CAT Verbal And RC MCQ - 4


34 Questions MCQ Test CAT Mock Test Series 2020 | CAT Verbal And RC MCQ - 4


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This mock test of CAT Verbal And RC MCQ - 4 for CAT helps you for every CAT entrance exam. This contains 34 Multiple Choice Questions for CAT CAT Verbal And RC MCQ - 4 (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this CAT Verbal And RC MCQ - 4 quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. CAT students definitely take this CAT Verbal And RC MCQ - 4 exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other CAT Verbal And RC MCQ - 4 extra questions, long questions & short questions for CAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

For nearly four centuries, the Atlantic slave trade brought millions of people into bondage. Scholars estimate that around 1.5 million people perished in the brutal middle passage across the Atlantic.

The slave trade linked Africa, Europe and the Americas in a horrific enterprise of death and torture and profit. Yet, in the middle of the 18th century, as the slave trade boomed like never before, some notable European observers saw it as a model of free enterprise and indeed of ‘liberty’ itself. They were not slave traders or slave- ship captains but economic thinkers, and very influential ones. They were a pioneering group of economic thinkers committed to the principle of laissez-faire: a term they themselves coined. United around the French official Vincent de Gournay (1712-1759), they were among the first European intellectuals to argue for limitations on government intervention in the economy. They organised campaigns for the deregulation of domestic and international trade, and they made the slave trade a key piece of evidence in their arguments.

For a generation, the relationship between slavery and capitalism has preoccupied historians. The publication of several major pieces of scholarship on the matter has won attention from the media. Scholars demonstrate that the Industrial Revolution, centred on the mass production of cotton textiles in the factories of England and New England, depended on raw cotton grown by slaves on plantations in the American South. Capitalists often touted the superiority of the industrial economies and their supposedly ‘free labour’. ‘Free labour’ means the system in which workers are not enslaved but free to contract with any manufacturer they chose, free to sell their labour. It means that there is a labour market, not a slave market.

But because ‘free labour’ was working with and dependent on raw materials produced by slaves, the simple distinction between an industrial economy of free labour on the one hand and a slave- based plantation system on the other falls apart. So too does the 1

 oundary between the southern ‘slave states’ and northern ‘free states’ in Ame rica. While the South grew rich from plantation agriculture that depended on slave labour, New England also grew rich off the slave trade, investing in the shipping and maritime insurance that made the transport of slaves from Africa to the United States possible and profitable. The sale of enslaved Africans brought together agriculture and industry, north and south, forming a global commercial network from which the modern world emerged.

It is only in the past few decades that scholars have come to grips with how slavery and capitalism intertwined. But for the 18th-century French thinkers who laid the foundations of laissez-faire capitalism, it made perfect sense to associate the slave trade with free enterprise. Their writings, which inspired the Scottish philosopher Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations (1776), aimed to convince the French monarchy to deregulate key businesses such as the sale of grain and trade with Asia. Only a few specialists read them today.

Yet these pamphlets, letters and manuscripts clearly proclaim a powerful message: the birth of modern capitalism depended not only on the labour of enslaved people and the profits of the slave trade, but also on the example of slavery as a deregulated global enterprise.

Q.

Which of the following could be a possible definition of 3 Marks “|ajssez_fajre” with respect to the above passage?

Solution:

A possible definition of the term “laissez-faire” can be inferred from the sentence, “...they were among the first European intellectuals to argue for limitations on government intervention in the economy” hence, option 1 is validated.

Option 2 is pointing at a different term altogether which might have some relation to the the term “laissez-faire”. So, eliminate option 2.

Option 3 is incorrect as the passage mentions presence of government authority. So, eliminate option 3.

Option 4 is very narrow and specific to slave trade. So, eliminate option 4.
Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 2

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

For nearly four centuries, the Atlantic slave trade brought millions of people into bondage. Scholars estimate that around 1.5 million people perished in the brutal middle passage across the Atlantic.

The slave trade linked Africa, Europe and the Americas in a horrific enterprise of death and torture and profit. Yet, in the middle of the 18th century, as the slave trade boomed like never before, some notable European observers saw it as a model of free enterprise and indeed of ‘liberty’ itself. They were not slave traders or slave- ship captains but economic thinkers, and very influential ones. They were a pioneering group of economic thinkers committed to the principle of laissez-faire: a term they themselves coined. United around the French official Vincent de Gournay (1712-1759), they were among the first European intellectuals to argue for limitations on government intervention in the economy. They organised campaigns for the deregulation of domestic and international trade, and they made the slave trade a key piece of evidence in their arguments.

For a generation, the relationship between slavery and capitalism has preoccupied historians. The publication of several major pieces of scholarship on the matter has won attention from the media. Scholars demonstrate that the Industrial Revolution, centred on the mass production of cotton textiles in the factories of England and New England, depended on raw cotton grown by slaves on plantations in the American South. Capitalists often touted the superiority of the industrial economies and their supposedly ‘free labour’. ‘Free labour’ means the system in which workers are not enslaved but free to contract with any manufacturer they chose, free to sell their labour. It means that there is a labour market, not a slave market.

But because ‘free labour’ was working with and dependent on raw materials produced by slaves, the simple distinction between an industrial economy of free labour on the one hand and a slave- based plantation system on the other falls apart. So too does the 1

 oundary between the southern ‘slave states’ and northern ‘free states’ in Ame rica. While the South grew rich from plantation agriculture that depended on slave labour, New England also grew rich off the slave trade, investing in the shipping and maritime insurance that made the transport of slaves from Africa to the United States possible and profitable. The sale of enslaved Africans brought together agriculture and industry, north and south, forming a global commercial network from which the modern world emerged.

It is only in the past few decades that scholars have come to grips with how slavery and capitalism intertwined. But for the 18th-century French thinkers who laid the foundations of laissez-faire capitalism, it made perfect sense to associate the slave trade with free enterprise. Their writings, which inspired the Scottish philosopher Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations (1776), aimed to convince the French monarchy to deregulate key businesses such as the sale of grain and trade with Asia. Only a few specialists read them today.

Yet these pamphlets, letters and manuscripts clearly proclaim a powerful message: the birth of modern capitalism depended not only on the labour of enslaved people and the profits of the slave trade, but also on the example of slavery as a deregulated global enterprise.

Q.

What can you definitely say about “free labor” from the information in the passage?

Solution:

From the passage we can infer that “free labor” drew a line between southern and northern economies of America. Thus, option 1 contradicts this.

Option 2 cannot be corroborated from the passage.

Option 3 is true as can be inferred from “Capitalists often touted the superiority of the industrial economies and their supposedly ‘free labour’.” The passage says that “free labor” market was dependent on slave market but nothing about the other way round. Thus, eliminate option 4.

Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 3

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

For nearly four centuries, the Atlantic slave trade brought millions of people into bondage. Scholars estimate that around 1.5 million people perished in the brutal middle passage across the Atlantic.

The slave trade linked Africa, Europe and the Americas in a horrific enterprise of death and torture and profit. Yet, in the middle of the 18th century, as the slave trade boomed like never before, some notable European observers saw it as a model of free enterprise and indeed of ‘liberty’ itself. They were not slave traders or slave- ship captains but economic thinkers, and very influential ones. They were a pioneering group of economic thinkers committed to the principle of laissez-faire: a term they themselves coined. United around the French official Vincent de Gournay (1712-1759), they were among the first European intellectuals to argue for limitations on government intervention in the economy. They organised campaigns for the deregulation of domestic and international trade, and they made the slave trade a key piece of evidence in their arguments.

For a generation, the relationship between slavery and capitalism has preoccupied historians. The publication of several major pieces of scholarship on the matter has won attention from the media. Scholars demonstrate that the Industrial Revolution, centred on the mass production of cotton textiles in the factories of England and New England, depended on raw cotton grown by slaves on plantations in the American South. Capitalists often touted the superiority of the industrial economies and their supposedly ‘free labour’. ‘Free labour’ means the system in which workers are not enslaved but free to contract with any manufacturer they chose, free to sell their labour. It means that there is a labour market, not a slave market.

But because ‘free labour’ was working with and dependent on raw materials produced by slaves, the simple distinction between an industrial economy of free labour on the one hand and a slave- based plantation system on the other falls apart. So too does the 1

 oundary between the southern ‘slave states’ and northern ‘free states’ in Ame rica. While the South grew rich from plantation agriculture that depended on slave labour, New England also grew rich off the slave trade, investing in the shipping and maritime insurance that made the transport of slaves from Africa to the United States possible and profitable. The sale of enslaved Africans brought together agriculture and industry, north and south, forming a global commercial network from which the modern world emerged.

It is only in the past few decades that scholars have come to grips with how slavery and capitalism intertwined. But for the 18th-century French thinkers who laid the foundations of laissez-faire capitalism, it made perfect sense to associate the slave trade with free enterprise. Their writings, which inspired the Scottish philosopher Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations (1776), aimed to convince the French monarchy to deregulate key businesses such as the sale of grain and trade with Asia. Only a few specialists read them today.

Yet these pamphlets, letters and manuscripts clearly proclaim a powerful message: the birth of modern capitalism depended not only on the labour of enslaved people and the profits of the slave trade, but also on the example of slavery as a deregulated global enterprise.

Q.

Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

Solution:

Option 1 can be inferred from, “The sale of enslaved Africans brought together agriculture and industry, north and south, forming a global commercial network from which the modern world emerged.”

Option 2 is incorrect as the passage states that the birth of modern capitalism depended on a deregulated global enterprise. This means that a deregulated global enterprise would be a major factor in the birth of modern capitalism and not the only factor.

Option 3 is incorrect as it is mentioned in the passage that New England benefited from investing in the shipping and maritime insurance that transported slaves. This indicates that it benefited indirectly from the slave trade.

Option 4 is incorrect as the passage mentions that European intellectuals laid the foundations of the given term.

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 4

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

For nearly four centuries, the Atlantic slave trade brought millions of people into bondage. Scholars estimate that around 1.5 million people perished in the brutal middle passage across the Atlantic.

The slave trade linked Africa, Europe and the Americas in a horrific enterprise of death and torture and profit. Yet, in the middle of the 18th century, as the slave trade boomed like never before, some notable European observers saw it as a model of free enterprise and indeed of ‘liberty’ itself. They were not slave traders or slave- ship captains but economic thinkers, and very influential ones. They were a pioneering group of economic thinkers committed to the principle of laissez-faire: a term they themselves coined. United around the French official Vincent de Gournay (1712-1759), they were among the first European intellectuals to argue for limitations on government intervention in the economy. They organised campaigns for the deregulation of domestic and international trade, and they made the slave trade a key piece of evidence in their arguments.

For a generation, the relationship between slavery and capitalism has preoccupied historians. The publication of several major pieces of scholarship on the matter has won attention from the media. Scholars demonstrate that the Industrial Revolution, centred on the mass production of cotton textiles in the factories of England and New England, depended on raw cotton grown by slaves on plantations in the American South. Capitalists often touted the superiority of the industrial economies and their supposedly ‘free labour’. ‘Free labour’ means the system in which workers are not enslaved but free to contract with any manufacturer they chose, free to sell their labour. It means that there is a labour market, not a slave market.

But because ‘free labour’ was working with and dependent on raw materials produced by slaves, the simple distinction between an industrial economy of free labour on the one hand and a slave- based plantation system on the other falls apart. So too does the 1

 oundary between the southern ‘slave states’ and northern ‘free states’ in Ame rica. While the South grew rich from plantation agriculture that depended on slave labour, New England also grew rich off the slave trade, investing in the shipping and maritime insurance that made the transport of slaves from Africa to the United States possible and profitable. The sale of enslaved Africans brought together agriculture and industry, north and south, forming a global commercial network from which the modern world emerged.

It is only in the past few decades that scholars have come to grips with how slavery and capitalism intertwined. But for the 18th-century French thinkers who laid the foundations of laissez-faire capitalism, it made perfect sense to associate the slave trade with free enterprise. Their writings, which inspired the Scottish philosopher Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations (1776), aimed to convince the French monarchy to deregulate key businesses such as the sale of grain and trade with Asia. Only a few specialists read them today.

Yet these pamphlets, letters and manuscripts clearly proclaim a powerful message: the birth of modern capitalism depended not only on the labour of enslaved people and the profits of the slave trade, but also on the example of slavery as a deregulated global enterprise.

Q.

Which of the following can be inferred about slave trade from the passage?

A. Slave trade shows a strong trade link between Africa, America and Europe.

B. The connection between slavery and capitalism was not known in the 18th century

C. The European intellectuals aimed at stopping the practice of slave trade

Solution:

Option A can be inferred from the statement “The slave trade linked Africa, Europe and the Americas in a horrific enterprise of death and torture and profit.”

Option B can be inferred from the sentence, “It is only in the past few decades that scholars have come to grips with how slavery and capitalism intertwined.”

Option C cannot be inferred as the passage only states that the European intellectuals saw the slave trade as a model of free enterprise.

Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 5

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

For nearly four centuries, the Atlantic slave trade brought millions of people into bondage. Scholars estimate that around 1.5 million people perished in the brutal middle passage across the Atlantic.

The slave trade linked Africa, Europe and the Americas in a horrific enterprise of death and torture and profit. Yet, in the middle of the 18th century, as the slave trade boomed like never before, some notable European observers saw it as a model of free enterprise and indeed of ‘liberty’ itself. They were not slave traders or slave- ship captains but economic thinkers, and very influential ones. They were a pioneering group of economic thinkers committed to the principle of laissez-faire: a term they themselves coined. United around the French official Vincent de Gournay (1712-1759), they were among the first European intellectuals to argue for limitations on government intervention in the economy. They organised campaigns for the deregulation of domestic and international trade, and they made the slave trade a key piece of evidence in their arguments.

For a generation, the relationship between slavery and capitalism has preoccupied historians. The publication of several major pieces of scholarship on the matter has won attention from the media. Scholars demonstrate that the Industrial Revolution, centred on the mass production of cotton textiles in the factories of England and New England, depended on raw cotton grown by slaves on plantations in the American South. Capitalists often touted the superiority of the industrial economies and their supposedly ‘free labour’. ‘Free labour’ means the system in which workers are not enslaved but free to contract with any manufacturer they chose, free to sell their labour. It means that there is a labour market, not a slave market.

But because ‘free labour’ was working with and dependent on raw materials produced by slaves, the simple distinction between an industrial economy of free labour on the one hand and a slave- based plantation system on the other falls apart. So too does the 1

 oundary between the southern ‘slave states’ and northern ‘free states’ in Ame rica. While the South grew rich from plantation agriculture that depended on slave labour, New England also grew rich off the slave trade, investing in the shipping and maritime insurance that made the transport of slaves from Africa to the United States possible and profitable. The sale of enslaved Africans brought together agriculture and industry, north and south, forming a global commercial network from which the modern world emerged.

It is only in the past few decades that scholars have come to grips with how slavery and capitalism intertwined. But for the 18th-century French thinkers who laid the foundations of laissez-faire capitalism, it made perfect sense to associate the slave trade with free enterprise. Their writings, which inspired the Scottish philosopher Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations (1776), aimed to convince the French monarchy to deregulate key businesses such as the sale of grain and trade with Asia. Only a few specialists read them today.

Yet these pamphlets, letters and manuscripts clearly proclaim a powerful message: the birth of modern capitalism depended not only on the labour of enslaved people and the profits of the slave trade, but also on the example of slavery as a deregulated global enterprise.

Q.

A suitable title for the above passage would be:

Solution:

Option 1 does not capture the aspect of free enterprise and can be eliminated.

Option 2 is incorrect as the historical information of slavery is not discussed in the passage.

Option 3 is incorrect as the main topic of the passage is not slave trade per se.

Option 4 is correct as the passage repeatedly talks about how slavery as free enterprise led to the emergence of modern world and also inspired other countries.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 6

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

For nearly four centuries, the Atlantic slave trade brought millions of people into bondage. Scholars estimate that around 1.5 million people perished in the brutal middle passage across the Atlantic.

The slave trade linked Africa, Europe and the Americas in a horrific enterprise of death and torture and profit. Yet, in the middle of the 18th century, as the slave trade boomed like never before, some notable European observers saw it as a model of free enterprise and indeed of ‘liberty’ itself. They were not slave traders or slave- ship captains but economic thinkers, and very influential ones. They were a pioneering group of economic thinkers committed to the principle of laissez-faire: a term they themselves coined. United around the French official Vincent de Gournay (1712-1759), they were among the first European intellectuals to argue for limitations on government intervention in the economy. They organised campaigns for the deregulation of domestic and international trade, and they made the slave trade a key piece of evidence in their arguments.

For a generation, the relationship between slavery and capitalism has preoccupied historians. The publication of several major pieces of scholarship on the matter has won attention from the media. Scholars demonstrate that the Industrial Revolution, centred on the mass production of cotton textiles in the factories of England and New England, depended on raw cotton grown by slaves on plantations in the American South. Capitalists often touted the superiority of the industrial economies and their supposedly ‘free labour’. ‘Free labour’ means the system in which workers are not enslaved but free to contract with any manufacturer they chose, free to sell their labour. It means that there is a labour market, not a slave market.

But because ‘free labour’ was working with and dependent on raw materials produced by slaves, the simple distinction between an industrial economy of free labour on the one hand and a slave- based plantation system on the other falls apart. So too does the 1

 oundary between the southern ‘slave states’ and northern ‘free states’ in Ame rica. While the South grew rich from plantation agriculture that depended on slave labour, New England also grew rich off the slave trade, investing in the shipping and maritime insurance that made the transport of slaves from Africa to the United States possible and profitable. The sale of enslaved Africans brought together agriculture and industry, north and south, forming a global commercial network from which the modern world emerged.

It is only in the past few decades that scholars have come to grips with how slavery and capitalism intertwined. But for the 18th-century French thinkers who laid the foundations of laissez-faire capitalism, it made perfect sense to associate the slave trade with free enterprise. Their writings, which inspired the Scottish philosopher Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations (1776), aimed to convince the French monarchy to deregulate key businesses such as the sale of grain and trade with Asia. Only a few specialists read them today.

Yet these pamphlets, letters and manuscripts clearly proclaim a powerful message: the birth of modern capitalism depended not only on the labour of enslaved people and the profits of the slave trade, but also on the example of slavery as a deregulated global enterprise.

Q.

Which of the following cannot be said about New England’s trade industry?

Solution:

Option 1 can be inferred from "... centred on the mass production of cotton textiles in the factories of England and New England...”.

Option 2 can be inferred from passage as nowhere in the passage it has been mentioned that New England directly employed slaves.

Option 3 can be inferred from "... New England also grew rich off the slave trade, investing in the shipping...”

Option 4 is incorrect as the Americans grow plantations as mentioned in the passage.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 7

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

In the early 1970s, a group of people led by Robert H. Rines obtained some underwater photographs. Two were rather vague images, perhaps of a rhomboid flipper (though others have dismissed the image as air bubbles or a fish fin). The alleged flipper was photographed in different positions, indicating movement. On the basis of these photographs, British naturalist Peter Scott announced in 1975 that the scientific name of the monster would henceforth be Nessiteras rhombopteryx (Greek for "The Ness monster with diamond-shaped fin"). Scott intended that this would enable Nessie to be added to a British register of officially protected wildlife. Scottish politician Nicholas Fairbairn pointed out that the name was an anagram for "Monster hoax by Sir Peter S".

The underwater photos were reportedly obtained by painstakingly examining the loch depths with sonar for unusual underwater activity. A submersible camera with an affixed, high-powered light (necessary for penetrating Loch Ness's notorious murk) was deployed to record images below the surface. Several of the photographs, despite their obviously murky quality, did indeed seem to show an animal resembling a plesiosaur in various positions and lightings. One photograph appeared to show the head, neck and upper torso of a plesiosaur-like animal. A rarely publicised photograph depicted two plesiosaur-like bodies. Another photo seemed to depict a horned "gargoyle head", consistent to that of several sightings of the monster. Some believe the latter to be a tree stump found during Operation Deepscan.

A few close-ups of what is to be the creature's supposed diamondshaped fin were taken in different positions, as though the creature was moving. But the "flipper photograph" has been highly retouched from the original image. The Museum of Hoaxes shows the original unenhanced photo. Team member Charles Wyckoff claimed that someone retouched the photo to superimpose the flipper, and that the original enhancement showed a much smaller flipper. No one is exactly sure how the original came to be enhanced in this way.

Q.

From the passage, what can’t be concluded about 3Marks “Nessie”?

Solution:

The correct answer is 4. The passage states that “Another photo seemed to depict a horned "gargoyle head", consistent to that of several sightings of the monster. Some believe the latter to be a tree stump found during Operation Deepscan.” The monster’s “gargoyle head” hasn’t been proven to exist yet, therefore it couldn’t have been captured on photograph.

Option 1 is validated as “British naturalist Peter Scott announced in 1975 that the scientific name of the monster would henceforth be Nessiteras rhombopteryx (Greek for "The Ness monster with diamond-shaped fin").”

Option 2 is a valid conclusion as Nessie lives in the Loch Ness lake, and the passage confirms its murk - “A submersible camera with an affixed, high-powered light (necessary for penetrating Loch Ness's notorious murk.)”

Option 3 is right as “Several of the photographs, despite their obviously murky quality, did indeed seem to show an animal resembling a plesiosaur in various positions and lightings.”

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 8

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

In the early 1970s, a group of people led by Robert H. Rines obtained some underwater photographs. Two were rather vague images, perhaps of a rhomboid flipper (though others have dismissed the image as air bubbles or a fish fin). The alleged flipper was photographed in different positions, indicating movement. On the basis of these photographs, British naturalist Peter Scott announced in 1975 that the scientific name of the monster would henceforth be Nessiteras rhombopteryx (Greek for "The Ness monster with diamond-shaped fin"). Scott intended that this would enable Nessie to be added to a British register of officially protected wildlife. Scottish politician Nicholas Fairbairn pointed out that the name was an anagram for "Monster hoax by Sir Peter S".

The underwater photos were reportedly obtained by painstakingly examining the loch depths with sonar for unusual underwater activity. A submersible camera with an affixed, high-powered light (necessary for penetrating Loch Ness's notorious murk) was deployed to record images below the surface. Several of the photographs, despite their obviously murky quality, did indeed seem to show an animal resembling a plesiosaur in various positions and lightings. One photograph appeared to show the head, neck and upper torso of a plesiosaur-like animal. A rarely publicised photograph depicted two plesiosaur-like bodies. Another photo seemed to depict a horned "gargoyle head", consistent to that of several sightings of the monster. Some believe the latter to be a tree stump found during Operation Deepscan.

A few close-ups of what is to be the creature's supposed diamondshaped fin were taken in different positions, as though the creature was moving. But the "flipper photograph" has been highly retouched from the original image. The Museum of Hoaxes shows the original unenhanced photo. Team member Charles Wyckoff claimed that someone retouched the photo to superimpose the flipper, and that the original enhancement showed a much smaller flipper. No one is exactly sure how the original came to be enhanced in this way.

Q.

Why is the word “alleged” used in the statement “The alleged flipper was photographed in different positions, indicating movement.”?

Solution:

The correct answer is 3 - this is a classic case of transferred epithet; the flipper is alleged because the monster itself is alleged, and whether or not the photograph is real depends on the monster’s existence. Eliminate option 4.

Option 1 is wrong as there is no proof to support this.

Option 2 is wrong as we know that the photograph exists - “In the early 1970s, a group of people led by Robert H.

Rines obtained some underwater photographs.”

Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 9

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

In the early 1970s, a group of people led by Robert H. Rines obtained some underwater photographs. Two were rather vague images, perhaps of a rhomboid flipper (though others have dismissed the image as air bubbles or a fish fin). The alleged flipper was photographed in different positions, indicating movement. On the basis of these photographs, British naturalist Peter Scott announced in 1975 that the scientific name of the monster would henceforth be Nessiteras rhombopteryx (Greek for "The Ness monster with diamond-shaped fin"). Scott intended that this would enable Nessie to be added to a British register of officially protected wildlife. Scottish politician Nicholas Fairbairn pointed out that the name was an anagram for "Monster hoax by Sir Peter S".

The underwater photos were reportedly obtained by painstakingly examining the loch depths with sonar for unusual underwater activity. A submersible camera with an affixed, high-powered light (necessary for penetrating Loch Ness's notorious murk) was deployed to record images below the surface. Several of the photographs, despite their obviously murky quality, did indeed seem to show an animal resembling a plesiosaur in various positions and lightings. One photograph appeared to show the head, neck and upper torso of a plesiosaur-like animal. A rarely publicised photograph depicted two plesiosaur-like bodies. Another photo seemed to depict a horned "gargoyle head", consistent to that of several sightings of the monster. Some believe the latter to be a tree stump found during Operation Deepscan.

A few close-ups of what is to be the creature's supposed diamondshaped fin were taken in different positions, as though the creature was moving. But the "flipper photograph" has been highly retouched from the original image. The Museum of Hoaxes shows the original unenhanced photo. Team member Charles Wyckoff claimed that someone retouched the photo to superimpose the flipper, and that the original enhancement showed a much smaller flipper. No one is exactly sure how the original came to be enhanced in this way.

Q.

According to the author:

Solution:

The correct answer is 4. The passage talks about a search by Pete Scott’s team to conclusively prove the Loch Ness Monster’s existence, and the proof they gathered; it also argues the veracity of the proof.

But nothing can be proven conclusively. Also, the author doesn’t take a stand one way or another, but merely states facts.
Thus, options 1,2, and 3 are wrong.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 10

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

Revolutions are extreme changes in a country that can have far- reaching effects for its neighbors. For this reason, many countries pay close attention to revolutions as they play out to decide whether or not to assist or impede revolutionary progress to protect their own interests. Predicting the course of such events therefore becomes essential to determining foreign policy towards areas in turmoil. Scholars largely agree that revolutions tend to play out in similar ways. However, revolutionary theorists are still at odds over how successful revolutionary states form. Some historians such as Theda Skocpol argue that social revolutions are a product of socioeconomic and political conditions and therefore are predictable in at-risk countries. Others, like Greg McCarthy claim that this view fails to take into account social class and the struggle resulting from socioeconomic differences, factors that have been driving forces in revolutions instigated by the lower class, as in France and Russia. I contend that, although the preceding government and society are significant in causing a revolution and creating revolutionaries, the ideological mindset of the revolutionary group is itself a major factor in determining the outcome of the revolution.

There may be some objections to the idea of generalizing the outcomes of revolutions beyond individual cases. Logic seems to dictate that every country has different political and socioeconomic conditions, all of which impact how a given revolution plays out.

However, social revolution is a specific form of upheaval in the national political and social structure that can emerge from religious and economic motivations. These events are, according to Skocpol “basic transformations of a society’s state and class structures; and they are accompanied and in part carried through by class-based revolts from below”. Such upheavals involve not only political and governmental shifts, but also socioeconomic changes.

By gathering intelligence about revolutionary groups at the forefront of upheaval in a nation, we can deduce their ideologies. From their ideology, revolutionary tendencies can be applied to predict possible actions that may be taken during a revolution. For example, a communist group is likely to create a bureaucratic government based on the lower class, which could be effective at quick mass- mobilization in times of war. Using this sort of analysis, with emphasis on the structural and ideological distinctions of various revolutions, general trends for other revolutionary varieties, such as Islamic revolutions in the Middle East, can be found and refined.

This information could be used to determine whether or not intervention is necessary for national security and if so, what sort. A country with an interest in oil in a region, for example, would not be keen on allowing communists to seize power, as the new regime would likely not be receptive to private investors. During a revolution led by religious zealots, onlookers may be less likely to deem intervention worth the trouble if such revolutionaries tend to create large, destructive armies. The guidelines when applied to more revolutions, could provide a way to better predict the formation of governments in the critical stage of revolution.

Q.

Why does a revolution in one country attract the attention of 3 Marks other countries?

Solution:

Options 1 and 4 with “possibility for a war” and “threatened” cannot be corroborated from the passage as the passage only says that the neighboring countries only observe the revolutionary changes to decide whether or not to assist or impede revolutionary progress. Hence, the changes do not necessarily mean threat or war.From this, option 2 is validated.

Option 3 does not answer the question stem and does not give the reason as to why these changes affect other countries.

Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 11

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

Revolutions are extreme changes in a country that can have far- reaching effects for its neighbors. For this reason, many countries pay close attention to revolutions as they play out to decide whether or not to assist or impede revolutionary progress to protect their own interests. Predicting the course of such events therefore becomes essential to determining foreign policy towards areas in turmoil. Scholars largely agree that revolutions tend to play out in similar ways. However, revolutionary theorists are still at odds over how successful revolutionary states form. Some historians such as Theda Skocpol argue that social revolutions are a product of socioeconomic and political conditions and therefore are predictable in at-risk countries. Others, like Greg McCarthy claim that this view fails to take into account social class and the struggle resulting from socioeconomic differences, factors that have been driving forces in revolutions instigated by the lower class, as in France and Russia. I contend that, although the preceding government and society are significant in causing a revolution and creating revolutionaries, the ideological mindset of the revolutionary group is itself a major factor in determining the outcome of the revolution.

There may be some objections to the idea of generalizing the outcomes of revolutions beyond individual cases. Logic seems to dictate that every country has different political and socioeconomic conditions, all of which impact how a given revolution plays out.

However, social revolution is a specific form of upheaval in the national political and social structure that can emerge from religious and economic motivations. These events are, according to Skocpol “basic transformations of a society’s state and class structures; and they are accompanied and in part carried through by class-based revolts from below”. Such upheavals involve not only political and governmental shifts, but also socioeconomic changes.

By gathering intelligence about revolutionary groups at the forefront of upheaval in a nation, we can deduce their ideologies. From their ideology, revolutionary tendencies can be applied to predict possible actions that may be taken during a revolution. For example, a communist group is likely to create a bureaucratic government based on the lower class, which could be effective at quick mass- mobilization in times of war. Using this sort of analysis, with emphasis on the structural and ideological distinctions of various revolutions, general trends for other revolutionary varieties, such as Islamic revolutions in the Middle East, can be found and refined.

This information could be used to determine whether or not intervention is necessary for national security and if so, what sort. A country with an interest in oil in a region, for example, would not be keen on allowing communists to seize power, as the new regime would likely not be receptive to private investors. During a revolution led by religious zealots, onlookers may be less likely to deem intervention worth the trouble if such revolutionaries tend to create large, destructive armies. The guidelines when applied to more revolutions, could provide a way to better predict the formation of governments in the critical stage of revolution.

Q.

Skocpol is likely to support the following statements, except:

Solution:

Option 1 is incorrect as “...social revolutions are a product of socioeconomic and political conditions and therefore are predictable in at-risk countries.”

Option 2 can be inferred from “...and they are accompanied and in part carried through by class-based revolts from below.”

Options 3 and 4 can be corroborated form “...social revolutions are a product of socioeconomic and political conditions..”

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 12

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

Revolutions are extreme changes in a country that can have far- reaching effects for its neighbors. For this reason, many countries pay close attention to revolutions as they play out to decide whether or not to assist or impede revolutionary progress to protect their own interests. Predicting the course of such events therefore becomes essential to determining foreign policy towards areas in turmoil. Scholars largely agree that revolutions tend to play out in similar ways. However, revolutionary theorists are still at odds over how successful revolutionary states form. Some historians such as Theda Skocpol argue that social revolutions are a product of socioeconomic and political conditions and therefore are predictable in at-risk countries. Others, like Greg McCarthy claim that this view fails to take into account social class and the struggle resulting from socioeconomic differences, factors that have been driving forces in revolutions instigated by the lower class, as in France and Russia. I contend that, although the preceding government and society are significant in causing a revolution and creating revolutionaries, the ideological mindset of the revolutionary group is itself a major factor in determining the outcome of the revolution.

There may be some objections to the idea of generalizing the outcomes of revolutions beyond individual cases. Logic seems to dictate that every country has different political and socioeconomic conditions, all of which impact how a given revolution plays out.

However, social revolution is a specific form of upheaval in the national political and social structure that can emerge from religious and economic motivations. These events are, according to Skocpol “basic transformations of a society’s state and class structures; and they are accompanied and in part carried through by class-based revolts from below”. Such upheavals involve not only political and governmental shifts, but also socioeconomic changes.

By gathering intelligence about revolutionary groups at the forefront of upheaval in a nation, we can deduce their ideologies. From their ideology, revolutionary tendencies can be applied to predict possible actions that may be taken during a revolution. For example, a communist group is likely to create a bureaucratic government based on the lower class, which could be effective at quick mass- mobilization in times of war. Using this sort of analysis, with emphasis on the structural and ideological distinctions of various revolutions, general trends for other revolutionary varieties, such as Islamic revolutions in the Middle East, can be found and refined.

This information could be used to determine whether or not intervention is necessary for national security and if so, what sort. A country with an interest in oil in a region, for example, would not be keen on allowing communists to seize power, as the new regime would likely not be receptive to private investors. During a revolution led by religious zealots, onlookers may be less likely to deem intervention worth the trouble if such revolutionaries tend to create large, destructive armies. The guidelines when applied to more revolutions, could provide a way to better predict the formation of governments in the critical stage of revolution.

Q.

Which of the following can be regarded as a factor contributing to a revolution?

1. Socio-economic differences in a society

2. Prevailing socio-economic and political conditions of a country

3. Ideology of the revolutionary group

Solution:

Statements A and B can be validated from “... fails to take into account social class and the struggle resulting from socioeconomic differences, factors that have been driving forces in revolutions instigated by the lower class..”

Statement C can be validated from “... the ideological mindset of the revolutionary group is itself a major factor in determining the outcome of the revolution.”

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 13

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

Revolutions are extreme changes in a country that can have far- reaching effects for its neighbors. For this reason, many countries pay close attention to revolutions as they play out to decide whether or not to assist or impede revolutionary progress to protect their own interests. Predicting the course of such events therefore becomes essential to determining foreign policy towards areas in turmoil. Scholars largely agree that revolutions tend to play out in similar ways. However, revolutionary theorists are still at odds over how successful revolutionary states form. Some historians such as Theda Skocpol argue that social revolutions are a product of socioeconomic and political conditions and therefore are predictable in at-risk countries. Others, like Greg McCarthy claim that this view fails to take into account social class and the struggle resulting from socioeconomic differences, factors that have been driving forces in revolutions instigated by the lower class, as in France and Russia. I contend that, although the preceding government and society are significant in causing a revolution and creating revolutionaries, the ideological mindset of the revolutionary group is itself a major factor in determining the outcome of the revolution.

There may be some objections to the idea of generalizing the outcomes of revolutions beyond individual cases. Logic seems to dictate that every country has different political and socioeconomic conditions, all of which impact how a given revolution plays out.

However, social revolution is a specific form of upheaval in the national political and social structure that can emerge from religious and economic motivations. These events are, according to Skocpol “basic transformations of a society’s state and class structures; and they are accompanied and in part carried through by class-based revolts from below”. Such upheavals involve not only political and governmental shifts, but also socioeconomic changes.

By gathering intelligence about revolutionary groups at the forefront of upheaval in a nation, we can deduce their ideologies. From their ideology, revolutionary tendencies can be applied to predict possible actions that may be taken during a revolution. For example, a communist group is likely to create a bureaucratic government based on the lower class, which could be effective at quick mass- mobilization in times of war. Using this sort of analysis, with emphasis on the structural and ideological distinctions of various revolutions, general trends for other revolutionary varieties, such as Islamic revolutions in the Middle East, can be found and refined.

This information could be used to determine whether or not intervention is necessary for national security and if so, what sort. A country with an interest in oil in a region, for example, would not be keen on allowing communists to seize power, as the new regime would likely not be receptive to private investors. During a revolution led by religious zealots, onlookers may be less likely to deem intervention worth the trouble if such revolutionaries tend to create large, destructive armies. The guidelines when applied to more revolutions, could provide a way to better predict the formation of governments in the critical stage of revolution.

Q.

Why does the author mean by the line- “..although the preceding government and society are significant in causing a revolution and creating revolutionaries, the ideological mindset of the revolutionary group is itself a major factor in determining the outcome of the revolution.”?

Solution:

Option 1 is correct as the sentence says that the ideological mindset of revolutionary groups determine the outcome of a revolution.

Option 2 is incorrect as the relation between the ideology and the government cannot be inferred from the passage.

Option 3 cannot be inferred as the sentence only mentions that the ideological mindset of revolutionary groups is a determining factor of the outcome of a revolution.

Option 4 can be eliminated as nothing about “anti-social” elements has been mentioned.

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 14

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

Revolutions are extreme changes in a country that can have far- reaching effects for its neighbors. For this reason, many countries pay close attention to revolutions as they play out to decide whether or not to assist or impede revolutionary progress to protect their own interests. Predicting the course of such events therefore becomes essential to determining foreign policy towards areas in turmoil. Scholars largely agree that revolutions tend to play out in similar ways. However, revolutionary theorists are still at odds over how successful revolutionary states form. Some historians such as Theda Skocpol argue that social revolutions are a product of socioeconomic and political conditions and therefore are predictable in at-risk countries. Others, like Greg McCarthy claim that this view fails to take into account social class and the struggle resulting from socioeconomic differences, factors that have been driving forces in revolutions instigated by the lower class, as in France and Russia. I contend that, although the preceding government and society are significant in causing a revolution and creating revolutionaries, the ideological mindset of the revolutionary group is itself a major factor in determining the outcome of the revolution.

There may be some objections to the idea of generalizing the outcomes of revolutions beyond individual cases. Logic seems to dictate that every country has different political and socioeconomic conditions, all of which impact how a given revolution plays out.

However, social revolution is a specific form of upheaval in the national political and social structure that can emerge from religious and economic motivations. These events are, according to Skocpol “basic transformations of a society’s state and class structures; and they are accompanied and in part carried through by class-based revolts from below”. Such upheavals involve not only political and governmental shifts, but also socioeconomic changes.

By gathering intelligence about revolutionary groups at the forefront of upheaval in a nation, we can deduce their ideologies. From their ideology, revolutionary tendencies can be applied to predict possible actions that may be taken during a revolution. For example, a communist group is likely to create a bureaucratic government based on the lower class, which could be effective at quick mass- mobilization in times of war. Using this sort of analysis, with emphasis on the structural and ideological distinctions of various revolutions, general trends for other revolutionary varieties, such as Islamic revolutions in the Middle East, can be found and refined.

This information could be used to determine whether or not intervention is necessary for national security and if so, what sort. A country with an interest in oil in a region, for example, would not be keen on allowing communists to seize power, as the new regime would likely not be receptive to private investors. During a revolution led by religious zealots, onlookers may be less likely to deem intervention worth the trouble if such revolutionaries tend to create large, destructive armies. The guidelines when applied to more revolutions, could provide a way to better predict the formation of governments in the critical stage of revolution.

Q.

A suitable title for the passage would be:

Solution:

The passage does not talk about the present or future status of social revolutions. Hence, option 1 can be eliminated.

Option 2 with “Revolutionary ideas” cannot be corroborated from the passage.

Option 3 does not mention the revolutionary ideology discussed in the passage.

Option 4 is an apt title as it captures the aspect of “outcomes of revolutions”.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 15

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

Revolutions are extreme changes in a country that can have far- reaching effects for its neighbors. For this reason, many countries pay close attention to revolutions as they play out to decide whether or not to assist or impede revolutionary progress to protect their own interests. Predicting the course of such events therefore becomes essential to determining foreign policy towards areas in turmoil. Scholars largely agree that revolutions tend to play out in similar ways. However, revolutionary theorists are still at odds over how successful revolutionary states form. Some historians such as Theda Skocpol argue that social revolutions are a product of socioeconomic and political conditions and therefore are predictable in at-risk countries. Others, like Greg McCarthy claim that this view fails to take into account social class and the struggle resulting from socioeconomic differences, factors that have been driving forces in revolutions instigated by the lower class, as in France and Russia. I contend that, although the preceding government and society are significant in causing a revolution and creating revolutionaries, the ideological mindset of the revolutionary group is itself a major factor in determining the outcome of the revolution.

There may be some objections to the idea of generalizing the outcomes of revolutions beyond individual cases. Logic seems to dictate that every country has different political and socioeconomic conditions, all of which impact how a given revolution plays out.

However, social revolution is a specific form of upheaval in the national political and social structure that can emerge from religious and economic motivations. These events are, according to Skocpol “basic transformations of a society’s state and class structures; and they are accompanied and in part carried through by class-based revolts from below”. Such upheavals involve not only political and governmental shifts, but also socioeconomic changes.

By gathering intelligence about revolutionary groups at the forefront of upheaval in a nation, we can deduce their ideologies. From their ideology, revolutionary tendencies can be applied to predict possible actions that may be taken during a revolution. For example, a communist group is likely to create a bureaucratic government based on the lower class, which could be effective at quick mass- mobilization in times of war. Using this sort of analysis, with emphasis on the structural and ideological distinctions of various revolutions, general trends for other revolutionary varieties, such as Islamic revolutions in the Middle East, can be found and refined.

This information could be used to determine whether or not intervention is necessary for national security and if so, what sort. A country with an interest in oil in a region, for example, would not be keen on allowing communists to seize power, as the new regime would likely not be receptive to private investors. During a revolution led by religious zealots, onlookers may be less likely to deem intervention worth the trouble if such revolutionaries tend to create large, destructive armies. The guidelines when applied to more revolutions, could provide a way to better predict the formation of governments in the critical stage of revolution.

Q.

What can be concluded from the statement- “By gathering intelligence about revolutionary groups at the forefront of upheaval in a nation, we can deduce their ideologies."

A. Revolutions have certain pattern to them

B. Ideologies have certain patterns to them

C. Revolutionary groups cause upheavals in a nation

Solution:

Statement A can be concluded as the statement mentions gathering intelligence about revolutionary groups.

Statement B can be concluded as revolutions are led by ideologies of the revolutionary groups.

Statement C can be concluded from “revolutionary groups at the forefront of upheaval in a nation”.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 16

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

The computer is an artifact, not a natural phenomenon, and science is about natural phenomena. As a creation of the human mind, independent of the physical world, mathematics is not a science but a tool for doing science. Modern techno-science undercuts the first point. How does one distinguish between nature and artifact when we rely on artifacts to produce or afford access to the natural phenomena? In insisting that ‘Nature to be commanded must be obeyed,’ Francis Bacon placed nature and art on the same physical and epistemological level.

Artifacts work by the laws of nature, and by working to reveal those laws. Only with the development of thermodynamics, through the analysis of steam engines, did we ‘discover’ that world is a heat engine subject to the laws of entropy. Later came the information theory - the analysis of communications systems arising from the problems of long-distance telephony. Now, with the computer, nature has increasingly become a computation. DNA is code, the program for the process of development. Although the computational world may have begun as a metaphor, it is now acquiring the status of metaphysics, thus repeating the early modern transition from the metaphor of ‘machine of the world’ to the metaphysics of 'matter in motion'.

The artifact as conceptual scheme is deeply, indeed inseparably, embedded in nature, and the relationship works both ways, as computer scientists turn to biological models to address problems of stability, adaptability, and complexity. Embedded too is the mathematics that has played a central role in the articulation of many of these models of nature - thermodynamical, informational, and computational - not simply by quantifying them but also, and more importantly, by capturing their structure and even filling it out. Applied to the world as models, mathematical structures have captured its workings in uncanny ways or as Eugene Wigner put it, ‘unreasonably effective’.

Q.

All of the following statements can be inferred from the passage except:

 

Solution:

Option 1 is not inferred from the passage, which does not detail upon mathematical structures.

Option 2 is inferred from the passage - “Artifacts work by the laws of nature, and by working to reveal those laws.”.

Option 3 is inferred from the passage- “Embedded too is the mathematics that has played a central role in the articulation of many of these models of nature - thermodynamical, informational, and computational - not simply by quantifying them but also, and more importantly, by capturing their structure and even filling it out. Applied to the world as models, mathematical structures have captured its workings in uncanny ways...”.
This eliminates options 2, 3 and 4.

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 17

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

The computer is an artifact, not a natural phenomenon, and science is about natural phenomena. As a creation of the human mind, independent of the physical world, mathematics is not a science but a tool for doing science. Modern techno-science undercuts the first point. How does one distinguish between nature and artifact when we rely on artifacts to produce or afford access to the natural phenomena? In insisting that ‘Nature to be commanded must be obeyed,’ Francis Bacon placed nature and art on the same physical and epistemological level.

Artifacts work by the laws of nature, and by working to reveal those laws. Only with the development of thermodynamics, through the analysis of steam engines, did we ‘discover’ that world is a heat engine subject to the laws of entropy. Later came the information theory - the analysis of communications systems arising from the problems of long-distance telephony. Now, with the computer, nature has increasingly become a computation. DNA is code, the program for the process of development. Although the computational world may have begun as a metaphor, it is now acquiring the status of metaphysics, thus repeating the early modern transition from the metaphor of ‘machine of the world’ to the metaphysics of 'matter in motion'.

The artifact as conceptual scheme is deeply, indeed inseparably, embedded in nature, and the relationship works both ways, as computer scientists turn to biological models to address problems of stability, adaptability, and complexity. Embedded too is the mathematics that has played a central role in the articulation of many of these models of nature - thermodynamical, informational, and computational - not simply by quantifying them but also, and more importantly, by capturing their structure and even filling it out. Applied to the world as models, mathematical structures have captured its workings in uncanny ways or as Eugene Wigner put it, ‘unreasonably effective’.

Q.

If you were to interview the author, what would be your follow up question to this passage?

Solution:

Option 4 is the follow up question that needs to be asked.

Earlier in the passage the author makes an assertion that - “...mathematics is not a science but a tool for doing science.”. This is challenged as a result of the advent of computer science. The passage states - “The artifact as conceptual scheme is deeply, indeed inseparably, embedded in nature, and the relationship works both ways.”.

The interview would eventually continue in the below mentioned vein and therefore, the logical follow up question asked to the author would be - “Given the advent of computational science, can mathematics be a science of the natural world?” The passage states- “The artifact as conceptual scheme is deeply, indeed inseparably, embedded in nature, and the relationship works both ways, as computer scientists turn to biological models to address problems of stability, adaptability, and complexity.

Embedded too is the mathematics that has played a central role in the articulation of many of these models of nature - thermodynamical, informational, and computational - not simply by quantifying them but also, and more importantly, by capturing their structure and even filling it out.”.

Options 1,2 and 3 have been explained in the passage in their entirety and cannot be follow up questions.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 18

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

The computer is an artifact, not a natural phenomenon, and science is about natural phenomena. As a creation of the human mind, independent of the physical world, mathematics is not a science but a tool for doing science. Modern techno-science undercuts the first point. How does one distinguish between nature and artifact when we rely on artifacts to produce or afford access to the natural phenomena? In insisting that ‘Nature to be commanded must be obeyed,’ Francis Bacon placed nature and art on the same physical and epistemological level.

Artifacts work by the laws of nature, and by working to reveal those laws. Only with the development of thermodynamics, through the analysis of steam engines, did we ‘discover’ that world is a heat engine subject to the laws of entropy. Later came the information theory - the analysis of communications systems arising from the problems of long-distance telephony. Now, with the computer, nature has increasingly become a computation. DNA is code, the program for the process of development. Although the computational world may have begun as a metaphor, it is now acquiring the status of metaphysics, thus repeating the early modern transition from the metaphor of ‘machine of the world’ to the metaphysics of 'matter in motion'.

The artifact as conceptual scheme is deeply, indeed inseparably, embedded in nature, and the relationship works both ways, as computer scientists turn to biological models to address problems of stability, adaptability, and complexity. Embedded too is the mathematics that has played a central role in the articulation of many of these models of nature - thermodynamical, informational, and computational - not simply by quantifying them but also, and more importantly, by capturing their structure and even filling it out. Applied to the world as models, mathematical structures have captured its workings in uncanny ways or as Eugene Wigner put it, ‘unreasonably effective’.

Q.

Which of the following best states the style in which this passage has been written?

Solution:

The passage seeks to explain how nature and artifacts influence each other by giving the example of a computer. “Analytical” means 'pertaining to or proceeding by analysis'. Here the author presents his analysis of the subject.
The passage is neither judgmental nor is it argumentative. Eliminate options 2 and 4.

“Discursive” means 'digressive; rambling'. This is incorrect as the passage is to the point and the continuing line of thought is precise. Eliminate option 3.

Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 19

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
My invisibility isn’t exactly a matter of a bio-chemical accident to my epidermis. That invisibility to which I refer occurs because of a peculiar disposition of the eyes of those with whom I come in contact. A matter of the construction of their inner eyes, those eyes with which they look through their physical eyes upon reality. I am not complaining, nor am I protesting either. It is sometimes advantageous to be unseen, although it is most often rather wearing on the nerves. Then too, you're constantly being bumped against by those of poor vision. Or again, you often doubt if you really exist.
You wonder whether you aren't simply a phantom in other people's minds. Say, a figure in a nightmare which the sleeper tries with all his strength to destroy. It's when you feel like this that, out of resentment, you begin to bump people back. And, let me confess, you feel that way most of the time. You ache with the need to convince yourself that you do exist in the real world, that you're a part of all the sound and anguish, and you strike out with your fists, you curse and you swear to make them recognize you. And, alas, it's seldom successful. Most of the time, I remember that I am invisible and walk softly so as not to awaken the sleeping ones. Sometimes it is best not to awaken them; there are few things in the world as dangerous as sleepwalkers. I learned in time though that it is possible to carry on a fight against them without their realizing it.
Our whole world sounds like a contradiction, but that is just how it moves. Not like an arrow, but a boomerang. Beware of those who speak of the spiral of history; they are preparing a boomerang.
Keep a steel helmet handy. I have been boomeranged across my head so much that I now can see the darkness of lightness. And I love light. Perhaps you'll think it strange that an invisible man should need light, desire light, love light. But maybe it is exactly because I am invisible. Light confirms my reality, gives birth to my form. A beautiful girl once told me of a recurring nightmare in which she lay in the center of a large dark room and felt her face expand until it filled the whole room, becoming a formless mass while her eyes ran in bilious jelly up the chimney. And so it is with me. Without light I am not only invisible, but formless as well; and to be unaware of one's form is to live a death. I myself, after existing some twenty years, did not become alive until I discovered my invisibility.

Q.

Which of the following cannot be attributed to the narrator of this passage?

Solution:

The narrator elaborates on the anguish and disbelief that he/she feels towards his/her existence - “...you often doubt if you really exist. You wonder whether you aren't simply a phantom in other people's minds. Say, a figure in a nightmare which the sleeper tries with all his strength to destroy.”. This helps us infer that the narrator feels out of place wherever he/she is, which is supported by “You ache with the need to convince yourself that you do exist in the real world, that you're a part of all the sound and anguish This supports options 1 and 2.

Option 4 can be inferred from “Most of the time, I remember that I am invisible and walk softly so as not to awaken the sleeping ones.”. This implies that the narrator has come to terms with his/her circumstances.

Though the passage mentions “... you strike out with your fists, you curse and you swear to make them recognize you. And, alas, it's seldom successful.”, it implies that the narrator is cynical whether his/her expression of anguish would result in an acceptance of his/her existence rather than being cynical towards positive change. Additionally in the second paragraph, the author highlights the importance of light and how it has impacted his/her life.

According to the author acceptance of his/her situation helped him/her in feeling alive. Thus, we can infer that the author is inclined towards positive change. This vindicates option 3 as correct.

Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 20

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
My invisibility isn’t exactly a matter of a bio-chemical accident to my epidermis. That invisibility to which I refer occurs because of a peculiar disposition of the eyes of those with whom I come in contact. A matter of the construction of their inner eyes, those eyes with which they look through their physical eyes upon reality. I am not complaining, nor am I protesting either. It is sometimes advantageous to be unseen, although it is most often rather wearing on the nerves. Then too, you're constantly being bumped against by those of poor vision. Or again, you often doubt if you really exist.
You wonder whether you aren't simply a phantom in other people's minds. Say, a figure in a nightmare which the sleeper tries with all his strength to destroy. It's when you feel like this that, out of resentment, you begin to bump people back. And, let me confess, you feel that way most of the time. You ache with the need to convince yourself that you do exist in the real world, that you're a part of all the sound and anguish, and you strike out with your fists, you curse and you swear to make them recognize you. And, alas, it's seldom successful. Most of the time, I remember that I am invisible and walk softly so as not to awaken the sleeping ones. Sometimes it is best not to awaken them; there are few things in the world as dangerous as sleepwalkers. I learned in time though that it is possible to carry on a fight against them without their realizing it.
Our whole world sounds like a contradiction, but that is just how it moves. Not like an arrow, but a boomerang. Beware of those who speak of the spiral of history; they are preparing a boomerang.
Keep a steel helmet handy. I have been boomeranged across my head so much that I now can see the darkness of lightness. And I love light. Perhaps you'll think it strange that an invisible man should need light, desire light, love light. But maybe it is exactly because I am invisible. Light confirms my reality, gives birth to my form. A beautiful girl once told me of a recurring nightmare in which she lay in the center of a large dark room and felt her face expand until it filled the whole room, becoming a formless mass while her eyes ran in bilious jelly up the chimney. And so it is with me. Without light I am not only invisible, but formless as well; and to be unaware of one's form is to live a death. I myself, after existing some twenty years, did not become alive until I discovered my invisibility.

Q.

Which of the following cannot be concluded on the basis of the passage?

Solution:

Option 1 can be inferred from “Then too, you're constantly being bumped against by those of poor vision. Or again, you often doubt if you really exist. You wonder whether you aren't simply a phantom in other people's minds. Say, a figure in a nightmare which the sleeper tries with all his strength to destroy.” and “Sometimes it is best not to awaken them; there are few things in the world as dangerous as sleepwalkers.”.

This implies that the narrator’s inclusion in mainstream society endangers him/her.

The passage uses metaphors to detail upon the conditions of the narrator. The denial of his/her existence by the society has been referred to as a form of invisibility and the “light” refers to knowledge and understanding. According to the passage, “I have been boomeranged across my head so much that I now can see the darkness of lightness.

And I love light. Perhaps you'll think it strange that an invisible man should need light, desire light, love light.”. This eliminates option 2.

Option 4 is supported by “Without light I am not only invisible, but formless as well; and to be unaware of one's form is to live a death. I myself, after existing some twenty years, did not become alive until I discovered my invisibility.”.

We cannot verify the validity of option 3 since the passage pertains to how the society perceives the narrator’s existence negatively and does not deliberate upon society's perception of its own denial of the narrator's existence.

Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 21

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
My invisibility isn’t exactly a matter of a bio-chemical accident to my epidermis. That invisibility to which I refer occurs because of a peculiar disposition of the eyes of those with whom I come in contact. A matter of the construction of their inner eyes, those eyes with which they look through their physical eyes upon reality. I am not complaining, nor am I protesting either. It is sometimes advantageous to be unseen, although it is most often rather wearing on the nerves. Then too, you're constantly being bumped against by those of poor vision. Or again, you often doubt if you really exist.
You wonder whether you aren't simply a phantom in other people's minds. Say, a figure in a nightmare which the sleeper tries with all his strength to destroy. It's when you feel like this that, out of resentment, you begin to bump people back. And, let me confess, you feel that way most of the time. You ache with the need to convince yourself that you do exist in the real world, that you're a part of all the sound and anguish, and you strike out with your fists, you curse and you swear to make them recognize you. And, alas, it's seldom successful. Most of the time, I remember that I am invisible and walk softly so as not to awaken the sleeping ones. Sometimes it is best not to awaken them; there are few things in the world as dangerous as sleepwalkers. I learned in time though that it is possible to carry on a fight against them without their realizing it.
Our whole world sounds like a contradiction, but that is just how it moves. Not like an arrow, but a boomerang. Beware of those who speak of the spiral of history; they are preparing a boomerang.
Keep a steel helmet handy. I have been boomeranged across my head so much that I now can see the darkness of lightness. And I love light. Perhaps you'll think it strange that an invisible man should need light, desire light, love light. But maybe it is exactly because I am invisible. Light confirms my reality, gives birth to my form. A beautiful girl once told me of a recurring nightmare in which she lay in the center of a large dark room and felt her face expand until it filled the whole room, becoming a formless mass while her eyes ran in bilious jelly up the chimney. And so it is with me. Without light I am not only invisible, but formless as well; and to be unaware of one's form is to live a death. I myself, after existing some twenty years, did not become alive until I discovered my invisibility.

Q.

Which of the following accurately describes the combination of writing styles used in the passage?

I. Reflective

II. Narrative

III. Descriptive

IV. Metaphysical

V. Emotive

Solution:

The passage puts forth the narrator’s anguish and elucidates how the narrator perceives his/her condition to be. Thus, the passage is certainly “reflective” meaning ‘concerned with mediation or deliberation’. This eliminates options 2 and 3.

The passage is put forth as an account of the author’s thoughts and experiences, each one being elucidated upon thoroughly. This helps us infer that the passage uses a “narrative” style as well as a “descriptive” one. Eliminate option 1.
The narrator uses several metaphors to describe his/her existential angst and is not literal in his/her narration.

He/she touches upon several philosophical concepts in putting forth how the denial of existence can affect a human being. Thus, the passage is certainly “metaphysical” in its narration.

The passage is centered on how the denial of existence affects the narrator and he/she gives voice to his/her feelings throughout the passage. This establishes the “emotive” nature of the author’s writing and vindicates option 4 as correct.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 22

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

To people with autism and Asperger syndrome the world can appear chaotic with no clear boundaries, order or meaning. These disorders can vary from very mild, where the person can function almost as well as anyone else around them, to so severe that they are completely unable to take part in normal society. People with autism are usually more severely disabled, while those with Asperger syndrome tend to be more able, although this isn’t always so.

Because of the range of severity and symptoms the conditions are collectively known as autistic spectrum disorders. People with Asperger syndrome are usually more mildly affected than those with autism. In fact, many people with milder symptoms are never diagnosed at all, and some argue that Asperger syndrome is simply a variation of normal rather than a medical condition or disorder. Even so, many do find that it gives them particular problems getting on in the world and they may become aware they are different from others. This can result in isolation, confusion, depression and other difficulties, all of which could be defined as ‘disease’.

Some children with Asperger syndrome manage in mainstream schools especially if extra support is available. However, even when children cope well academically, they may have problems socialising and are likely to suffer teasing or bullying. More severely affected children need the specialist help provided by schools for children with learning disabilities. With the right sort of support and encouragement, many with Asperger syndrome can lead a relatively normal life. Helping them develop some insight into the condition is an important step towards adjusting to, or at least coping with, the way the rest of the world works.

Some do very well, especially in an environment or job where they can use their particular talents. Autism tends to produce more severe symptoms. For example, a child with autism may fail to develop normal speech and as many as 75 per cent of people with autism have accompanying learning disabilities. Seizures are also a common problem, affecting between 15 and 30 per cent of those with autism. Conversely, autistic children are sometimes found to have an exceptional skill, such as an aptitude for drawing, mathematics, or playing a musical instrument.

Q.

Which of the following questions most appropriately introduces the passage?

Solution:

The passage briefly and factually introduces autism and Asperger syndrome to the reader. It also mentions some of the differences between the two syndromes.

The gist of the passage is not limited to 'whether children affected by autism and Asperger syndrome can lead normal lives'. The scope of the passage is much more. Therefore, option 1 is eliminated.

Option 2 mentions the ‘symptoms’ of autism and Asperger syndromes. This has been mentioned very briefly in the passage and does not form the crux of the passage.

While differences between autism and Asperger syndromes have been mentioned in the passage, the focus of the passage is on explaining the two syndromes- including their similarities as well. Therefore, option 3 can be eliminated.

Option 4 captures the gist of the passage perfectly and is the most suitable introduction to the passage.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 23

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

To people with autism and Asperger syndrome the world can appear chaotic with no clear boundaries, order or meaning. These disorders can vary from very mild, where the person can function almost as well as anyone else around them, to so severe that they are completely unable to take part in normal society. People with autism are usually more severely disabled, while those with Asperger syndrome tend to be more able, although this isn’t always so.

Because of the range of severity and symptoms the conditions are collectively known as autistic spectrum disorders. People with Asperger syndrome are usually more mildly affected than those with autism. In fact, many people with milder symptoms are never diagnosed at all, and some argue that Asperger syndrome is simply a variation of normal rather than a medical condition or disorder. Even so, many do find that it gives them particular problems getting on in the world and they may become aware they are different from others. This can result in isolation, confusion, depression and other difficulties, all of which could be defined as ‘disease’.

Some children with Asperger syndrome manage in mainstream schools especially if extra support is available. However, even when children cope well academically, they may have problems socialising and are likely to suffer teasing or bullying. More severely affected children need the specialist help provided by schools for children with learning disabilities. With the right sort of support and encouragement, many with Asperger syndrome can lead a relatively normal life. Helping them develop some insight into the condition is an important step towards adjusting to, or at least coping with, the way the rest of the world works.

Some do very well, especially in an environment or job where they can use their particular talents. Autism tends to produce more severe symptoms. For example, a child with autism may fail to develop normal speech and as many as 75 per cent of people with autism have accompanying learning disabilities. Seizures are also a common problem, affecting between 15 and 30 per cent of those with autism. Conversely, autistic children are sometimes found to have an exceptional skill, such as an aptitude for drawing, mathematics, or playing a musical instrument.

Q.

Which of the following facts has led to the argument that Asperger syndrome is not a clinical condition?

Solution:

The following extract, “...and some argue that Asperger syndrome is simply a variation of normal rather than a medical condition or disorder. Even so, many do find that it gives them particular problems getting on in the world and they may become aware they are different from others.” points to option 3 being the correct answer option. “...variation of normal...” as well as “...different from others...” can be said to be idiosyncrasies.

Option 1 is incorrect. Although the symptoms for Asperger's syndrome are milder than autism, that does not necessarily mean that Asperger syndrome is not a clinical condition.

Option 2 has not been mentioned in the passage.

Option 4 does not address the question stem adequately. If the symptoms are so mild that they are not diagnosed at all, that does not mean that there are no symptoms and that Asperger syndrome is not a clinical condition.

Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 24

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

To people with autism and Asperger syndrome the world can appear chaotic with no clear boundaries, order or meaning. These disorders can vary from very mild, where the person can function almost as well as anyone else around them, to so severe that they are completely unable to take part in normal society. People with autism are usually more severely disabled, while those with Asperger syndrome tend to be more able, although this isn’t always so.

Because of the range of severity and symptoms the conditions are collectively known as autistic spectrum disorders. People with Asperger syndrome are usually more mildly affected than those with autism. In fact, many people with milder symptoms are never diagnosed at all, and some argue that Asperger syndrome is simply a variation of normal rather than a medical condition or disorder. Even so, many do find that it gives them particular problems getting on in the world and they may become aware they are different from others. This can result in isolation, confusion, depression and other difficulties, all of which could be defined as ‘disease’.

Some children with Asperger syndrome manage in mainstream schools especially if extra support is available. However, even when children cope well academically, they may have problems socialising and are likely to suffer teasing or bullying. More severely affected children need the specialist help provided by schools for children with learning disabilities. With the right sort of support and encouragement, many with Asperger syndrome can lead a relatively normal life. Helping them develop some insight into the condition is an important step towards adjusting to, or at least coping with, the way the rest of the world works.

Some do very well, especially in an environment or job where they can use their particular talents. Autism tends to produce more severe symptoms. For example, a child with autism may fail to develop normal speech and as many as 75 per cent of people with autism have accompanying learning disabilities. Seizures are also a common problem, affecting between 15 and 30 per cent of those with autism. Conversely, autistic children are sometimes found to have an exceptional skill, such as an aptitude for drawing, mathematics, or playing a musical instrument.

Q.

It can be inferred from the passage that

Solution:

“Autism tends to produce more severe symptoms (than Asperger syndrome) For example, a child with autism may fail to develop normal speech.”. By implication this is not a problem in Asperger syndrome. If this also were a problem in Asperger syndrome, the author would not be able to make this statement.

The following extract, “Some children with Asperger syndrome manage in mainstream schools especially if extra support is available.” establishes option 2 to be untrue.

The following extract, “To people with autism and Asperger syndrome the world can appear chaotic with no clear boundaries, order or meaning.” combined with “Because of the range of severity and symptoms the conditions are collectively known as autistic spectrum disorders. People with Asperger syndrome are usually more mildly affected than those with autism.” establish the fact that autism and Asperger syndrome are not distinct disorders.

Option 4 is incorrect because the passage mentions “...all of which could be defined as ‘disease’...” in respect to these symptoms.

Option 1 can be inferred; note also, that the wording of option 1 is such that the statement works as an inference.

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 25

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

To people with autism and Asperger syndrome the world can appear chaotic with no clear boundaries, order or meaning. These disorders can vary from very mild, where the person can function almost as well as anyone else around them, to so severe that they are completely unable to take part in normal society. People with autism are usually more severely disabled, while those with Asperger syndrome tend to be more able, although this isn’t always so.

Because of the range of severity and symptoms the conditions are collectively known as autistic spectrum disorders. People with Asperger syndrome are usually more mildly affected than those with autism. In fact, many people with milder symptoms are never diagnosed at all, and some argue that Asperger syndrome is simply a variation of normal rather than a medical condition or disorder. Even so, many do find that it gives them particular problems getting on in the world and they may become aware they are different from others. This can result in isolation, confusion, depression and other difficulties, all of which could be defined as ‘disease’.

Some children with Asperger syndrome manage in mainstream schools especially if extra support is available. However, even when children cope well academically, they may have problems socialising and are likely to suffer teasing or bullying. More severely affected children need the specialist help provided by schools for children with learning disabilities. With the right sort of support and encouragement, many with Asperger syndrome can lead a relatively normal life. Helping them develop some insight into the condition is an important step towards adjusting to, or at least coping with, the way the rest of the world works.

Some do very well, especially in an environment or job where they can use their particular talents. Autism tends to produce more severe symptoms. For example, a child with autism may fail to develop normal speech and as many as 75 per cent of people with autism have accompanying learning disabilities. Seizures are also a common problem, affecting between 15 and 30 per cent of those with autism. Conversely, autistic children are sometimes found to have an exceptional skill, such as an aptitude for drawing, mathematics, or playing a musical instrument.

Q.

The following question consists of a certain number of sentences. Some sentences are grammatically incorrect or inappropriate. Identify the number of sentences that are grammatically incorrect.

Solution:

In option 1, the indefinite article “an” is missing before “ill- conceived” and the definite article “the” is missing before “Chernobyl”.

In option 2 there is error in the phrase ’’blew the roof of Reactor Number Four”, the correct construction would be ‘blew the roof off Reactor Number Four’ Option 3 has no grammatical error.

In Option 4, the correct phrase should be “drifted over” hence, the preposition “over” is more suitable than “on” in this case.

Hence, the correct answer is 3.

QUESTION: 26

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

To people with autism and Asperger syndrome the world can appear chaotic with no clear boundaries, order or meaning. These disorders can vary from very mild, where the person can function almost as well as anyone else around them, to so severe that they are completely unable to take part in normal society. People with autism are usually more severely disabled, while those with Asperger syndrome tend to be more able, although this isn’t always so.

Because of the range of severity and symptoms the conditions are collectively known as autistic spectrum disorders. People with Asperger syndrome are usually more mildly affected than those with autism. In fact, many people with milder symptoms are never diagnosed at all, and some argue that Asperger syndrome is simply a variation of normal rather than a medical condition or disorder. Even so, many do find that it gives them particular problems getting on in the world and they may become aware they are different from others. This can result in isolation, confusion, depression and other difficulties, all of which could be defined as ‘disease’.

Some children with Asperger syndrome manage in mainstream schools especially if extra support is available. However, even when children cope well academically, they may have problems socialising and are likely to suffer teasing or bullying. More severely affected children need the specialist help provided by schools for children with learning disabilities. With the right sort of support and encouragement, many with Asperger syndrome can lead a relatively normal life. Helping them develop some insight into the condition is an important step towards adjusting to, or at least coping with, the way the rest of the world works.

Some do very well, especially in an environment or job where they can use their particular talents. Autism tends to produce more severe symptoms. For example, a child with autism may fail to develop normal speech and as many as 75 per cent of people with autism have accompanying learning disabilities. Seizures are also a common problem, affecting between 15 and 30 per cent of those with autism. Conversely, autistic children are sometimes found to have an exceptional skill, such as an aptitude for drawing, mathematics, or playing a musical instrument.

Q.

he following question consists of a certain number of sentences. Some sentences are grammatically incorrect or inappropriate. Identify the number of sentences that are grammatically correct and appropriate.

Solution:

Option 1 has no grammatical error.
In option 2, the correct reflexive pronoun is “ourselves” not “ourself, moreover there is error in the subject verb agreement “our life”; the correct term would be “our lives”.

Option 3 has no grammatical error.

Option 4 has subject verb agreement error, where “insights” instead of “insight” is grammatically correct.

Hence, the correct answer is 2.

QUESTION: 27

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

To people with autism and Asperger syndrome the world can appear chaotic with no clear boundaries, order or meaning. These disorders can vary from very mild, where the person can function almost as well as anyone else around them, to so severe that they are completely unable to take part in normal society. People with autism are usually more severely disabled, while those with Asperger syndrome tend to be more able, although this isn’t always so.

Because of the range of severity and symptoms the conditions are collectively known as autistic spectrum disorders. People with Asperger syndrome are usually more mildly affected than those with autism. In fact, many people with milder symptoms are never diagnosed at all, and some argue that Asperger syndrome is simply a variation of normal rather than a medical condition or disorder. Even so, many do find that it gives them particular problems getting on in the world and they may become aware they are different from others. This can result in isolation, confusion, depression and other difficulties, all of which could be defined as ‘disease’.

Some children with Asperger syndrome manage in mainstream schools especially if extra support is available. However, even when children cope well academically, they may have problems socialising and are likely to suffer teasing or bullying. More severely affected children need the specialist help provided by schools for children with learning disabilities. With the right sort of support and encouragement, many with Asperger syndrome can lead a relatively normal life. Helping them develop some insight into the condition is an important step towards adjusting to, or at least coping with, the way the rest of the world works.

Some do very well, especially in an environment or job where they can use their particular talents. Autism tends to produce more severe symptoms. For example, a child with autism may fail to develop normal speech and as many as 75 per cent of people with autism have accompanying learning disabilities. Seizures are also a common problem, affecting between 15 and 30 per cent of those with autism. Conversely, autistic children are sometimes found to have an exceptional skill, such as an aptitude for drawing, mathematics, or playing a musical instrument.

Q.

Five sentences are given below labeled (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5). Of these, four sentences need to be arranged in a logical order to form a coherent paragraph/passage. Pick out the sentence that does not fit the sequence.

1. Studies show that organizations which take leadership development seriously outperform their competition.

2. This holds greater truth today when leaders in this cyber age find themselves under greater (and increasing) pressures from globalization.

3. Ultimately leaders need to get out of their functional silo to be able to get the best out of people.

4. Twenty-five years ago, very little attention was being paid to the idiosyncrasies and irrational processes that make up individual behavior.

5. Corporations and business schools were preoccupied with models of the rational economic man, not realizing that executives are everything but rational decision makers.

Solution:

Statement 1 introduces the topic of the paragraph - leadership development.

Statement 2, which describes the current scenario and explains why leadership development is important, forms a direct link with statement 1.

Statements 4 and 5 which discuss the past follow statement 2. Thus a logical sequence is formed - 1-2-4-5.

Statement 3 which also speaks about leaders and leadership is more of a conclusion and needs a connecting sentences/paragraph to form a link with the other four sentences.

Hence, the correct answer is 3.

QUESTION: 28

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

To people with autism and Asperger syndrome the world can appear chaotic with no clear boundaries, order or meaning. These disorders can vary from very mild, where the person can function almost as well as anyone else around them, to so severe that they are completely unable to take part in normal society. People with autism are usually more severely disabled, while those with Asperger syndrome tend to be more able, although this isn’t always so.

Because of the range of severity and symptoms the conditions are collectively known as autistic spectrum disorders. People with Asperger syndrome are usually more mildly affected than those with autism. In fact, many people with milder symptoms are never diagnosed at all, and some argue that Asperger syndrome is simply a variation of normal rather than a medical condition or disorder. Even so, many do find that it gives them particular problems getting on in the world and they may become aware they are different from others. This can result in isolation, confusion, depression and other difficulties, all of which could be defined as ‘disease’.

Some children with Asperger syndrome manage in mainstream schools especially if extra support is available. However, even when children cope well academically, they may have problems socialising and are likely to suffer teasing or bullying. More severely affected children need the specialist help provided by schools for children with learning disabilities. With the right sort of support and encouragement, many with Asperger syndrome can lead a relatively normal life. Helping them develop some insight into the condition is an important step towards adjusting to, or at least coping with, the way the rest of the world works.

Some do very well, especially in an environment or job where they can use their particular talents. Autism tends to produce more severe symptoms. For example, a child with autism may fail to develop normal speech and as many as 75 per cent of people with autism have accompanying learning disabilities. Seizures are also a common problem, affecting between 15 and 30 per cent of those with autism. Conversely, autistic children are sometimes found to have an exceptional skill, such as an aptitude for drawing, mathematics, or playing a musical instrument.

Q.

Select the odd man out from the given alternatives.

Solution:

The sequence goes on to explain belief with respect to ideology and how when an individual chooses to believe in something, he/she essentially closes his/her mind. This action thus, limits human species as discussed in statement 2.

Statement 3 makes a case in point for those who believed in doctrines of communism and fascism without any preconceived notions (statement 1). At some point both these regimes turned upside down. Thus, statements 3 and 1 are also not out of context.

While the rest of the statements discuss how belief leads to close mindedness, statement 4 discusses modification of beliefs. This implies, that this statement believes in giving “belief a chance. Thus, it is out of context.

Hence, the correct answer is 4.

QUESTION: 29

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

To people with autism and Asperger syndrome the world can appear chaotic with no clear boundaries, order or meaning. These disorders can vary from very mild, where the person can function almost as well as anyone else around them, to so severe that they are completely unable to take part in normal society. People with autism are usually more severely disabled, while those with Asperger syndrome tend to be more able, although this isn’t always so.

Because of the range of severity and symptoms the conditions are collectively known as autistic spectrum disorders. People with Asperger syndrome are usually more mildly affected than those with autism. In fact, many people with milder symptoms are never diagnosed at all, and some argue that Asperger syndrome is simply a variation of normal rather than a medical condition or disorder. Even so, many do find that it gives them particular problems getting on in the world and they may become aware they are different from others. This can result in isolation, confusion, depression and other difficulties, all of which could be defined as ‘disease’.

Some children with Asperger syndrome manage in mainstream schools especially if extra support is available. However, even when children cope well academically, they may have problems socialising and are likely to suffer teasing or bullying. More severely affected children need the specialist help provided by schools for children with learning disabilities. With the right sort of support and encouragement, many with Asperger syndrome can lead a relatively normal life. Helping them develop some insight into the condition is an important step towards adjusting to, or at least coping with, the way the rest of the world works.

Some do very well, especially in an environment or job where they can use their particular talents. Autism tends to produce more severe symptoms. For example, a child with autism may fail to develop normal speech and as many as 75 per cent of people with autism have accompanying learning disabilities. Seizures are also a common problem, affecting between 15 and 30 per cent of those with autism. Conversely, autistic children are sometimes found to have an exceptional skill, such as an aptitude for drawing, mathematics, or playing a musical instrument.

Q.

Select the odd man out from the given alternatives.

Solution:

The given set of statements pertains to the importance of heeding to one's rationality rather than one's sensory experiences. Statement 2 will commence the sequence since it mentions the order in which one ought to prioritize one's functions whilst forming judgements.

Statement 1 ought to open the sequence since it reiterates the importance of Reason by establishing the superiority of the mind over that of the body. Statement 3 must follow statement 1 since it continues to emphasize on the importance of disregarding visceral sensations.

Statements 2 and 3 are a logically coherent pair since statement 2 mentions the distinguishing of ideas and statement 3 mentions the next step after this comparison.

Statement 4 alone is incongruous with the rest of the statements since it advocates the silencing of the senses as well as the imagination which transcends visceral experiences. Moreover, none of the other statements hint towards the existence of “a common master”.

Hence, the correct answer is 4.

QUESTION: 30

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

To people with autism and Asperger syndrome the world can appear chaotic with no clear boundaries, order or meaning. These disorders can vary from very mild, where the person can function almost as well as anyone else around them, to so severe that they are completely unable to take part in normal society. People with autism are usually more severely disabled, while those with Asperger syndrome tend to be more able, although this isn’t always so.

Because of the range of severity and symptoms the conditions are collectively known as autistic spectrum disorders. People with Asperger syndrome are usually more mildly affected than those with autism. In fact, many people with milder symptoms are never diagnosed at all, and some argue that Asperger syndrome is simply a variation of normal rather than a medical condition or disorder. Even so, many do find that it gives them particular problems getting on in the world and they may become aware they are different from others. This can result in isolation, confusion, depression and other difficulties, all of which could be defined as ‘disease’.

Some children with Asperger syndrome manage in mainstream schools especially if extra support is available. However, even when children cope well academically, they may have problems socialising and are likely to suffer teasing or bullying. More severely affected children need the specialist help provided by schools for children with learning disabilities. With the right sort of support and encouragement, many with Asperger syndrome can lead a relatively normal life. Helping them develop some insight into the condition is an important step towards adjusting to, or at least coping with, the way the rest of the world works.

Some do very well, especially in an environment or job where they can use their particular talents. Autism tends to produce more severe symptoms. For example, a child with autism may fail to develop normal speech and as many as 75 per cent of people with autism have accompanying learning disabilities. Seizures are also a common problem, affecting between 15 and 30 per cent of those with autism. Conversely, autistic children are sometimes found to have an exceptional skill, such as an aptitude for drawing, mathematics, or playing a musical instrument.

Q.

Carefully read the statements in the questions below and arrange them in a logical order.

1. Policymakers have struggled to balance the benefits of innovation with the need to address safety concerns

2. The latest techniques allow types of genetic modification that fall outside of existing regulatory frameworks, and in some cases are deliberately designed to circumvent them.

3. There is a longstanding tension between innovation and regulation in genetic engineering

4. But with recent advances - most notably the discovery of the gene-targeting and genecutting molecular machinery known as CRISPR-Cas9 - the tension has begun to snap

5. Animal and crop genetic engineering is heading quickly towards gene editing, not just because of its speed and creative power but also because its developers recognise loopholes in oversight in regulatory norms.

Solution:

The paragraph focuses on a need of suitable regulation in genetic engineering that will not allow the field to take advantage of innovation and technology.

Only sentence 3 can be used to start the passage as it introduces the main concept. This is followed by sentence 1 that explains the “tension” mentioned in statement 3.

Statements 1-5 form a link as 1 says how policymakers have struggled to control this “tension” and 5 says that with recent advances this control slipped out of their hands.

Statements 5 and 2 talk about the developers of genetic engineering who plan to exploit the loopholes in regulatory norms.

The correct sequence is 31452.

Option 2

QUESTION: 31

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

To people with autism and Asperger syndrome the world can appear chaotic with no clear boundaries, order or meaning. These disorders can vary from very mild, where the person can function almost as well as anyone else around them, to so severe that they are completely unable to take part in normal society. People with autism are usually more severely disabled, while those with Asperger syndrome tend to be more able, although this isn’t always so.

Because of the range of severity and symptoms the conditions are collectively known as autistic spectrum disorders. People with Asperger syndrome are usually more mildly affected than those with autism. In fact, many people with milder symptoms are never diagnosed at all, and some argue that Asperger syndrome is simply a variation of normal rather than a medical condition or disorder. Even so, many do find that it gives them particular problems getting on in the world and they may become aware they are different from others. This can result in isolation, confusion, depression and other difficulties, all of which could be defined as ‘disease’.

Some children with Asperger syndrome manage in mainstream schools especially if extra support is available. However, even when children cope well academically, they may have problems socialising and are likely to suffer teasing or bullying. More severely affected children need the specialist help provided by schools for children with learning disabilities. With the right sort of support and encouragement, many with Asperger syndrome can lead a relatively normal life. Helping them develop some insight into the condition is an important step towards adjusting to, or at least coping with, the way the rest of the world works.

Some do very well, especially in an environment or job where they can use their particular talents. Autism tends to produce more severe symptoms. For example, a child with autism may fail to develop normal speech and as many as 75 per cent of people with autism have accompanying learning disabilities. Seizures are also a common problem, affecting between 15 and 30 per cent of those with autism. Conversely, autistic children are sometimes found to have an exceptional skill, such as an aptitude for drawing, mathematics, or playing a musical instrument.

Q.

Carefully read the statements in the questions below and arrange them in a logical order.

1. “No,” retorted the guy, “but my father did, often.”

2. The first emperor, Augustus, even managed to stomach jokes about that touchiest of Roman topics, his own paternity.

3. Few members of the Roman elite would have batted an eyelid at the idea of some grand paterfamilias impregnating a passing provincial woman.

4. In Rome laughter entailed, for a start, being a sport when it came to taking a joke, especially from the plebs.

5. Told that some young man from the provinces was in Rome who was his spitting image, the emperor had him tracked down, “Tell me,” Augustus asked, “did your mother ever come to Rome?”

Solution:

The sequence pertains to the cultural values of Rome with regard to laughter by giving the example of Augustus. Among the statements presented as potential sequence starters - statement 3 and statement 4, only statement 4 is capable of providing reference to the rest of the statements. Statement 3 with “...the idea of some grand paterfamilias impregnating a passing provincial woman.” can only work so as to support an instance mentioned in one of the other statements.

Given that statement 4 starts with a generalized claim, it ought to be followed by an example that can substantiate it. Statement 2 follows by discussing how Augustus could stomach jokes on a topic as sensitive as his paternity. Statement 2 has to be placed before(not immediately before) statement 3 in-order for the sequence to be logical. The “...grand paterfamilias...” mentioned in 3 discuss the likes of Augustus.

Statements 5 and 1 further substantiate how “...laughter entailed...being a sport when it came to taking a joke...”. Though statements 5 and 1 appear to form a very obvious link as 1 pertains to the question asked in 5, the placement of statement 3 between 5 and 1 serves to provide some background of what the scenario in Rome was.

Hence, the correct sequence is 42531. Option 3

QUESTION: 32

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

To people with autism and Asperger syndrome the world can appear chaotic with no clear boundaries, order or meaning. These disorders can vary from very mild, where the person can function almost as well as anyone else around them, to so severe that they are completely unable to take part in normal society. People with autism are usually more severely disabled, while those with Asperger syndrome tend to be more able, although this isn’t always so.

Because of the range of severity and symptoms the conditions are collectively known as autistic spectrum disorders. People with Asperger syndrome are usually more mildly affected than those with autism. In fact, many people with milder symptoms are never diagnosed at all, and some argue that Asperger syndrome is simply a variation of normal rather than a medical condition or disorder. Even so, many do find that it gives them particular problems getting on in the world and they may become aware they are different from others. This can result in isolation, confusion, depression and other difficulties, all of which could be defined as ‘disease’.

Some children with Asperger syndrome manage in mainstream schools especially if extra support is available. However, even when children cope well academically, they may have problems socialising and are likely to suffer teasing or bullying. More severely affected children need the specialist help provided by schools for children with learning disabilities. With the right sort of support and encouragement, many with Asperger syndrome can lead a relatively normal life. Helping them develop some insight into the condition is an important step towards adjusting to, or at least coping with, the way the rest of the world works.

Some do very well, especially in an environment or job where they can use their particular talents. Autism tends to produce more severe symptoms. For example, a child with autism may fail to develop normal speech and as many as 75 per cent of people with autism have accompanying learning disabilities. Seizures are also a common problem, affecting between 15 and 30 per cent of those with autism. Conversely, autistic children are sometimes found to have an exceptional skill, such as an aptitude for drawing, mathematics, or playing a musical instrument.

Q.

The following question consists of a set of labelled sentences. These sentences, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Choose the most logical order of sentences from the options.
1. It’s true enough to say that Ives wrote music about music, but truer to say that Ives wrote about music-making - social events, church services, parties - any kind of event in which music is a conduit for communal epiphany, release, or outpouring.

2. One famous example is the last movement of the Second Orchestral Set, where Ives remembers an accidental catharsis: shortly after the sinking of the Lusitania in 1915, crowds on a train platform joining along with a hurdy-gurdy to sing “In the Sweet Bye and Bye.”

3. Humor has a complicated place in the value system of classical music, and for many Ives’s broad wit is a failing.

4. The moment when everyone arrives together singing the tune is thrilling, but even more moving is the aftermath, the trailing-off, the hurdy-gurdy continuing to play, winding down slowly but surely - Ives devotes a great deal of love to the unclean finish.

5. But his slapstick pastiches and his most affecting testaments share a common urge: to recreate the messiness of human experience.

Solution:

The options put forth two choices as sequence starters - statement 1 and statement 3. The statements elucidate the perspective that “Humor has a complicated place in the value system of classical music...” by giving examples of Ives's musical style. Statements 1, 2 and 4 go onto form an apparent link.

Statement 2 exemplifies an event “...in which music is a conduit for communal epiphany, release, or outpouring.”. Statement 4 continues the example of “...the last movement of the Second Orchestral Set...” as mentioned in statement 3. It details upon the beginning and the end of the composition and comments on Ives's musical style - “...devotes a great deal of love to the unclean finish.”.

Between options 2 and 3, one is to choose between either placing statements 3 and 5 at the beginning or the end of the sequence. The examples have been authored to substantiate the standpoint made in statement 3. Statement 3 serves better when placed at the beginning of the sequence. The manner in which statements 3 and 5 have been authored is not conclusive; rather it calls for elucidation.

Hence, the sequence is 35124.

Option 4

QUESTION: 33

From among the options, choose the summary of the passage that is written in the same style as that of the passage.

The number of tigers in the wild has risen for the first time in more than a century, with some 3,890 counted in the latest global census, according to wildlife conservation groups. The tally marks a turnaround from the last worldwide estimate in 2010, when the number of tigers in the wild hit an all-time low of about 3,200, according to the World Wildlife Fund and the Global Tiger Forum. India alone holds more than half of them, with 2,226 tigers roaming reserves across the country, from the southern tip of Kerala state to the eastern swamps in West Bengal, according to its last count in 2014.

Q.

Which option best summarizes the above passage?

Solution:

Option 1 concisely covers all the main points without giving incorrect data.

Option 2 does not cover the main point which is 3,890 being the highest number of tigers recorded in a century.

Option 3 is incorrect as the number was stated by wildlife conservation groups and not the Forum.

Option 4 is vague as it cannot be said that the numbers jumped from 3.200 to 3,890. The passage only says that the number 3,890 was the last recorded data.

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 34

From among the options, choose the summary of the passage that is written in the same style as that of the passage.

Language specialises in expression of thought, and music specialises in expression of emotion. Evolutionary theorists have pointed out that when language evolved, it not only improved communication between people, it also made communication unstable because it allowed them to obfuscate and lie. People needed to find a more trustworthy means of communicating - a mode that could not lie or be faked. The solution to the problem of the lie made possible by language was music. We let music into our hearts and minds because we are designed to trust it as a message that cannot be faked.

Solution:

Option 1 does not mention music as the preferred mode of communication after language.

Options 2 and 3 do not highlight the point that instability in language was the result of its evolution.

Option 4 correctly captures the essence of the passage in the right flow.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

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