of the characteristics of a griot, especially in her commitment to passing on to her grandchildren her aunt's oral story of the Ibos at the Landing, in which Africans brought to the U.S. Sea Islands to be slaves promptly turned around and walked back to Africa over the water. Griot is the name of an instrumental track on Jon Hassell and Brian Eno's ambient music album Possible Musics. Innercity Griots is the second album by Los Angeles Hip Hop group Freestyle Fellowship, released in 1993 through 4th & B'way Records. The group, consisting of four emcees:

Aceyalone, P.E.A.C.E., Mikah 9and Self Jupiter, received worldwide acclaim with their second project. Released during the prominent gangsta era of West Coast hip hop, Innercity Griots, along with albums like The Pharcyde's Bizarre Ride II the Pharcyde and Del tha Funkee Homosapien's I Wish My Brother George Was Here, established an acclaimed era of alternative hip hop in California.

Q.

What is Ibos at the Landing?

Solution:

A legend is “A romanticized or popularized myth of modern time.”

The story of the Ibos at the Landing states that “Africans brought to the U.S. Sea Islands to be slaves promptly turned around and walked back to Africa over the water.” Since this is definitely not possible in real life, it can only be a legend- it is not a poem or a song, as the passage doesn’t cite sufficient proof for it to be either. We can eliminate options 3 and 4.

It is not a novel since the passage refers to it as an “oral story.” We can eliminate option 2.

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 20

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

In the Malian film Guimba the Tyrant directed by Cheick Oumar Sissoko, the storytelling is done through the village griot, who also serves to provide comic relief. In the late novels of the Ivorian writer Ahmadou Kourouma, Waiting for the Wild Beasts to Vote takes the form of a praise-song by the Sora, the Griot, Bingo to the President- Dictator of the fictitious Republique du Golfe. His final novel Allah is not Obliged also prominently features a griot character. There are also references in the Alex Haley's book Roots of a griot who passed his family history through oral tradition. When Haley traces back his history, passing from his previous generation through the slave time, back to Africa, he thought there should be griots telling his history and the history of his ancestor, known in the family as “The African”, who was captured in the bushes when he was seeking timber to make a talking drum.

When he arrived in Africa to do research for his book, he believed he had actually found griots telling his history. Through them he learned the ancestor's identity, Kunta Kinte. Since he had first heard the story from his grandmother and later refreshed by his older cousin, he believed that they were griots in their own way until someone put the story to writing. He later learned that his cousin had died within the hour of his arrival at the village. In fact, however, this story illustrates the problems and complexities of oral tradition, especially when approached without expert knowledge. In 1981, it was shown (Wright, 1981) that the story of Kunta Kinte had been manufactured by a well-wisher. Following the publication of Roots, the story was being told in multiple versions with differing embellishments, having entered the stock of general stories. In Paule Marshall's

Praisesong for the Widow, the protagonist Avatara (Avey) might take on some of the characteristics of a griot, especially in her commitment to passing on to her grandchildren her aunt's oral story of the Ibos at the Landing, in which Africans brought to the U.S. Sea Islands to be slaves promptly turned around and walked back to Africa over the water. Griot is the name of an instrumental track on Jon Hassell and Brian Eno's ambient music album Possible Musics. Innercity Griots is the second album by Los Angeles Hip Hop group Freestyle Fellowship, released in 1993 through 4th & B'way Records. The group, consisting of four emcees:

Aceyalone, P.E.A.C.E., Mikah 9and Self Jupiter, received worldwide acclaim with their second project. Released during the prominent gangsta era of West Coast hip hop, Innercity Griots, along with albums like The Pharcyde's Bizarre Ride II the Pharcyde and Del tha Funkee Homosapien's I Wish My Brother George Was Here, established an acclaimed era of alternative hip hop in California.

Q.

A suitable title for the passage would be:

Solution:

Option 1 is too broad as the passage only introduces Griots and their function, and nothing about their culture is mentioned.

Option 2 contextually fits as an apt title for the passage as it revolves around the crucial role of Griots who are known to hold history and pass on to generations.

Option 3 is incorrect as it cannot be corroborated from the passage if the historical information held by Griots is true or not.

Option 4 is incorrect as the passage does not say that the Griots are musicians but that the music was inspired by them.

Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 21

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

Dogs are able to follow human pointing gestures to find hidden food, and they can indicate successfully to their owners by their own pointing actions where a hidden toy is located. Under certain circumstances, dogs understand that a human who cannot see them (because, for example, she is blindfolded) is less likely to respond to begging with a tasty treat than a person whose vision is not obscured.

Dogs are also more likely to obey a command to leave something desirable alone if their master stays in the room than if he steps out. And yet attempts to view canine smarts as cut from the same cloth as human intelligence gloss over a lot of the details about how dogs and humans operate. We have found that people remain somewhat mysterious to dogs for the first five months of life, and dogs at our local pound lag considerably behind house dogs when it comes to understanding human beings.

Recent research by Alexandra Horowitz at Barnard College in New York accentuates the “talking past each other” that sometimes goes on between humans and dogs. Horowitz asked owners to forbid their dogs to take a biscuit and then briefly leave the room. When the owners returned, some were told that their dogs had been naughty and eaten the forbidden food.

Others were told their dog had been good and left the biscuit alone. If the dog had misbehaved, the owner was given a moment to berate his pet for its misdeed. The owners were then asked whether their dog looked guilty. The twist in the tale was that only half of the owners were correctly informed.

When Horowitz asked each owner whether his dog looked guilty, she could consider whether the owner’s report of “guilty looks” actually had to do with the facts of the matter - whether the dog had taken the forbidden treat - or whether it reflected nothing more than whether the owner had chastised his hound. The results showed clearly that “guilty looks” came about because the dog was being scolded. This does not mean that we should not chastise our dogs (or praise them). All it means is that, if we want to live harmoniously with another species in our most intimate places, we must recognize that some of the time our preferred modes of reasoning are not theirs. We must try to understand dogs on their own terms, and help them to understand us

Q.

What is the main purpose of this passage?

Solution:

The main purpose of the passage is in the last two sentences: "All it means is that, if we want to live harmoniously with another species in our most intimate places, we must recognize that some of the time our preferred modes of reasoning are not theirs. We must try to understand dogs on their own terms, and help them to understand us.".

Option 1 does not cover the main point of the passage.

Options 2 and 3 are too general - the passage is about sharing intimate spaces with dogs. The mention of other species is in relation to dogs alone and not vice versa.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 22

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

Dogs are able to follow human pointing gestures to find hidden food, and they can indicate successfully to their owners by their own pointing actions where a hidden toy is located. Under certain circumstances, dogs understand that a human who cannot see them (because, for example, she is blindfolded) is less likely to respond to begging with a tasty treat than a person whose vision is not obscured.

Dogs are also more likely to obey a command to leave something desirable alone if their master stays in the room than if he steps out. And yet attempts to view canine smarts as cut from the same cloth as human intelligence gloss over a lot of the details about how dogs and humans operate. We have found that people remain somewhat mysterious to dogs for the first five months of life, and dogs at our local pound lag considerably behind house dogs when it comes to understanding human beings.

Recent research by Alexandra Horowitz at Barnard College in New York accentuates the “talking past each other” that sometimes goes on between humans and dogs. Horowitz asked owners to forbid their dogs to take a biscuit and then briefly leave the room. When the owners returned, some were told that their dogs had been naughty and eaten the forbidden food.

Others were told their dog had been good and left the biscuit alone. If the dog had misbehaved, the owner was given a moment to berate his pet for its misdeed. The owners were then asked whether their dog looked guilty. The twist in the tale was that only half of the owners were correctly informed.

When Horowitz asked each owner whether his dog looked guilty, she could consider whether the owner’s report of “guilty looks” actually had to do with the facts of the matter - whether the dog had taken the forbidden treat - or whether it reflected nothing more than whether the owner had chastised his hound. The results showed clearly that “guilty looks” came about because the dog was being scolded. This does not mean that we should not chastise our dogs (or praise them). All it means is that, if we want to live harmoniously with another species in our most intimate places, we must recognize that some of the time our preferred modes of reasoning are not theirs. We must try to understand dogs on their own terms, and help them to understand us

Q.

According to the passage, all of the following statements about the relationship between man and dogs are true EXCEPT:

Solution:

The main purpose of the passage is in the last two sentences: "All it means is that, if we want to live harmoniously with another species in our most intimate places, we must recognize that some of the time our preferred modes of reasoning are not theirs. We must try to understand dogs on their own terms, and help them to understand us.".

Option 1 does not cover the main point of the passage.

Options 2 and 3 are too general - the passage is about sharing intimate spaces with dogs. The mention of other species is in relation to dogs alone and not vice versa.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 23

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

Dogs are able to follow human pointing gestures to find hidden food, and they can indicate successfully to their owners by their own pointing actions where a hidden toy is located. Under certain circumstances, dogs understand that a human who cannot see them (because, for example, she is blindfolded) is less likely to respond to begging with a tasty treat than a person whose vision is not obscured.

Dogs are also more likely to obey a command to leave something desirable alone if their master stays in the room than if he steps out. And yet attempts to view canine smarts as cut from the same cloth as human intelligence gloss over a lot of the details about how dogs and humans operate. We have found that people remain somewhat mysterious to dogs for the first five months of life, and dogs at our local pound lag considerably behind house dogs when it comes to understanding human beings.

Recent research by Alexandra Horowitz at Barnard College in New York accentuates the “talking past each other” that sometimes goes on between humans and dogs. Horowitz asked owners to forbid their dogs to take a biscuit and then briefly leave the room. When the owners returned, some were told that their dogs had been naughty and eaten the forbidden food.

Others were told their dog had been good and left the biscuit alone. If the dog had misbehaved, the owner was given a moment to berate his pet for its misdeed. The owners were then asked whether their dog looked guilty. The twist in the tale was that only half of the owners were correctly informed.

When Horowitz asked each owner whether his dog looked guilty, she could consider whether the owner’s report of “guilty looks” actually had to do with the facts of the matter - whether the dog had taken the forbidden treat - or whether it reflected nothing more than whether the owner had chastised his hound. The results showed clearly that “guilty looks” came about because the dog was being scolded. This does not mean that we should not chastise our dogs (or praise them). All it means is that, if we want to live harmoniously with another species in our most intimate places, we must recognize that some of the time our preferred modes of reasoning are not theirs. We must try to understand dogs on their own terms, and help them to understand us

Q.

According to the passage, all of the following statements about the relationship between man and dogs are true EXCEPT:

Solution:

We need to identify the option which is incorrect based on the passage. The passage states: “Dogs are also more likely to obey a command to leave something desirable alone if their master stays in the room than if he steps out.”.

Option 3 states “only when”, which makes it untrue about the relationship between man and dogs..

Option 1 is correct about the relationship, as can be understood from: “Dogs are able to follow human pointing gestures...begging with a tasty treat than a person whose vision is not obscured.” .

Option 2 is mentioned in the penultimate sentence.

Option 4 is vindicated by the line, “...dogs at our local pound lag considerably behind house dogs when it comes to understanding human beings.”.

Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 24

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

Dogs are able to follow human pointing gestures to find hidden food, and they can indicate successfully to their owners by their own pointing actions where a hidden toy is located. Under certain circumstances, dogs understand that a human who cannot see them (because, for example, she is blindfolded) is less likely to respond to begging with a tasty treat than a person whose vision is not obscured.

Dogs are also more likely to obey a command to leave something desirable alone if their master stays in the room than if he steps out. And yet attempts to view canine smarts as cut from the same cloth as human intelligence gloss over a lot of the details about how dogs and humans operate. We have found that people remain somewhat mysterious to dogs for the first five months of life, and dogs at our local pound lag considerably behind house dogs when it comes to understanding human beings.

Recent research by Alexandra Horowitz at Barnard College in New York accentuates the “talking past each other” that sometimes goes on between humans and dogs. Horowitz asked owners to forbid their dogs to take a biscuit and then briefly leave the room. When the owners returned, some were told that their dogs had been naughty and eaten the forbidden food.

Others were told their dog had been good and left the biscuit alone. If the dog had misbehaved, the owner was given a moment to berate his pet for its misdeed. The owners were then asked whether their dog looked guilty. The twist in the tale was that only half of the owners were correctly informed.

When Horowitz asked each owner whether his dog looked guilty, she could consider whether the owner’s report of “guilty looks” actually had to do with the facts of the matter - whether the dog had taken the forbidden treat - or whether it reflected nothing more than whether the owner had chastised his hound. The results showed clearly that “guilty looks” came about because the dog was being scolded. This does not mean that we should not chastise our dogs (or praise them). All it means is that, if we want to live harmoniously with another species in our most intimate places, we must recognize that some of the time our preferred modes of reasoning are not theirs. We must try to understand dogs on their own terms, and help them to understand us

Q.

If, in the research by Alexandra Horowitz, all the owners had been told the truth about their dogs, which of the following would have followed?

Solution:

The experiment shows that the dog looked guilty, when it was chastised by the owner irrespective of whether the dog had disobeyed his master or not. (The dogs that obeyed the masters were also scolded and “looked guilty”.) Therefore, none of the above conclusions can be drawn if the owners were told the truth.

Then, only the misbehaved dogs would have been scolded and even if they “looked guilty” it would not be possible to ascertain if the looks were a result of the scolding or guilt.
This eliminates options 1,2 and 3.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 25

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

Dogs are able to follow human pointing gestures to find hidden food, and they can indicate successfully to their owners by their own pointing actions where a hidden toy is located. Under certain circumstances, dogs understand that a human who cannot see them (because, for example, she is blindfolded) is less likely to respond to begging with a tasty treat than a person whose vision is not obscured.

Dogs are also more likely to obey a command to leave something desirable alone if their master stays in the room than if he steps out. And yet attempts to view canine smarts as cut from the same cloth as human intelligence gloss over a lot of the details about how dogs and humans operate. We have found that people remain somewhat mysterious to dogs for the first five months of life, and dogs at our local pound lag considerably behind house dogs when it comes to understanding human beings.

Recent research by Alexandra Horowitz at Barnard College in New York accentuates the “talking past each other” that sometimes goes on between humans and dogs. Horowitz asked owners to forbid their dogs to take a biscuit and then briefly leave the room. When the owners returned, some were told that their dogs had been naughty and eaten the forbidden food.

Others were told their dog had been good and left the biscuit alone. If the dog had misbehaved, the owner was given a moment to berate his pet for its misdeed. The owners were then asked whether their dog looked guilty. The twist in the tale was that only half of the owners were correctly informed.

When Horowitz asked each owner whether his dog looked guilty, she could consider whether the owner’s report of “guilty looks” actually had to do with the facts of the matter - whether the dog had taken the forbidden treat - or whether it reflected nothing more than whether the owner had chastised his hound. The results showed clearly that “guilty looks” came about because the dog was being scolded. This does not mean that we should not chastise our dogs (or praise them). All it means is that, if we want to live harmoniously with another species in our most intimate places, we must recognize that some of the time our preferred modes of reasoning are not theirs. We must try to understand dogs on their own terms, and help them to understand us

Q.

Select the odd man out from the given alternatives.

Solution:

The statements address the topic of sleep and describe the experience of going through it. Statement 3 gives direction to the rest of the statements, which address how sleep assassinates those who think about it. Statement 5 takes the thought presented in statement 3 further. Thus, statements 3-5 form a logical pair.

Statement 1 addresses the experience of dreaming and statement 2 the non-dreaming part of sleep. Statement 1 has to precede

statement 2 as statement 1 puts forth an exception to what is being discussed in statements 3 and 5 and statement 2 concludes the experience. Thus, 3512 is a logical sequence. Statement 4 however, takes off on another tangent and is out of context.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 26

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

Dogs are able to follow human pointing gestures to find hidden food, and they can indicate successfully to their owners by their own pointing actions where a hidden toy is located. Under certain circumstances, dogs understand that a human who cannot see them (because, for example, she is blindfolded) is less likely to respond to begging with a tasty treat than a person whose vision is not obscured.

Dogs are also more likely to obey a command to leave something desirable alone if their master stays in the room than if he steps out. And yet attempts to view canine smarts as cut from the same cloth as human intelligence gloss over a lot of the details about how dogs and humans operate. We have found that people remain somewhat mysterious to dogs for the first five months of life, and dogs at our local pound lag considerably behind house dogs when it comes to understanding human beings.

Recent research by Alexandra Horowitz at Barnard College in New York accentuates the “talking past each other” that sometimes goes on between humans and dogs. Horowitz asked owners to forbid their dogs to take a biscuit and then briefly leave the room. When the owners returned, some were told that their dogs had been naughty and eaten the forbidden food.

Others were told their dog had been good and left the biscuit alone. If the dog had misbehaved, the owner was given a moment to berate his pet for its misdeed. The owners were then asked whether their dog looked guilty. The twist in the tale was that only half of the owners were correctly informed.

When Horowitz asked each owner whether his dog looked guilty, she could consider whether the owner’s report of “guilty looks” actually had to do with the facts of the matter - whether the dog had taken the forbidden treat - or whether it reflected nothing more than whether the owner had chastised his hound. The results showed clearly that “guilty looks” came about because the dog was being scolded. This does not mean that we should not chastise our dogs (or praise them). All it means is that, if we want to live harmoniously with another species in our most intimate places, we must recognize that some of the time our preferred modes of reasoning are not theirs. We must try to understand dogs on their own terms, and help them to understand us

Q.

The question below consists of a set of labelled sentences.
These sentences, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Choose the most logical order of sentences from the options.

1. In the course of his life an average American watches three years of advertising on television.

2. Every day an estimated twelve billion display advertisements, 3 million radio commercials and more than 200,000 television commercials are dumped into North America’s “collective unconscious”.

3. Kalle Lasn, one of the most outspoken critics of advertising on the international stage considers advertising “the most prevalent and toxic of the mental pollutants.

4. Opponents equate the growing amount of advertising with a “tidal wave” and restrictions with “damming” the flood.

5. From the moment your radio alarm sounds in the morning to the wee hours of late-night, TV microjolts of commercial pollution flood into your brain at the rate of around 3,000 marketing messages per day.

Solution:

Only sentence 4 makes for a suitable opening sentence as rest of the sentences talk about adverstisements intoxicating the mental state of an individual.

Sentences 3 and and 5 form a crucial pair as “mental pollutants” in 3 is elaborated upon in sentence 5.

Statements 2 and 1 have the “ “American” connect. Hence, the correct sequence is 43521.

Option 2

QUESTION: 27

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

Dogs are able to follow human pointing gestures to find hidden food, and they can indicate successfully to their owners by their own pointing actions where a hidden toy is located. Under certain circumstances, dogs understand that a human who cannot see them (because, for example, she is blindfolded) is less likely to respond to begging with a tasty treat than a person whose vision is not obscured.

Dogs are also more likely to obey a command to leave something desirable alone if their master stays in the room than if he steps out. And yet attempts to view canine smarts as cut from the same cloth as human intelligence gloss over a lot of the details about how dogs and humans operate. We have found that people remain somewhat mysterious to dogs for the first five months of life, and dogs at our local pound lag considerably behind house dogs when it comes to understanding human beings.

Recent research by Alexandra Horowitz at Barnard College in New York accentuates the “talking past each other” that sometimes goes on between humans and dogs. Horowitz asked owners to forbid their dogs to take a biscuit and then briefly leave the room. When the owners returned, some were told that their dogs had been naughty and eaten the forbidden food.

Others were told their dog had been good and left the biscuit alone. If the dog had misbehaved, the owner was given a moment to berate his pet for its misdeed. The owners were then asked whether their dog looked guilty. The twist in the tale was that only half of the owners were correctly informed.

When Horowitz asked each owner whether his dog looked guilty, she could consider whether the owner’s report of “guilty looks” actually had to do with the facts of the matter - whether the dog had taken the forbidden treat - or whether it reflected nothing more than whether the owner had chastised his hound. The results showed clearly that “guilty looks” came about because the dog was being scolded. This does not mean that we should not chastise our dogs (or praise them). All it means is that, if we want to live harmoniously with another species in our most intimate places, we must recognize that some of the time our preferred modes of reasoning are not theirs. We must try to understand dogs on their own terms, and help them to understand us

Q.

Five sentences are given below labeled (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5). Of these, four sentences need to be arranged in a logical order to form a coherent paragraph/passage. Pick out the sentence that does not fit the sequence.

1. Solitary confinement is the practice of isolating people in closed cells for twenty-two to twenty-four hours a day, virtually free of human contact, for periods of time ranging from days to decades.

2. Solitary confinement cells generally measure from six by nine to eight by ten feet.

3. Over the past thirty years, in the wake of deinstitutionalization, prisons and jails have become the nation’s largest inpatient psychiatric centers.

4. Some have bars, but more often they have solid metal doors. Many do not have windows.

5. Meals generally come through slots in these doors, as do any communications with prison staff. There may be showers within the cells, or inhabitants may be taken, in shackles, to shower two or three times a week.

Solution:

Statement 1 introduces the topic of the paragraph - solitary confinement.

Statements 2 and 4 go on to describe the architectural aspects of the solitary confinement. Statement 5 with “slots in these doors” connects with “they have metal doors” in statement 4. 2

Statement 3 which talks about the solitary cells becoming the largest psychiatric centers does not fit in with the rest of the statements.

Hence, the correct answer is 3.

QUESTION: 28

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

Dogs are able to follow human pointing gestures to find hidden food, and they can indicate successfully to their owners by their own pointing actions where a hidden toy is located. Under certain circumstances, dogs understand that a human who cannot see them (because, for example, she is blindfolded) is less likely to respond to begging with a tasty treat than a person whose vision is not obscured.

Dogs are also more likely to obey a command to leave something desirable alone if their master stays in the room than if he steps out. And yet attempts to view canine smarts as cut from the same cloth as human intelligence gloss over a lot of the details about how dogs and humans operate. We have found that people remain somewhat mysterious to dogs for the first five months of life, and dogs at our local pound lag considerably behind house dogs when it comes to understanding human beings.

Recent research by Alexandra Horowitz at Barnard College in New York accentuates the “talking past each other” that sometimes goes on between humans and dogs. Horowitz asked owners to forbid their dogs to take a biscuit and then briefly leave the room. When the owners returned, some were told that their dogs had been naughty and eaten the forbidden food.

Others were told their dog had been good and left the biscuit alone. If the dog had misbehaved, the owner was given a moment to berate his pet for its misdeed. The owners were then asked whether their dog looked guilty. The twist in the tale was that only half of the owners were correctly informed.

When Horowitz asked each owner whether his dog looked guilty, she could consider whether the owner’s report of “guilty looks” actually had to do with the facts of the matter - whether the dog had taken the forbidden treat - or whether it reflected nothing more than whether the owner had chastised his hound. The results showed clearly that “guilty looks” came about because the dog was being scolded. This does not mean that we should not chastise our dogs (or praise them). All it means is that, if we want to live harmoniously with another species in our most intimate places, we must recognize that some of the time our preferred modes of reasoning are not theirs. We must try to understand dogs on their own terms, and help them to understand us

Q.

Arrange the jumbled sentences in order.

1. In the North Siberian elk, the posterior division of the main fork divides into three tines, with no distinct flattening.

2. The male elk's antlers arise as cylindrical beams projecting on each side at right angles to the midline of the skull, which after a short distance divide in a fork-like manner.

3. The lower prong of this fork may be either simple, or divided into two or three tines, with some flattening.

4. There is, however, a Scandinavian breed of the common elk in which the antlers are simpler, and recall those of the East Siberian race.

5. In the common elk, on the other hand, this branch usually expands into a broad palmation, with one large tine at the base, and a number of smaller snags on the free border.

Solution:

1 and 4 cannot be the opening sentence of the sequence, as they talk about specific breeds of elk.

The correct structure of the sequence should be like this— 2 is a general statement that talks about a fork-like structure in the male elk's antlers, 3 elaborates on the fork saying it may have either 2 or 3 prongs, and 1 gives an example of a 3 pronged fork in the North Siberian elk. 3 will precede 1, as 3 is a general statement while 1 is specific to the North Siberian elk. Statement 5, by using the term “on the other hand” and giving the structure of the antlers in the common elk, should follow 1, while 4 should follow 5 because it talks about a variation of the “common elk” mentioned in 5.

Hence, the correct sequence is 23154.

Option 4

QUESTION: 29

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

Dogs are able to follow human pointing gestures to find hidden food, and they can indicate successfully to their owners by their own pointing actions where a hidden toy is located. Under certain circumstances, dogs understand that a human who cannot see them (because, for example, she is blindfolded) is less likely to respond to begging with a tasty treat than a person whose vision is not obscured.

Dogs are also more likely to obey a command to leave something desirable alone if their master stays in the room than if he steps out. And yet attempts to view canine smarts as cut from the same cloth as human intelligence gloss over a lot of the details about how dogs and humans operate. We have found that people remain somewhat mysterious to dogs for the first five months of life, and dogs at our local pound lag considerably behind house dogs when it comes to understanding human beings.

Recent research by Alexandra Horowitz at Barnard College in New York accentuates the “talking past each other” that sometimes goes on between humans and dogs. Horowitz asked owners to forbid their dogs to take a biscuit and then briefly leave the room. When the owners returned, some were told that their dogs had been naughty and eaten the forbidden food.

Others were told their dog had been good and left the biscuit alone. If the dog had misbehaved, the owner was given a moment to berate his pet for its misdeed. The owners were then asked whether their dog looked guilty. The twist in the tale was that only half of the owners were correctly informed.

When Horowitz asked each owner whether his dog looked guilty, she could consider whether the owner’s report of “guilty looks” actually had to do with the facts of the matter - whether the dog had taken the forbidden treat - or whether it reflected nothing more than whether the owner had chastised his hound. The results showed clearly that “guilty looks” came about because the dog was being scolded. This does not mean that we should not chastise our dogs (or praise them). All it means is that, if we want to live harmoniously with another species in our most intimate places, we must recognize that some of the time our preferred modes of reasoning are not theirs. We must try to understand dogs on their own terms, and help them to understand us

Q.

From the options, choose the one which can continue the paragraph most logically and consistently.
By 2100, the world’s energy system will be radically different from today’s. Renewable energy like solar, wind, hydroelectricity, and biofuels will make up a large share of the energy mix, and nuclear energy, too, will have a place. Humans will have found ways of dealing with air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions._____________________________

1. Indeed, the distant future looks bright, but much depends on how we get there.

2. After a while, easily accessible supplies of oil and gas probably will no longer keep up with demand.

3. Whether we arrive safely at our destination depends on the discipline of the drivers and the ingenuity of all those involved in this effort.

4. New technologies will have reduced the amount of energy needed to power buildings and vehicles.

Solution:

The paragraph basically brings out the change of scenario from now to 2100 which will be a drastic transformation for the world's energy system

Option 1 with "how we get there" calls for the need of further elaboration. So, eliminate option 1.

Option 2, which talks about the diminishing demand of the supplies of oil and gas, takes the paragraph in a different direction and may need a further explanation. So, eliminate option 2.

Option 3 has a speculative tone whereas the paragraph has a definite flow. Thus, it makes for a weak concluding statement. Hence, only

option 4 adheres to this flow of the paragraph and makes for an apt concluding sentence. The future perfect tense should also be noticed.
Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 30

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

Dogs are able to follow human pointing gestures to find hidden food, and they can indicate successfully to their owners by their own pointing actions where a hidden toy is located. Under certain circumstances, dogs understand that a human who cannot see them (because, for example, she is blindfolded) is less likely to respond to begging with a tasty treat than a person whose vision is not obscured.

Dogs are also more likely to obey a command to leave something desirable alone if their master stays in the room than if he steps out. And yet attempts to view canine smarts as cut from the same cloth as human intelligence gloss over a lot of the details about how dogs and humans operate. We have found that people remain somewhat mysterious to dogs for the first five months of life, and dogs at our local pound lag considerably behind house dogs when it comes to understanding human beings.

Recent research by Alexandra Horowitz at Barnard College in New York accentuates the “talking past each other” that sometimes goes on between humans and dogs. Horowitz asked owners to forbid their dogs to take a biscuit and then briefly leave the room. When the owners returned, some were told that their dogs had been naughty and eaten the forbidden food.

Others were told their dog had been good and left the biscuit alone. If the dog had misbehaved, the owner was given a moment to berate his pet for its misdeed. The owners were then asked whether their dog looked guilty. The twist in the tale was that only half of the owners were correctly informed.

When Horowitz asked each owner whether his dog looked guilty, she could consider whether the owner’s report of “guilty looks” actually had to do with the facts of the matter - whether the dog had taken the forbidden treat - or whether it reflected nothing more than whether the owner had chastised his hound. The results showed clearly that “guilty looks” came about because the dog was being scolded. This does not mean that we should not chastise our dogs (or praise them). All it means is that, if we want to live harmoniously with another species in our most intimate places, we must recognize that some of the time our preferred modes of reasoning are not theirs. We must try to understand dogs on their own terms, and help them to understand us

Q.

The following question consists of a certain number of 3Marks sentences. Some sentences are grammatically incorrect or inappropriate. Identify the number of sentences that are grammatically correct and appropriate.

1. By extracting carbon molecules, we can react them with hydrogen to produce methane.

2. Water and oxygen are so bountiful to Earth that we’ve never had much incentive to develop efficient ways of extracting them from carbon dioxide.

3. Today, it is becoming clear that processing carbon dioxide could be the key to reducing carbon emissions and creating useful materials such as plastics without fossil fuels.

4. The dreamers, thinkers and explorers who decide to go to Mars had, by necessity, fuel unprecedented lateral innovations.

Solution:

Option 1 has no grammatical error.
In option 2, “bountiful to” should be substituted with “bountiful on” to indicate the place where water and oxygen are found to be bountiful.

Option 3 has no grammatical error.
In option 4, the correct verb would be "will" rather than "had" to express the future tense.

Hence, the correct answer is 2.

QUESTION: 31

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

Dogs are able to follow human pointing gestures to find hidden food, and they can indicate successfully to their owners by their own pointing actions where a hidden toy is located. Under certain circumstances, dogs understand that a human who cannot see them (because, for example, she is blindfolded) is less likely to respond to begging with a tasty treat than a person whose vision is not obscured.

Dogs are also more likely to obey a command to leave something desirable alone if their master stays in the room than if he steps out. And yet attempts to view canine smarts as cut from the same cloth as human intelligence gloss over a lot of the details about how dogs and humans operate. We have found that people remain somewhat mysterious to dogs for the first five months of life, and dogs at our local pound lag considerably behind house dogs when it comes to understanding human beings.

Recent research by Alexandra Horowitz at Barnard College in New York accentuates the “talking past each other” that sometimes goes on between humans and dogs. Horowitz asked owners to forbid their dogs to take a biscuit and then briefly leave the room. When the owners returned, some were told that their dogs had been naughty and eaten the forbidden food.

Others were told their dog had been good and left the biscuit alone. If the dog had misbehaved, the owner was given a moment to berate his pet for its misdeed. The owners were then asked whether their dog looked guilty. The twist in the tale was that only half of the owners were correctly informed.

When Horowitz asked each owner whether his dog looked guilty, she could consider whether the owner’s report of “guilty looks” actually had to do with the facts of the matter - whether the dog had taken the forbidden treat - or whether it reflected nothing more than whether the owner had chastised his hound. The results showed clearly that “guilty looks” came about because the dog was being scolded. This does not mean that we should not chastise our dogs (or praise them). All it means is that, if we want to live harmoniously with another species in our most intimate places, we must recognize that some of the time our preferred modes of reasoning are not theirs. We must try to understand dogs on their own terms, and help them to understand us

Q.

The following question consists of a certain number of sentences. Some sentences are grammatically incorrect or inappropriate. Identify the number of sentences that are grammatically incorrect.

1. If anyone says that I am making mountains out of anthills, I confess with pride that it is so.

2. I have my doubts in getting to the top of everything and overlook everything.

3. If contentment and a sense of control are partial measures of success, many of us are selling ourselves far too cheap.

4. I can look for signs, then in the end I can’t control what you think or do.

Solution:

In option 1, the error is in the phrase “mountains out of anthills”, the correct construction would be ‘mountains out of molehills’.

In option 2, the error is in the parallelism of the sentence. Therefore, "overlook" should be replaced by "overlooking" in order to balance "getting".

Option 3 has no grammatical error.
In option 4, the conjunction ‘but’ is a more suitable option than “then” to present two contradictory situations.

Hence, the correct answer is 3.

QUESTION: 32

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

Dogs are able to follow human pointing gestures to find hidden food, and they can indicate successfully to their owners by their own pointing actions where a hidden toy is located. Under certain circumstances, dogs understand that a human who cannot see them (because, for example, she is blindfolded) is less likely to respond to begging with a tasty treat than a person whose vision is not obscured.

Dogs are also more likely to obey a command to leave something desirable alone if their master stays in the room than if he steps out. And yet attempts to view canine smarts as cut from the same cloth as human intelligence gloss over a lot of the details about how dogs and humans operate. We have found that people remain somewhat mysterious to dogs for the first five months of life, and dogs at our local pound lag considerably behind house dogs when it comes to understanding human beings.

Recent research by Alexandra Horowitz at Barnard College in New York accentuates the “talking past each other” that sometimes goes on between humans and dogs. Horowitz asked owners to forbid their dogs to take a biscuit and then briefly leave the room. When the owners returned, some were told that their dogs had been naughty and eaten the forbidden food.

Others were told their dog had been good and left the biscuit alone. If the dog had misbehaved, the owner was given a moment to berate his pet for its misdeed. The owners were then asked whether their dog looked guilty. The twist in the tale was that only half of the owners were correctly informed.

When Horowitz asked each owner whether his dog looked guilty, she could consider whether the owner’s report of “guilty looks” actually had to do with the facts of the matter - whether the dog had taken the forbidden treat - or whether it reflected nothing more than whether the owner had chastised his hound. The results showed clearly that “guilty looks” came about because the dog was being scolded. This does not mean that we should not chastise our dogs (or praise them). All it means is that, if we want to live harmoniously with another species in our most intimate places, we must recognize that some of the time our preferred modes of reasoning are not theirs. We must try to understand dogs on their own terms, and help them to understand us

Q.

Fill in the blank with the appropriate option In the popular presentations of the history of science, he is ________ as a one-man revolution, an intellectual superhero who dragged science__________and screaming into the modern era.

1. displayed, running

2. professed, jumping

3. established, shouting

4. portrayed, kicking

Solution:

‘Drag someone kicking and screaming’ is a verbal phrase which means ‘to be forced with extreme reluctance’. Hence, “running”, "jumping" and “shouting” can be eliminated. Since the sentence intends to discuss about the role of a person in the history of science, "portrayed" would be a correct fit.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 33

The question below contains a paragraph followed by alternative summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the paragraph.
Most of us think it’s a bad thing to die. I certainly don’t want to die any time soon, and you probably don’t either. But some people who might be unbearably lonely, or in chronic pain, or gradually sliding into senile dementia chose to die. In these cases, it might be better to die than to continue a life not worth living. But most of the time death is unwelcome, and we do all we can to avoid it. When people die, we feel sorry for them, and not merely for ourselves at losing them - especially if death takes them when they’re young and full of promise. We consider it one of the worst things that can happen to someone Being dead looks no worse than being in a dreamless sleep. Our own death does not affect us while we’re alive. The expectation or fear of death can affect us, but not death itself. Nor does it affect us when we’re dead: nothing can affect us then.

Which option best summarizes the above passage?

Solution:

Option 1 is incorrect as death is considered to be dreadful. So, eliminate option 1.

Option 2 stating, “Death comes naturally at any time and to fear is is pointless” cannot be derived from the passage. So, eliminate option 2.

Option 3 specifically mentions "dreamless sleep", which is not one of the main points of the passage, and incorrectly says that we have to "learn" to embrace death which is beyond the scope of the passage. Hence, it can be eliminated.

Option 4 correctly highlights the main points about death and also captures the essence of the passage. Therefore, is the most suitable option as compared to the rest.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 34

The question below contains a paragraph followed by alternative summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the paragraph.

The wounds of the Holocaust-known in Hebrew as Shoah, or catastrophe-were slow to heal. Survivors of the camps found it nearly impossible to return home, as in many cases they had lost their families and been denounced by their non-Jewish neighbours. As a result, the late 1940s saw an unprecedented number of refugees, prisoners of war and other displaced populations moving across Europe. In an effort to punish the villains of the Holocaust, the Allies held the Nuremberg Trials of 1945-46, which brought Nazi atrocities to horrifying light.

Which option best summarizes the above paragraph?

1. Most of Holocaust survivors lost their families and were ostracized by their non-Jewish neighbours. The Nuremberg Trials were ramifications of the Holocaust helmed by the Allied powers.

2. The survivors feared to return to their homes which inevitably resulted in a massive amount of refugees moving across Europe. This paved the way for the conception of the Nuremberg Trials by the Allies.

3. In the aftermath of the Holocaust, most of the survivors lost their families and were shunned by their non-Jewish neighbours, resulting in a massive agglomeration of refugees, prisoners of war and other displaced populations in Europe. The Allied powers then held the Nuremberg Trials in their attempt to take revenge.

4. Survivors of the Holocaust, denounced by their non-Jewish neighbours, found it difficult to return home and so moved across Europe. The perpretators of Holocaust were exposed by the Allies through the Nuremberg Trials.

Solution:

Option 1 with “ramifications” is misleading as the Nuremberg Trials were held for a purpose and were not the ramifications of the Holocaust.

Option 3 misinterprets the purpose of the Allied powers behind holding the Trials. So, eliminate option 3.

Option 2 incorrectly connects the two incidents- refugees moving across Europe and the Allies conducting Nuremberg Trials.

Option 4, is a suitable summary that highlights the key points and the central idea correctly.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

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