IIFT Mock Test - 1


124 Questions MCQ Test IIFT Mock Test Series | IIFT Mock Test - 1


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This mock test of IIFT Mock Test - 1 for CAT helps you for every CAT entrance exam. This contains 124 Multiple Choice Questions for CAT IIFT Mock Test - 1 (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this IIFT Mock Test - 1 quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. CAT students definitely take this IIFT Mock Test - 1 exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other IIFT Mock Test - 1 extra questions, long questions & short questions for CAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

Match the stock index with the country and stock market it represents. 

Solution:

Solution: The correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 2

The Terracotta Army that is considered to be one of the world’s largest ancient imperial tomb complex was discovered in

Solution:

Solution: The correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 3

Where is the famous Victoria Memorial Hall located?

Solution:

Solution:The correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 4

What is the name of the official mascot of the 2016 Summer Olympics?

Solution:

Solution: The correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 5

Which film won the 2016 Oscar awards for the “Best Picture”?

Solution:

Solution: The correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 6

Who among the following place first in the 2016 Formula 1 Gulf Air Bahrain Grand Prix and 2016 Formula 1 Rolex Australian Grand Prix?

Solution:

Solution: The correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 7

Match the name of Indian CEOs associated with the international firms given below. 

Solution:

Solution: The correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 8

Which was the first genetically modified food crop permitted for commercial cultivation in India?

Solution:

Solution: The correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 9

Match the following CEO/chairman with the financial institution 

Solution:

Solution: The correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 10

The Global agrochemical major Syngenta has received the Competition Commission of India’s (CCI) approval to sell its manufacturing facility in Goa to which company ?

Solution:

Solution: The correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 11

Axe is a brand of male grooming products marketed by which of the following companies

Solution:

Solution: The correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 12

In India, FDI is NOT allowed in which sectors, under the Automatic Route as well as under the Government Route?

Solution:

Solution: The correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 13

Who is the current Speaker of the Lok Sabha?

Solution:

Solution: The correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 14

Which of the following is NOT shortlisted in the ‘Smart Cities Mission’ first round?

Solution:

Solution: The correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 15

Who launched the famous big day campaign to raise funds and create awareness for the people in Malawi?

Solution:

Solution: Option 2.

QUESTION: 16

Which parliament became first in world to run entirely on solar power?

Solution:

Solution: Option 3.

QUESTION: 17

Which of the following countries is not a member of World Trade Organisation?

Solution:

Solution: Option 1.

QUESTION: 18

Who discovered Uranus in 1781?

Solution:

Solution: Option 2.

QUESTION: 19

What is the turnover limit for small service providers who need not pay service tax?

Solution:

Solution: Option 4.

QUESTION: 20

Mark the wrong combination

Solution:

Solution: Option 1.

QUESTION: 21

Christopher Columbus was born in?

Solution:

Solution: Option 1.

QUESTION: 22

Match the name of the book with its author 

Solution:

Solution: Option 1.

QUESTION: 23

Match the finance ministers and Railway ministers who have been contemporaries in office 

Solution:

Solution: Option 4.

QUESTION: 24

Who portrayed 'imperialism as the highest state of capitalism'?

Solution:

Solution: Option 3.

QUESTION: 25

British Pound refers to?

Solution:

Solution: Option 1.

QUESTION: 26

Which country ranked first as per the human development index 2015?

Solution:

Solution: Option 2.

QUESTION: 27

RBI has revised the target for RRB's outstanding advances wef 1st January 2016.

Solution:

Solution: Option 3.

QUESTION: 28

Union cabinet has given its approval for extension of memorandum of understanding on cooperation in the field of Fisheries between India and which country?

Solution:

Solution: Option 2.

QUESTION: 29

What is the probability of five pair of shoes of different brands being kept in straight line in such a way that no two shoes that can be worn on the same leg are adjacent to each other?

Solution:

Solution: Let the five pairs be A-a, B-b, C-c, D-d, E-e.
Here A and a are shoes of the same pair but are treated as different objects and all capital lettered shoes is to be worn on same leg and all small lettered shoes can be worn on the other leg.
Now, let us first place the capital lettered shoes in a linear arrangement which can be done in 5! ways.
The 4 spaces in between them have to be filled in any any condition. The 4 chosen shoes can be arranged in 5C4 x 4! ways.
The remaining shoe can be kept anywhere in the remaining 2 places. Hence, the total number of favourable outcomes are 5! x 5C4 x 4! x 2 = 5! x 5! x 2 and the sample space is 10!.

Hence, option 4.

QUESTION: 30

In 2005, Amrita’s age was 2.5 times Sahil’s age. In 2016, Amrita was 9 years older than Sahil. When was Sahil born?

Solution:

Solution: Let the ages of Amrita and Sahil in 2005 be a and s respectively.

Hence, Sahil was 6 years old in 2005 and was born in 1999. Hence, option 3.

QUESTION: 31

There are 3 different jugs containing a mixture of wine and water in the ratio 3 : 1, 1 : 1 and 10 : 1 respectively. If the mixtures are combined into a large jug, what may be the ratio of wine and water in the jug, if each jug has an integral amount of solution?

Solution:

Solution: Let the common ratio for the three jugs be respectively x, y and z.
Total amount of wine = 3x + y + 10z And, total amount of water = x + y + z.

Now, consider each option and see if it can be solved for an integral solution.
Option 1: (3x + y + 10z): (x + y + z) = 13 : 3 9x + 3y + 30z = 13x + 13y + 13z.

so 4x + 10y = 17z This equation is satisfied for x = 1, y = 3 and z = 2 Hence, this ratio is possible.
Because of option 4, you still need to check options 2 and 3.
Start with option 3, as it is a simpler ratio.
Option 3: (3x + y + 10z): (x + y + z) = 8 : 1. 3x + y + 10z = 8x + 8y + 8z.
5x + 7y = 2z
This equation is satisfied for x = 1, y = 5 and z = 20. Hence, this ratio is also possible.
Hence, option 4.

QUESTION: 32

If Iog102 = 0.301, the number digits in 253 is?

Solution:

Solution: We know that, log1010 = 1; log10100 = 2, and so on. Thus, log1050 will be 1.xx and by induction we can say that when log of a number is 1.xx, the number will have 1 trailing zero.
Let 253 = a. So  53 log 2 = log a. 

log10a = 53 x 0.301 = 15.953 Thus, a has 16 digits.
Hence, option 3.

QUESTION: 33

In how many ways can six different coloured rings be worn on five fingers of a hand such that all six rings are to be worn and more that one ring can be worn on a single finger?

Solution:

Solution: The first thing to note is that the rings are different coloured and thus, the order of the rings on a finger will have to be considered. Also, it is not necessary that one finger necessarily have one ring.
The first ring can be worn in 5 ways.
The second ring can be worn above or below the first ring or on any of the four other fingers. Hence, it can be worn in 6 ways.
Similarly, the third ring can be worn in 7 ways and so on.

Thus, the total number o f ways = 5 x 6 x 7 x 8 x 9 x 1 0 =10!/4! = 10P
Hence, option 3.

QUESTION: 34

A shopkeeper earns a profit of 25% when he sells a product at a discount of 30%. What will be the profit percentage when the discount is not given?

Solution:

Solution: Let the marked price be Rs. 100 Discounted selling price = Rs. 70. So CP = 70/1.25 = 56. 
Without discount, profit = 100 - 56 = 44.

% profit = (44/56) x 100 = 78.57%

Hence, option 3.

QUESTION: 35

DGL Courier provides two services, Express and regular to their customers. The Express rate for Delhi-Amritsar route is same as the regular rate for Mumbai-Delhi route. The regular rate for Mumbai-Amritsar is 50% more than Express rate of Delhi-Amritsar while for any route the Express rate is 50% more than the regular rate. Anunay wants to send a parcel from Mumbai to Amritsar. He also notes that there is a 40% discount going for Express service on all routes. Which of the following should he do to minimize his costs? (Note: The discount does not apply on the regular service)

Solution:

Solution: Let the cost of regular Mumbai-Delhi route be Rs. x. Thus, the following table is obtained,

Mumbai-Amritsar by Express Service = 1.35x. Mumbai-Delhi by regular service and Delhi - Amritsar by Express service = x + 0.6x = 1.6x . Mumbai-Amritsar via Delhi by regular service = x + (2x/3) ⇒ 1.67x.

Mumbai-Amritsar by Regular Service = 1.5x We can see that Mumbai-Delhi by regular service and Delhi-Amritsar by Express Service is the least expensive.
Hence, option 1.

QUESTION: 36

A tank has 4 pipes. Pipes A and B can fill the tank in 18 and 32 hours respectively while pipe C empties the tank in 20 hours and Pipe D empties the tank at the rate of 50 litres/hour. How long would it take to fill up the empty tank of capacity 1440 litres, if all the pipes are opened together at the start?

Solution:

Solution: Rate of each pipe is:
A = 1440/18 = 80 litres/hour;
B = 1440/32 = 45 litres/hour and
C = 1440/20 = 72 litres/hour
Total amount fill per hour when all four pipes are opened = 80 + 45 - 72 - 50 = 3 litres/hour. Time taken = 1440/3 = 480 hours Hence, option 4.

QUESTION: 37

There are two companies X and Y having m and n employees respectively. If an employee ‘A’ from company X knows an employee ‘B’ from company Y, then B is termed to be an acquaintance of A. In all there are exactly 1024 ways in which acquaintances can be formed. How many ordered pairs of (m, n) are possible?

Solution:

Solution: The question means that there are m elements in set X and n elements in set Y. The total number of each element of Y can have multiple employees of X as acquaintances.
Thus, this is similar to the problem of sending r students to p classrooms which can be done in rp ways.
Thus, m elements of set X have macquaintances.
mn = 1024. (m, n) = (1024, 1); (2, 10); (4, 5); (32, 2) Hence, option 2.

QUESTION: 38

In how many ways can 6 identical coins be placed around a circle such that each coin is placed either head or tail side up?

Solution:

Solution: We should note that in a circular arrangement, any rotation of the original arrangement cannot be considered as a unique case.
Now, there are 7 possible combinations possible viz. (6H + 0T), (5H + 1T), (4H + 2T), (3H + 3T), (2H + 4T), (1H + 5T), (OH + 6T)
Note that by symmetry the first 3 combinations will have the same number of ways as the last 3 combinations. Analysing each case, (6H + 0T) - Only 1 way in which we can place the coins. (5H + 1T) - Only 1 way in which we can place the coins. (4H + 2T) - The two tails can be either together or can have 1 head between them or can have 2 heads between them. Thus, there are a total of 3 ways (3H + 3T) - We will see this case step by step,

When two tail coins are arranged such that there is no head between them, the third tail coin can be placed in 2 unique ways.
When two tail coins are arranged such that there is one head between them, the third coin can be placed in only 1 unique way in which the head and tails are alternate.
When first two coins are arranged such that there are two heads between them, the third coin cannot be placed in a way which is not counted in the previous ways.
Thus, there are a total of 2 + 1 + 0 = 3 ways in this case.
The total number o f ways = 2 x  (1 + 1 + 3 ) + 3 = 13 ways Hence, option 4.

QUESTION: 39

The existing workload of a firm has increased by 40%. The current employee can handle the extra workload in the same time but at a drop of accuracy making re-work essential which is equal to 20% of the total work. What should the firm do to not lose their clients if the work is to be completed as soon as possible?

Solution:

Solution: Let the initial work and the time required to finish the work be w, t respectively. Let the efficiency of the current employee be x. New work = 1.4w. since 20% of the work is remaining due to dropped efficiency, the work completed in the same time ‘t' will be 1.12w. So Remaining work = 0.28w. Extra time required = 0.28t. 

Thus, the employee would need 28% more time which eliminates options 1 and 3.
Now, among options 2 and 4, if the person with 20% more efficiency is able to do the work then the person with 30% more efficiency should definitely be able to do it and he would do it in lesser time.
Hence, option 4.

QUESTION: 40

In the following diagram the radius of the circle is 4 cm. Find the area of the square(in cm2). 

Solution:

Solution: The diagonal of square is the diameter of circle.
Diagonal of square = 8 cm Hence the side of square is 8√2.
Area = 64/2 = 32 cm2.
Hence, option 2. 

QUESTION: 41

A man has to travel a distance of 180 km in his car. The car develops some problem enroute due to which it covers the remaining distance at a speed of 4/5th of its initial speed. Hence it takes 1 hour more than expected to reach the destination. If the car travels for 2 hours without any glitch, what is the speed of the car (in km/hr) when it is travelling with a technical fault?

Solution:

Solution: Let the car travel at a normal speed of V km/hr initially and let d km be the distance that the car travels without any problem.
Hence, the car travels the remaining (180 - d) km at (4V/5) km/hr Since the car travels 2 hours without any glitch,
dIV = 2. So d = 2V ... (I) 

The car takes 1 hour more because it travels (180 - d) km at (4V/5) km/hr instead of V km/hr.

Using (I) in the above equation, V = 30 km/hr Reduced speed = (4/5) x V = 24 km/hr Hence, option 1.

QUESTION: 42

A cube with volume 729 cm3 is painted orange on all sides. It is then cut into smaller cubes of size 1 cm3. What is the ratio of the uncoloured surface area to the coloured surface area? 

Solution:

Solution: All six faces of the cube are coloured and area o f each face = 9 x 9 sq.cm.

Total coloured surface area = 6 x 9 x 9 = 486 sq.cm.  Now, the cube is cut into smaller cubes of size 1 c.c. Number of small cubes = 729/1 = 729.
Each is of dimension 1 x 1 x 1 .
Total surface area of these 729 cubes = 729 x 6 x (1 x 1) = 4374 sq.cm. Uncoloured surface area = 4374 - 486 = 3888 sq.cm. So Required ratio = 3888 : 486 = 8 : 1 Hence, option 1. 

QUESTION: 43

Find the sum of the series: 3 + 4 + 6 + 9 + ........10 terms.

Solution:

Solution: Observe that the difference between successive terms keeps increasing by 1.
The original series is: 3 + 4 + 6 + 9 + 13 + 18 + 24 + 31 + 3 9 + 48
Sum = 195 Hence, option 2.

QUESTION: 44

The tax rate in a state called Waniristan varies as per different income levels as under: 

If a person earns Rs. 15,00,000; he pays 0(299999) + 0.1(200000) + 0.2(500000)+ 0.3(500001).

What is his income tax on an income of Rs. 16,49,999?

Solution:

Solution: Total tax = 0(299999) + 0.1(200000) + 0.2(500000) + 0.3(650000) = 20000 + 100000 + 195000 = Rs. 3,15,000. 

QUESTION: 45

There are 14 pipes of equal capacity connected to a tank - some of which are inlet and some are outlet pipes. The inlet pipes alone can fill the completely empty tank in 12 hours while the outlet pipes can empty the completely filled tank in 16 hours. What is the number of inlet and outlet pipes respectively?

Solution:

Solution: Let each pipe do a units of work per hour.
Let there be X and Y inlet and outlet pipes respectively.  Capacity of tank = X(a)(12) = Y(a)(16). so  3X = 4Y . . . (I)
Also, X + Y= 14 ... (II) Only X = 8 and Y = 6 satisfies both the equations. 

Hence, option 1.

QUESTION: 46

Two metals A and B are melted together in the ratio 2 : 3 and an alloy P is formed. Another alloy, Q, is formed in a similar manner by mixing A and B in a specific ratio. Now P and Q are mixed together in the ratio 3 : 2 to form another alloy R, which is found to contain 45% B. What is the composition of Q (in terms of A : B)?

Solution:

Solution: Let 60 units of P be mixed with 40 units of Q to get 100 units of R.
Quantity of B in R = 45% of 100 = 45 units Quantity of B required to create 60 units of P = (3/5) * 60 = 36 units Quantity of B in 40 units of Q = 45 - 36 = 9 units. Quantity of A in 40 units of Q = 40 - 9 = 31 units. Composition of Q (in terms of A : B) = 31 : 9 Hence, option 2.

QUESTION: 47

Two perpendicular sides of a right angled triangle are 8 and 6 units respectively. What is the the area of its incircle (in sq. units)?

Solution:

Solution: The triangle and its incircle are as shown below:

Hypotenuse of this triangle = 10 units Also, hypotenuse of this triangle = (8 - r) + (6 - r) = (14 - 2r) units. So 14 - 2r = 10. r = 2
Area o f the incircle = 4tt sq.units.
Hence, option 3.

QUESTION: 48

Solution:

QUESTION: 49

Solution:

QUESTION: 50

Two cards are taken out from a pack of 52 cards . Find the probability that one is red and the other is a king.

Solution:

Solution: There are three ways in which the desired activity can be done. They are Case ( i ) : The king is not red and the red card is not king : There are two kings out of which one is to chosen. It can be done in 2C1 ways. Now there are 24 red cards such that none of them is king. We can select one of them in 24 ways. Hence total ways are 2 x 24 = 48.
Case (ii): Similarly we can have one king red and other non-king red card. This again can be done in 2 x 24 ways = 48.
Case(iii): We can also choose both cards red kings. It can be done only in one way.

Case(iv): We can also choose one red king and one black king. It can be done only in 2 x 2 = 4 way.
Total no. of ways = 101 ways.
Number of ways of selecting two cards = 52C2 So, the required probability = 101/( 52C2) Hence, option 4.

QUESTION: 51

Group Question

Answer the following questions based on the information given below:

Six friends Arun, Bala, Caylee, Dan, Ethnus and Walt - stay at six different locations - Spain, Switzerland, Sri Lanka, USA, Indonesia and Qatar. Each of them purchases one piece of a different type of fruit from among Mango, Sweet Lime, Orange, Avocado, Watermelon and Kiwi, not necessarily in the same order, from a shopping mall. Each one buys the fruit of his/her liking or preference. Their purchase is subject to the following conditions:

i. The person buying Sweet Lime is not from Switzerland.

ii. Arun is from Indonesia while Dan is from Qatar.

iii. Walt hates Watermelon while Bala buys Orange.

iv. Ethnus buys Sweet Lime while Walt is from USA.

v. The person from Sri Lanka buys Orange while the person buying Mango is not from Indonesia.

vi. Arun and Walt both prefer Mango and Kiwi over the rest.

vii. The person from Qatar buys Watermelon.

 

 

Q. Who bought Sweet Lime? 

Solution:

Solution: From the clues the following information can be directly filled, 

Since the person buying Mango is not from Indonesia, Arun buys Kiwi while Walt buys Mango.
From (vii), Dan buys Watermelon.
Hence, the only possible fruit for Caylee is Watermelon.
From (v), Bala is from Sri Lanka.
Since the person buying Sweet Lime is not from Switzerland, Caylee and Ethnus are from Switzerland and Spain respectively.
Thus, the final table is as shown below:

Hence, Ethnus bought Sweet Lime. Hence, option 4.

QUESTION: 52

Six friends Arun, Bala, Caylee, Dan, Ethnus and Walt - stay at six different locations - Spain, Switzerland, Sri Lanka, USA, Indonesia and Qatar. Each of them purchases one piece of a different type of fruit from among Mango, Sweet Lime, Orange, Avocado, Watermelon and Kiwi, not necessarily in the same order, from a shopping mall. Each one buys the fruit of his/her liking or preference. Their purchase is subject to the following conditions:

i. The person buying Sweet Lime is not from Switzerland.

ii. Arun is from Indonesia while Dan is from Qatar.

iii. Walt hates Watermelon while Bala buys Orange.

iv. Ethnus buys Sweet Lime while Walt is from USA.

v. The person from Sri Lanka buys Orange while the person buying Mango is not from Indonesia.

vi. Arun and Walt both prefer Mango and Kiwi over the rest.

vii. The person from Qatar buys Watermelon.

 

 

Q. Who bought Mango?

Solution:

Solution: Consider the solution to the first question.
Walt bought Mango. Hence, option 1.

QUESTION: 53

Six friends Arun, Bala, Caylee, Dan, Ethnus and Walt - stay at six different locations - Spain, Switzerland, Sri Lanka, USA, Indonesia and Qatar. Each of them purchases one piece of a different type of fruit from among Mango, Sweet Lime, Orange, Avocado, Watermelon and Kiwi, not necessarily in the same order, from a shopping mall. Each one buys the fruit of his/her liking or preference. Their purchase is subject to the following conditions:

i. The person buying Sweet Lime is not from Switzerland.

ii. Arun is from Indonesia while Dan is from Qatar.

iii. Walt hates Watermelon while Bala buys Orange.

iv. Ethnus buys Sweet Lime while Walt is from USA.

v. The person from Sri Lanka buys Orange while the person buying Mango is not from Indonesia.

vi. Arun and Walt both prefer Mango and Kiwi over the rest.

vii. The person from Qatar buys Watermelon.

 

 

Q. Who is from Spain?

Solution:

Solution: Consider the solution to the first question. Ethnus is from Spain.
Hence, option 2.

QUESTION: 54

Six friends Arun, Bala, Caylee, Dan, Ethnus and Walt - stay at six different locations - Spain, Switzerland, Sri Lanka, USA, Indonesia and Qatar. Each of them purchases one piece of a different type of fruit from among Mango, Sweet Lime, Orange, Avocado, Watermelon and Kiwi, not necessarily in the same order, from a shopping mall. Each one buys the fruit of his/her liking or preference. Their purchase is subject to the following conditions:

i. The person buying Sweet Lime is not from Switzerland.

ii. Arun is from Indonesia while Dan is from Qatar.

iii. Walt hates Watermelon while Bala buys Orange.

iv. Ethnus buys Sweet Lime while Walt is from USA.

v. The person from Sri Lanka buys Orange while the person buying Mango is not from Indonesia.

vi. Arun and Walt both prefer Mango and Kiwi over the rest.

vii. The person from Qatar buys Watermelon.

 

 

Q. The person buying Avocado was from which country?

Solution:

Solution: Consider the solution to the first question.
Caylee, who bought Avocado, was from Switzerland. Hence, option 3.

QUESTION: 55

Six friends Arun, Bala, Caylee, Dan, Ethnus and Walt - stay at six different locations - Spain, Switzerland, Sri Lanka, USA, Indonesia and Qatar. Each of them purchases one piece of a different type of fruit from among Mango, Sweet Lime, Orange, Avocado, Watermelon and Kiwi, not necessarily in the same order, from a shopping mall. Each one buys the fruit of his/her liking or preference. Their purchase is subject to the following conditions:

i. The person buying Sweet Lime is not from Switzerland.

ii. Arun is from Indonesia while Dan is from Qatar.

iii. Walt hates Watermelon while Bala buys Orange.

iv. Ethnus buys Sweet Lime while Walt is from USA.

v. The person from Sri Lanka buys Orange while the person buying Mango is not from Indonesia.

vi. Arun and Walt both prefer Mango and Kiwi over the rest.

vii. The person from Qatar buys Watermelon.

 

 

Q. Which of these pairs is incorrectly matched?

Solution:

Solution: Consider the solution to the first question.
All the given pairs are incorrect.
The correct combinations are: Bala - Sri Lanka; Ethnus - Sweet Lime; Walt - Mango Hence, option 4.

QUESTION: 56

“If A is in a team, B may or may not join the team and C joins the team only if B joins”.

I. If there can be maximum two people in the team, B must be one of them.
II. If there is at least 1 person in the team and C is not in the team, then A must be in the team.
III. If there are exactly two people in the team, B must be one of them.
IV. If B is not in the team then a team of two cannot be formed.

 

Which of the above conditions is consistent with the originally given statement?

Solution:

Solution: The given conditions can be expressed as: If A then B; If A then not B; If C then B.
Conditions III and IV mean the same thing. Hence, both are simultaneously true or simultaneously false.
In condition (I), there can be one or two people in the team.
Having A does not necessarily require B or C in the same team. Hence, a team can be formed with only A. Hence, condition I is inconsistent with the original statement.
Hence, option 1 can be eliminated.
If there is atleast one person in the team, such that C is not in the team, the possible teams are A, B or AB. Hence, A may not be in the team. Hence, condition II is inconsistent with the original statement.

Hence, options 2 and 3 can be eliminated.
Hence, option 4.
Note: To check condition III, consider a team of two with A and C. We have seen that “If C then B”. Hence, a team having C has to have B.
Hence, a team of exactly two cannot be formed without B.

QUESTION: 57

Group Question

Answer the following questions based on the information given below.


Five persons viz, Savita, Anuj, Zaheer, Yashshree and Latashree are standing in a row in ascending order of height such that the tallest is standing at the end and the shortest at the front. The shortest girl is the heaviest person. Yashshree is not heavier than Savita. No person has the same position by weight and height when arranged in descending order in a row. There are two boys and three girls in the group. The two boys stand together in the row whether the row is arranged in accordance with height or weight and none would be next to Latashree. Savita is the tallest and she likes sweets. Anuj is taller as well as heavier than Zaheer. All the three girls would be standing together had they been arranged in ascending order of their weight. Yashshree is a female.

 

 

Q. Who is the second lightest person? 

Solution:

Solution: Rank the people as 1-5 in ascending order of height.
Savita, Yashshree and Latashree are the girls while Anuj and Zaheer are the boys.
Since Savita is the tallest, Savita = 5 Hence, Savita cannot be the heaviest person.
Since Yashshree is not heavier than Savita, Yashshree is also not the heaviest person.  Since the shortest girl is the heaviest person, Latashree is the shortest girl as well as heaviest person.
Zaheer and Anuj are next to each other such that Zaheer is shorter than Anuj.
Hence, (Zaheer-Anuj) = (1,2), (2, 3) or (3, 4) If (Zaheer-Anuj) = (1, 2); Latashree = 3. This is not possible as neither boy is next to Latashree.
Using the same logic, (Zaheer-Anuj)  (2, 3) Hence, Zaheer = 3, Anuj = 4, Latashree = 1 and Yashshree = 2.
Thus, the people in ascending order of height are: Latashree- Yashshree-Zaheer-Anuj -Savita.
Similarly, the people in ascending order of weight are: Zaheer-Anuj- Yashshree-Savita-Latashree.
Thus, Anuj is the second lightest person.
Hence, option 1.

 

QUESTION: 58

Five persons viz, Savita, Anuj, Zaheer, Yashshree and Latashree are standing in a row in ascending order of height such that the tallest is standing at the end and the shortest at the front. The shortest girl is the heaviest person. Yashshree is not heavier than Savita. No person has the same position by weight and height when arranged in descending order in a row. There are two boys and three girls in the group. The two boys stand together in the row whether the row is arranged in accordance with height or weight and none would be next to Latashree. Savita is the tallest and she likes sweets. Anuj is taller as well as heavier than Zaheer. All the three girls would be standing together had they been arranged in ascending order of their weight. Yashshree is a female.

 

 

Q. How many people are heavier than Anuj?

Solution:

Solution: Consider the solution to the first question. Three people are heavier than Anuj. Hence, option 3.

QUESTION: 59

Five persons viz, Savita, Anuj, Zaheer, Yashshree and Latashree are standing in a row in ascending order of height such that the tallest is standing at the end and the shortest at the front. The shortest girl is the heaviest person. Yashshree is not heavier than Savita. No person has the same position by weight and height when arranged in descending order in a row. There are two boys and three girls in the group. The two boys stand together in the row whether the row is arranged in accordance with height or weight and none would be next to Latashree. Savita is the tallest and she likes sweets. Anuj is taller as well as heavier than Zaheer. All the three girls would be standing together had they been arranged in ascending order of their weight. Yashshree is a female.

 

 

Q. Who is the lightest girl?

Solution:

Solution: Consider the solution to the first question.
Yashshree is the lightest girl.
Hence, option 2.

QUESTION: 60

Five persons viz, Savita, Anuj, Zaheer, Yashshree and Latashree are standing in a row in ascending order of height such that the tallest is standing at the end and the shortest at the front. The shortest girl is the heaviest person. Yashshree is not heavier than Savita. No person has the same position by weight and height when arranged in descending order in a row. There are two boys and three girls in the group. The two boys stand together in the row whether the row is arranged in accordance with height or weight and none would be next to Latashree. Savita is the tallest and she likes sweets. Anuj is taller as well as heavier than Zaheer. All the three girls would be standing together had they been arranged in ascending order of their weight. Yashshree is a female.

 

 

Q. Who would be ranked fourth in descending order of heights?

Solution:

Solution: Consider the solution to the first question.
Since Yashshree is second in ascending order of heights, she is fourth in descending order of heights.
Hence, option 1.

QUESTION: 61

Find the next term of the series 7, 30, 125,___.

Solution:

Solution: 7 = 23 - 1
30 = 25 - 2 
125 = 27 - 3

Next number will be = 29- 4 = 508. Hence, option 4.

QUESTION: 62

Group Question

Answer the following questions based on the information given below.


There are eight batsmen, of which exactly fourare to be selected. Their names are Ryan, Manoj, Manish, Venkat, Ranjit, Umesh, Rajni and Yogesh. However, the selection is subject to the following conditions:

1. Rajni and Yogesh play only if Ryan plays

2. Umesh and Ranjit cannot play together.

3. Venkat and Manoj always play together.

4. Ryan and Manish always play together.

 

 

Q. How many combinations of teams is possible?  

Solution:

Solution: Condition 1 implies - “If Rajni and Yogesh, then Ryan”. It also implies - “If not Ryan, then not Rajni or not Yogesh”.
Case 1: The team has Ryan. Hence, Manish is also part of the team.
The other two members can be (Venkat-Manoj), (Rajni-Yogesh), (Rajni-Ranjit), (Rajni- Umesh), (Yogesh-Umesh), (Yogesh-Ranjit) i.e. six combinations.
Hence, option 1 can be eliminated.
Case 2: The team does not have Ryan. Hence, Manish is also not part of this team.

Now, there are six people left of which four can be selected - one of Rajni and Yogesh, one of Umesh and Ranjit, Venkat + Manoj.
Hence, there are four combinations possible.
Thus, total possible combinations is ten.

Hence, option 4.

QUESTION: 63

There are eight batsmen, of which exactly fourare to be selected. Their names are Ryan, Manoj, Manish, Venkat, Ranjit, Umesh, Rajni and Yogesh. However, the selection is subject to the following conditions:

1. Rajni and Yogesh play only if Ryan plays

2. Umesh and Ranjit cannot play together.

3. Venkat and Manoj always play together.

4. Ryan and Manish always play together.

 

 

Q. Who is necessarily included in the team?

Solution:

Solution: Consider the solution to the first question.
A team of four can exclude any of the three people mentioned.
Hence, none of the persons mentioned are necessarily included in the team.
Hence, option 4.

QUESTION: 64

There are eight batsmen, of which exactly fourare to be selected. Their names are Ryan, Manoj, Manish, Venkat, Ranjit, Umesh, Rajni and Yogesh. However, the selection is subject to the following conditions:

1. Rajni and Yogesh play only if Ryan plays

2. Umesh and Ranjit cannot play together.

3. Venkat and Manoj always play together.

4. Ryan and Manish always play together.

 

 

Q. What percentage of teams having Ryan also have Rajni in them?

Solution:

Solution: Consider the solution to the first question.There are six teams that can be formed with Ryan in them. Half of these teams definitely have Rajni in them.Hence, option 3.

QUESTION: 65

X & Y means X is the mother of Y.

X * Y means X is the uncle of Y.

X $ Y means X is the brother of Y.

Which of the following indicates that A is the father of D?  

Solution:

Solution: Option 3 can be directly eliminated as A & B implies that A is the mother of B i.e. A is female.
Now check the remaining options.
Option 1 :A $ B& C $ D.

A $ B implies A is the brother of B.
B & C implies B is the uncle of C. However, A may or may not be related to C.
Hence, A may or may not be related to D.
Hence, option 1 is eliminated.
Option 2: D * B $ C $ A.

D * B implies D is the uncle of B.
B $ C $ A implies B is the brother of C and C is the brother of A.
Hence, D is the uncle of A.
Hence, option 2 is eliminated.
Hence, option 4.

QUESTION: 66

To go from A to B, Ram has to travel 5 km north on the road from A and then turn right and travel 10 km to reach B. If he misses the necessary first right turn, he will have to travel 8 km more than what he would have travelled had he not missed it? If Ram has missed the first right, which of these can be the distance that he travels in the south to reach B?

Solution:

Solution: According to the question he must travel at least 10 km in the East-West direction.
Assume that the next right is x km north from the first right and y km is the extra distance in East-West direction to reach B.

Hence, he can travel a maximum of 4 km south, e.g. If x = 1 km, y = 3 km 

Hence, option 3.

QUESTION: 67

From the given statements, choose the conclusions which follow logically:

Statements:

i. All C are A and B.

ii. Some A are not D.

iii. Some D are not C.

iv. Some C are B.


Conclusions:

I. All D are B may follow.

II. Some A are not B definitely follows.

III. Some B are not A definitely follows.

IV. Some A and B are not C may follow.

Solution:

Solution: Conclusion I and IV will be true from the figure below, 

This eliminates options 1 and 3.
Conclusion II will be false if the figure is drawn as shown below,

If you swap B with A in the above figure, all the statements still hold making conclusion III false.
Hence, option 2.

QUESTION: 68

Group Question

Answer the questions based on the information given below.


A transportation company located at P has the business of transporting cargo to six other cities - Q, R, S, T, U and V. There is a two way road between the following pairs of cities - P and Q, Q and S, T and U, U and R and V and T. There are also one way roads from Q to V and S to T.

 

Q. If all the cargo is loaded at P, through which city does the cargo definitely have to pass?

Solution:

Solution: The network of routes through the various cities is as shown below: If the cargo is loaded at P, it has to definitely pass through Q before it can reach any other city.
Hence, option 1.

QUESTION: 69

A transportation company located at P has the business of transporting cargo to six other cities - Q, R, S, T, U and V. There is a two way road between the following pairs of cities - P and Q, Q and S, T and U, U and R and V and T. There are also one way roads from Q to V and S to T.

 

Q. How many routes are possible to transport something from R to Q, such that each intermediate city can be visited exactly once?

Solution:

Solution: Consider the network figure shown in the solution to the first question.As can be seen, there is no route from R to Q. Hence, option 4.

QUESTION: 70

A transportation company located at P has the business of transporting cargo to six other cities - Q, R, S, T, U and V. There is a two way road between the following pairs of cities - P and Q, Q and S, T and U, U and R and V and T. There are also one way roads from Q to V and S to T.

 

Q. Which of the following can be useful to make S accessible from R?

Solution:

Solution: Consider the network figure shown in the solution to the first question.All three possibilities mentioned make S accessible from R. Hence, option 4.

QUESTION: 71

Group Question

Answer the following questions based on the information given below.


A firm floated shares with five different face values of 100, 200, 300, 500 and 700. The number of shares sold over the five years was in the ratio 6 : 5 : 4 : 7 : 3 respectively from 2011 to 2015 and the total numbers of shares sold in 2012 was 10500.The value of a share at the end of an year is calculated on the increased or decreased value of the share at the end of the previous year. Table 1 shows the percentage change in the value of a share with respect to the previous year. Table 2 shows percentage distribution of different types of shares in the respective years (Face value is the initial value of the share)

In the above expression, a share is profitable or not only w.r.t. the previous year. 

Table 1: Percentage change in the value of the shares

 

Table 2: Percentage distribution of number of shares of the firm in respective years

 


Q. What is the volatility of the share with a face value of 500?   

Solution:

Solution: For volatility, the average value of the share has to be found. This requires value of the share at the end of each year.
Value of the share with face value 500 at the end of each year is: 2011: 500 x 1.1 =550. 2012: 550x0.94 = 517. 2013: 517 x 1.13 = 584.21. 2014: 584.21 x 0.92 = 537.47. 2015: 537.47 x 1.07 = 575.09.

Average value per year = (550 + 517 + 584.21 + 537.47 + 575.09)/5 = 2763.77/5 = 552.75
Also, change in the value of the share for each year is +50, -33, +67.21, -46.74, +37.62
Sum of total increase in the value of the share = 50 + 67.21 + 37.62 = 154.83
Similarly, sum of total decrease in the value of the share = -(33 +46.74) = -79.74
Volatility = (154.83 - 79.74)/552.75 = 75.09/552.75⇒ 0.14 Hence, option 2.

QUESTION: 72

A firm floated shares with five different face values of 100, 200, 300, 500 and 700. The number of shares sold over the five years was in the ratio 6 : 5 : 4 : 7 : 3 respectively from 2011 to 2015 and the total numbers of shares sold in 2012 was 10500.The value of a share at the end of an year is calculated on the increased or decreased value of the share at the end of the previous year. Table 1 shows the percentage change in the value of a share with respect to the previous year. Table 2 shows percentage distribution of different types of shares in the respective years (Face value is the initial value of the share)

In the above expression, a share is profitable or not only w.r.t. the previous year. 

Table 1: Percentage change in the value of the shares

 

Table 2: Percentage distribution of number of shares of the firm in respective years

 

 

Q. Which year has the highest stability factor? 

Solution:

Solution: Number of shares sold in 2012 corresponds to 5x while total shares sold in five years = 6x + 5x + 4x + 7x + 3x = 25x . Average shares sold per year = 25x/5 = 5x (which is the same as number of shares sold in 2012.
A share is profitable w.r.t. the previous year, if it shows a positive percentage change; and vice versa.
Identify the profitable and unprofitable shares for each year. 2011: Profitable = 100, 200, 500 and unprofitable = 300, 700 (Figures represent face value).

So Stability factor for 2011 = [(0.23 + 0.19 + 0.2) - (0.17 + 0.21)] * 6x / 5x 
= 0.24 x (6 / 5) = 0.288
Similarly, stability factor for 2012 = [(0.21 + 0.26 + 0.17) - (0.16 + 0.2)] * 5x / 5x = 0.28
Stability factor for 2013 = [(0.22 + 0.21) - (0.2 + 0.18 + 0.19)] * 4x / 5x i.e. < 0
Similarly, stability factor for 2015 = [(0.22 + 0.18 + 0.25) - (0.15 + 0.2)] * 3x / 5x = 0.3 *(3/5) = 0.18
Hence, the highest stability factor is in 2011. Hence, option 1.

 

QUESTION: 73

A firm floated shares with five different face values of 100, 200, 300, 500 and 700. The number of shares sold over the five years was in the ratio 6 : 5 : 4 : 7 : 3 respectively from 2011 to 2015 and the total numbers of shares sold in 2012 was 10500.The value of a share at the end of an year is calculated on the increased or decreased value of the share at the end of the previous year. Table 1 shows the percentage change in the value of a share with respect to the previous year. Table 2 shows percentage distribution of different types of shares in the respective years (Face value is the initial value of the share)

In the above expression, a share is profitable or not only w.r.t. the previous year. 

Table 1: Percentage change in the value of the shares

 

Table 2: Percentage distribution of number of shares of the firm in respective years

 

 

Q. The maximum increase in sales is observed for the share of what face value in which year?

Solution:

Solution: Number of shares sold from 2011 to 2015 = 6x, 5x, 4x, 7x and 3x Consider 2011 to 2012. Total number of shares sold has decreased.
Any share whose percentage contribution in sales in 2012 is NOT higher than that in 2011 has definitely NOT shown a growth in sales.
Hence, shares of face value 100, 200, 500 and 700 are eliminated for this period.
For share o f face value 300, sales in 2011 = 6 x * 0.17 = 1.02x and sales in 2012 = 5x * 0.26 = 1.3x, Increase = 0.28x. Using this logic, it can be found that the maximum increase is from 2014 to 2015 for a share of face value of 500.
Sales in 2013 = 4x * 0.21 = 0.84x and sales in 2014 = 7x * 0.27 = 1.89x. Increase = 1.05x Hence, option 3.

QUESTION: 74

A firm floated shares with five different face values of 100, 200, 300, 500 and 700. The number of shares sold over the five years was in the ratio 6 : 5 : 4 : 7 : 3 respectively from 2011 to 2015 and the total numbers of shares sold in 2012 was 10500.The value of a share at the end of an year is calculated on the increased or decreased value of the share at the end of the previous year. Table 1 shows the percentage change in the value of a share with respect to the previous year. Table 2 shows percentage distribution of different types of shares in the respective years (Face value is the initial value of the share)

In the above expression, a share is profitable or not only w.r.t. the previous year. 

Table 1: Percentage change in the value of the shares

 

Table 2: Percentage distribution of number of shares of the firm in respective years

 

 

Q. At the end of 2013, the value of fluctuation index is maximum for shares of which of the following face values?

Solution:

Solution: The fluctuation index for each face vakue of share is as shown below: 

The highest index is for share with face value of 500.
Hence, option 3.

QUESTION: 75

A firm floated shares with five different face values of 100, 200, 300, 500 and 700. The number of shares sold over the five years was in the ratio 6 : 5 : 4 : 7 : 3 respectively from 2011 to 2015 and the total numbers of shares sold in 2012 was 10500.The value of a share at the end of an year is calculated on the increased or decreased value of the share at the end of the previous year. Table 1 shows the percentage change in the value of a share with respect to the previous year. Table 2 shows percentage distribution of different types of shares in the respective years (Face value is the initial value of the share)

In the above expression, a share is profitable or not only w.r.t. the previous year. 

Table 1: Percentage change in the value of the shares

 

Table 2: Percentage distribution of number of shares of the firm in respective years

 

 

Q. The least number of sales is for the share of which face value and in which year?

Solution:

Solution: Sales from 2011 to 2015 are 6x, 5x, 4x, 7x and 3x.
Total sales = 6x+ 5x + 4x + 7x + 3x = 25x Sales of 300 in 2012 = 0.26 * (5x/25x) = 0.052

Sales of 500 in 2011 = 0.2 * (6x/25x) = 0.048

Sales of 700 in 2013 = 0.19 * (4x/25x) = 0.0304

Sales of 200 in 2015 = 0.22 * (3x/25x) = 0.0264

Hence, option 4.

QUESTION: 76

Group Question

Answer the following question based on the information given below.


There are six different routes from Africa to India (A, B, C, D, E and F) and there are six different types of merchant ships that pass through these routes. Lately there have been frequent raids on these ships by pirates on these routes. The loss incurred per ship is 27 million dollars. The table shows the difference in the percentage distribution of the loss incurred by the ships on different routes. The chart shows the number of ships lost on different routes. Each route has seen loss of ships of each ship type.

 

 

Q. What is the loss incurred by containers (in billion $)?   

Solution:

Solution: Let the number of ships lost on routes A-F as a percentage of total ships lost respectively be a, b, c, d, e and f. So a + b + c + d + e + f = 100 ... (I) The values in the table can be expressed as shown below: a - b = 7.5; a - c = 5.625; a - d = 1.25; a - e = 11.25; a - f = 9.375; c - b = 1.875; d - b = 6.25; b - e = 3.75; b - f = 1.875; d - c = 4.375; c - e = 5.625; c - f = 3.75; cf - e = 10; of - f = 8.125; f - e= 1.875 Add all the equations in a to get;

5a - (b + c + d + e + f ) = 7.5 + 5.625 + 1.25 + 11.25 + 9.375. So 5a - (b + c + d + e + f) = 35 ... (II) Solving (I) and (II) gives a = 22.5. So b = 15; c = 16.875; d = 21.25; e = 11.25, f = 13.125.

Total container type ships lost = 600 + 900 + 560 + 0 + 500 + 360 = 2920
Observe from the second graph that data for ships lost for all five types is given for only route B.
Total ships lost on route B = 200 + 250 + 400 + 650 + 900 = 2400 This is 15% of all ships lost.

Total ships lost across all routes = 2400 x (100/15) = 16000 Number of containers lost is known for all routes except D.
Total ships lost on route D = 21.25% of 16000 = 3400 a Number of containers lost on route D = 3400 - (350 + 600 + 750 + 1500) = 3400-3200 = 200
a Total containers lost = 600 + 900 + 550 + 200 + 500 + 350 = 3100.  Loss on containers = 3100 x 27 mil$ = 83700 mil $ = 83.7 billion $ Hence, option 3.

QUESTION: 77

There are six different routes from Africa to India (A, B, C, D, E and F) and there are six different types of merchant ships that pass through these routes. Lately there have been frequent raids on these ships by pirates on these routes. The loss incurred per ship is 27 million dollars. The table shows the difference in the percentage distribution of the loss incurred by the ships on different routes. The chart shows the number of ships lost on different routes. Each route has seen loss of ships of each ship type.

 

 

Q. Which route loses the maximum number of ships?

Solution:

Solution: Total ships lost = 16000 Now, from the solution to the previous question, a = 22.5 is the highest of the six percentages.Hence, route A loses the maximum number of ships.Hence, option 1.

QUESTION: 78

There are six different routes from Africa to India (A, B, C, D, E and F) and there are six different types of merchant ships that pass through these routes. Lately there have been frequent raids on these ships by pirates on these routes. The loss incurred per ship is 27 million dollars. The table shows the difference in the percentage distribution of the loss incurred by the ships on different routes. The chart shows the number of ships lost on different routes. Each route has seen loss of ships of each ship type.

 

 

Q. What is the percentage contribution of RORO vessel to the total loss incurred on route F ?

Solution:

Solution: Total ships lost on route F = 13.125% of 16000 = 2100 Ships lost on route F, other than RORO vessels = 200 + 250 + 350 + 850 = 1650RORO vessels lost = 2100 - 1650 = 450 /. Required % = (450/2100) * 100 = 21.43% Hence, option 3.

QUESTION: 79

There are six different routes from Africa to India (A, B, C, D, E and F) and there are six different types of merchant ships that pass through these routes. Lately there have been frequent raids on these ships by pirates on these routes. The loss incurred per ship is 27 million dollars. The table shows the difference in the percentage distribution of the loss incurred by the ships on different routes. The chart shows the number of ships lost on different routes. Each route has seen loss of ships of each ship type.

 

 

Q. If the revenue generated by each oil tankers is the same as the loss  incurred, what would have been the total revenue (in billion $) if no oil tankers were lost? (Assume that the total oil tankers currently lost account for 15% of all operational oil tankers)

Solution:

Solution: Total ships lost on route E = 11.25% of 16000 = 1800. Oil tankers lost on route E = 1800 - (100 + 200 + 500 + 650) = 1800-1450 = 350
Total oil tankers lost across all routes = 350 + 650 + 250 + 750 + 350 + 850 = 3200
Revenue generated if no tankers are lost = 3200 * (100/15) * (27/1000) billion $ = 576 billion $ Hence, option 2.

QUESTION: 80

There are six different routes from Africa to India (A, B, C, D, E and F) and there are six different types of merchant ships that pass through these routes. Lately there have been frequent raids on these ships by pirates on these routes. The loss incurred per ship is 27 million dollars. The table shows the difference in the percentage distribution of the loss incurred by the ships on different routes. The chart shows the number of ships lost on different routes. Each route has seen loss of ships of each ship type.

 

 

Q. How many ships are lost together on the three riskiest routes? The more the ships lost on a certain route, the riskier that route is.

Solution:

Solution: Consider the solution to the first question.
Since a = 22.5, d = 21.25 and c = 16.875 are the three largest values, these are the three riskiest routes.
Total ships lost = 16000. Total ships lost on these three routes = (22.5 + 21.25 + 16.875)% of 16000 = 60.625% of 16000 = 9700

Hence, option 2.

QUESTION: 81

Group Question

Answer the following questions based on the information given below.


UNICEF conducts a survey of the children in orphanages all around the world and classifies them into three categories - Cared, Deprived and Below Poverty on the basis of ratings over six parameters - Housing, Clothing, Nutrition, Health, Vaccination and Education. The ratings on each parameter are given on a scale of 1 to 10.

 

The graph above shows the ratings for a particular orphanage over three years.

 

 

Q. If the score is calculated as  and a score below 80 falls under  “Deprived”, in which year have children in this orphanage been classified as “Deprived”?  

Solution:

Solution: Calculate the score for each year. 2010: 4(5.4) + 2(3.2) + 4(7.2) + 3(6.4) + 1(3.8) + 2(2.9) = 21.6 + 6.4 
+ 28.8 + 19.2 + 3.8 + 5.8 = 85.6,
2011: 4(3.8) + 2(2.8) + 4(6.5) + 3(7.3) + 1(4.5) + 2(3.7) = 15.2 + 5.6 + 26 + 21.9 + 4.5 + 7.4 = 80.6,
2012: 4(6.7) + 2(4.3) + 4(8.1) + 3(6.8) + 1(5.7) + 2(2.5) = 26.8 + 8.6  + 32.4 + 20.4 + 5.7 + 5 = 98.9
Since the score is above 80 in all the years, children have never been classified as “Deprived” in these three years.
Hence, option 4.

QUESTION: 82

UNICEF conducts a survey of the children in orphanages all around the world and classifies them into three categories - Cared, Deprived and Below Poverty on the basis of ratings over six parameters - Housing, Clothing, Nutrition, Health, Vaccination and Education. The ratings on each parameter are given on a scale of 1 to 10.

 

The graph above shows the ratings for a particular orphanage over three years.

 

 

Q. The Happiness Index of a child for a year is measured by the variance of the scores from the mean rating of all the parameters. The Happiness Index is highest for which of the following years?

Solution:

Solution: 

= 15.8484

Variance = 15.8484/4.82 ⇒ 3.29 Similarly, variance for 2011 = 3.24 and variance for 2012 = 3.55 Hence, option 3.

QUESTION: 83

UNICEF conducts a survey of the children in orphanages all around the world and classifies them into three categories - Cared, Deprived and Below Poverty on the basis of ratings over six parameters - Housing, Clothing, Nutrition, Health, Vaccination and Education. The ratings on each parameter are given on a scale of 1 to 10.

 

The graph above shows the ratings for a particular orphanage over three years.

 

 

Q. What is the percentage increase in the numbers of parameters that show progress from 2011 to 2012 when compared to number of parameters that improve from 2010 to 2011?

Solution:

Solution: Housing, Clothing and Education ratings have improved from 2010 to 2011 i.e. 3 parameters.
Clothing, Vaccination, Health and Nutrition ratings have improved from 2011 to 2012 i.e. 4 parameters. Required percentage increase = (4 - 3/3) x 100 = 33.33% Hence, option 3.

QUESTION: 84

UNICEF conducts a survey of the children in orphanages all around the world and classifies them into three categories - Cared, Deprived and Below Poverty on the basis of ratings over six parameters - Housing, Clothing, Nutrition, Health, Vaccination and Education. The ratings on each parameter are given on a scale of 1 to 10.

 

The graph above shows the ratings for a particular orphanage over three years.

 

 

Q. Which of the following has the highest percentage growth in ratings over the previous year?

Solution:

Solution: Health in 2012 has a higher actual increase compared to Clothing in 2012 over a smaller base.
Hence, the percentage increase for Health will definitely be more than that of Clothing.

Hence, option 2 can be eliminated.
Using the same logic, option 3 can also be eliminated.
Now, calculate the other values.
Health (2012) = (4.3 - 2.8)/2.8 * 100 = 53.57% Nutrition (2012) = (6.7 - 3.8)/3.8 * 100 = 76.32% Hence, option 4.

QUESTION: 85

Group Question

Answer the following question based on the information given below.


TCS wants to recruit 1.2 lakh IT professionals in India for which it selects five of the best HR consultancies - A, B, C, D and E. According to the credibility of the consultancies, it has allotted a certain percentage of the total seats to be recruited to each consultancy, as shown in the pie chart. The second graph shows the number of CVs received by each consultancy and the number of CVs shortlisted. The third graph shows the number of offer letters given by each consultancy and the number of candidates finally joining through that consultancy.

 

 

 

Q. Which of the following consultants is least accessible? 

Solution:

Solution: The consultant with the least accessibility factor is the least accessible.
Total CVs received (in ‘000s) = 70 + 75 + 60 + 55 + 45 = 305 % of total CVs received by each consultant is:

A = (70/305) x 100 = 22.95%

B = (75/305) x 100 = 24.59%

C = (60/305) x 100 = 19.67%

D = (55/305) x 100 = 18.03%

E = (45/305) x 100 = 14.75%

Hence, accessibility factor for each consultant is:

A = 24/22.95 = 1.046 
B = 20/24.59 = 0.813 
C = 16/19.67 = 0.813 
D = 25/18.03 > 1 
E = 15/14.75 > 1
Hence, the least accessibility factor is for B and C.
Since C is not mentioned in the options, B is the least accessible.
Hence, option 2.

QUESTION: 86

TCS wants to recruit 1.2 lakh IT professionals in India for which it selects five of the best HR consultancies - A, B, C, D and E. According to the credibility of the consultancies, it has allotted a certain percentage of the total seats to be recruited to each consultancy, as shown in the pie chart. The second graph shows the number of CVs received by each consultancy and the number of CVs shortlisted. The third graph shows the number of offer letters given by each consultancy and the number of candidates finally joining through that consultancy.

 

 

 

Q. Which consultant has the maximum reliability factor?

Solution:

Solution: Consider the solution to the first question. Number of seats allotted to A = 0.24 x 120000 = 28800 Similarly, number of seats allotted to B, C, D and E is 24000, 19200, 30000 and 18000 respectively.
Now, reliability factor for these consultants is: A = 28800/20000 = 1.44
B = 24000/18000 = 1.33
C = 19200/14000 = 1.37
D = 30000/23000 = 1.30
Hence, A has the maximum reliability factor.
Hence, option 1.

QUESTION: 87

TCS wants to recruit 1.2 lakh IT professionals in India for which it selects five of the best HR consultancies - A, B, C, D and E. According to the credibility of the consultancies, it has allotted a certain percentage of the total seats to be recruited to each consultancy, as shown in the pie chart. The second graph shows the number of CVs received by each consultancy and the number of CVs shortlisted. The third graph shows the number of offer letters given by each consultancy and the number of candidates finally joining through that consultancy.

 

 

 

Q. Which of the following recruiters recruits most efficiently ?

Solution:

Solution: Recruitment efficiency for each consultancy is: A = 16/25 = 0.64 
B = 15/30 = 0.5 
D = 20/30 = 0.67 
E = 12/15 = 0.8 
Hence, option 4.

QUESTION: 88

TCS wants to recruit 1.2 lakh IT professionals in India for which it selects five of the best HR consultancies - A, B, C, D and E. According to the credibility of the consultancies, it has allotted a certain percentage of the total seats to be recruited to each consultancy, as shown in the pie chart. The second graph shows the number of CVs received by each consultancy and the number of CVs shortlisted. The third graph shows the number of offer letters given by each consultancy and the number of candidates finally joining through that consultancy.

 

 

 

Q. For which consultant is the rejection percentage by the students the least?

Solution:

Solution: Consider Consultant A Number of offers made = 20000 and number of joinings = 16000. Number of rejections = 4000 Percentage = (4000/20000) x 100 = 20% Similarly, rejection percentage for C, D and E is 28.57%, 13.04% and 7.69% respectively.
Hence, the rejection percentage is the least for consultant B.
Hence, option 2.

QUESTION: 89

Group Question

Answer the questions based on the passage given below.


Collaboration is taking over the workplace. As business becomes increasingly global and cross-functional, silos are breaking down, connectivity is increasing, and teamwork is seen as a key to organizational success. Certainly, we find much to applaud in these developments.
However, when consumption of a valuable resource spikes that dramatically, it should also give us pause. Consider a typical week in your own organization. How much time do people spend in meetings, on the phone, and responding to e-mails? At many companies the proportion hovers around 80%, leaving employees little time for all the critical work they must complete on their own. Performance suffers as they are buried under an avalanche of requests for input or advice, access to resources, or attendance at a meeting. They take assignments home, and soon, according to a large body of evidence on stress, burnout and turnover become real risks. As a recent study led by Ning Li, of the University of Iowa, shows, a single “extra miler”-an employee who frequently contributes beyond the scope of his or her role-can drive team performance more than all the other members combined.

But this “escalating citizenship,” as the University of Oklahoma professor Mark Bolino calls it, only further fuels the demands placed on top collaborators. We find that what starts as a virtuous cycle soon turns vicious. Soon helpful employees become institutional bottlenecks: Work doesn’t progress until they’ve weighed in. Worse, they are so overtaxed that they’re no longer personally effective. And more often than not, the volume and diversity of work they do to benefit others goes unnoticed, because the requests are coming from other units, varied offices, or even multiple companies. In fact, when we use network analysis to identify the strongest collaborators in organizations, leaders are typically surprised by at least half the names on their lists. In our quest to reap the rewards of collaboration, we have inadvertently created open markets for it without recognizing the costs. First, it’s important to distinguish among the three types of “collaborative resources” that individual employees invest in others to create value: informational, social, and personal. Informational resources are knowledge and skills—expertise that can be recorded and passed on. Social resources involve one’s awareness, access, and position in a network, which can be used to help colleagues better collaborate with one another. Personal resources include one’s own time and energy.
These three resource types are not equally efficient. Informational and social resources can be shared—often in a single exchange—without depleting the collaborator’s supply. That is, when I offer you knowledge or network awareness, I also retain it for my own use. But an individual employee’s time and energy are finite, so each request to participate in or approve decisions for a project leaves less available for that person’s own work.
Unfortunately, personal resources are often the default demand when people want to collaborate. Instead of asking for specific informational or social resources—or better yet, searching in existing repositories such as reports or knowledge libraries—people ask for hands-on assistance they may not even need. An exchange that might have taken five minutes or less turns into a 30-minute calendar invite that strains personal resources on both sides of the request.
Collaboration is indeed the answer to many of today’s most pressing business challenges. But more isn’t always better. Leaders must learn to recognize, promote, and efficiently distribute the right kinds of collaborative work, or their teams and top talent will bear the costs of too much demand for too little supply. In fact, we believe that the time may have come for organizations to hire chief collaboration officers. By creating a senior executive position dedicated to collaboration, leaders can send a clear signal about the importance of managing teamwork thoughtfully and provide the resources necessary to do it effectively. That might reduce the odds that the whole becomes far less than the sum of its parts.

 

 

Q. Which of the following is the most appropriate title for the passage?

Solution:

Solution: The passage constantly stresses on the point that excessive amount of collaboration at a workplace is likely to impact the performance of the employee. Moreover, the passage says in its conclusion that chief collaboration officers must be hired to shift the burden of collaboration from the shoulders of the employees. Thus, only option 1 fits as a suitable title. The other options do not effectively address the subject of the passage.
Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 90

Collaboration is taking over the workplace. As business becomes increasingly global and cross-functional, silos are breaking down, connectivity is increasing, and teamwork is seen as a key to organizational success. Certainly, we find much to applaud in these developments.
However, when consumption of a valuable resource spikes that dramatically, it should also give us pause. Consider a typical week in your own organization. How much time do people spend in meetings, on the phone, and responding to e-mails? At many companies the proportion hovers around 80%, leaving employees little time for all the critical work they must complete on their own. Performance suffers as they are buried under an avalanche of requests for input or advice, access to resources, or attendance at a meeting. They take assignments home, and soon, according to a large body of evidence on stress, burnout and turnover become real risks. As a recent study led by Ning Li, of the University of Iowa, shows, a single “extra miler”-an employee who frequently contributes beyond the scope of his or her role-can drive team performance more than all the other members combined.

But this “escalating citizenship,” as the University of Oklahoma professor Mark Bolino calls it, only further fuels the demands placed on top collaborators. We find that what starts as a virtuous cycle soon turns vicious. Soon helpful employees become institutional bottlenecks: Work doesn’t progress until they’ve weighed in. Worse, they are so overtaxed that they’re no longer personally effective. And more often than not, the volume and diversity of work they do to benefit others goes unnoticed, because the requests are coming from other units, varied offices, or even multiple companies. In fact, when we use network analysis to identify the strongest collaborators in organizations, leaders are typically surprised by at least half the names on their lists. In our quest to reap the rewards of collaboration, we have inadvertently created open markets for it without recognizing the costs. First, it’s important to distinguish among the three types of “collaborative resources” that individual employees invest in others to create value: informational, social, and personal. Informational resources are knowledge and skills—expertise that can be recorded and passed on. Social resources involve one’s awareness, access, and position in a network, which can be used to help colleagues better collaborate with one another. Personal resources include one’s own time and energy.
These three resource types are not equally efficient. Informational and social resources can be shared—often in a single exchange—without depleting the collaborator’s supply. That is, when I offer you knowledge or network awareness, I also retain it for my own use. But an individual employee’s time and energy are finite, so each request to participate in or approve decisions for a project leaves less available for that person’s own work.
Unfortunately, personal resources are often the default demand when people want to collaborate. Instead of asking for specific informational or social resources—or better yet, searching in existing repositories such as reports or knowledge libraries—people ask for hands-on assistance they may not even need. An exchange that might have taken five minutes or less turns into a 30-minute calendar invite that strains personal resources on both sides of the request.
Collaboration is indeed the answer to many of today’s most pressing business challenges. But more isn’t always better. Leaders must learn to recognize, promote, and efficiently distribute the right kinds of collaborative work, or their teams and top talent will bear the costs of too much demand for too little supply. In fact, we believe that the time may have come for organizations to hire chief collaboration officers. By creating a senior executive position dedicated to collaboration, leaders can send a clear signal about the importance of managing teamwork thoughtfully and provide the resources necessary to do it effectively. That might reduce the odds that the whole becomes far less than the sum of its parts.

 

 

Q. According to the author, which of the following “collaborative resources” can be shared often in a single exchange?

Solution:

Solution: The sentence “ Informational and social resources can be shared— often in a single exchange....” from the passage vindicates option 2 as correct.The other options are not supported by the information in the passage.Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 91

Collaboration is taking over the workplace. As business becomes increasingly global and cross-functional, silos are breaking down, connectivity is increasing, and teamwork is seen as a key to organizational success. Certainly, we find much to applaud in these developments.
However, when consumption of a valuable resource spikes that dramatically, it should also give us pause. Consider a typical week in your own organization. How much time do people spend in meetings, on the phone, and responding to e-mails? At many companies the proportion hovers around 80%, leaving employees little time for all the critical work they must complete on their own. Performance suffers as they are buried under an avalanche of requests for input or advice, access to resources, or attendance at a meeting. They take assignments home, and soon, according to a large body of evidence on stress, burnout and turnover become real risks. As a recent study led by Ning Li, of the University of Iowa, shows, a single “extra miler”-an employee who frequently contributes beyond the scope of his or her role-can drive team performance more than all the other members combined.

But this “escalating citizenship,” as the University of Oklahoma professor Mark Bolino calls it, only further fuels the demands placed on top collaborators. We find that what starts as a virtuous cycle soon turns vicious. Soon helpful employees become institutional bottlenecks: Work doesn’t progress until they’ve weighed in. Worse, they are so overtaxed that they’re no longer personally effective. And more often than not, the volume and diversity of work they do to benefit others goes unnoticed, because the requests are coming from other units, varied offices, or even multiple companies. In fact, when we use network analysis to identify the strongest collaborators in organizations, leaders are typically surprised by at least half the names on their lists. In our quest to reap the rewards of collaboration, we have inadvertently created open markets for it without recognizing the costs. First, it’s important to distinguish among the three types of “collaborative resources” that individual employees invest in others to create value: informational, social, and personal. Informational resources are knowledge and skills—expertise that can be recorded and passed on. Social resources involve one’s awareness, access, and position in a network, which can be used to help colleagues better collaborate with one another. Personal resources include one’s own time and energy.
These three resource types are not equally efficient. Informational and social resources can be shared—often in a single exchange—without depleting the collaborator’s supply. That is, when I offer you knowledge or network awareness, I also retain it for my own use. But an individual employee’s time and energy are finite, so each request to participate in or approve decisions for a project leaves less available for that person’s own work.
Unfortunately, personal resources are often the default demand when people want to collaborate. Instead of asking for specific informational or social resources—or better yet, searching in existing repositories such as reports or knowledge libraries—people ask for hands-on assistance they may not even need. An exchange that might have taken five minutes or less turns into a 30-minute calendar invite that strains personal resources on both sides of the request.
Collaboration is indeed the answer to many of today’s most pressing business challenges. But more isn’t always better. Leaders must learn to recognize, promote, and efficiently distribute the right kinds of collaborative work, or their teams and top talent will bear the costs of too much demand for too little supply. In fact, we believe that the time may have come for organizations to hire chief collaboration officers. By creating a senior executive position dedicated to collaboration, leaders can send a clear signal about the importance of managing teamwork thoughtfully and provide the resources necessary to do it effectively. That might reduce the odds that the whole becomes far less than the sum of its parts.

 

 

Q. What does the author mean by “escalating citizenship”?

Solution:

Solution: In the third paragraph, “escalating citizenship” has been explained to be the helpful conduct of some employees which causes institutional bottlenecks.
The other options do not find a mention in the passage.
Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 92

Collaboration is taking over the workplace. As business becomes increasingly global and cross-functional, silos are breaking down, connectivity is increasing, and teamwork is seen as a key to organizational success. Certainly, we find much to applaud in these developments.
However, when consumption of a valuable resource spikes that dramatically, it should also give us pause. Consider a typical week in your own organization. How much time do people spend in meetings, on the phone, and responding to e-mails? At many companies the proportion hovers around 80%, leaving employees little time for all the critical work they must complete on their own. Performance suffers as they are buried under an avalanche of requests for input or advice, access to resources, or attendance at a meeting. They take assignments home, and soon, according to a large body of evidence on stress, burnout and turnover become real risks. As a recent study led by Ning Li, of the University of Iowa, shows, a single “extra miler”-an employee who frequently contributes beyond the scope of his or her role-can drive team performance more than all the other members combined.

But this “escalating citizenship,” as the University of Oklahoma professor Mark Bolino calls it, only further fuels the demands placed on top collaborators. We find that what starts as a virtuous cycle soon turns vicious. Soon helpful employees become institutional bottlenecks: Work doesn’t progress until they’ve weighed in. Worse, they are so overtaxed that they’re no longer personally effective. And more often than not, the volume and diversity of work they do to benefit others goes unnoticed, because the requests are coming from other units, varied offices, or even multiple companies. In fact, when we use network analysis to identify the strongest collaborators in organizations, leaders are typically surprised by at least half the names on their lists. In our quest to reap the rewards of collaboration, we have inadvertently created open markets for it without recognizing the costs. First, it’s important to distinguish among the three types of “collaborative resources” that individual employees invest in others to create value: informational, social, and personal. Informational resources are knowledge and skills—expertise that can be recorded and passed on. Social resources involve one’s awareness, access, and position in a network, which can be used to help colleagues better collaborate with one another. Personal resources include one’s own time and energy.
These three resource types are not equally efficient. Informational and social resources can be shared—often in a single exchange—without depleting the collaborator’s supply. That is, when I offer you knowledge or network awareness, I also retain it for my own use. But an individual employee’s time and energy are finite, so each request to participate in or approve decisions for a project leaves less available for that person’s own work.
Unfortunately, personal resources are often the default demand when people want to collaborate. Instead of asking for specific informational or social resources—or better yet, searching in existing repositories such as reports or knowledge libraries—people ask for hands-on assistance they may not even need. An exchange that might have taken five minutes or less turns into a 30-minute calendar invite that strains personal resources on both sides of the request.
Collaboration is indeed the answer to many of today’s most pressing business challenges. But more isn’t always better. Leaders must learn to recognize, promote, and efficiently distribute the right kinds of collaborative work, or their teams and top talent will bear the costs of too much demand for too little supply. In fact, we believe that the time may have come for organizations to hire chief collaboration officers. By creating a senior executive position dedicated to collaboration, leaders can send a clear signal about the importance of managing teamwork thoughtfully and provide the resources necessary to do it effectively. That might reduce the odds that the whole becomes far less than the sum of its parts.

 

 

Q. Which of the collaborative resources is the conventional choice of people when they want to collaborate?

Solution:

Solution: The sentence from the passage, “Unfortunately, personal resources are often the default demand when people want to collaborate.” vindicates option 3 as correct answer.Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 93

Group Question

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

“The only function of economic forecasting is to make astrology look respectable,” John Kenneth Galbraith, an irreverent economist, once said. Since economic output represents the aggregated activity of billions of people, influenced by forces seen and unseen, it is a wonder forecasters ever get it right. Yet economists cannot resist trying. As predictions for 2016 are unveiled, it is worth assessing the soothsayers’ records.
Forecasters usually rely on two different predictive approaches. One is theory-based, shaped by how economists believe economies behave. The other is data-based, shaped by how economies have behaved in the past. The simplest of the theoretical bunch is the Solow growth model, named for Robert Solow, a Nobel-prize winning economist. It posits that poorer countries should generally invest more and grow faster than rich ones. Central banks and other big economic institutions use far more complicated formulas, often grouped under the bewildering label of “dynamic stochastic general equilibrium” (DSGE) models. These try to anticipate the ups and downs of big economies by modelling the behaviour of individual households and firms.
The empirical approach is older; indeed, it was the workhorse of government forecasting in the 1940s and 1950s. Data-based models analyse the relationship between hundreds or thousands of economic variables, from the price of potatoes to snowfall in January. They then work out how zinc sales, for example, affect investment and growth in the years that follow.

Both strategies have faced withering criticism. DSGE models, for all their complexity, are typically built around oversimplifications of how markets function and people behave. Data-based models suffer from their own shortcomings. In a paper published in 1995 Greg Mankiw of Harvard University argued that they face insurmountable statistical problems. Too many things tend to happen at once to isolate cause and effect: liberalised trade might boost growth, or liberalisation might be the sort of thing that governments do when growth is rising, or both liberalisation and growth might follow from some third factor. And there are too many potential influences on growth for economists to know whether a seemingly strong relationship between variables is real or would disappear if they factored in some other relevant titbit, such as the wages of Canadian lumberjacks.
In practice, most forecasters combine the two approaches and inject, when necessary, a dose of common sense. The IMF, for instance, relies on a global model, built in part on economic theory and in part on data analysis. The global projections generated by that hybrid model are combined with country-specific details to produce country-level forecasts. The country forecasts are then checked for consistency against the global projections and adjusted when necessary—to make sure, for example, that most countries do not show strong trade growth when the global projection heralds a decline in trade. A recent analysis of the IMF’s forecasts by the organisation’s Independent Evaluation Office concluded that their accuracy was “comparable to that of private-sector forecasts”. However, the accuracy of forecasts are always under speculation.

 

 

Q. Which of the following is a shortcoming of a data-based model? 

Solution:

Solution: The sentence from the passage, “In a paper published in 1995 Greg Mankiw of Harvard University argued that they face insurmountable statistical problems.” vindicates option 1 as correct.
Hence, the correct answer is option 1.
Options 2 and 3 find no mention in the passage.
Option 4 is contradictory to “potential influences” mentioned in the passage.
Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 94

“The only function of economic forecasting is to make astrology look respectable,” John Kenneth Galbraith, an irreverent economist, once said. Since economic output represents the aggregated activity of billions of people, influenced by forces seen and unseen, it is a wonder forecasters ever get it right. Yet economists cannot resist trying. As predictions for 2016 are unveiled, it is worth assessing the soothsayers’ records.
Forecasters usually rely on two different predictive approaches. One is theory-based, shaped by how economists believe economies behave. The other is data-based, shaped by how economies have behaved in the past. The simplest of the theoretical bunch is the Solow growth model, named for Robert Solow, a Nobel-prize winning economist. It posits that poorer countries should generally invest more and grow faster than rich ones. Central banks and other big economic institutions use far more complicated formulas, often grouped under the bewildering label of “dynamic stochastic general equilibrium” (DSGE) models. These try to anticipate the ups and downs of big economies by modelling the behaviour of individual households and firms.
The empirical approach is older; indeed, it was the workhorse of government forecasting in the 1940s and 1950s. Data-based models analyse the relationship between hundreds or thousands of economic variables, from the price of potatoes to snowfall in January. They then work out how zinc sales, for example, affect investment and growth in the years that follow.

Both strategies have faced withering criticism. DSGE models, for all their complexity, are typically built around oversimplifications of how markets function and people behave. Data-based models suffer from their own shortcomings. In a paper published in 1995 Greg Mankiw of Harvard University argued that they face insurmountable statistical problems. Too many things tend to happen at once to isolate cause and effect: liberalised trade might boost growth, or liberalisation might be the sort of thing that governments do when growth is rising, or both liberalisation and growth might follow from some third factor. And there are too many potential influences on growth for economists to know whether a seemingly strong relationship between variables is real or would disappear if they factored in some other relevant titbit, such as the wages of Canadian lumberjacks.
In practice, most forecasters combine the two approaches and inject, when necessary, a dose of common sense. The IMF, for instance, relies on a global model, built in part on economic theory and in part on data analysis. The global projections generated by that hybrid model are combined with country-specific details to produce country-level forecasts. The country forecasts are then checked for consistency against the global projections and adjusted when necessary—to make sure, for example, that most countries do not show strong trade growth when the global projection heralds a decline in trade. A recent analysis of the IMF’s forecasts by the organisation’s Independent Evaluation Office concluded that their accuracy was “comparable to that of private-sector forecasts”. However, the accuracy of forecasts are always under speculation.

 

 

Q. Country forecasts are checked for consistency 

Solution:

Solution: The sentence from the passage, “The country forecasts are then checked for consistency against the global projections and adjusted when necessary...” vindicates option 2 as correct.
Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 95

“The only function of economic forecasting is to make astrology look respectable,” John Kenneth Galbraith, an irreverent economist, once said. Since economic output represents the aggregated activity of billions of people, influenced by forces seen and unseen, it is a wonder forecasters ever get it right. Yet economists cannot resist trying. As predictions for 2016 are unveiled, it is worth assessing the soothsayers’ records.
Forecasters usually rely on two different predictive approaches. One is theory-based, shaped by how economists believe economies behave. The other is data-based, shaped by how economies have behaved in the past. The simplest of the theoretical bunch is the Solow growth model, named for Robert Solow, a Nobel-prize winning economist. It posits that poorer countries should generally invest more and grow faster than rich ones. Central banks and other big economic institutions use far more complicated formulas, often grouped under the bewildering label of “dynamic stochastic general equilibrium” (DSGE) models. These try to anticipate the ups and downs of big economies by modelling the behaviour of individual households and firms.
The empirical approach is older; indeed, it was the workhorse of government forecasting in the 1940s and 1950s. Data-based models analyse the relationship between hundreds or thousands of economic variables, from the price of potatoes to snowfall in January. They then work out how zinc sales, for example, affect investment and growth in the years that follow.

Both strategies have faced withering criticism. DSGE models, for all their complexity, are typically built around oversimplifications of how markets function and people behave. Data-based models suffer from their own shortcomings. In a paper published in 1995 Greg Mankiw of Harvard University argued that they face insurmountable statistical problems. Too many things tend to happen at once to isolate cause and effect: liberalised trade might boost growth, or liberalisation might be the sort of thing that governments do when growth is rising, or both liberalisation and growth might follow from some third factor. And there are too many potential influences on growth for economists to know whether a seemingly strong relationship between variables is real or would disappear if they factored in some other relevant titbit, such as the wages of Canadian lumberjacks.
In practice, most forecasters combine the two approaches and inject, when necessary, a dose of common sense. The IMF, for instance, relies on a global model, built in part on economic theory and in part on data analysis. The global projections generated by that hybrid model are combined with country-specific details to produce country-level forecasts. The country forecasts are then checked for consistency against the global projections and adjusted when necessary—to make sure, for example, that most countries do not show strong trade growth when the global projection heralds a decline in trade. A recent analysis of the IMF’s forecasts by the organisation’s Independent Evaluation Office concluded that their accuracy was “comparable to that of private-sector forecasts”. However, the accuracy of forecasts are always under speculation.

 

 

Q. According to the author, the IMF relies on   

Solution:

Solution: The passage clearly states that the IMF relies on global models. Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 96

“The only function of economic forecasting is to make astrology look respectable,” John Kenneth Galbraith, an irreverent economist, once said. Since economic output represents the aggregated activity of billions of people, influenced by forces seen and unseen, it is a wonder forecasters ever get it right. Yet economists cannot resist trying. As predictions for 2016 are unveiled, it is worth assessing the soothsayers’ records.
Forecasters usually rely on two different predictive approaches. One is theory-based, shaped by how economists believe economies behave. The other is data-based, shaped by how economies have behaved in the past. The simplest of the theoretical bunch is the Solow growth model, named for Robert Solow, a Nobel-prize winning economist. It posits that poorer countries should generally invest more and grow faster than rich ones. Central banks and other big economic institutions use far more complicated formulas, often grouped under the bewildering label of “dynamic stochastic general equilibrium” (DSGE) models. These try to anticipate the ups and downs of big economies by modelling the behaviour of individual households and firms.
The empirical approach is older; indeed, it was the workhorse of government forecasting in the 1940s and 1950s. Data-based models analyse the relationship between hundreds or thousands of economic variables, from the price of potatoes to snowfall in January. They then work out how zinc sales, for example, affect investment and growth in the years that follow.

Both strategies have faced withering criticism. DSGE models, for all their complexity, are typically built around oversimplifications of how markets function and people behave. Data-based models suffer from their own shortcomings. In a paper published in 1995 Greg Mankiw of Harvard University argued that they face insurmountable statistical problems. Too many things tend to happen at once to isolate cause and effect: liberalised trade might boost growth, or liberalisation might be the sort of thing that governments do when growth is rising, or both liberalisation and growth might follow from some third factor. And there are too many potential influences on growth for economists to know whether a seemingly strong relationship between variables is real or would disappear if they factored in some other relevant titbit, such as the wages of Canadian lumberjacks.
In practice, most forecasters combine the two approaches and inject, when necessary, a dose of common sense. The IMF, for instance, relies on a global model, built in part on economic theory and in part on data analysis. The global projections generated by that hybrid model are combined with country-specific details to produce country-level forecasts. The country forecasts are then checked for consistency against the global projections and adjusted when necessary—to make sure, for example, that most countries do not show strong trade growth when the global projection heralds a decline in trade. A recent analysis of the IMF’s forecasts by the organisation’s Independent Evaluation Office concluded that their accuracy was “comparable to that of private-sector forecasts”. However, the accuracy of forecasts are always under speculation.

 

 

Q. The author is trying to throw some light on

Solution:

Solution: The passage basically talks about how various approaches used by forecasters fail, eventually leading to the absence of reliable statistics projecting economic growth. This vindicates option 1.
The other options are not as appropriate as option 1, since the forecast models, the IMF, or the working itself of forecasts are not the main focus of the passage.
Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 97

Group Question

Answer the following question based on the information given below.

Claude Elwood Shannon, a mathematician born in Gaylord, Michigan (U.S.) in 1916, is credited with two important contributions to information technology: the application of Boolean theory to electronic switching, thus laying the groundwork for the digital computer, and developing the new field called information theory. It is difficult to overstate the impact which Claude Shannon has had on the 20th century and the way we live and work in it, yet he remains practically unknown to the general public. Shannon spent the bulk of his career, a span of over 30 years from 1941 to 1972, at Bell Labs where he worked as a mathematician dedicated to research.
While a graduate student at MIT in the late 1930s, Shannon worked for Vannevar Bush who was at that time building a mechanical computer, the Differential Analyser. Shannon had the insight to apply the two-valued Boolean logic to electrical circuits (which could be in either of two states - on or off). This syncretism of two hitherto distinct fields earned Shannon his MS in 1937 and his doctorate in 1940.
Not content with laying the logical foundations of both the modern telephone switch and the digital computer, Shannon went on to invent the discipline of information theory and revolutionize the field of communications. He developed the concept of entropy in communication systems, the idea that information is based on uncertainty. This concept says that the more uncertainty in a communication channel, the more information that can be transmitted and vice versa. Shannon used mathematics to define the capacity of any communications channel to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio. He envisioned the possibility of error-free communications for telecommunications, the Internet, and satellite systems.
A Mathematical Theory Of Communication , published in the Bell Systems Technical Journal in 1948, outlines the principles of his information theory. Information Theory also has important ramifications for the field of cryptography as explained in his 1949 paper Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems- in a nutshell, the more entropy a cryptographic system has, the harder the resulting encryption is to break.
Shannon's varied retirement interests included inventing unicycles, motorized pogo sticks, and chess-playing robots as well as juggling - he developed an equation describing the relationship between the position of the balls and the action of the hands. Claude Shannon died on February 24, 2001.

 

 

Q. In the above passage, Shannon is being credited with

Solution:

Solution: The sentence, “ credited with two important contributions.... developing the new field called information theory.” vindicates option 1 as correct.
The passage says that dissatisfied with laying logical foundations of modern telephone switch, Shannon went on to discover entropy. So, eliminate option 2.
The passage says that Shannon's invention of Information theory has important ramifications for the field of cryptography. It cannot be inferred that cryptography was invented by Shannon. So, eliminate option 3.
Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 98

Claude Elwood Shannon, a mathematician born in Gaylord, Michigan (U.S.) in 1916, is credited with two important contributions to information technology: the application of Boolean theory to electronic switching, thus laying the groundwork for the digital computer, and developing the new field called information theory. It is difficult to overstate the impact which Claude Shannon has had on the 20th century and the way we live and work in it, yet he remains practically unknown to the general public. Shannon spent the bulk of his career, a span of over 30 years from 1941 to 1972, at Bell Labs where he worked as a mathematician dedicated to research.
While a graduate student at MIT in the late 1930s, Shannon worked for Vannevar Bush who was at that time building a mechanical computer, the Differential Analyser. Shannon had the insight to apply the two-valued Boolean logic to electrical circuits (which could be in either of two states - on or off). This syncretism of two hitherto distinct fields earned Shannon his MS in 1937 and his doctorate in 1940.
Not content with laying the logical foundations of both the modern telephone switch and the digital computer, Shannon went on to invent the discipline of information theory and revolutionize the field of communications. He developed the concept of entropy in communication systems, the idea that information is based on uncertainty. This concept says that the more uncertainty in a communication channel, the more information that can be transmitted and vice versa. Shannon used mathematics to define the capacity of any communications channel to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio. He envisioned the possibility of error-free communications for telecommunications, the Internet, and satellite systems.
A Mathematical Theory Of Communication , published in the Bell Systems Technical Journal in 1948, outlines the principles of his information theory. Information Theory also has important ramifications for the field of cryptography as explained in his 1949 paper Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems- in a nutshell, the more entropy a cryptographic system has, the harder the resulting encryption is to break.
Shannon's varied retirement interests included inventing unicycles, motorized pogo sticks, and chess-playing robots as well as juggling - he developed an equation describing the relationship between the position of the balls and the action of the hands. Claude Shannon died on February 24, 2001.

 

 

Q. Shannon basically brought a

Solution:

Solution: The sentence from the passage, “......Shannon went on to ....revolutionize the field of communications.” indicates that Shannon brought a revolutionary change in the field of communications.
Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 99

Claude Elwood Shannon, a mathematician born in Gaylord, Michigan (U.S.) in 1916, is credited with two important contributions to information technology: the application of Boolean theory to electronic switching, thus laying the groundwork for the digital computer, and developing the new field called information theory. It is difficult to overstate the impact which Claude Shannon has had on the 20th century and the way we live and work in it, yet he remains practically unknown to the general public. Shannon spent the bulk of his career, a span of over 30 years from 1941 to 1972, at Bell Labs where he worked as a mathematician dedicated to research.
While a graduate student at MIT in the late 1930s, Shannon worked for Vannevar Bush who was at that time building a mechanical computer, the Differential Analyser. Shannon had the insight to apply the two-valued Boolean logic to electrical circuits (which could be in either of two states - on or off). This syncretism of two hitherto distinct fields earned Shannon his MS in 1937 and his doctorate in 1940.
Not content with laying the logical foundations of both the modern telephone switch and the digital computer, Shannon went on to invent the discipline of information theory and revolutionize the field of communications. He developed the concept of entropy in communication systems, the idea that information is based on uncertainty. This concept says that the more uncertainty in a communication channel, the more information that can be transmitted and vice versa. Shannon used mathematics to define the capacity of any communications channel to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio. He envisioned the possibility of error-free communications for telecommunications, the Internet, and satellite systems.
A Mathematical Theory Of Communication , published in the Bell Systems Technical Journal in 1948, outlines the principles of his information theory. Information Theory also has important ramifications for the field of cryptography as explained in his 1949 paper Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems- in a nutshell, the more entropy a cryptographic system has, the harder the resulting encryption is to break.
Shannon's varied retirement interests included inventing unicycles, motorized pogo sticks, and chess-playing robots as well as juggling - he developed an equation describing the relationship between the position of the balls and the action of the hands. Claude Shannon died on February 24, 2001.

 

 

Q. What  is the concept of entropy described in the passage?

Solution:

Solution: The passage says that Shannon defined the capacity of a communication channel while option 2 defines entropy in terms of he capacity of the channel which gives an incoherent meaning. So, eliminate option 2. Similarly, we eliminate option 3 which is remotely related to the concept of entropy.
Option 4 gives a vague definition of entropy. So, eliminate option 4. Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 100

Claude Elwood Shannon, a mathematician born in Gaylord, Michigan (U.S.) in 1916, is credited with two important contributions to information technology: the application of Boolean theory to electronic switching, thus laying the groundwork for the digital computer, and developing the new field called information theory. It is difficult to overstate the impact which Claude Shannon has had on the 20th century and the way we live and work in it, yet he remains practically unknown to the general public. Shannon spent the bulk of his career, a span of over 30 years from 1941 to 1972, at Bell Labs where he worked as a mathematician dedicated to research.
While a graduate student at MIT in the late 1930s, Shannon worked for Vannevar Bush who was at that time building a mechanical computer, the Differential Analyser. Shannon had the insight to apply the two-valued Boolean logic to electrical circuits (which could be in either of two states - on or off). This syncretism of two hitherto distinct fields earned Shannon his MS in 1937 and his doctorate in 1940.
Not content with laying the logical foundations of both the modern telephone switch and the digital computer, Shannon went on to invent the discipline of information theory and revolutionize the field of communications. He developed the concept of entropy in communication systems, the idea that information is based on uncertainty. This concept says that the more uncertainty in a communication channel, the more information that can be transmitted and vice versa. Shannon used mathematics to define the capacity of any communications channel to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio. He envisioned the possibility of error-free communications for telecommunications, the Internet, and satellite systems.
A Mathematical Theory Of Communication , published in the Bell Systems Technical Journal in 1948, outlines the principles of his information theory. Information Theory also has important ramifications for the field of cryptography as explained in his 1949 paper Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems- in a nutshell, the more entropy a cryptographic system has, the harder the resulting encryption is to break.
Shannon's varied retirement interests included inventing unicycles, motorized pogo sticks, and chess-playing robots as well as juggling - he developed an equation describing the relationship between the position of the balls and the action of the hands. Claude Shannon died on February 24, 2001.

 

 

Q. What  can be said about Shannon's  thought as expressed in 1949 paper Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems?

Solution:

Solution: The sentence, “the more entropy a cryptographic system has, the harder the resulting encryption is to break.” clearly suggests that a grater value of entropy ensures greater safety. This is vindicated by option 1.
Option 2 is contradictory to the above sentence from the passage and can be eliminated.
Option 3 cannot be inferred from the passage. Hence, option 3 is eliminated.
Option 4 is eliminated.
Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 101

Group Question

Answer the following question based on the information given below.


In 1737, a self-taught clockmaker from Yorkshire astonished the great scientists of London by solving the most pressing technological problem of the day: how to determine the longitude of a ship at sea. The conventional wisdom was that some kind of astronomical method would be needed. Other inventors suggested crackpot schemes that involved casting magic spells or ringing the world with a circle of outposts that would mark the time with cannon fire.
John Harrison’s solution — simple in principle, fiendishly hard to execute — was to build an accurate clock, one that despite fluctuating temperatures and rolling ocean swells, could show the time at Greenwich while anywhere in the world. Harrison and countless other creative minds were focused on the longitude problem by a £20,000 prize for the person who solved it, several million pounds in today’s money.
Why was the prize necessary? Because ideas are hard to develop and easy to imitate. Harrison’s clocks could, with effort, have been reverse engineered. An astronomical method for finding longitude could have been copied with ease. Inventing something new is for gullible people; smart people sit back and rip off the idea later. One way to give the clever lot an incentive to research new ideas, then, is an innovation prize — that is, a substantial cash reward for solving a well-defined problem. (Retrospective awards such as the Nobel Prize are different.) For decades after Harrison’s triumph, prizes were a well-established approach to the problem of encouraging innovation. Then they fell out of favour, with policymakers instead encouraging innovation with a mix of upfront research grants and patent protection. Now, however, prizes are making a comeback. The most eye-catching examples have been in the private sector: the $1m Netflix prize for improved personalisation of film recommendations or the $10m Ansari X prize for private space flight. Last year Nesta, a UK-based charity for the promotion of innovation, launched a “new longitude prize” of £10m for an improved test for bacterial infections, marking the anniversary of the original prize’s founding in 1714.
But why are innovation prizes attractive, when the existing system of grants and patents seems to have served us reasonably well so far? Research grants may be too conservative, favouring establishment figures working on unambitious projects, and rewarding process rather than results. Such conservatism is not inevitable but it goes with the territory. An innovation prize seems more meritocratic and, since it pays only for results, the prizes can set radical goals.
Patents are particularly problematic, since they encourage the development of something that anyone can use — a new idea — with the perverse reward of restricting access to that idea. That is a trade-off that is easily bungled, with patents that last too long, are too broad, too easy to secure and too difficult to challenge. Even a well-crafted patent system depends on there being a ready market for the innovation in question. Few people will pay much for a malaria vaccine but it would be socially very valuable, as would a new class of antibiotics. A prize can easily reward long-term social priorities such as these; a patent cannot.
But there is a danger of expecting too much from prizes. If we are to scrap patents entirely, prizes would be far too narrow a replacement. (Who would have sponsored a prize “for inventing the internet”? Not all innovations exist to solve precooked problems such as finding longitude.) If we use patents and prizes in parallel, however, there’s a self-selection problem: inventors with truly valuable ideas apply for patents, while those with dross apply for prizes. A new working paper from economic historian Zorina Khan points out that Royal Society of Arts prizes in the 19th century suffered from exactly such adverse selection. Khan also observes that many celebrated historical innovation prizes were actually mired in controversy, with prizes awarded for unoriginal or ineffective ideas, or denied to the deserving. It’s easy to point to a few success stories but there are plenty of those for patents and grants too.
For my money the patent system urgently needs reform, with patents that are harder to earn and easier to challenge. Innovation prizes definitely have their place, especially where markets for a socially valuable innovation may not exist. But we do a good idea no favours by overselling it. We should also probably stop going on about the Longitude Prize or at least we should admit what Nesta’s new prize website does not: that Harrison’s invention was rewarded with decades of suspicion and controversy. The Board of Longitude, the government body set up to administer the prize, questioned both the accuracy of his clocks and whether they could be replicated. Harrison did receive numerous payments for his efforts — but neither he nor anyone else ever won the Longitude Prize.

 

 

Q. Which of the following statements is true? 

Solution:

Solution: Option 1 is contradicted by the sentence “ In 1737,.... the most pressing technological problem of the day: how to determine the longitude of a ship at sea.” which indicates 18th century.
Option 2 is incorrect as it cannot be definitely inferred from the passage if Zorina Khan is against the system of patent and prizes as she only points out adverse selection problem associated with the system.
Option 3 can be inferred from “Then they fell out of favour, with policymakers instead encouraging innovation with a mix of upfront research grants and patent protection.” Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 102

In 1737, a self-taught clockmaker from Yorkshire astonished the great scientists of London by solving the most pressing technological problem of the day: how to determine the longitude of a ship at sea. The conventional wisdom was that some kind of astronomical method would be needed. Other inventors suggested crackpot schemes that involved casting magic spells or ringing the world with a circle of outposts that would mark the time with cannon fire.
John Harrison’s solution — simple in principle, fiendishly hard to execute — was to build an accurate clock, one that despite fluctuating temperatures and rolling ocean swells, could show the time at Greenwich while anywhere in the world. Harrison and countless other creative minds were focused on the longitude problem by a £20,000 prize for the person who solved it, several million pounds in today’s money.
Why was the prize necessary? Because ideas are hard to develop and easy to imitate. Harrison’s clocks could, with effort, have been reverse engineered. An astronomical method for finding longitude could have been copied with ease. Inventing something new is for gullible people; smart people sit back and rip off the idea later. One way to give the clever lot an incentive to research new ideas, then, is an innovation prize — that is, a substantial cash reward for solving a well-defined problem. (Retrospective awards such as the Nobel Prize are different.) For decades after Harrison’s triumph, prizes were a well-established approach to the problem of encouraging innovation. Then they fell out of favour, with policymakers instead encouraging innovation with a mix of upfront research grants and patent protection. Now, however, prizes are making a comeback. The most eye-catching examples have been in the private sector: the $1m Netflix prize for improved personalisation of film recommendations or the $10m Ansari X prize for private space flight. Last year Nesta, a UK-based charity for the promotion of innovation, launched a “new longitude prize” of £10m for an improved test for bacterial infections, marking the anniversary of the original prize’s founding in 1714.
But why are innovation prizes attractive, when the existing system of grants and patents seems to have served us reasonably well so far? Research grants may be too conservative, favouring establishment figures working on unambitious projects, and rewarding process rather than results. Such conservatism is not inevitable but it goes with the territory. An innovation prize seems more meritocratic and, since it pays only for results, the prizes can set radical goals.
Patents are particularly problematic, since they encourage the development of something that anyone can use — a new idea — with the perverse reward of restricting access to that idea. That is a trade-off that is easily bungled, with patents that last too long, are too broad, too easy to secure and too difficult to challenge. Even a well-crafted patent system depends on there being a ready market for the innovation in question. Few people will pay much for a malaria vaccine but it would be socially very valuable, as would a new class of antibiotics. A prize can easily reward long-term social priorities such as these; a patent cannot.
But there is a danger of expecting too much from prizes. If we are to scrap patents entirely, prizes would be far too narrow a replacement. (Who would have sponsored a prize “for inventing the internet”? Not all innovations exist to solve precooked problems such as finding longitude.) If we use patents and prizes in parallel, however, there’s a self-selection problem: inventors with truly valuable ideas apply for patents, while those with dross apply for prizes. A new working paper from economic historian Zorina Khan points out that Royal Society of Arts prizes in the 19th century suffered from exactly such adverse selection. Khan also observes that many celebrated historical innovation prizes were actually mired in controversy, with prizes awarded for unoriginal or ineffective ideas, or denied to the deserving. It’s easy to point to a few success stories but there are plenty of those for patents and grants too.
For my money the patent system urgently needs reform, with patents that are harder to earn and easier to challenge. Innovation prizes definitely have their place, especially where markets for a socially valuable innovation may not exist. But we do a good idea no favours by overselling it. We should also probably stop going on about the Longitude Prize or at least we should admit what Nesta’s new prize website does not: that Harrison’s invention was rewarded with decades of suspicion and controversy. The Board of Longitude, the government body set up to administer the prize, questioned both the accuracy of his clocks and whether they could be replicated. Harrison did receive numerous payments for his efforts — but neither he nor anyone else ever won the Longitude Prize.

 

 

Q. What could be a plausible reason for scrapping patent system?   

Solution:

Solution: According to the passage, a major necessity for the patent system to exist, there needs to be a ready market for innovation. Hence, absence of this necessity might lead to discontinuation of the system The passage says that a prize can reward long-term social priorities but a patent cannot. It is not mentioned that there is any change of social priorities. So, eliminate option 2.
Self-selection problem and scrapping of patent system are unrelated. So, eliminate option 3.
Prizes not being able to fulfill the expectations would lead to scrapping of the system of prizes. So, eliminate option 4.

QUESTION: 103

In 1737, a self-taught clockmaker from Yorkshire astonished the great scientists of London by solving the most pressing technological problem of the day: how to determine the longitude of a ship at sea. The conventional wisdom was that some kind of astronomical method would be needed. Other inventors suggested crackpot schemes that involved casting magic spells or ringing the world with a circle of outposts that would mark the time with cannon fire.
John Harrison’s solution — simple in principle, fiendishly hard to execute — was to build an accurate clock, one that despite fluctuating temperatures and rolling ocean swells, could show the time at Greenwich while anywhere in the world. Harrison and countless other creative minds were focused on the longitude problem by a £20,000 prize for the person who solved it, several million pounds in today’s money.
Why was the prize necessary? Because ideas are hard to develop and easy to imitate. Harrison’s clocks could, with effort, have been reverse engineered. An astronomical method for finding longitude could have been copied with ease. Inventing something new is for gullible people; smart people sit back and rip off the idea later. One way to give the clever lot an incentive to research new ideas, then, is an innovation prize — that is, a substantial cash reward for solving a well-defined problem. (Retrospective awards such as the Nobel Prize are different.) For decades after Harrison’s triumph, prizes were a well-established approach to the problem of encouraging innovation. Then they fell out of favour, with policymakers instead encouraging innovation with a mix of upfront research grants and patent protection. Now, however, prizes are making a comeback. The most eye-catching examples have been in the private sector: the $1m Netflix prize for improved personalisation of film recommendations or the $10m Ansari X prize for private space flight. Last year Nesta, a UK-based charity for the promotion of innovation, launched a “new longitude prize” of £10m for an improved test for bacterial infections, marking the anniversary of the original prize’s founding in 1714.
But why are innovation prizes attractive, when the existing system of grants and patents seems to have served us reasonably well so far? Research grants may be too conservative, favouring establishment figures working on unambitious projects, and rewarding process rather than results. Such conservatism is not inevitable but it goes with the territory. An innovation prize seems more meritocratic and, since it pays only for results, the prizes can set radical goals.
Patents are particularly problematic, since they encourage the development of something that anyone can use — a new idea — with the perverse reward of restricting access to that idea. That is a trade-off that is easily bungled, with patents that last too long, are too broad, too easy to secure and too difficult to challenge. Even a well-crafted patent system depends on there being a ready market for the innovation in question. Few people will pay much for a malaria vaccine but it would be socially very valuable, as would a new class of antibiotics. A prize can easily reward long-term social priorities such as these; a patent cannot.
But there is a danger of expecting too much from prizes. If we are to scrap patents entirely, prizes would be far too narrow a replacement. (Who would have sponsored a prize “for inventing the internet”? Not all innovations exist to solve precooked problems such as finding longitude.) If we use patents and prizes in parallel, however, there’s a self-selection problem: inventors with truly valuable ideas apply for patents, while those with dross apply for prizes. A new working paper from economic historian Zorina Khan points out that Royal Society of Arts prizes in the 19th century suffered from exactly such adverse selection. Khan also observes that many celebrated historical innovation prizes were actually mired in controversy, with prizes awarded for unoriginal or ineffective ideas, or denied to the deserving. It’s easy to point to a few success stories but there are plenty of those for patents and grants too.
For my money the patent system urgently needs reform, with patents that are harder to earn and easier to challenge. Innovation prizes definitely have their place, especially where markets for a socially valuable innovation may not exist. But we do a good idea no favours by overselling it. We should also probably stop going on about the Longitude Prize or at least we should admit what Nesta’s new prize website does not: that Harrison’s invention was rewarded with decades of suspicion and controversy. The Board of Longitude, the government body set up to administer the prize, questioned both the accuracy of his clocks and whether they could be replicated. Harrison did receive numerous payments for his efforts — but neither he nor anyone else ever won the Longitude Prize.

 

 

Q. From the above passage, it clearly emerges that:

Solution:

Solution: Option 1 is contradicted by the sentence “Innovation prizes definitely have their place, especially where markets for a socially valuable innovation may not exist.” Option 2 is contradicted by the sentence “Now, however, prizes are making a comeback.” Option 3 is supported by the sentence “Patents are particularly problematic, since they encourage the development of something that anyone can use — a new idea — with the perverse reward of restricting access to that idea.”.
Option 4 is contradicted by the sentence “One way to give the clever lot an incentive to research new ideas, then, is an innovation prize — that is, a substantial cash reward for solving a well-defined problem.” Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 104

In 1737, a self-taught clockmaker from Yorkshire astonished the great scientists of London by solving the most pressing technological problem of the day: how to determine the longitude of a ship at sea. The conventional wisdom was that some kind of astronomical method would be needed. Other inventors suggested crackpot schemes that involved casting magic spells or ringing the world with a circle of outposts that would mark the time with cannon fire.
John Harrison’s solution — simple in principle, fiendishly hard to execute — was to build an accurate clock, one that despite fluctuating temperatures and rolling ocean swells, could show the time at Greenwich while anywhere in the world. Harrison and countless other creative minds were focused on the longitude problem by a £20,000 prize for the person who solved it, several million pounds in today’s money.
Why was the prize necessary? Because ideas are hard to develop and easy to imitate. Harrison’s clocks could, with effort, have been reverse engineered. An astronomical method for finding longitude could have been copied with ease. Inventing something new is for gullible people; smart people sit back and rip off the idea later. One way to give the clever lot an incentive to research new ideas, then, is an innovation prize — that is, a substantial cash reward for solving a well-defined problem. (Retrospective awards such as the Nobel Prize are different.) For decades after Harrison’s triumph, prizes were a well-established approach to the problem of encouraging innovation. Then they fell out of favour, with policymakers instead encouraging innovation with a mix of upfront research grants and patent protection. Now, however, prizes are making a comeback. The most eye-catching examples have been in the private sector: the $1m Netflix prize for improved personalisation of film recommendations or the $10m Ansari X prize for private space flight. Last year Nesta, a UK-based charity for the promotion of innovation, launched a “new longitude prize” of £10m for an improved test for bacterial infections, marking the anniversary of the original prize’s founding in 1714.
But why are innovation prizes attractive, when the existing system of grants and patents seems to have served us reasonably well so far? Research grants may be too conservative, favouring establishment figures working on unambitious projects, and rewarding process rather than results. Such conservatism is not inevitable but it goes with the territory. An innovation prize seems more meritocratic and, since it pays only for results, the prizes can set radical goals.
Patents are particularly problematic, since they encourage the development of something that anyone can use — a new idea — with the perverse reward of restricting access to that idea. That is a trade-off that is easily bungled, with patents that last too long, are too broad, too easy to secure and too difficult to challenge. Even a well-crafted patent system depends on there being a ready market for the innovation in question. Few people will pay much for a malaria vaccine but it would be socially very valuable, as would a new class of antibiotics. A prize can easily reward long-term social priorities such as these; a patent cannot.
But there is a danger of expecting too much from prizes. If we are to scrap patents entirely, prizes would be far too narrow a replacement. (Who would have sponsored a prize “for inventing the internet”? Not all innovations exist to solve precooked problems such as finding longitude.) If we use patents and prizes in parallel, however, there’s a self-selection problem: inventors with truly valuable ideas apply for patents, while those with dross apply for prizes. A new working paper from economic historian Zorina Khan points out that Royal Society of Arts prizes in the 19th century suffered from exactly such adverse selection. Khan also observes that many celebrated historical innovation prizes were actually mired in controversy, with prizes awarded for unoriginal or ineffective ideas, or denied to the deserving. It’s easy to point to a few success stories but there are plenty of those for patents and grants too.
For my money the patent system urgently needs reform, with patents that are harder to earn and easier to challenge. Innovation prizes definitely have their place, especially where markets for a socially valuable innovation may not exist. But we do a good idea no favours by overselling it. We should also probably stop going on about the Longitude Prize or at least we should admit what Nesta’s new prize website does not: that Harrison’s invention was rewarded with decades of suspicion and controversy. The Board of Longitude, the government body set up to administer the prize, questioned both the accuracy of his clocks and whether they could be replicated. Harrison did receive numerous payments for his efforts — but neither he nor anyone else ever won the Longitude Prize.

 

 

Q. Which of the following brings out the disadvantage of patents as compared with prizes?

Solution:

Solution: The passage says that innovation prizes are attractive than the existing system of grants and patents because grants rewards the established figures and are conservative whereas prizes are meritocratic.
This is reflected in option 1.
Option 2 gives the advantage of patents which is contradictory to the question stem.
Option 3 only gives the benefit of prizes and does not compare the two.
Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 105

Each of the questions consists of a paragraph in which the first sentence is fixed and the sentences following it are jumbled. Choose from among the options the most logical order of the sentences.

S1. The Mahabharata is an ocean, and in classical India the ocean was thought to be the source at once of gems and of sea-monsters.

 

P. It is a work that belongs to the global cultural commons, and it deserves as wide an audience as possible.
Q. No other work of the Indie narrative imagination is as capacious.
R. The reader is liable to discover in it treasures as well as horrors, both the strange and the eerily familiar.
S. What it lacks in poetic intensity, it makes up in its efforts to capture the original’s breadth within two covers, allowing a new audience a controlled glimpse of an inexhaustible source.

Solution:

Solution: The paragraph talks about one of the major epics of ancient India, the Mahabharata. The first sentence introduces the topic of the paragraph and calls the Mahabharata an ocean. Sentence Q with the adjective "capacious" relates to 'the Mahabharata is an ocean' in sentence S1. Hence, S1-Q form a pair. Sentence R gives a proper continuation to the pair as it describes the "capacious" term used in sentence Q explaining what this capacious work holds within for the reader. Sentences P and S form a pair as sentence P talks about the epic work deserving a wider audience and sentence S elaborates as to why it need it needs such recognition. Hence, the correct sequence is QRPS.
Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 106

Each of the questions consists of a paragraph in which the first sentence is fixed and the sentences following it are jumbled. Choose from among the options the most logical order of the sentences.

S1.1 frowned but before I could say a word Ron took the problem out of his pocket.

 

P. I had to be firm, therefore, I refused to help him.
Q. It looked innocent enough, small thing it was, curled up in the palm of his hand.
R. Small problems, especially Ron’s, had a tendency to become big problems and take over your life.
S. It looked so harmless and for a second I hesitated but I knew it wouldn’t stay like that.

Solution:

Solution: The first sentence of the paragraph talks about Ron removing the problem out of his pocket. The rest of the sentences describe the speaker's take on Ron's problem. Sentence Q describes the appearance of the problem at first glance. It is followed by sentence S which continues the description and also expresses the speaker's conviction that the problem would not remain the way it was. Sentences R and P form a pair as one indicates why the speaker was being so hard on Ron's problem (because it would become bigger), while the other gives his final decision. Hence, the sequence is S1.QSRP.
Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 107

Choose the correct meaning of the idiom given below.

To cut corners   

Solution:

Solution: One of the meanings of the idiom “To cut corners” is 'to take shortcuts”. The other options are unrelated.
Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 108

Choose the correct meaning of the idiom given below.

To wait for the other shoe to drop

Solution:

Solution: The idiom “to drop the other shoe” means 'to anticipate something negative happening as a result of or related to a previous negative event'. Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 109

A base word has been used in the options given below. Choose the option in which the usage of the word is incorrect or inappropriate.

Hold  

Solution:

Solution: In option 1, “hold back” is incorrectly used. The correct idiom to be used here is “hold off” meaning 'to delay doing something'. “Get hold off means 'to communicate with, as by telephone'. This sentence is correct. “Holding forth” means 'to talk at great length'. This usage is correct. “Holding back” means 'to refrain from revealing'. The usage is appropriate.
Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 110

A base word has been used in the options given below. Choose the option in which the usage of the word is incorrect or inappropriate.

Throw  

Solution:

Solution: In option 4, “threw away” has been wrongly used. The correct idiom to be used here is “threw in” meaning 'to insert into the course of something'. “Throw out” means 'to emit' and 'to disregard'. Therefore, options 1 and 2 are appropriate. “Throw open” means 'to make accessible'. Option 3 is appropriate. Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 111

Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate pair of words from the given options.

After a bloody referendum in 1999, East Timor finally got its independence, but it remains ______________ and corrupt, largely because of some ___________ process.

Solution:

Solution: The sentence represents a contradiction as it begins by saying that East Timor got independence and then goes on to say that it suffers from corruption. Hence, a similar word with a negative connotation is required in the first blank. “Productive” has a positive connotation attached to it and is eliminated. “Unethical” does not fit in the sentence logically and is eliminated. Only “unfortunate” and “impoverished” make for an apt fit.
Now for the second blank, we need a word which gives the cause of the plight of East Timor after independence. Among “damaging” and “catastrophic”, only “damaging” fits as “catastrophic” is extreme given the tone of the sentence.
Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 112

Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate pair of words from the given options.

_______ native speakers are concerned, no language, dialect, or accent can meaningfully be _________ as primitive, broken, or inferior. 

Solution:

Solution: “Where” in the above sentence indicates a point in the discussion about native speakers; “when”, “how” and “wherever” would be inappropriate here. The word “meaningfully” calls for the word that exhibits need for further explanation and “describe” fits well here.
Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 113

What is the meaning of the French word?

Chauffeur

Solution:

“Chauffeur” means 'a driver'.
Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 114

What is the meaning of the French word?

Potpourri

Solution:

Solution: “Potpourri” means 'a mixture'. The other words have no relation to the given word.Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 115

Fill in the blank with the appropriate preposition.
If governments are _____ continue with the opening up of markets there will be winners and there will be losers.

Solution:

Solution: The action described in the conditional tense will happen later; so the preposition to be used is “to”.
Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 116

Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate word

When gas reserves are in short supply, finding affordable fuel can be an _______ mission.

Solution:

Solution: “Elusive” means 'difficult to achieve' and fits the blank aptly. “Illusive” meaning 'deceptive', “exclusive” meaning 'excluding other things' and “intrusive” meaning 'causing disruption' do not fit in the sentence.
Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 117

Choose the option closest in meaning to the word 'Ruffle'

Solution:

Solution: “Ruffle” means 'to destroy the smoothness or evenness of somehting'. “Rumple” means 'giving a ruffled appearance to' and is a synonym of the given word. “Motley” means 'variegated appearance'. “Placid” means 'calm and peaceful'. “Detangle” means 'to untangle something that is tangled'.Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 118

Fill in the blanks with the words that best fit the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

The ________ of antibiotics is a potentially__________health hazard as many diseases are transferred from animals to humans.

Solution:

Solution: Since the sentence has a negative connotation attached to it, the words in the blank should reflect the same. Option 4 is ruled out as “diminishing” health hazard gives an optimistic meaning to the sentence. Option 2 could have been considered had the word "detriment" been in its adjective form.
The words in option 3 make the sentence incoherent; there is no explanation for why antibiotics are a burden.
According to the sentence, the potential health hazard being referred to is the excessive use of antibiotics. The words in option 1 fit this scenario perfectly.
Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 119

Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate pair of words from the given options.

The _______ goes on for the parents of the four-year-old as doctors remain as to how he died.

Solution:

Solution: The sentence has a negative tone, and therefore both words should possess a negative connotation. As the doctors would be unable to explain the cause of death of the child, the appropriate word to describe them would be “baffled” meaning 'confused'. The tragic incident would cause the parents to be mentally tortured and only “agony” describes this suffering.
The words in the other options would make the sentence logically incoherent.
Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 120

Identify the oxymoron

Solution:

Solution: Oxymoron is the figure of speech which has a combination of words that have opposite or very different meanings. “Bland” means 'insipid or mild-tasting'. Therefore, “bland spice” is an oxymoron.
Frozen water is ice. 'Melting' is opposite in meaning to 'freezing'. Hence, “melted ice” is an oxymoron.
Evil is “morally wrong” and “pure” means 'free from moral taint'. Hence, “pure evil” is an oxymoron.
Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 121

Identify the oxymoron

Solution:

Solution: “Insult” is a rude expression intended to offend someone and “polite” is showing behavior that is considerate of others. None of the other options exhibit this self-contradictory effect that is characteristic of an oxymoron. Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 122

Fill in the blank with the appropriate option.

I decided to accept the job offer. However,_____

Solution:

Solution: “However” is used to introduce a statement that contrasts with or seems to contradict something that has been said previously.
Options 1 and 2 make the sentence logically incoherent- being satisfied with the job profile or finding the job suitable are not contradictory to the opening fragment of the sentence. Option 4 does not deal directly with the job offer; it talks about the narrator's unhappiness with life in general and is not very relevant.
Only option 3 qualifies as a suitable contrasting fragment with respect to the sentence.
Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 123

From the following pair of words, identify the pair that shares the same  relationship as the given pair.
Ennui : Vigor ::

Solution:

Solution: “Ennui” is a noun which means 'boredom'. “Vigor” means 'energetic' and is an antonym of “ennui”. “Ardent” means 'passionate' and “avid” means 'showing great interest' and is a synonym of “ardent”. “Pathetic” means 'arousing pity' and “feeble” means 'physically or mentally weak'. “Affluent” means 'wealthy' and “effluent” means 'discharged sewage'. “Stoical” means 'impassive; characterized by a calm, austere fortitude'. “Responsive” means 'responding readily and sympathetically to appeals, efforts, influences etc'.
Hence, only option 1 reflects the relationship presented by the given pair. Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 124

Give the antonyms of the word from the given options:  'Misogynist'

Solution:

Solution: A “misogynist” is 'a is a person who hates or doesn't trust women'. “Misogamist” and “misanthrope” are the synonyms of “misogynist”.A “nihilist” is 'a person who believes in anarchy'.A “misandrist” is 'a person who is prejudiced against men'.Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

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