IIFT Mock Test - 5 (New Pattern)


110 Questions MCQ Test IIFT Mock Test Series | IIFT Mock Test - 5 (New Pattern)


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This mock test of IIFT Mock Test - 5 (New Pattern) for CAT helps you for every CAT entrance exam. This contains 110 Multiple Choice Questions for CAT IIFT Mock Test - 5 (New Pattern) (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this IIFT Mock Test - 5 (New Pattern) quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. CAT students definitely take this IIFT Mock Test - 5 (New Pattern) exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other IIFT Mock Test - 5 (New Pattern) extra questions, long questions & short questions for CAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

Suppose there are 4 bags. Bag 1 contains 1 black and a2 - 6a + 9 red balls, bag 2 contains 3 black and a2 - 6a + 7 red balls, bag 3 contains 5 black and a2 - 6a + 5 red balls and bag 4 contains 7 black and a2 - 6a + 3 red balls. A ball is drawn at random from a randomly chosen bag. The maximum value of probability that the selected ball is black, is

Solution:

QUESTION: 2

In the given figure, ABC is an equilateral triangle. If the area of bigger circle is 1386 cm2, then what is the area (in cm2) of smaller circle?

Solution:

Area of bigger circle = πr2 = 1386 cm2
× r2 = 1386 ⇒ r = 21 cm ⇒ GF = 2r = 42 cm
Since the bigger circle is incircle of △ABC,
GF = AF ⇒ AF = 63 cm
AG = AF – GF = 63 – 42 = 21 cm
Now in △ADE, the smaller circle is incircle
Radius of smaller circle =AG = 7 cm
Area of smaller circle =× 7 × 7 = 154 cm2

QUESTION: 3

If x+ 3x - 10 is a factor of 3x+ 2x- ax+ bx - a + b - 4, then the closest approximate values of a and b are

Solution:

x2 + 3x - 10is factor of 3x4 + 2x3 – ax2 + bx – a + b – 4 = 0
Find the value of a & b x2+3x – 10 = 0 = x2 + 5x – 2x – 10 = 0
x(x + 5) – 2(x + 5) = 0
(x-2) (x+5) = 0
x =2, - 5
Substituting: x = 2 in
3x4 + 2x3 – ax2 + bx – a + b – 4 = 0
3(2)4 +2(2)3 –a(2)3 +b(2) – a + b – 4 = 0
48 + 16 – 4a + 2b – a + b = 4
- 5a + 3b = - 60
Substituting: x = - 5
3(-5)4 +2(-5)3 –a(-5)2 +b(-5)2 –a+b -4 = 0
1875-250-25a-5b-a+b-4=0
-26a – 4b = - 1621 _____(2)
-5a + 3b = - 60 _____ (1)
Solving equation 1 and 2
a = 52, b = 67
Hence answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 4

A tennis ball is initially dropped from a height of 180 m. After striking the ground, it rebounds (3/5)th of the height from which it has fallen. The total distance that the ball travels before it comes to rest is

Solution:

(As after Ist term each term will be repeated)

QUESTION: 5

If decreasing 70 by X percent yields the same result as increasing 60 by X percent, then X percent of 50 is

Solution:

QUESTION: 6

A mother along with her two sons is entrusted with the task of cooking Biryani for a family get-together. It takes 30 minutes for all three of them cooking together to complete 50 percent of the task. The cooking can also be  completed if the two sons start cooking together and the elder son leaves after 1 hour and the younger son cooks for further 3 hours. If the mother needs 1 hour less than the elder son to complete the cooking, how much cooking does the mother complete in an hour?

Solution:

In the first case they finish half the work in 30 min. or they will finish the work in one hour. 

►So they work one hour each in the first case. In the second case, they work the elder for 1 hour and the younger for 4 hours.

►Equating the two cases implies whatever younger son does in three hours the mother does in one hour.

►The time taken by younger son is thrice the time taken by the mother. Now if mother takes M hours, younger son will take 3M hour and the elder son will take M+1 hours, as given in the question.

►Now they are finishing the work in one hour implies the following equation.

►Solving this equation, we get M = 2. So mother takes 2 hours, elder son takes 3 and younger son takes 6 hours. 
Thus in one hour mother does 50% of work.

QUESTION: 7

Two alloys of aluminium have different percentages of aluminium in them. The first one weighs 8 kg and the second one weighs 16 kg. One piece each of equal weight was cut off from both the alloys and first piece was alloyed with the second alloy and the second piece alloyed with the first one. As a result, the percentage of aluminium became the same in the resulting two new alloys. What was the weight of each cut-off piece?

Solution:

Let "x" % of aluminium is there in first alloy. And "y"  of aluminium is there in second alloy. And z is the weight of each cut off piece.
As per the Question:- Percentage of New two alloys are equal after two alloys are mixed i.e.

Taking 1/100 common
16x - 2zx + 2yz = 16y + xz - yz
16x - 16y - 3zx + 3yz = 0
16(x - y) -3z(x - y)0, (x - y)(16 - 3z)=0
Hence either x - y = 0 or 16 - 3z id 0 but c - y ≠ 0 because they are different as given in the question.
Hence 16 - 3z = 0, 3z = 16, z = 5.33kg

QUESTION: 8

Three years ago, your close friend had won a lottery of Rs. 1 crore. He purchased a flat for Rs. 40 lakhs, a car for Rs. 20 lakhs and shares worth Rs. 10 lakhs. He put the remaining money in a bank deposit that pays compound interest @ 12 percent per annum. If today, he sells off the flat, the car and the shares at certain percentage of their original value and withdraws his entire money from the bank, the total gain in his assets is 5%. The closest approximate percentage of the original value at which he sold off the three items is

Solution:

►Money spent on flat = 40 lakhs.

►Money spent on car = 20 lakh

►Money spent on shares = 10 lakh

►Total money = 1 crore = 100 lakh

►Money deposited in Bank = 100 - 40 - 20 - 10 = 100 - 70 = 30 lakh

►Final amount in Bank after 3 years = 30 x (1.12)3 = 42.14 lakh

►Net worth after 3 years = 105 lakh

►∴ Worth of Flat + Car + Shares after 3 years = 105 - 42.14 = 62.85

►So closest worth of three items = 

QUESTION: 9

The average of 7 consecutive numbers is P. If the next three numbers are also added, the average shall

Solution:

Average of 7 consecutive numbers will be  number.

Average of 10 number will be midpoint of 10/2 i.e. 5th and (10/2) + 1 i.e. 6th numbers i.e.
So average increases by 1.5.

QUESTION: 10

Capacity of tap Y is 60% more than that of X. If both the taps are opened simultaneously, they take 40 hours to fill the tank. The time taken by Y alone to fill the tank is

Solution:

Let the work done by x is 5 unit/hr and by y = 8 unit/hr.

►So in one hour they will do 13 unit/hr.

►Since the work is done in 40 hours = The total capacity of tank = 40 × 13 = 520 litre

►∴ so Y alone will take 520/8 = 65 hours.

QUESTION: 11

DIRECTION for the question: The question has four answer choices numbered (1), (2), (3) and (4). Select the best of the answer choices given.

If one of the roots of a quadratic equation is  115 / 11 + √6, then the quadratic equation must be ___

(i) x2 + 22x + 115 = 0
(ii) 2x2 + 44x + 115 = 0
(iii) x2 - 22x - 115 = 0
(iv) x2 - 22x + 115 = 0

Solution:

►One root is x = 115/(11 + √6) Rationalizing we get x = 11 - √6.

►The other root will be 11 + √6. Sum of roots = 22. Product of roots = 115.

►So the equation will be x2 - 22x + 115 = 0.

QUESTION: 12

The hands of a clock coincide after every 66 minutes of correct time. How much the clock gains or loses in 24 hours?

Solution:

When the hands of clock will meet again, the minute hand will cover 360° more than hour hand.

It will happen after  minutes.

Since hands of the clock are coinciding after 66 minutes so the clock is losing 6/11 minutes in 66 minutes.

So in 24 hour it will lose

QUESTION: 13

Ghosh Babu deposited a certain sum of money in a bank in 1986. The bank calculated interest on the principal at 10 percent simple interest, and credited it to the account once a year. After the 1st year, Ghosh Babu withdrew the entire interest and 20% of the initial amount. After the 2nd year, he withdrew the interest and 50% of the remaining amount. After the 3rd year, he withdrew the interest and 50% of the remaining amount. Finally after the 4th year, Ghosh Babu closed the account and collected the entire balance of Rs. 11,000. The total interest, in rupees, collected by Ghosh Babu was:

Solution:

As seen from the above table, the total interest collected by Ghosh Babu is Rs.24 on Rs.100.

Hence on Rs.50000, it would be Rs.12000.

QUESTION: 14

2 friends X and Y both start their employment on the 1st Jan 1950. X starts off with an initial salary of Rs. 300 per month and with an annual increment of Rs. 30 per month. Y starts of with an initial salary of Rs. 200 per month but with six monthly increments of Rs. 15. All salaries are given on the last day of the calendar month. What is the total salary drawn by X and Y till the 31st of Dec 1959?

Solution:

The given data can help us form two sequences, they are as : FOR X : The first term = 300 × 12 = 3600 (salary received in the first year)Thereafter, he receives an increment of Rs. 30, i.e. an annual increment of Rs. 360.

►Thus the common difference = Rs. 360.

►Summing the values for 10 year period, and using the formula : , we get the total income of X as Rs. 52200.

►FOR Y: The first term = 200 × 6 = 1200 (salary received in the first six months) Thereafter, he receives an increment of Rs. 15, i.e. a six monthly increments of Rs. 90.

►Thus the common difference = Rs. 90. Summing the values for 20 terms (10 years, each period of 6 months).

►Using the same formula, we get the total income of Y as Rs. 41100.

►Summing both the values we get = Rs. 93,300.

QUESTION: 15

A person on tour has Rs. 360 for his daily expenses. He decides to extend his tour programme by 4 days which leads to cutting down daily expenses by Rs. 3 a day. The number of days of his tour programme is

Solution:

On checking the options we find that if the tour is for 20 days then the daily expenses will be Rs 18. to extend the tour by 4 days would make the tour for 24 days and the daily expense will become Rs 15 , so the total bill will be Rs 24 × 15= Rs 360 which same as before. Hence option 2 is the answer.

QUESTION: 16

In a trapezium, when the mid-points of the diagonals are joined, the line so formed is 5 cm long. Further, if the length of one of the parallel sides of the trapezium is 25 cm, then find the length of the other parallel side.

Solution:

As shown in the figure, the ΔOFE and ΔOAB are similar.
Thus, OF : OA = 5 : 25 = 1 : 5
⇒ OF : AF = 1 : 4
Since, F is the mid-point, therefore AF : FC = 1 : 1 and OF : OC = 1 : 3
Now ΔOFE is similar to ΔOCD
Thus, FE : CD = OF : OC = 1 : 3.
Hence, CD = 3 x 5 = 15 = length of the other parallel side of trapezium.

QUESTION: 17

In triangle ABC, ∠B is a right angle, AC = 6 cm, and D is the mid-point of AC. The length of BD is

Solution:


►In a right-angled triangle, the length median to the hypotenuse is half the length of the hypotenuse.

►Hence, BD = 1/2 AC = 3cm. This relationship can be verified by knowing that the diameter of a circle subtends a right angle at the circumference. e.g. in the adjacent figure D is the centre of the circle with AC as diameter.

►Hence; ∠ABC should be 90°, so BD should be the median to the hypotenuse.

►Thus, we can see that BD = AD = CD = Radius of the circle.

►Hence, BD = 1/2 diameter = 1/2 AC = 1/2 hypotenuse

QUESTION: 18

The population of a town is 155625. For every 1000 males there are 1075 females. If 40% of the males and 24% of the females are literate, find the percentage of literacy in the town.

Solution:

Ratio of males/females = 1000/1075 = 40/43,

►Males = 75000 & Females = 80625.

►Literate males = 40% of 75000 = 30000.

►Literate females = 24% of 80625 = 19350.

►So literacy % = [(19350 + 30000) / 155625] × 100 = 31.7 %.

QUESTION: 19

Sugar at Rs. 30 per kg is mixed with sugar at Rs. 40 per kg in the ratio 2:3. The price of new mixture per kg is

Solution:

Let us assume he mixed 2kgs of sugar worth Rs 30 per kg with 3kgs of sugar worth Rs 40 per kg.

►So total cost = (2*30) + (3*40) = 180 Rs for 5 kg

►So price of new mixture per kg = 180/5 = 36 Rs

QUESTION: 20

If a, b and c are distinct positive numbers not equal to 1 and if (logca)(logba) + (logab)(logcb) + (logbc)(logac) = 3, then the value of abc is

Solution:

Given (logca)(logba) + (logab)(logcb) + (logbc)(logac) = 3

Or, (loga)3 + (logb)3 + (logc)3 = 3(loga)(logb)(logc)
Or, log a + log b + log c = 0
(We know that a3 + b+ c3 = 3abc when a + b + c = 0)
Thus, log abc = 0 or, abc = 1

QUESTION: 21

A, B, and C started a business with capitals of Rs. 8000, Rs. 10000 and Rs. 12000 respectively. At the end of the year, the profit share of B is Rs. 1500. The difference between the profit shares of A and C is?

Solution:

The ratio of the capitals invested by A, B and C is 4: 5: 6.

►This will also be the ratio of their profits. Now it is given that the share of B in the profits is Rs 1500.

►So the profits of A and C are Rs 1200 and Rs 1800 respectivelty.

►Hence the required differenece is Rs 600.

QUESTION: 22

A hare pursued by hound is 30 m before the hound at starting. Whilist the hare takes 4 leaps the hound takes 3. In one leap the hare goes 1(1/2)m and the hoound 2(1/2)m. How far will the hare have gone when the hound will catch the hare?

Solution:

Distance covered by hare = 4 x 3/2 = 6 and Hound = 3 x 5/2 = 7.5

►Relative speed of hound wrt Hare = 7.5 - 3 = 1.5.

►Since distance between them initially was 30 m which is to be covered at 1.5 m, so it will take 30/1.5 = 20 unit time, in which Hound can cover 20 x 7.5 = 150 m.

►So Hare must have gone 120 m more in that time.

QUESTION: 23

The odds against a certain event P are 7 : 4 and the odds in favour of another independent event Q are 8 : 7. The probability that at least one of the events will happen is:

Solution:

►The probability of P occurring = 4 / (7 + 4) = 4/11
Odds in favour of Q = 8 : 7

►Probability of Q occurring = 8 / (8 + 7) = 8/15

►Therefore, the probability that at least one of the events will happen

= 1 – (7/11 × 7/15)
= 1 –  49/165
= 116/165

QUESTION: 24

What is the product of the first n terms of the series 31/3 x 91/9 x 271/27 x ... ?

Solution:

QUESTION: 25

A sum of money is accumulating at compound interest at a certain rate of interest. If simple interest instead of compound were reckoned, the interest for the first two years would be diminished by Rs. 20 and that for the first three years, by Rs. 61. What is the sum?

Solution:

Let the principal be P and rate of interest be r %. Then, principal
(i) when difference between C.I. and S.I is for 2 years is given by
P = 20 × (100/r)2 …. (1)

(ii) When difference between CI & SI in for 3 yrs in given by
P = 61 × (10)6/ r2 (300 + r) …. (2)

From  (1) and (2) we have
20 × (100/r)2 = 61×(10)6/ r2 (300 + r)

⇒ r = 305 - 300 = 5 %
From (1), P = 20 × 10425
= Rs.8000

QUESTION: 26

DIRECTIONS for the question : Read the passage and answer the question based on it. 
Although the legal systems of England and the United States are superficially similar, they differ profoundly in their approaches to and uses of legal reasons: substantive reasons are more common than formal reasons in the United States, whereas in England the reverse is true. This distinction reflects a difference in the visions of law that prevails in the two countries. In England, the law has traditionally been viewed as a system of rules; the United States favours a vision of law as an outward expression of community's sense of right and justice.
Substantive reasons, as applied to law, are based on moral, economic, political and other considerations. These reasons are found both "in the law" and "outside the law" so to speak. Substantive reasons inform the content of a large part of the law: constitutions, statutes, contracts, verdicts, and the like. Consider, for example, a statute providing that "no vehicles shall be taken into public parks." Suppose that no specific rationales or purposes were explicitly written into the statute, but that it was clear (from its legislative history) that the substantive purpose of the statute was to ensure quiet and safety in the park. Now suppose that a veterans' group mounts a World War II jeep (in running order but without a battery) as a war memorial on a concrete slab in the park, and charges are brought against its members. Most judges in the United States would find the defendants not guilty because what they did had no adverse effect on park's quiet and safety.
Formal reasons are different in that they frequently prevent substantive reasons from coming into play, even when substantive reasons are explicitly incorporated into the law at hand. For example, when a document fails to comply with stipulated requirements, the court may render the document legally ineffective. A Will requiring written witness may be declared null and void and, therefore, unenforceable for the formal reason that the requirement was not observed. Once the legal rule - that a Will is invalid for lack of proper witnessing - has been clearly established, and the legality of the rule is not in question, application of that rule precludes from consideration substantive arguments in favour of the Will's validity or enforcement.
Legal scholars in England and the United States have long bemused themselves with extreme examples of formal and substantive reasoning. On the one hand, formal reasoning in England has led to wooden interpretations of statutes and an unwillingness to develop the common law through judicial activism. On the other hand, freewheeling substantive reasoning in the United States has resulted in statutory interpretations so liberal that the texts of some statutes have been ignored.

Q. Which one of the following best describes the content of the passage as a whole?

Solution:

The given passage talks about the legal systems of the United Stated and England and how different they are in their use of legal reasons. Therefore, option (c) is the correct answer. The passage doesn''t talk of any similarities and differences between the legal systems of England and the United States, except that in their use of legal reasons. Hence, option (a) is incorrect. Option (b) is incorrect since the author uses examples not to re-evaluate the legal systems but to explain the use of substantive and formal reasons in their respective legal systems. Option (d) is incorrect as the passage doesn''t talk of the development of legal reasoning in general but only as limited to England and the United States.

QUESTION: 27

DIRECTIONS for the question : Read the passage and answer the question based on it. 
Although the legal systems of England and the United States are superficially similar, they differ profoundly in their approaches to and uses of legal reasons: substantive reasons are more common than formal reasons in the United States, whereas in England the reverse is true. This distinction reflects a difference in the visions of law that prevails in the two countries. In England, the law has traditionally been viewed as a system of rules; the United States favours a vision of law as an outward expression of community's sense of right and justice.
Substantive reasons, as applied to law, are based on moral, economic, political and other considerations. These reasons are found both "in the law" and "outside the law" so to speak. Substantive reasons inform the content of a large part of the law: constitutions, statutes, contracts, verdicts, and the like. Consider, for example, a statute providing that "no vehicles shall be taken into public parks." Suppose that no specific rationales or purposes were explicitly written into the statute, but that it was clear (from its legislative history) that the substantive purpose of the statute was to ensure quiet and safety in the park. Now suppose that a veterans' group mounts a World War II jeep (in running order but without a battery) as a war memorial on a concrete slab in the park, and charges are brought against its members. Most judges in the United States would find the defendants not guilty because what they did had no adverse effect on park's quiet and safety.
Formal reasons are different in that they frequently prevent substantive reasons from coming into play, even when substantive reasons are explicitly incorporated into the law at hand. For example, when a document fails to comply with stipulated requirements, the court may render the document legally ineffective. A Will requiring written witness may be declared null and void and, therefore, unenforceable for the formal reason that the requirement was not observed. Once the legal rule - that a Will is invalid for lack of proper witnessing - has been clearly established, and the legality of the rule is not in question, application of that rule precludes from consideration substantive arguments in favour of the Will's validity or enforcement.
Legal scholars in England and the United States have long bemused themselves with extreme examples of formal and substantive reasoning. On the one hand, formal reasoning in England has led to wooden interpretations of statutes and an unwillingness to develop the common law through judicial activism. On the other hand, freewheeling substantive reasoning in the United States has resulted in statutory interpretations so liberal that the texts of some statutes have been ignored.

Q. It can be inferred from the passage that English judges would like to find the veterans' group discussed in the second paragraph guilty of violating the statute because

Solution:

In the first paragraph of the passage, the author tells us that formal reasons are more common in England than substantive reasons. Then the author goes on to describe what he means by formal reasons and as an example, says in the third paragraph that according to the laws that are followed in England, if a document fails to conform to the rules that have been specified, then the court has a right to make the document legally ineffective. So, it can be clearly inferred that the English judges would find the Veteran''s group guilty because they have clearly violated the "stipulated requirements", which stated that no vehicles should be taken into public parks. Hence, option (d) is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 28

DIRECTIONS for the question : Read the passage and answer the question based on it. 
Although the legal systems of England and the United States are superficially similar, they differ profoundly in their approaches to and uses of legal reasons: substantive reasons are more common than formal reasons in the United States, whereas in England the reverse is true. This distinction reflects a difference in the visions of law that prevails in the two countries. In England, the law has traditionally been viewed as a system of rules; the United States favours a vision of law as an outward expression of community's sense of right and justice.
Substantive reasons, as applied to law, are based on moral, economic, political and other considerations. These reasons are found both "in the law" and "outside the law" so to speak. Substantive reasons inform the content of a large part of the law: constitutions, statutes, contracts, verdicts, and the like. Consider, for example, a statute providing that "no vehicles shall be taken into public parks." Suppose that no specific rationales or purposes were explicitly written into the statute, but that it was clear (from its legislative history) that the substantive purpose of the statute was to ensure quiet and safety in the park. Now suppose that a veterans' group mounts a World War II jeep (in running order but without a battery) as a war memorial on a concrete slab in the park, and charges are brought against its members. Most judges in the United States would find the defendants not guilty because what they did had no adverse effect on park's quiet and safety.
Formal reasons are different in that they frequently prevent substantive reasons from coming into play, even when substantive reasons are explicitly incorporated into the law at hand. For example, when a document fails to comply with stipulated requirements, the court may render the document legally ineffective. A Will requiring written witness may be declared null and void and, therefore, unenforceable for the formal reason that the requirement was not observed. Once the legal rule - that a Will is invalid for lack of proper witnessing - has been clearly established, and the legality of the rule is not in question, application of that rule precludes from consideration substantive arguments in favour of the Will's validity or enforcement.
Legal scholars in England and the United States have long bemused themselves with extreme examples of formal and substantive reasoning. On the one hand, formal reasoning in England has led to wooden interpretations of statutes and an unwillingness to develop the common law through judicial activism. On the other hand, freewheeling substantive reasoning in the United States has resulted in statutory interpretations so liberal that the texts of some statutes have been ignored.

Q. From the discussion of Wills in the third paragraph it can be inferred that substantive arguments as to the validity of a Will might be considered under which one of the following circumstances?

Solution:

All of the first three options are circumstances under which the substantive arguments will not be considered as none of the options give valid reasons for the Will to be considered enforceable. Only option (d) is a circumstance when the Will may be considered valid without a written witness, since it is a case of a Judge allowing for a verbal witness during a medical emergency.

QUESTION: 29

DIRECTIONS for the question : Read the passage and answer the question based on it. 
Although the legal systems of England and the United States are superficially similar, they differ profoundly in their approaches to and uses of legal reasons: substantive reasons are more common than formal reasons in the United States, whereas in England the reverse is true. This distinction reflects a difference in the visions of law that prevails in the two countries. In England, the law has traditionally been viewed as a system of rules; the United States favours a vision of law as an outward expression of community's sense of right and justice.
Substantive reasons, as applied to law, are based on moral, economic, political and other considerations. These reasons are found both "in the law" and "outside the law" so to speak. Substantive reasons inform the content of a large part of the law: constitutions, statutes, contracts, verdicts, and the like. Consider, for example, a statute providing that "no vehicles shall be taken into public parks." Suppose that no specific rationales or purposes were explicitly written into the statute, but that it was clear (from its legislative history) that the substantive purpose of the statute was to ensure quiet and safety in the park. Now suppose that a veterans' group mounts a World War II jeep (in running order but without a battery) as a war memorial on a concrete slab in the park, and charges are brought against its members. Most judges in the United States would find the defendants not guilty because what they did had no adverse effect on park's quiet and safety.
Formal reasons are different in that they frequently prevent substantive reasons from coming into play, even when substantive reasons are explicitly incorporated into the law at hand. For example, when a document fails to comply with stipulated requirements, the court may render the document legally ineffective. A Will requiring written witness may be declared null and void and, therefore, unenforceable for the formal reason that the requirement was not observed. Once the legal rule - that a Will is invalid for lack of proper witnessing - has been clearly established, and the legality of the rule is not in question, application of that rule precludes from consideration substantive arguments in favour of the Will's validity or enforcement.
Legal scholars in England and the United States have long bemused themselves with extreme examples of formal and substantive reasoning. On the one hand, formal reasoning in England has led to wooden interpretations of statutes and an unwillingness to develop the common law through judicial activism. On the other hand, freewheeling substantive reasoning in the United States has resulted in statutory interpretations so liberal that the texts of some statutes have been ignored.

Q. Which one of the following best describes the function of the last paragraph of the passage?

Solution:

The last paragraph of the passage describes what has happened as a result of following the extreme forms of legal reasoning (substantive reasons and formal reasons) in England and the United States. Therefore, option (a) is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 30

DIRECTIONS for the question : Read the passage and answer the question based on it. 
Much remained a mystery about Bernie Madoff s crime, even after he pleaded guilty in March 2009. But one thing, it seemed, that everybody knew was true was this: his wife and sons were guilty too. From the first weeks after his arrest, unidentified "former prosecutors" and "criminal lawyers who have followed the case" and "legal sources" were repeatedly quoted in various media outlets asserting that Ruth, Mark, and Andrew Madoff were under investigation and would soon be indicted. Glossy magazine articles would speculate carefully; garish Internet blogs would accuse recklessly; television commentators would wink and nod knowingly. All that fierce, smug certainty about their guilt-unsupported by any cited facts-effectively drove Madoff s immediate family into exile.
In an era of hypermedia, with mobile phone paparazzi and self-defined Internet commentators constantly on the alert for ways to attract attention, it is worth noting that these attacks on the Madoff family were a sharp departure from the typical public reaction to cases of white-collar crime, going back more than a century.
Of course, such criminals-confidence men, embezzlers, crooked politicians, fraudsters of all kinds-were attacked savagely by the press and the public when their crimes came to light. But their wives and children were almost never included in those attacks; rather they were almost always ignored or, at the very least, quickly left alone. There were a few exceptions where criminal charges were actually filed against a close relative, who was then pulled to the whipping post of public attention. In general, however, even the wives and children of executed murderers were left to rebuild their lives in relative obscurity, unless they sought the spotlight themselves.
The treatment over the years of organized-crime defendants is instructive. Despite widespread fascination with the murderous escapades of so-called "Mafia dons" and crime-family "capos", it was extremely rare for any attention to fall on the elderly Mrs. Mafia Don or the capos' children-even though a realist might have wondered how much they knew about why their husband or father had asked all his closest buddies to wear guns and sleep on mattresses in the garage. On rare occasions, a mobster's relatives actively courted publicity. But those who didn't were routinely ignored by the media and certainly were never publicly and repeatedly accused of complicity in their husbands' or fathers' crimes.
Yet the public outcry against Ruth Madoff and her sons began almost from the instant of Madoffs arrest and did not cease. By the time he pleaded guilty, it was deafening.
From the beginning, however, there were facts in the Madotf case that just didn't seem to be consistent with the family's guilt. First, there was the fact that none of them fled the country. Perhaps Bernie Madoff, seventy years old at the time of his confession, felt too old and tired to leave as a wealthy fugitive; and perhaps Ruth, even if she were guilty and faced arrest and a lifelong imprisonment, would not leave without him. But his two sons, if they were guilty, had the opportunity, the means, and the motive to flee. The end was clearly in sight weeks in advance, there was still a princely sum in the bank, and they and their families were relatively young and portable. Surely, Madoff, before turning himself in, would have handed his sons the keys to the company jet and enough cash to let them live comfortably beyond the reach of the law for the rest of their lives. After all, if they were his accomplices, their only other option would have been to stay and go to prison. And yet Madoff did not flee- and neither did his wife or sons.
Then, there was his confession. Some hostile theorists immediately argued that Madoff and his guilty sons staged his confession so they could turn him in and thereby deflect suspicion from themselves. But this would have been a worthless gesture unless they all could have been absolutely sure that no incriminating evidence would surface later and none of their other low-levelaccomplices would finger the sons in a bid for leniency-assumptions that were not remotely realistic if the sons were actually guilty. Moreover, if Madoff truly believed anyone could be insulated from suspicion simply by turning himself in, wouldn't he have arranged for that to be Ruth?
Logic aside, assumptions about the family's guilt began to run up against the fact that, as the Madoff investigation progressed, the predicted arrests of his wife and sons simply did not happen.

Q. According to the author, why did the wife and sons of Madoff not flee the country?

Solution:

The family had every means to flee the country, so option B is rejected. Option c is rejected as it was the assumption made by some hostile theorist. Option A is rejected as it has nothing to do with his family staying or leaving the country.

QUESTION: 31

DIRECTIONS for the question : Read the passage and answer the question based on it. 
Much remained a mystery about Bernie Madoff s crime, even after he pleaded guilty in March 2009. But one thing, it seemed, that everybody knew was true was this: his wife and sons were guilty too. From the first weeks after his arrest, unidentified "former prosecutors" and "criminal lawyers who have followed the case" and "legal sources" were repeatedly quoted in various media outlets asserting that Ruth, Mark, and Andrew Madoff were under investigation and would soon be indicted. Glossy magazine articles would speculate carefully; garish Internet blogs would accuse recklessly; television commentators would wink and nod knowingly. All that fierce, smug certainty about their guilt-unsupported by any cited facts-effectively drove Madoff s immediate family into exile.
In an era of hypermedia, with mobile phone paparazzi and self-defined Internet commentators constantly on the alert for ways to attract attention, it is worth noting that these attacks on the Madoff family were a sharp departure from the typical public reaction to cases of white-collar crime, going back more than a century.
Of course, such criminals-confidence men, embezzlers, crooked politicians, fraudsters of all kinds-were attacked savagely by the press and the public when their crimes came to light. But their wives and children were almost never included in those attacks; rather they were almost always ignored or, at the very least, quickly left alone. There were a few exceptions where criminal charges were actually filed against a close relative, who was then pulled to the whipping post of public attention. In general, however, even the wives and children of executed murderers were left to rebuild their lives in relative obscurity, unless they sought the spotlight themselves.
The treatment over the years of organized-crime defendants is instructive. Despite widespread fascination with the murderous escapades of so-called "Mafia dons" and crime-family "capos", it was extremely rare for any attention to fall on the elderly Mrs. Mafia Don or the capos' children-even though a realist might have wondered how much they knew about why their husband or father had asked all his closest buddies to wear guns and sleep on mattresses in the garage. On rare occasions, a mobster's relatives actively courted publicity. But those who didn't were routinely ignored by the media and certainly were never publicly and repeatedly accused of complicity in their husbands' or fathers' crimes.
Yet the public outcry against Ruth Madoff and her sons began almost from the instant of Madoffs arrest and did not cease. By the time he pleaded guilty, it was deafening.
From the beginning, however, there were facts in the Madotf case that just didn't seem to be consistent with the family's guilt. First, there was the fact that none of them fled the country. Perhaps Bernie Madoff, seventy years old at the time of his confession, felt too old and tired to leave as a wealthy fugitive; and perhaps Ruth, even if she were guilty and faced arrest and a lifelong imprisonment, would not leave without him. But his two sons, if they were guilty, had the opportunity, the means, and the motive to flee. The end was clearly in sight weeks in advance, there was still a princely sum in the bank, and they and their families were relatively young and portable. Surely, Madoff, before turning himself in, would have handed his sons the keys to the company jet and enough cash to let them live comfortably beyond the reach of the law for the rest of their lives. After all, if they were his accomplices, their only other option would have been to stay and go to prison. And yet Madoff did not flee- and neither did his wife or sons.
Then, there was his confession. Some hostile theorists immediately argued that Madoff and his guilty sons staged his confession so they could turn him in and thereby deflect suspicion from themselves. But this would have been a worthless gesture unless they all could have been absolutely sure that no incriminating evidence would surface later and none of their other low-levelaccomplices would finger the sons in a bid for leniency-assumptions that were not remotely realistic if the sons were actually guilty. Moreover, if Madoff truly believed anyone could be insulated from suspicion simply by turning himself in, wouldn't he have arranged for that to be Ruth?
Logic aside, assumptions about the family's guilt began to run up against the fact that, as the Madoff investigation progressed, the predicted arrests of his wife and sons simply did not happen.

Q. How did the family of Bernie Madoff react to media frenzy declaring them guilty?

Solution:

No mention of option A, in the passage, so rejected.
They did not approach the media to confess their crime, so option C is also rejected.
They even didn’t sue the media, so option B is also rejected.
So the answer will be none

QUESTION: 32

DIRECTIONS for the question : Read the passage and answer the question based on it. 
Much remained a mystery about Bernie Madoff s crime, even after he pleaded guilty in March 2009. But one thing, it seemed, that everybody knew was true was this: his wife and sons were guilty too. From the first weeks after his arrest, unidentified "former prosecutors" and "criminal lawyers who have followed the case" and "legal sources" were repeatedly quoted in various media outlets asserting that Ruth, Mark, and Andrew Madoff were under investigation and would soon be indicted. Glossy magazine articles would speculate carefully; garish Internet blogs would accuse recklessly; television commentators would wink and nod knowingly. All that fierce, smug certainty about their guilt-unsupported by any cited facts-effectively drove Madoff s immediate family into exile.
In an era of hypermedia, with mobile phone paparazzi and self-defined Internet commentators constantly on the alert for ways to attract attention, it is worth noting that these attacks on the Madoff family were a sharp departure from the typical public reaction to cases of white-collar crime, going back more than a century.
Of course, such criminals-confidence men, embezzlers, crooked politicians, fraudsters of all kinds-were attacked savagely by the press and the public when their crimes came to light. But their wives and children were almost never included in those attacks; rather they were almost always ignored or, at the very least, quickly left alone. There were a few exceptions where criminal charges were actually filed against a close relative, who was then pulled to the whipping post of public attention. In general, however, even the wives and children of executed murderers were left to rebuild their lives in relative obscurity, unless they sought the spotlight themselves.
The treatment over the years of organized-crime defendants is instructive. Despite widespread fascination with the murderous escapades of so-called "Mafia dons" and crime-family "capos", it was extremely rare for any attention to fall on the elderly Mrs. Mafia Don or the capos' children-even though a realist might have wondered how much they knew about why their husband or father had asked all his closest buddies to wear guns and sleep on mattresses in the garage. On rare occasions, a mobster's relatives actively courted publicity. But those who didn't were routinely ignored by the media and certainly were never publicly and repeatedly accused of complicity in their husbands' or fathers' crimes.
Yet the public outcry against Ruth Madoff and her sons began almost from the instant of Madoffs arrest and did not cease. By the time he pleaded guilty, it was deafening.
From the beginning, however, there were facts in the Madotf case that just didn't seem to be consistent with the family's guilt. First, there was the fact that none of them fled the country. Perhaps Bernie Madoff, seventy years old at the time of his confession, felt too old and tired to leave as a wealthy fugitive; and perhaps Ruth, even if she were guilty and faced arrest and a lifelong imprisonment, would not leave without him. But his two sons, if they were guilty, had the opportunity, the means, and the motive to flee. The end was clearly in sight weeks in advance, there was still a princely sum in the bank, and they and their families were relatively young and portable. Surely, Madoff, before turning himself in, would have handed his sons the keys to the company jet and enough cash to let them live comfortably beyond the reach of the law for the rest of their lives. After all, if they were his accomplices, their only other option would have been to stay and go to prison. And yet Madoff did not flee- and neither did his wife or sons.
Then, there was his confession. Some hostile theorists immediately argued that Madoff and his guilty sons staged his confession so they could turn him in and thereby deflect suspicion from themselves. But this would have been a worthless gesture unless they all could have been absolutely sure that no incriminating evidence would surface later and none of their other low-levelaccomplices would finger the sons in a bid for leniency-assumptions that were not remotely realistic if the sons were actually guilty. Moreover, if Madoff truly believed anyone could be insulated from suspicion simply by turning himself in, wouldn't he have arranged for that to be Ruth?
Logic aside, assumptions about the family's guilt began to run up against the fact that, as the Madoff investigation progressed, the predicted arrests of his wife and sons simply did not happen.

Q. What is the point the author has highlighted in the given passage?

Solution:

As per the passage, Madoff’s case was sharp departure from the reality as his family was also criticized for their involvement in crime.
In fourth Para also, the author says that ‘the treatment, over the years of organized –crime defendants, is instructive …. , Even though the court did not find anything against the Madoff’s family, yet the media right from the start pointed fingers at Madoff’s family.

QUESTION: 33

DIRECTIONS for the question : Read the passage and answer the question based on it. 
Much remained a mystery about Bernie Madoff s crime, even after he pleaded guilty in March 2009. But one thing, it seemed, that everybody knew was true was this: his wife and sons were guilty too. From the first weeks after his arrest, unidentified "former prosecutors" and "criminal lawyers who have followed the case" and "legal sources" were repeatedly quoted in various media outlets asserting that Ruth, Mark, and Andrew Madoff were under investigation and would soon be indicted. Glossy magazine articles would speculate carefully; garish Internet blogs would accuse recklessly; television commentators would wink and nod knowingly. All that fierce, smug certainty about their guilt-unsupported by any cited facts-effectively drove Madoff s immediate family into exile.
In an era of hypermedia, with mobile phone paparazzi and self-defined Internet commentators constantly on the alert for ways to attract attention, it is worth noting that these attacks on the Madoff family were a sharp departure from the typical public reaction to cases of white-collar crime, going back more than a century.
Of course, such criminals-confidence men, embezzlers, crooked politicians, fraudsters of all kinds-were attacked savagely by the press and the public when their crimes came to light. But their wives and children were almost never included in those attacks; rather they were almost always ignored or, at the very least, quickly left alone. There were a few exceptions where criminal charges were actually filed against a close relative, who was then pulled to the whipping post of public attention. In general, however, even the wives and children of executed murderers were left to rebuild their lives in relative obscurity, unless they sought the spotlight themselves.
The treatment over the years of organized-crime defendants is instructive. Despite widespread fascination with the murderous escapades of so-called "Mafia dons" and crime-family "capos", it was extremely rare for any attention to fall on the elderly Mrs. Mafia Don or the capos' children-even though a realist might have wondered how much they knew about why their husband or father had asked all his closest buddies to wear guns and sleep on mattresses in the garage. On rare occasions, a mobster's relatives actively courted publicity. But those who didn't were routinely ignored by the media and certainly were never publicly and repeatedly accused of complicity in their husbands' or fathers' crimes.
Yet the public outcry against Ruth Madoff and her sons began almost from the instant of Madoffs arrest and did not cease. By the time he pleaded guilty, it was deafening.
From the beginning, however, there were facts in the Madotf case that just didn't seem to be consistent with the family's guilt. First, there was the fact that none of them fled the country. Perhaps Bernie Madoff, seventy years old at the time of his confession, felt too old and tired to leave as a wealthy fugitive; and perhaps Ruth, even if she were guilty and faced arrest and a lifelong imprisonment, would not leave without him. But his two sons, if they were guilty, had the opportunity, the means, and the motive to flee. The end was clearly in sight weeks in advance, there was still a princely sum in the bank, and they and their families were relatively young and portable. Surely, Madoff, before turning himself in, would have handed his sons the keys to the company jet and enough cash to let them live comfortably beyond the reach of the law for the rest of their lives. After all, if they were his accomplices, their only other option would have been to stay and go to prison. And yet Madoff did not flee- and neither did his wife or sons.
Then, there was his confession. Some hostile theorists immediately argued that Madoff and his guilty sons staged his confession so they could turn him in and thereby deflect suspicion from themselves. But this would have been a worthless gesture unless they all could have been absolutely sure that no incriminating evidence would surface later and none of their other low-levelaccomplices would finger the sons in a bid for leniency-assumptions that were not remotely realistic if the sons were actually guilty. Moreover, if Madoff truly believed anyone could be insulated from suspicion simply by turning himself in, wouldn't he have arranged for that to be Ruth?
Logic aside, assumptions about the family's guilt began to run up against the fact that, as the Madoff investigation progressed, the predicted arrests of his wife and sons simply did not happen.

Q. Which of the following sentences is incorrect?

Solution:

The lines ‘’from the beginning, however, there were facts in the Madoff’s case that just didn’t seem to be consistent with the family’s guilt. Thus, option 1 is the answer.

QUESTION: 34

DIRECTIONS for the question : Read the passage and answer the question based on it. 
To equate 'capitalism' with 'greed' is a mistake. We tend to confuse self-interest in the marketplace with selfishness or greed. At the heart of capitalism is the idea of exchange between ordinary, self-interested human beings, who seek to advance their interests peacefully in the marketplace. Adam Smith called this 'rational self-interest'. It is the same motive that gets one to jump out of bed in the morning or makes one carry an umbrella if it rains—nothing selfish about that. To be human is to be self-interested, and this is what exchange in the market place entails.
Greed or selfishness, on the other hand, is an excess of self interest and often transgresses on the rights of others. It is present in all of us, but we find it easier to see it in others and difficult to see it in ourselves. Greed can motivate theft, entail himsa—hurting another whose opposite, ahimsa, is a virtue that Mahatma Gandhi extolled. But the other side of greed is ambition, a positive thing, and when rightly directed, is life-affirming. Herein lies the conundrum of human existence: that the same inner forces that result in a vice can just as easily become virtues that can motivate the well-being of our species.
Those who believe that capitalism has been forced on us by the imperial West are also wrong. Friedrich Hayek, the Noble laureate, called the market a spontaneous order—it is natural for human beings to exchange goods and services, and this is how every society evolved money, laws, conventions and morals to guide behaviour in the marketplace. These are natural products of human endeavour. Competing and cooperating in the marketplace existed in India before the West was imperial or modern.
Whether we like it or not, India is headed in the direction of some sort of democratic capitalism. After two decades of reforms, hardly anyone in India wants state ownership of production, where the absence of competition corrodes the character even more, as we know too well from the dark days of the 'license raj'. Our animus against capitalism has diminished after communism's fall as people increasingly believe mat markets do deliver greater prosperity, but most think that capitalism is not a moral system. They continue to believe that morality must depend on religion.
Although the market is neither moral nor immoral, human self-interest usually brings about good behaviour in the marketplace. A seller who does not treat his customers with fairness and civility will lose market share A company that markets defective products will lose customers. A firm that does not promote the most deserving employees will lose talent to its competitors. A buyer who does not respect the market price will not survive. Lying and cheating will ruin a firm's image, making it untouchable to creditors and suppliers. Hence, free markets offer powerful incentives for ethical conduct, but they must be backed by state institutions that enforce contracts and punish criminal behaviour. If the market has an inbuilt morality, why are there so many crooks in the marketplace? The answer is that there are crooked people in every society, and this is why we need effective regulators, policemen and judges. We should design our institutions to catch crooks and not harass innocent people as we do so often.
The other cause of our grief is to mistake being 'pro-market' with being 'pro-business'. To be 'pro-market' is to believe in competitive markets which help to keep prices low and gradually raise the quality of products. Competition also means that some businesses will die because they are poorly managed and cannot compete. Kingfisher Airlines and Air India should be allowed to die and not be bailed out by the government. Thus, being pro-market leads to 'rules-based capitalism'; 'pro-business' often leads to 'crony capitalism'. Not to have explained this difference has been the great mistake of our reformers and this has led to the false impression that the reforms only make the rich richer. Crony capitalism exists in India today because of the lack of reforms in sectors such as mining and real estate. To get rid of crony capitalism we need more rather than less reform.
The doom-mongers, who claim that we are now resigned to live in an age of decaying moral standards, are also wrong. Yes, the new Indian middle class is permissive and indulges enthusiastically in harmless pleasures. Yes, it is materialistic, consumerist and capitalistic. But these impulses are not to be mistaken for greed. Only when one's pleasure hurts another does it become a matter of the law (and then, of course, it must be punished. The shared imagination of the new India with its harmless pleasure and victimless vice should not be condemned. Think of ours as a society in transition. Mass wealth is profoundly disturbing but once there is enough, India might again return to its old character of renunciation.
Instead of religious rules, young Indians are motivated by duties to fellow human beings rather than to gods. Those who accuse them of shallow materialism ignore the injustices that prevailed when religion held a monopoly on morality. They overlook real ethical progress with regard to sexual and caste equality that our secular society has begun to deliver. So, the next time Kejriwal makes an expose and the TV screams 'greed', do not fall into the trap of believing capitalist culture is morally sick or that we should return to a moral order rooted in socialism or religion.

Q. Which of the following statement correctly reflects the views of the author?

Solution:

For A refer to last few lines of first passage and also Adam smith calls it rational self interest.to be human is self interested , self interest is like carrying umbrella when it rains.these lines support the idea in B
For B Refer to passage 2 line 4 , it clearly written that  “greed entails ahimsa whose opposite is ahimsa” ..
Both A & C  are out of context.

QUESTION: 35

DIRECTIONS for the question : Read the passage and answer the question based on it. 
To equate 'capitalism' with 'greed' is a mistake. We tend to confuse self-interest in the marketplace with selfishness or greed. At the heart of capitalism is the idea of exchange between ordinary, self-interested human beings, who seek to advance their interests peacefully in the marketplace. Adam Smith called this 'rational self-interest'. It is the same motive that gets one to jump out of bed in the morning or makes one carry an umbrella if it rains—nothing selfish about that. To be human is to be self-interested, and this is what exchange in the market place entails.
Greed or selfishness, on the other hand, is an excess of self interest and often transgresses on the rights of others. It is present in all of us, but we find it easier to see it in others and difficult to see it in ourselves. Greed can motivate theft, entail himsa—hurting another whose opposite, ahimsa, is a virtue that Mahatma Gandhi extolled. But the other side of greed is ambition, a positive thing, and when rightly directed, is life-affirming. Herein lies the conundrum of human existence: that the same inner forces that result in a vice can just as easily become virtues that can motivate the well-being of our species.
Those who believe that capitalism has been forced on us by the imperial West are also wrong. Friedrich Hayek, the Noble laureate, called the market a spontaneous order—it is natural for human beings to exchange goods and services, and this is how every society evolved money, laws, conventions and morals to guide behaviour in the marketplace. These are natural products of human endeavour. Competing and cooperating in the marketplace existed in India before the West was imperial or modern.
Whether we like it or not, India is headed in the direction of some sort of democratic capitalism. After two decades of reforms, hardly anyone in India wants state ownership of production, where the absence of competition corrodes the character even more, as we know too well from the dark days of the 'license raj'. Our animus against capitalism has diminished after communism's fall as people increasingly believe mat markets do deliver greater prosperity, but most think that capitalism is not a moral system. They continue to believe that morality must depend on religion.
Although the market is neither moral nor immoral, human self-interest usually brings about good behaviour in the marketplace. A seller who does not treat his customers with fairness and civility will lose market share A company that markets defective products will lose customers. A firm that does not promote the most deserving employees will lose talent to its competitors. A buyer who does not respect the market price will not survive. Lying and cheating will ruin a firm's image, making it untouchable to creditors and suppliers. Hence, free markets offer powerful incentives for ethical conduct, but they must be backed by state institutions that enforce contracts and punish criminal behaviour. If the market has an inbuilt morality, why are there so many crooks in the marketplace? The answer is that there are crooked people in every society, and this is why we need effective regulators, policemen and judges. We should design our institutions to catch crooks and not harass innocent people as we do so often.
The other cause of our grief is to mistake being 'pro-market' with being 'pro-business'. To be 'pro-market' is to believe in competitive markets which help to keep prices low and gradually raise the quality of products. Competition also means that some businesses will die because they are poorly managed and cannot compete. Kingfisher Airlines and Air India should be allowed to die and not be bailed out by the government. Thus, being pro-market leads to 'rules-based capitalism'; 'pro-business' often leads to 'crony capitalism'. Not to have explained this difference has been the great mistake of our reformers and this has led to the false impression that the reforms only make the rich richer. Crony capitalism exists in India today because of the lack of reforms in sectors such as mining and real estate. To get rid of crony capitalism we need more rather than less reform.
The doom-mongers, who claim that we are now resigned to live in an age of decaying moral standards, are also wrong. Yes, the new Indian middle class is permissive and indulges enthusiastically in harmless pleasures. Yes, it is materialistic, consumerist and capitalistic. But these impulses are not to be mistaken for greed. Only when one's pleasure hurts another does it become a matter of the law (and then, of course, it must be punished. The shared imagination of the new India with its harmless pleasure and victimless vice should not be condemned. Think of ours as a society in transition. Mass wealth is profoundly disturbing but once there is enough, India might again return to its old character of renunciation.
Instead of religious rules, young Indians are motivated by duties to fellow human beings rather than to gods. Those who accuse them of shallow materialism ignore the injustices that prevailed when religion held a monopoly on morality. They overlook real ethical progress with regard to sexual and caste equality that our secular society has begun to deliver. So, the next time Kejriwal makes an expose and the TV screams 'greed', do not fall into the trap of believing capitalist culture is morally sick or that we should return to a moral order rooted in socialism or religion.

Q. Which of the following options most closely explains what the author wants to say, in the sentence beginning with: "Herein lies the conundrum of human existence:..."

Solution:

Refer to 3rd last line of second paragraph “here lies the conundrum” which means the mystery or enigma
That is why A is correct.

QUESTION: 36

DIRECTIONS for the question : Read the passage and answer the question based on it. 
To equate 'capitalism' with 'greed' is a mistake. We tend to confuse self-interest in the marketplace with selfishness or greed. At the heart of capitalism is the idea of exchange between ordinary, self-interested human beings, who seek to advance their interests peacefully in the marketplace. Adam Smith called this 'rational self-interest'. It is the same motive that gets one to jump out of bed in the morning or makes one carry an umbrella if it rains—nothing selfish about that. To be human is to be self-interested, and this is what exchange in the market place entails.
Greed or selfishness, on the other hand, is an excess of self interest and often transgresses on the rights of others. It is present in all of us, but we find it easier to see it in others and difficult to see it in ourselves. Greed can motivate theft, entail himsa—hurting another whose opposite, ahimsa, is a virtue that Mahatma Gandhi extolled. But the other side of greed is ambition, a positive thing, and when rightly directed, is life-affirming. Herein lies the conundrum of human existence: that the same inner forces that result in a vice can just as easily become virtues that can motivate the well-being of our species.
Those who believe that capitalism has been forced on us by the imperial West are also wrong. Friedrich Hayek, the Noble laureate, called the market a spontaneous order—it is natural for human beings to exchange goods and services, and this is how every society evolved money, laws, conventions and morals to guide behaviour in the marketplace. These are natural products of human endeavour. Competing and cooperating in the marketplace existed in India before the West was imperial or modern.
Whether we like it or not, India is headed in the direction of some sort of democratic capitalism. After two decades of reforms, hardly anyone in India wants state ownership of production, where the absence of competition corrodes the character even more, as we know too well from the dark days of the 'license raj'. Our animus against capitalism has diminished after communism's fall as people increasingly believe mat markets do deliver greater prosperity, but most think that capitalism is not a moral system. They continue to believe that morality must depend on religion.
Although the market is neither moral nor immoral, human self-interest usually brings about good behaviour in the marketplace. A seller who does not treat his customers with fairness and civility will lose market share A company that markets defective products will lose customers. A firm that does not promote the most deserving employees will lose talent to its competitors. A buyer who does not respect the market price will not survive. Lying and cheating will ruin a firm's image, making it untouchable to creditors and suppliers. Hence, free markets offer powerful incentives for ethical conduct, but they must be backed by state institutions that enforce contracts and punish criminal behaviour. If the market has an inbuilt morality, why are there so many crooks in the marketplace? The answer is that there are crooked people in every society, and this is why we need effective regulators, policemen and judges. We should design our institutions to catch crooks and not harass innocent people as we do so often.
The other cause of our grief is to mistake being 'pro-market' with being 'pro-business'. To be 'pro-market' is to believe in competitive markets which help to keep prices low and gradually raise the quality of products. Competition also means that some businesses will die because they are poorly managed and cannot compete. Kingfisher Airlines and Air India should be allowed to die and not be bailed out by the government. Thus, being pro-market leads to 'rules-based capitalism'; 'pro-business' often leads to 'crony capitalism'. Not to have explained this difference has been the great mistake of our reformers and this has led to the false impression that the reforms only make the rich richer. Crony capitalism exists in India today because of the lack of reforms in sectors such as mining and real estate. To get rid of crony capitalism we need more rather than less reform.
The doom-mongers, who claim that we are now resigned to live in an age of decaying moral standards, are also wrong. Yes, the new Indian middle class is permissive and indulges enthusiastically in harmless pleasures. Yes, it is materialistic, consumerist and capitalistic. But these impulses are not to be mistaken for greed. Only when one's pleasure hurts another does it become a matter of the law (and then, of course, it must be punished. The shared imagination of the new India with its harmless pleasure and victimless vice should not be condemned. Think of ours as a society in transition. Mass wealth is profoundly disturbing but once there is enough, India might again return to its old character of renunciation.
Instead of religious rules, young Indians are motivated by duties to fellow human beings rather than to gods. Those who accuse them of shallow materialism ignore the injustices that prevailed when religion held a monopoly on morality. They overlook real ethical progress with regard to sexual and caste equality that our secular society has begun to deliver. So, the next time Kejriwal makes an expose and the TV screams 'greed', do not fall into the trap of believing capitalist culture is morally sick or that we should return to a moral order rooted in socialism or religion.

Q. As wealth spreads in society, what is likely to happen according to the author?

Solution:

Refer to last two lines of second last paragraph “Mass wealth………………………….”
It is clearly given that mass wealth is distributing but once there is enough , India might return to old character of renunciation.

QUESTION: 37

DIRECTIONS for the question : Read the passage and answer the question based on it. 
To equate 'capitalism' with 'greed' is a mistake. We tend to confuse self-interest in the marketplace with selfishness or greed. At the heart of capitalism is the idea of exchange between ordinary, self-interested human beings, who seek to advance their interests peacefully in the marketplace. Adam Smith called this 'rational self-interest'. It is the same motive that gets one to jump out of bed in the morning or makes one carry an umbrella if it rains—nothing selfish about that. To be human is to be self-interested, and this is what exchange in the market place entails.
Greed or selfishness, on the other hand, is an excess of self interest and often transgresses on the rights of others. It is present in all of us, but we find it easier to see it in others and difficult to see it in ourselves. Greed can motivate theft, entail himsa—hurting another whose opposite, ahimsa, is a virtue that Mahatma Gandhi extolled. But the other side of greed is ambition, a positive thing, and when rightly directed, is life-affirming. Herein lies the conundrum of human existence: that the same inner forces that result in a vice can just as easily become virtues that can motivate the well-being of our species.
Those who believe that capitalism has been forced on us by the imperial West are also wrong. Friedrich Hayek, the Noble laureate, called the market a spontaneous order—it is natural for human beings to exchange goods and services, and this is how every society evolved money, laws, conventions and morals to guide behaviour in the marketplace. These are natural products of human endeavour. Competing and cooperating in the marketplace existed in India before the West was imperial or modern.
Whether we like it or not, India is headed in the direction of some sort of democratic capitalism. After two decades of reforms, hardly anyone in India wants state ownership of production, where the absence of competition corrodes the character even more, as we know too well from the dark days of the 'license raj'. Our animus against capitalism has diminished after communism's fall as people increasingly believe mat markets do deliver greater prosperity, but most think that capitalism is not a moral system. They continue to believe that morality must depend on religion.
Although the market is neither moral nor immoral, human self-interest usually brings about good behaviour in the marketplace. A seller who does not treat his customers with fairness and civility will lose market share A company that markets defective products will lose customers. A firm that does not promote the most deserving employees will lose talent to its competitors. A buyer who does not respect the market price will not survive. Lying and cheating will ruin a firm's image, making it untouchable to creditors and suppliers. Hence, free markets offer powerful incentives for ethical conduct, but they must be backed by state institutions that enforce contracts and punish criminal behaviour. If the market has an inbuilt morality, why are there so many crooks in the marketplace? The answer is that there are crooked people in every society, and this is why we need effective regulators, policemen and judges. We should design our institutions to catch crooks and not harass innocent people as we do so often.
The other cause of our grief is to mistake being 'pro-market' with being 'pro-business'. To be 'pro-market' is to believe in competitive markets which help to keep prices low and gradually raise the quality of products. Competition also means that some businesses will die because they are poorly managed and cannot compete. Kingfisher Airlines and Air India should be allowed to die and not be bailed out by the government. Thus, being pro-market leads to 'rules-based capitalism'; 'pro-business' often leads to 'crony capitalism'. Not to have explained this difference has been the great mistake of our reformers and this has led to the false impression that the reforms only make the rich richer. Crony capitalism exists in India today because of the lack of reforms in sectors such as mining and real estate. To get rid of crony capitalism we need more rather than less reform.
The doom-mongers, who claim that we are now resigned to live in an age of decaying moral standards, are also wrong. Yes, the new Indian middle class is permissive and indulges enthusiastically in harmless pleasures. Yes, it is materialistic, consumerist and capitalistic. But these impulses are not to be mistaken for greed. Only when one's pleasure hurts another does it become a matter of the law (and then, of course, it must be punished. The shared imagination of the new India with its harmless pleasure and victimless vice should not be condemned. Think of ours as a society in transition. Mass wealth is profoundly disturbing but once there is enough, India might again return to its old character of renunciation.
Instead of religious rules, young Indians are motivated by duties to fellow human beings rather than to gods. Those who accuse them of shallow materialism ignore the injustices that prevailed when religion held a monopoly on morality. They overlook real ethical progress with regard to sexual and caste equality that our secular society has begun to deliver. So, the next time Kejriwal makes an expose and the TV screams 'greed', do not fall into the trap of believing capitalist culture is morally sick or that we should return to a moral order rooted in socialism or religion.

Q. Which of the following statements does not reflect the views given in this passage?

Solution:

Last 3 lines of the 6th paragraph states that “crony Capitalism exists in India today because of the lack of reforms in sectors such as mining and real estate. To get rid of ………….”
Thus option 2 is the correct choice as it states the opposite idea of what has been expressed in the passage

QUESTION: 38

DIRECTIONS for the question : Read the passage and answer the question based on it. 
Many years ago, one mustard dominated the supermarket shelves: French's. It came in a plastic bottle. People used it on hot dogs and bologna. It was yellow mustard, made from ground white mustard seed with turmeric and vinegar, which gave it a mild, slightly metallic taste. If you looked hard in the grocery store, you might find something in the speciality-foods section called Grey Poupon, which was Dijon mustard, made from the more pungent brown mustard seed. In the early seventies, Grey Poupon was no more than a hundred-thousand-dollar-a-year business. Few people knew what it was or how it tasted, or had any particular desire for an alternative to French's or the runner-up, Gulden's. Then one day, the Heublein Company, which owned Grey Poupon, discovered something remarkable: if you gave people a mustard taste test, a significant number had only to try Grey Poupon once to switch from yellow mustard. In the food world that almost never happens; even among the most successful food brands, only about one in a hundred has that kind of conversion rate. Grey Poupon was magic.
So Heublein put Grey Poupon in a bigger glass jar, with an enamelled label and enough of a whiff of Frenchness to make it seem as if it were still being made in Europe (it was made in Hartford, Connecticut, from Canadian mustard seed and white wine). The company ran tasteful print ads in upscale food magazines. They put the mustard in little foil packets and distributed them with airplane meals - which was a brand-new idea at the time. Then they hired the Manhattan ad agency Lowe Marschalk to do something, on a modest budget, for television. The agency came back with an idea: A Rolls-Royce is driving down a country road. There's a man in the backseat in a suit with a plate of beef on a silver tray. He nods to the chauffeur, who opens the glove compartment. Then comes what is known in the business world as the reveal. The chauffeur hands back a jar of Grey Poupon. Another Rolls Royce pulls up alongside. A man leans his hand out of the window. "Pardon me. Would you have any Grey Poupon?"
In the cities where the ads ran, sales of Grey Poupon leaped 40 to 50 percent, and whenever Heublein bought airtime in new cities sales jumped 40 to 50 percent again. Grocery stores put Grey Poupon next to French's and Gulden's. By the end of the 1980's Grey Poupon was the most powerful brand in mustard. "The tagline in the commercial was that this was one of life's finer pleasures." Larry Elegant, who wrote the original Grey Poupon spot, says, "and that, along with the Rolls Royce, seemed to impart to people's minds that this was something truly different and superior."
The rise of Grey Poupon proved that the American supermarket shopper was willing to pay more - in this case $3.99 instead of $1.49 for eight ounces - as long as what they were buying carried with it an air of sophistication and complex aromatics. Its success showed, furthermore, that the boundaries of taste and custom were not fixed: that just because mustard had always been yellow didn't mean that customers would use only yellow mustard. It is because of Grey Poupon that the standard American supermarket today has an entire mustard section. And it is because of Grey Poupon that a man named Jim Wigon decided, four years ago, to enter the ketchup business. Isn't the ketchup business today exactly where mustard was thirty years ago? There is Heinz and, far behind, Hunt's and Del Monte and a handful of private label brands. Jim Wagon wanted to create the Grey Poupon of ketchup.
Wigon is/from Boston. He runs his ketchup business-under the brand World's Best Ketchup-out of the catering business of his partner, Nich Schiarizzi, in Norwood, Massachusetts. He starts with red peppers, Spanish onions, garlic, and a high-end tomato paste. Basil is chopped by hand, because the buffalo chopper bruises the leaves. He uses maple syrup, not corn syrup, which gives him a quarter of the sugar of Heinz. He pours his ketchup into a clear ten-ounce jar, and sells its for three times the price of Heinz, and for the past few years he has crisscrossed the country, peddling World's Best in six flavours- regular, sweet, dill, garlic, caramelized onion, and basil - to speciality grocery stores and supermarkets. If you were in Zabar's on Manhattan's Upper West Side a few months ago, you would have seen him at the front of the store, in the spot between the sushi and the gefilte fish. In front of him, on a small table, was a silver tureen filled with miniature chicken and beef meatballs, a box of toothpicks, and a dozen or so open jars of his ketchup. "Try my ketchup!" Wigon said, over and over, to anyone who passed. "If you don't try it, you're doomed to eat Heinz the rest of your life."
In the same aisle at Zabar's that day two other demonstrations were going on, so that people were starting at one end with free chicken sausage, sampling a slice of prosciutto, and then pausing at the World's Best stand before heading for the cash register. They would look down at the array of open jars, and Wigon would impale a meatball on a toothpick, dip it in one of his ketchups, and hand it to them with a flourish. The ratio of tomato solids to liquid in World's Best is much higher than in Heinz, and the maple syrup gives it an unmistakable sweet kick. Invariably, people would close their eyes, just for a moment, and do a subtle double take. Some of them would look slightly perplexed and walk away, and others would nod and pick up ajar. "You know why you like it so much?" he would say, in his broad Boston accent, to the customers who seemed most impressed. "Because you have been eating bad ketchup all your life!" Jim Wigon had a simple vision: build a better ketchup - the way Grey Poupon built a better mustard - and the world will beat a path to your door.

Q. Why has the author termed Grey Poupon as "magic"?

Solution:

From the last lines of the 1st paragraph it is clear that ‘Grey Poupon was magic’ because it could make several people switch over to using its product, which was almost impossible to achieve.

QUESTION: 39

DIRECTIONS for the question : Read the passage and answer the question based on it. 
Many years ago, one mustard dominated the supermarket shelves: French's. It came in a plastic bottle. People used it on hot dogs and bologna. It was yellow mustard, made from ground white mustard seed with turmeric and vinegar, which gave it a mild, slightly metallic taste. If you looked hard in the grocery store, you might find something in the speciality-foods section called Grey Poupon, which was Dijon mustard, made from the more pungent brown mustard seed. In the early seventies, Grey Poupon was no more than a hundred-thousand-dollar-a-year business. Few people knew what it was or how it tasted, or had any particular desire for an alternative to French's or the runner-up, Gulden's. Then one day, the Heublein Company, which owned Grey Poupon, discovered something remarkable: if you gave people a mustard taste test, a significant number had only to try Grey Poupon once to switch from yellow mustard. In the food world that almost never happens; even among the most successful food brands, only about one in a hundred has that kind of conversion rate. Grey Poupon was magic.
So Heublein put Grey Poupon in a bigger glass jar, with an enamelled label and enough of a whiff of Frenchness to make it seem as if it were still being made in Europe (it was made in Hartford, Connecticut, from Canadian mustard seed and white wine). The company ran tasteful print ads in upscale food magazines. They put the mustard in little foil packets and distributed them with airplane meals - which was a brand-new idea at the time. Then they hired the Manhattan ad agency Lowe Marschalk to do something, on a modest budget, for television. The agency came back with an idea: A Rolls-Royce is driving down a country road. There's a man in the backseat in a suit with a plate of beef on a silver tray. He nods to the chauffeur, who opens the glove compartment. Then comes what is known in the business world as the reveal. The chauffeur hands back a jar of Grey Poupon. Another Rolls Royce pulls up alongside. A man leans his hand out of the window. "Pardon me. Would you have any Grey Poupon?"
In the cities where the ads ran, sales of Grey Poupon leaped 40 to 50 percent, and whenever Heublein bought airtime in new cities sales jumped 40 to 50 percent again. Grocery stores put Grey Poupon next to French's and Gulden's. By the end of the 1980's Grey Poupon was the most powerful brand in mustard. "The tagline in the commercial was that this was one of life's finer pleasures." Larry Elegant, who wrote the original Grey Poupon spot, says, "and that, along with the Rolls Royce, seemed to impart to people's minds that this was something truly different and superior."
The rise of Grey Poupon proved that the American supermarket shopper was willing to pay more - in this case $3.99 instead of $1.49 for eight ounces - as long as what they were buying carried with it an air of sophistication and complex aromatics. Its success showed, furthermore, that the boundaries of taste and custom were not fixed: that just because mustard had always been yellow didn't mean that customers would use only yellow mustard. It is because of Grey Poupon that the standard American supermarket today has an entire mustard section. And it is because of Grey Poupon that a man named Jim Wigon decided, four years ago, to enter the ketchup business. Isn't the ketchup business today exactly where mustard was thirty years ago? There is Heinz and, far behind, Hunt's and Del Monte and a handful of private label brands. Jim Wagon wanted to create the Grey Poupon of ketchup.
Wigon is/from Boston. He runs his ketchup business-under the brand World's Best Ketchup-out of the catering business of his partner, Nich Schiarizzi, in Norwood, Massachusetts. He starts with red peppers, Spanish onions, garlic, and a high-end tomato paste. Basil is chopped by hand, because the buffalo chopper bruises the leaves. He uses maple syrup, not corn syrup, which gives him a quarter of the sugar of Heinz. He pours his ketchup into a clear ten-ounce jar, and sells its for three times the price of Heinz, and for the past few years he has crisscrossed the country, peddling World's Best in six flavours- regular, sweet, dill, garlic, caramelized onion, and basil - to speciality grocery stores and supermarkets. If you were in Zabar's on Manhattan's Upper West Side a few months ago, you would have seen him at the front of the store, in the spot between the sushi and the gefilte fish. In front of him, on a small table, was a silver tureen filled with miniature chicken and beef meatballs, a box of toothpicks, and a dozen or so open jars of his ketchup. "Try my ketchup!" Wigon said, over and over, to anyone who passed. "If you don't try it, you're doomed to eat Heinz the rest of your life."
In the same aisle at Zabar's that day two other demonstrations were going on, so that people were starting at one end with free chicken sausage, sampling a slice of prosciutto, and then pausing at the World's Best stand before heading for the cash register. They would look down at the array of open jars, and Wigon would impale a meatball on a toothpick, dip it in one of his ketchups, and hand it to them with a flourish. The ratio of tomato solids to liquid in World's Best is much higher than in Heinz, and the maple syrup gives it an unmistakable sweet kick. Invariably, people would close their eyes, just for a moment, and do a subtle double take. Some of them would look slightly perplexed and walk away, and others would nod and pick up ajar. "You know why you like it so much?" he would say, in his broad Boston accent, to the customers who seemed most impressed. "Because you have been eating bad ketchup all your life!" Jim Wigon had a simple vision: build a better ketchup - the way Grey Poupon built a better mustard - and the world will beat a path to your door.

Q. How many years did it take for Grey Poupon to grow from a hundred-thousand dollar a year brand to the most powerful brand in mustard?

Solution:

7th line of the 1st paragraph talks about the period of early 1970s when Grey Poupon was not popular. Then 4th line of the 3rd paragraph states that by end of 1980s it became a successful brand. So this span roughly comes out to be of 15- 20 years.

QUESTION: 40

DIRECTIONS for the question : Read the passage and answer the question based on it. 
Many years ago, one mustard dominated the supermarket shelves: French's. It came in a plastic bottle. People used it on hot dogs and bologna. It was yellow mustard, made from ground white mustard seed with turmeric and vinegar, which gave it a mild, slightly metallic taste. If you looked hard in the grocery store, you might find something in the speciality-foods section called Grey Poupon, which was Dijon mustard, made from the more pungent brown mustard seed. In the early seventies, Grey Poupon was no more than a hundred-thousand-dollar-a-year business. Few people knew what it was or how it tasted, or had any particular desire for an alternative to French's or the runner-up, Gulden's. Then one day, the Heublein Company, which owned Grey Poupon, discovered something remarkable: if you gave people a mustard taste test, a significant number had only to try Grey Poupon once to switch from yellow mustard. In the food world that almost never happens; even among the most successful food brands, only about one in a hundred has that kind of conversion rate. Grey Poupon was magic.
So Heublein put Grey Poupon in a bigger glass jar, with an enamelled label and enough of a whiff of Frenchness to make it seem as if it were still being made in Europe (it was made in Hartford, Connecticut, from Canadian mustard seed and white wine). The company ran tasteful print ads in upscale food magazines. They put the mustard in little foil packets and distributed them with airplane meals - which was a brand-new idea at the time. Then they hired the Manhattan ad agency Lowe Marschalk to do something, on a modest budget, for television. The agency came back with an idea: A Rolls-Royce is driving down a country road. There's a man in the backseat in a suit with a plate of beef on a silver tray. He nods to the chauffeur, who opens the glove compartment. Then comes what is known in the business world as the reveal. The chauffeur hands back a jar of Grey Poupon. Another Rolls Royce pulls up alongside. A man leans his hand out of the window. "Pardon me. Would you have any Grey Poupon?"
In the cities where the ads ran, sales of Grey Poupon leaped 40 to 50 percent, and whenever Heublein bought airtime in new cities sales jumped 40 to 50 percent again. Grocery stores put Grey Poupon next to French's and Gulden's. By the end of the 1980's Grey Poupon was the most powerful brand in mustard. "The tagline in the commercial was that this was one of life's finer pleasures." Larry Elegant, who wrote the original Grey Poupon spot, says, "and that, along with the Rolls Royce, seemed to impart to people's minds that this was something truly different and superior."
The rise of Grey Poupon proved that the American supermarket shopper was willing to pay more - in this case $3.99 instead of $1.49 for eight ounces - as long as what they were buying carried with it an air of sophistication and complex aromatics. Its success showed, furthermore, that the boundaries of taste and custom were not fixed: that just because mustard had always been yellow didn't mean that customers would use only yellow mustard. It is because of Grey Poupon that the standard American supermarket today has an entire mustard section. And it is because of Grey Poupon that a man named Jim Wigon decided, four years ago, to enter the ketchup business. Isn't the ketchup business today exactly where mustard was thirty years ago? There is Heinz and, far behind, Hunt's and Del Monte and a handful of private label brands. Jim Wagon wanted to create the Grey Poupon of ketchup.
Wigon is/from Boston. He runs his ketchup business-under the brand World's Best Ketchup-out of the catering business of his partner, Nich Schiarizzi, in Norwood, Massachusetts. He starts with red peppers, Spanish onions, garlic, and a high-end tomato paste. Basil is chopped by hand, because the buffalo chopper bruises the leaves. He uses maple syrup, not corn syrup, which gives him a quarter of the sugar of Heinz. He pours his ketchup into a clear ten-ounce jar, and sells its for three times the price of Heinz, and for the past few years he has crisscrossed the country, peddling World's Best in six flavours- regular, sweet, dill, garlic, caramelized onion, and basil - to speciality grocery stores and supermarkets. If you were in Zabar's on Manhattan's Upper West Side a few months ago, you would have seen him at the front of the store, in the spot between the sushi and the gefilte fish. In front of him, on a small table, was a silver tureen filled with miniature chicken and beef meatballs, a box of toothpicks, and a dozen or so open jars of his ketchup. "Try my ketchup!" Wigon said, over and over, to anyone who passed. "If you don't try it, you're doomed to eat Heinz the rest of your life."
In the same aisle at Zabar's that day two other demonstrations were going on, so that people were starting at one end with free chicken sausage, sampling a slice of prosciutto, and then pausing at the World's Best stand before heading for the cash register. They would look down at the array of open jars, and Wigon would impale a meatball on a toothpick, dip it in one of his ketchups, and hand it to them with a flourish. The ratio of tomato solids to liquid in World's Best is much higher than in Heinz, and the maple syrup gives it an unmistakable sweet kick. Invariably, people would close their eyes, just for a moment, and do a subtle double take. Some of them would look slightly perplexed and walk away, and others would nod and pick up ajar. "You know why you like it so much?" he would say, in his broad Boston accent, to the customers who seemed most impressed. "Because you have been eating bad ketchup all your life!" Jim Wigon had a simple vision: build a better ketchup - the way Grey Poupon built a better mustard - and the world will beat a path to your door.

Q. What kind of audience was Grey Poupon reaching out to through its ads? 

Solution:

There are a lot of hints in the paragraph that the ads focused on upscale customers. For instance 4th line 2nd paragraph states “ the company ran tasteful print ads in upscale food magazines”.

QUESTION: 41

DIRECTIONS for the question : Read the passage and answer the question based on it. 
Many years ago, one mustard dominated the supermarket shelves: French's. It came in a plastic bottle. People used it on hot dogs and bologna. It was yellow mustard, made from ground white mustard seed with turmeric and vinegar, which gave it a mild, slightly metallic taste. If you looked hard in the grocery store, you might find something in the speciality-foods section called Grey Poupon, which was Dijon mustard, made from the more pungent brown mustard seed. In the early seventies, Grey Poupon was no more than a hundred-thousand-dollar-a-year business. Few people knew what it was or how it tasted, or had any particular desire for an alternative to French's or the runner-up, Gulden's. Then one day, the Heublein Company, which owned Grey Poupon, discovered something remarkable: if you gave people a mustard taste test, a significant number had only to try Grey Poupon once to switch from yellow mustard. In the food world that almost never happens; even among the most successful food brands, only about one in a hundred has that kind of conversion rate. Grey Poupon was magic.
So Heublein put Grey Poupon in a bigger glass jar, with an enamelled label and enough of a whiff of Frenchness to make it seem as if it were still being made in Europe (it was made in Hartford, Connecticut, from Canadian mustard seed and white wine). The company ran tasteful print ads in upscale food magazines. They put the mustard in little foil packets and distributed them with airplane meals - which was a brand-new idea at the time. Then they hired the Manhattan ad agency Lowe Marschalk to do something, on a modest budget, for television. The agency came back with an idea: A Rolls-Royce is driving down a country road. There's a man in the backseat in a suit with a plate of beef on a silver tray. He nods to the chauffeur, who opens the glove compartment. Then comes what is known in the business world as the reveal. The chauffeur hands back a jar of Grey Poupon. Another Rolls Royce pulls up alongside. A man leans his hand out of the window. "Pardon me. Would you have any Grey Poupon?"
In the cities where the ads ran, sales of Grey Poupon leaped 40 to 50 percent, and whenever Heublein bought airtime in new cities sales jumped 40 to 50 percent again. Grocery stores put Grey Poupon next to French's and Gulden's. By the end of the 1980's Grey Poupon was the most powerful brand in mustard. "The tagline in the commercial was that this was one of life's finer pleasures." Larry Elegant, who wrote the original Grey Poupon spot, says, "and that, along with the Rolls Royce, seemed to impart to people's minds that this was something truly different and superior."
The rise of Grey Poupon proved that the American supermarket shopper was willing to pay more - in this case $3.99 instead of $1.49 for eight ounces - as long as what they were buying carried with it an air of sophistication and complex aromatics. Its success showed, furthermore, that the boundaries of taste and custom were not fixed: that just because mustard had always been yellow didn't mean that customers would use only yellow mustard. It is because of Grey Poupon that the standard American supermarket today has an entire mustard section. And it is because of Grey Poupon that a man named Jim Wigon decided, four years ago, to enter the ketchup business. Isn't the ketchup business today exactly where mustard was thirty years ago? There is Heinz and, far behind, Hunt's and Del Monte and a handful of private label brands. Jim Wagon wanted to create the Grey Poupon of ketchup.
Wigon is/from Boston. He runs his ketchup business-under the brand World's Best Ketchup-out of the catering business of his partner, Nich Schiarizzi, in Norwood, Massachusetts. He starts with red peppers, Spanish onions, garlic, and a high-end tomato paste. Basil is chopped by hand, because the buffalo chopper bruises the leaves. He uses maple syrup, not corn syrup, which gives him a quarter of the sugar of Heinz. He pours his ketchup into a clear ten-ounce jar, and sells its for three times the price of Heinz, and for the past few years he has crisscrossed the country, peddling World's Best in six flavours- regular, sweet, dill, garlic, caramelized onion, and basil - to speciality grocery stores and supermarkets. If you were in Zabar's on Manhattan's Upper West Side a few months ago, you would have seen him at the front of the store, in the spot between the sushi and the gefilte fish. In front of him, on a small table, was a silver tureen filled with miniature chicken and beef meatballs, a box of toothpicks, and a dozen or so open jars of his ketchup. "Try my ketchup!" Wigon said, over and over, to anyone who passed. "If you don't try it, you're doomed to eat Heinz the rest of your life."
In the same aisle at Zabar's that day two other demonstrations were going on, so that people were starting at one end with free chicken sausage, sampling a slice of prosciutto, and then pausing at the World's Best stand before heading for the cash register. They would look down at the array of open jars, and Wigon would impale a meatball on a toothpick, dip it in one of his ketchups, and hand it to them with a flourish. The ratio of tomato solids to liquid in World's Best is much higher than in Heinz, and the maple syrup gives it an unmistakable sweet kick. Invariably, people would close their eyes, just for a moment, and do a subtle double take. Some of them would look slightly perplexed and walk away, and others would nod and pick up ajar. "You know why you like it so much?" he would say, in his broad Boston accent, to the customers who seemed most impressed. "Because you have been eating bad ketchup all your life!" Jim Wigon had a simple vision: build a better ketchup - the way Grey Poupon built a better mustard - and the world will beat a path to your door.

Q. Which of the following statements is correct?

Solution:

The lines in the last paragraph clearly justifies the answer. “The ratio of tomato solids to liquid in world’s ………”.

QUESTION: 42

DIRECTIONS for the question: Match the words in column I with their appropriate meanings in column 2.

Solution:

Anthropomorphous means To resemble human form (c)
Anchronistic comes from an- chron , where chron means time , Therefore, it will mean occurring at a wrong time (d) Anthology; logy means study and antho means collection of extracts from the writings of various authors (b) Ascension means moving upwards (a)

QUESTION: 43

DIRECTIONS for the question: Create a word using all the given letters from the jumbled letters and identify its appropriate meaning:

Solution:

The word is luxuriant ,which means abundant.

QUESTION: 44

DIRECTIONS for the question: Identify the origin / source of the words given below.
Ballet

Solution:

It is a dancing style developed in France, many of the words that people use to talk about ballet also come from French.

QUESTION: 45

DIRECTIONS for the question: Choose the most logical order of sentences from among the given choices to construct a coherent paragraph.
(i) She was so innovative that she had begun to include the songs composed by Rabindranath Tagore in her repertoire even before the word "Rabindra Sangeet" was coined.
(ii) Gauhar knew she could gain the goodwill of the Bengali babus by singing as many Bengali songs as she could in her soirees.
(iii) Instead, she rendered them in her own style, giving them a classical twist.
(iv) Gauhar was not afraid to defy the norms and in fact she seldom used the tunes that Tagore had set his songs to.

Solution:

Statement (ii) is a general statement introducing the topic “singing Bengali songs’. Moreover it uses proper name.
Then Statement (i) is extension as it mentioned the kind of songs she sings. 
(iii) and (iv) are mandatory pair in which usage of “instead” tells (iii) will follow (iv)

QUESTION: 46

DIRECTIONS for the question: Find the fourth number/letter/word which has the same relationship with the third number/letter/word as the second has with the first.
Alleviate: Aggravate : : Elastic :________________

Solution:

Alleviate means “to reduce” whereas  aggravate means “to enhance” These are opposites and hence opposite of elastic  is rigid.

QUESTION: 47

DIRECTIONS for the question: Choose an option, which can be substituted for a given word/sentence/phrase out of given options.
Person who knows or can speak many languages

Solution:

A person who knows or can speak many languages is polyglot.
Plebiscite is “the direct vote of all the members of an electorate on an important public question”
Paramour  means “a lover, esp. the illicit partner of a married person”

QUESTION: 48

DIRECTIONS for the question: Identify the meaning of the given idiom/ phrase.
To have a jaundiced eye

Solution:

To have a jaundiced eye means to “to be prejudiced/biased”

QUESTION: 49

DIRECTIONS for the question: The question has four/five sentences. One of them is not acceptable in formal english as it is grammatically incorrect. Spot that sentence.
Which of the following statements is grammatically incorrect?

Solution:

As per the nearest subject rule, if two different subjects are joined with the conjunctions ‘neither-nor’, then the form of the verb depends on the second/ nearest subject.
Here the second subject is ‘Shikha’, which is singular, therefore singular helping verb ’is’ in place of plural helping verb ‘are’.

QUESTION: 50

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the following sentence/sentences and identify the figure of speech.
As busy as a bee is an example of:

Solution:

As busy as a bee is a simile because it is a comparison made using ''as''
bee is very hard working and that implies comparison.

QUESTION: 51

DIRECTIONS for the question: In each of the following question, out of the given group of wordings, choose one inappropriately spelled.

Solution:

Amelioration is spelled with only one ‘m’ Others are correct.

QUESTION: 52

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the question and mark the appropriate answer.

Solution:

benevolent is an adjective , speak is verb both conditions are satisfied in option d

QUESTION: 53

DIRECTIONS for the question: Choose the word from the options which is Opposite in meaning to the given word.

Capricious

Solution:

Capricious means fickle minded.

Crafty means smart or calculative.

Erratic means abnormal.

Consistent means dependable.

So the answer is consistent which means constant.

QUESTION: 54

DIRECTIONS for the question: The sentence below has four underlined words or phrases, marked A, B, C and D. Identify the underlined part that must be changed to make the sentence correct.

Being/ (A) a short holiday / (B) we had to return / (C) without visiting  many of the places / (D).

Solution:

The error is of 'dangling modifier' as 'being a short holiday' is modifying the pronoun 'we', which is wrong. The word 'It' should come before 'being' in part (a) of the sentence i.e a subject is required after 'being' and if no specific subject is mentioned than the impersonal pronoun 'it' can be used. Hence the error is in part 1.

QUESTION: 55

DIRECTIONS for the question: Pick the best option which completes the sentence in the most meaningful manner.
_____________ made after English settlers came to Jamestown was a map of Virginia by John Smith, the famous adventurer.

Solution:

The correct answer has to be a concise' subject' as it is missing from the sentence and it is to be supplied. Only option B is concise in the terms of formal english. Hence option B is concise and logically completes the sentence.

QUESTION: 56

DIRECTIONS for the question: In the question below, there are two sentences containing underlined homonyms, which may either be mis-spelt or inappropriately toed in the context of the sentence. Select the appropriate answer from the options given below:

I. A vote of censur was passed against the Chairman.
II. Before release, every film is passed by the Censor Board.

Solution:

There is no word as 'censur'. The correct word is 'censure', which means 'strong or vehement expression of disapproval'.
The word 'censor' has been correctly used in sentence 2 which means The Central Board of Film Certification (often referred to as the Censor Board).

QUESTION: 57

DIRECTIONS for the question: For the following sentence, choose the most appropriate "one word" for the given expressions

The art of cutting trees and bushes into ornamental shapes:

Solution:

The word 'bonsai' means the art or hobby of developing and growing such a plant or plants.The word 'horticulture' means the cultivation of flowers, fruits, vegetables, or ornamental plants. The word 'pruning' means to remove (anything considered superfluous or undesirable).

QUESTION: 58

DIRECTIONS for the question: Match the words in column I with their appropriate meanings in column 2.

Solution:

Predilection- tendency, propensity or preference. 
Evanescence- to disappear gradually 
Zephyr- a gentle, mild breeze
Diaphanous- clear
Fatuous- foolish 

QUESTION: 59

DIRECTIONS for the question: A partially completed paragraph is placed below, followed by fillers a, b, c. From options A, B, C and D, identify the right combination and order of fillers a, b or c that will best complete the paragraph.

In cultivating team spirit, one should not forget the importance of discipline. (________________) It is the duty of all the members of the team to observe discipline in its proper perspective.

a. A proper team spirit can seldom be based on discipline.
b. It is a well known fact that team spirit and discipline can never go hand in hand
c. Discipline in its right perspective would mean sacrificing self to some extent.

Solution:

Sentences (a) & (b) are going against the idea being conveyed in the sentence.
In this paragraph completion question, the main sentence is  about the positives of discipline.The next intermediate sentence needs to continue.'a' and 'b' mention the drawbacks of discipline and hence cannot be the intermediate sentences. the words like 'seldom' and 'never' contradicts the idea.Only statement 'c' satisfies that condition.Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 60

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the question and answer accordingly.

Which of the following cannot be termed as an 'oxymoron'?

Solution:

The word 'oxymoron' means a figure of speech in which apparently contradictory terms appear in conjunction (e.g. faith unfaithful kept him falsely true ).
So all others are oxymoron except C.

QUESTION: 61

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

Given below is information relating to cost of starting a business and number of days required for specific business activities in select countries. The data labels for the bars are placed above them, while the same for the line graph are placed in boxes. Legend for the bars is given in the order of left bar to right bar.

Q. Ratio of number of days required for export to import is the least for which country?

Solution:

For UK = No. of days for export to import = 13: 17 = 0.76

►UAE = 11: 14 = 0.78

►Chile = 23:25 = 0.92

►Georgia = 22:23 = 0.96

Thus, the least ratio for export to import is for UK.

QUESTION: 62

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

Given below is information relating to cost of starting a business and number of days required for specific business activities in select countries. The data labels for the bars are placed above them, while the same for the line graph are placed in boxes. Legend for the bars is given in the order of left bar to right bar.

Q. Identify the TRUE Statement

Solution:

By observing the information in the given graph, it can be checked that in Gerorgia, the no. of days required for exporting is lower than the number of days required for importing.Hence, option D.

QUESTION: 63

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.
Given below is information relating to cost of starting a business and number of days required for specific business activities in select countries. The data labels for the bars are placed above them, while the same for the line graph are placed in boxes. Legend for the bars is given in the order of left bar to right bar.

Q. Identify the FALSE Statement ;

Solution:

As we need to check the false statement in the question. Each statement should be checked one by one. In the first statement the number of days happens to be 15 for Chile and 16 for Tanzania. So this statement is true. Similarly second statement is also true. When we check the time for import in Georgia it is 23 days. The time for export in Niger is 25 days. The time in Georgia is less, whereas in the third statement that is given to be higher. Hence 3rd statement is False.

QUESTION: 64

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Study the following Graph & table given below and answer the question that follows.

Given below are the shares of India's export basket to different regions (figures in percentage).

Q. Between 2009-10 and 2010-11, the annual growth rate in India's (percentage) export share has been LOWEST for

Solution:


Thus, the lowest growth rate is for North Africa.

QUESTION: 65

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Study the following Graph & table given below and answer the question that follows.

Given below are the shares of India's export basket to different regions (figures in percentage).

Q. Mark the HIGHEST figure from the following options

Solution:


So, the highest figure for average export share is for Latin America.

QUESTION: 66

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Study the following Graph & table given below and answer the question that follows.

Given below are the shares of India's export basket to different regions (figures in percentage).

Q. Identify the FALSE statement

Solution:

Visually, it can be checked that options A, B, C are true while D is false. Thus, the correct answer is option D.

QUESTION: 67

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The following pie-chart shows the percentage number of candidates passed in XYZ examination from States A, B, C, D, E and F of a country in 2015. The bar-graph shows the percentage of fresh candidates who passed their XYZ examination in 2015 from the respective states.

Q. If in 2015, the total passed candidates from states A, B, C, D, E and F were 650, then percentage of non-fresher candidates from state A who passed the examination in 2015 is _______.

Solution:

Required Percentage = 100 % – Percentage of fresh candidates from State A = 80%

QUESTION: 68

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The following pie-chart shows the percentage number of candidates passed in XYZ examination from States A, B, C, D, E and F of a country in 2015. The bar-graph shows the percentage of fresh candidates who passed their XYZ examination in 2015 from the respective states.

Q. If in 2015, total number of freshers from state D was 160 then find the number of non-freshers candidates passed from state E.

Solution:

Number of freshers from state D = 25% of total candidates from state D who passed the examination
160 = 25% of 10% of Total candidates in 2015 from all states
Total candidates in 2015 from all states = 6400
Number of non-freshers candidates passed from state E = (100 – 12)% of 25% of 6400 = 1408

QUESTION: 69

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The following pie-chart shows the percentage number of candidates passed in XYZ examination from States A, B, C, D, E and F of a country in 2015. The bar-graph shows the percentage of fresh candidates who passed their XYZ examination in 2015 from the respective states.

Q. If total passed candidates from state B in 2015 were 112, what is the ratio between the number of freshers from state A and that of non-freshers from state C?

Solution:

Total candidates passed from state B in 2015 = 16% of Total candidates in 2015 from all states

Total candidates in 2015 from all states = 112/16 × 100 = 700

Required Ratio = (20% of 28% of 700) : (85% of 11% of 700) = 112:187

QUESTION: 70

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The following pie-chart shows the percentage number of candidates passed in XYZ examination from States A, B, C, D, E and F of a country in 2015. The bar-graph shows the percentage of fresh candidates who passed their XYZ examination in 2015 from the respective states.

Q. If there is an increase of 10% and 20% candidates from state A and state B in the year 2016 respectively, and the number of total passed candidates from state C in 2015 was 77, what would be the approximate total number of passed candidates from state A and state B in 2016?

Solution:

Total number of candidates passed from state C in 2015 = 11% of Total candidates in 2015 from all states
Total candidates in 2015 from all states = 77/11 × 100 = 700
Total candidates passed from state A in 2015 = 28% of 700 = 196
Total candidates passed from state B in 2015 = 16% of 700 = 112
Total number of passed candidates from state A and B in 2016
= 196 + 10% of 196 + 112 + 20% of 112 ≈ 216 + 134 = 350

QUESTION: 71

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.
P3,M8,______,G24,D35

Solution:

P3, M8, ________ G24,   D35
we can see that Number are increasing
3      8     ____     24      35
The space should contain 15 as difference is increasing
8-3 = 5
15-8 = 7
24-15 =9
35-24 = 11
On the other hand, Position of alphabets decrease by 3 i.e. M and P has the difference 3. Hence J 15 i.e. option D is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 72

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Twenty-one participants from four continents (Africa, America, Australia, and Europe)attended a United Nations conference. Each participant was an expert in one of four fields -labour, health, population studies and refugee relocation. The following five facts about the participants are given.

  • The number of labour experts in the camp was exactly half the number of experts in each of the three other categories.
  • Africa did not send any labour expert. Otherwise, every continent, including Africa, sent at least on expert for each category.
  • None of the continents sent more than three experts in any category.
  • If there had been one less Australia expert, then America would have had twice as many experts as each of the other continents.
  • Mike and Alfano are leading experts of population studies who attended the conference. They are from Australia.

Q. Which of the following cannot be determined from the information given?

Solution:

Total participants = 21. 3 categories have the same participant and Labour has half of the other 3 (Clue # 1).

►So if Labour is x, other 3 have 2x. Sum of all is 21. 7x → 21, So x = 3.

►From Clue #4, Australia has 1 more participant than Europe and Africa, and America had twice of Europe and Africa.

►Let Europe and Africa have y. Aus has y+1, and America 2y. Again, total is 21. So y = 4.

►Labor from Africa is 0.
Australia population is 2 or 2+ (as given in clue 5).

►Also, totally there are 5 australians, and all the other categories have minimum 1 (from clue 2).

►So population can have only 2 australians, and other 3 categories 1 each.

►Europe, has 1 in each section. (Total from Europe is 4, and all sections have atleast 1; clue 2).

►Labor has totally 3. We have 1 from Australia and Europe. So America has 1.

►We are not sure of the other sections, and hence, we can fill it like the diagram below.

►Clearly we cannot determine the refugee experts from Africa. So option 4.

QUESTION: 73

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

Twenty-one participants from four continents (Africa, America, Australia, and Europe)attended a United Nations conference. Each participant was an expert in one of four fields -labour, health, population studies and refugee relocation. The following five facts about the participants are given.

  • The number of labour experts in the camp was exactly half the number of experts in each of the three other categories.
  • Africa did not send any labour expert. Otherwise, every continent, including Africa, sent at least on expert for each category.
  • None of the continents sent more than three experts in any category.
  • If there had been one less Australia expert, then America would have had twice as many experts as each of the other continents.
  • Mike and Alfano are leading experts of population studies who attended the conference. They are from Australia.

Q. Which of the following combinations is not possible?

Solution:

Total participants = 21. 3 categories have the same participant and Labour has half of the other 3 (Clue # 1) .

►So if Labour is x, other 3 have 2x. Sum of all is 21. 7x → 21, So x = 3.

►From Clue #4, Australia has 1 more participant than Europe and Africa, and America had twice of Europe and Africa.

►Let Europe and Africa have y. Aus has y+1, and America 2y. Again, total is 21. So y = 4.

►Labor from Africa is 0.
Australia population is 2 or 2+ (as given in clue 5).

►Also, totally there are 5 australians, and all the other categories have minimum 1 (from clue 2).

►So population can have only 2 australians, and other 3 categories 1 each.

►Europe, has 1 in each section. (Total from Europe is 4, and all sections have atleast 1; clue 2).

►Labor has totally 3. We have 1 from Australia and Europe. So America has 1.

►We are not sure of the other sections, and hence, we can fill it like the diagram below.

►Clearly it is option 4 because in that case the condition of total population experts to be 6 is not met.

QUESTION: 74

DIRECTIONS for the question: Given an input line; the machine arranges the words and numbers in steps in a systematic manner as illustrated afterwards: Study the pattern and answer the question that follows.

Input - Diksha cannot but feel happy for him
Step I: but cannot Diksha happy feel him for
Step II: cannot but feel happy Diksha for him
Step III: but cannot happy feel him for Diksha
Step IV: happy cannot but him feel Diksha for and so on for subsequent steps.
You have to find out the logic and answer the questions given below.

If Step III reads "the best way of promoting our sports", then what will be the arrangement of the input?

Solution:

The pattern of the input is as shown below
Given Input – Diksha cannot ⇌ but  feel ⇌ happy for ⇌ him

►Step I – but ⇌ cannot Diksha happy ⇌ feel him ⇌ for.

►Step II – cannot ⇌ but feel ⇌ happy Diksha for ⇌ him.

►Step III – but cannot ⇌ happy feel ⇌ him ⇌ for Diksha

►Step IV – happy ⇌ cannot but ⇌ him feel ⇌ Diksha for

►Step V – cannot ⇌ happy feel ⇌ him but for ⇌ Diksha for

►Step VI - happy cannot ⇌ him feel ⇌ Diksha for ⇌ but.

►Step VII – him ⇌ cannot happy Diksha ⇌ feel but ⇌ for and soon.

Input: Sports best the of way our promoting

►Step I: the best sports way of promoting our

►Step II: best the of way sports our promoting

►Step III: the best way of promoting our sports.

QUESTION: 75

DIRECTIONS for the question: Given an input line; the machine arranges the words and numbers in steps in a systematic manner as illustrated afterwards : Study the pattern and answer the question that follows.

Input - Diksha cannot but feel happy for him
Step I: but cannot Diksha happy feel him for
Step II: cannot but feel happy Diksha for him
Step III: but cannot happy feel him for Diksha
Step IV: happy cannot but him feel Diksha for and so on for subsequent steps.
You have to find out the logic and answer the questions given below.

If the given input is "it is good approach with care", then what will be Step IV?

Solution:

The pattern of the input is as shown below
Given Input – Diksha cannot ⇌ but  feel ⇌ happy for ⇌ him

►Step I – but ⇌ cannot Diksha happy ⇌ feel him ⇌ for.

►Step II – cannot ⇌ but feel ⇌ happy Diksha for ⇌ him.

►Step III – but cannot ⇌ happy feel ⇌ him ⇌ for Diksha

►Step IV – happy ⇌ cannot but ⇌ him feel ⇌ Diksha for

►Step V – cannot ⇌ happy feel ⇌ him but for ⇌ Diksha for

►Step VI - happy cannot ⇌ him feel ⇌ Diksha for ⇌ but.

►Step VII – him ⇌ cannot happy Diksha ⇌ feel but ⇌ for and soon.

Input: it is a good approach with care.

►Step I: a is it approach good care with

►Step II: is a good approach it with care

►Step III: a is approach good care with it

►Step IV: approach is a care good it with.

QUESTION: 76

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The bar graph below shows the revenue generated by six banks during 2016. The pie chart shows the percentage distribution of revenue earned through different modes.

Interest earned through - Business Loans (P), Home Loans (Q), Personal Loans (R), Auto Loans (S), deposits in other financial institute (T), Charges for providing services (U) and Otters (V).

Q. The bank that earned Rs. 78 crore as interest from home loans in 2016 is _______

Solution:

The percentage of revenue earned from home loan is 16% and the amount collected is Rs 78 crore.

Hence 16% of the total revenue = 78 crore

⇒ Total revenue = 

This much revenue is earned by bank A.

QUESTION: 77

DIRECTIONS for the question:  Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.
The bar graph below shows the revenue generated by six banks during 2016. The pie chart shows the percentage distribution of revenue earned through different modes.
Interest earned through - Business Loans (P), Home Loans (Q), Personal Loans (R), Auto Loans (S), deposits in other financial institute (T), Charges for providing services (U) and Otters (V).

Q. Out of the total interest earned through business loans, bank A and C earn 45% from small scale industries (SSI) and the rest through cottage industries (CI) whereas B and D earn 55% from SSI and the rest through CI. Which bank earns the least through any of these industries?

Solution:

►Revenue earned by A from SSI = 480 × 0.2 × 0.45 = 43.2 crore

►Revenue earned by A from CI = 96 – 43.2 = Rs 52.8 crore

►Revenue earned by B from SSI = 570 × 0.2 × 0.55 = 62.7 crore

►Revenue earned by B from CI = 114 – 62.7 = 51.3 crore

►Revenue earned by C from SSI = 520 × 0.2 × 0.45 = 46.8 crore

►Revenue earned by C from CI = 104 – 46.8 = 57.2 crore

►Revenue earned by D from SSI = 650 × 0.2 × 0.55 = 71.5 crore

►Revenue earned by D from CI = 130 – 71.5 = 58.5 crore       
Hence the least amount is for A from SSI

QUESTION: 78

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The bar graph below shows the revenue generated by six banks during 2016. The pie chart shows the percentage distribution of revenue earned through different modes.

Interest earned through - Business Loans (P), Home Loans (Q), Personal Loans (R), Auto Loans (S), deposits in other financial institute (T), Charges for providing services (U) and Otters (V).

Q. The interests earned through car (a subset of Auto loan) loan by B, D, E and F are in the ratio 2 : 3 : 3 : 4 and the total interest earned by these four banks for car loan is Rs. 36 crore. The bank that earned interest which is 8.09% of the interest earned by it through Auto loans is ________.

Solution:

Total interest earned by the four banks from car loan is 36 crore and since the ratio of B, D, E and F is 2: 3: 3: 4, so B, C, D and F earned 6 crore, 9 crore, 9 crore and 12 crore respectively from the car loan.

The total auto loan of B = 0.13 × 570 = 74.1 crore

Hence the answer is B

QUESTION: 79

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The bar graph below shows the revenue generated by six banks during 2016. The pie chart shows the percentage distribution of revenue earned through different modes.

Interest earned through - Business Loans (P), Home Loans (Q), Personal Loans (R), Auto Loans (S), deposits in other financial institute (T), Charges for providing services (U) and Otters (V).

Q. Bank B and F earn interest by depositing their amounts in the financial institutes X, Y and Z. B earns interest from them in the ratio 2 : 3 : 1 and F in the ratio 4 : 3 : 3. By what percent F's earning from X is more/less than B's earning from X?

Solution:

B’s earning from X = 570 × .011 × 2/6 = 20.9

F’s earning from X = 610 × .11 × 4/10 = 26.84

QUESTION: 80

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The bar graph below shows the revenue generated by six banks during 2016. The pie chart shows the percentage distribution of revenue earned through different modes.

Interest earned through - Business Loans (P), Home Loans (Q), Personal Loans (R), Auto Loans (S), deposits in other financial institute (T), Charges for providing services (U) and Otters (V).

Q. By what percent is the largest amount earned by a bank through U and V together more than the least amount through U & V together by any of these banks?

Solution:

The largest amount earned is by bank E and the least amount earned is by bank A

The largest amount = 30% of 730 = 219 crore

The least amount = 30% of 480 = 144 crore

QUESTION: 81

DIRECTIONS for the question:  What should come in place of question mark (?) in the following number/alphabetic series?
656     432     320     264    236     (?)

Solution:


Hence the answer is option A

QUESTION: 82

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

A painter is given a task to paint a cubical box with 6 different colours for 6 different faces of the cube. The detailed account of it was given as:

(i) Red face should be between Yellow and Brown faces
(ii) The Green face should be adjacent to the Silver face.
(iii) Pink face should be adjacent to the Green face
(iv) Yellow face should be opposite to the Brown one
(v) Brown face should face down
(vi) Silver and Pink faces should be opposite to Brown one

The upper face is

Solution:

Since red is between yellow and brown, that implies yellow is opposite to brown , Since Brown is facing down so yellow must be at top.

QUESTION: 83

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

A painter is given a task to paint a cubical box with 6 different colours for 6 different faces of the cube. The detailed account of it was given as:

(i) Red face should be between Yellow and Brown faces
(ii) The Green face should be adjacent to the Silver face.
(iii) Pink face should be adjacent to the Green face
(iv) Yellow face should be opposite to the Brown one
(v) Brown face should face down
(vi) Silver and Pink faces should be opposite to Brown one

Three faces adjacent to Red face are

Solution:

Red is between yellow and brown, Also Pink is adjacent to Green and green lies between silver and pink, Also it is given that Green is opposite to red, Therefore the colous adjacent to red must be Brown, Silver and Pink i.e option  B.

QUESTION: 84

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The percentage profits of four leading airliners A, B, C and D for six years is shown in the line graph below.

Q. In 2011, company A invested Rs. 830 crore. Whereas C invested an amount which bears a ratio of 3 : 2 with that of A. The revenue generated by C in 2011 is _________

Solution:


Revenue of C = 1245 + 211.7 = 1456.7

QUESTION: 85

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The percentage profits of four leading airliners A, B, C and D for six years is shown in the line graph below.

Q. The total revenue generated by all the companies in 2014 is Rs. 3600 crore. The revenue of C is 30% of the total revenue. The revenue generated by A, B and D in the same year is 7/25, 2/5 and 8/25 respectively of the remaining revenue. The maximum investment in that year is made by ________

Solution:


Maximum investment is of A

QUESTION: 86

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The percentage profits of four leading airliners A, B, C and D for six years is shown in the line graph below.

Q. In 2015, companies B and D invested a total amount of Rs. 946 crore. They earned their revenues by carrying passengers and goods. The profit earned by B through passenger traffic is 43% of the total profit earned by B and the remaining part through goods traffic. The profit earned by D through goods traffic is 38% of the total profit earned by it and the remaining part of the profit is through passenger traffic. If the investments made by them are in the ratio 5 : 6, the actual profit of B through goods traffic is ________ than the passenger traffic of D.

Solution:

Investment if B:D = 5:6

►B''s investment = (5/11)*946 = 430 cr

►D''s investment = (6/11)*946 = 516 cr

►Profit of B earned through good traffic = 57% of 24% of 430 cr = 58.8 cr

►Profit of D earned through passanger traffic = 62% of 29% of 516 cr = 92.7 cr

►Therefore B''s profit is 33.9 crores less than D.

QUESTION: 87

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The percentage profits of four leading airliners A, B, C and D for six years is shown in the line graph below.

Q. In 2015, Airliner C invested an amount of Rs. 630 crore, 2/3 of this amount was invested by B. A invested 3/4 of the amount invested by B and D invested 13/5 of A in the same year. The  revenue generated by A and D is ___________  than that by B and C.

Solution:

Investment by C = 630cr

►Investment by B = 2/3*(630) = 420cr

►Investment by A = 3/4*(420) = 315cr

►Investment by D = 8/5*(315) = 504 cr

►Profit for B = 24%

►Profit for A,C and D = 29%

►Revenue for B = 420 + 420(24/100) = 520.8

►Revenue for C = 630 + 630(29/100) = 812.7

►Total revenue = 812.7 + 520.8 = 1333.5

►Total revenue earned by A and D together = (315 + 504) * 129/100 = 1056.51
Difference = 1333.5 - 1056.51 = 276.99 cr

QUESTION: 88

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The percentage profits of four leading airliners A, B, C and D for six years is shown in the line graph below.

Q. In 2016, investment made by A is Rs. 437 crore. B invests 20% more than A, C invests 20% less than B and D invests 20% more than C. If the profit earned by each is the average profit per cent in 2016, who earns least revenue?

Solution:

Investment made by A = 437 cr 

►B invests 20% more than A = 437*120/100 = 524.4 cr

►C invests 20% less than B= 524.4*80/100 = 419.52 cr

►D invests 20% more than C = 419.52*120/100 = 503.42 cr

►Average profit in 2016 = (38 + 33 + 32 + 30)/4 = 33.25%

►Least revenue will be for C as it has least investment among all.

QUESTION: 89

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

A circle is divided into eight parts and each part in anti-clockwise direction is numbered from 1 to 8. Starting from ' 1', which is considered as the first move, if one moves one step clockwise, one just adds the number in the next slot to the current number to get the score. If one moves anti­clockwise, one adds the number to the slot but subtracts 2 from total to get the score. If one moves the slot diagonally across, one adds the number to the score but subtracts 3 from the total. One cannot move to a slot already visited.

Q. What can be the maximum score after the second move?

Solution:


The maximum score possible after the second move can be 1 + 8 = 9.

As the person can move clockwise after 1 and can add 8 in the number to get 9.

QUESTION: 90

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

A circle is divided into eight parts and each part in anti-clockwise direction is numbered from 1 to 8. Starting from ' 1', which is considered as the first move, if one moves one step clockwise, one just adds the number in the next slot to the current number to get the score. If one moves anti­clockwise, one adds the number to the slot but subtracts 2 from total to get the score. If one moves the slot diagonally across, one adds the number to the score but subtracts 3 from the total. One cannot move to a slot already visited.

Q. What can be the maximum score after the third move?

Solution:


The maximum possible score after the third move can be 1 + 8 + 7 = 16.

As the person can keep on moving in the clockwise direction to get the maximum possible total after the third move.

QUESTION: 91

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

Which of the following is a space mission by ISRO?

Solution:
QUESTION: 92

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

Identify the correct match for the Personality with what he /she is known for:

Solution:
QUESTION: 93

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What was the picture shown on the first stamp of independent India?

Solution:
QUESTION: 94

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Which of the following venues has hosted the Summer Olympic Games the maximum number of times?

Solution:
QUESTION: 95

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

Match the description given in Column 1 with the name of the film in Column 2:

Solution:
QUESTION: 96

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

Which year is known as the year of the great divide in the demographic history of India?

Solution:
QUESTION: 97

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

Arrange the following Indian port cities beginning from East to West,

i. Jamnagar
ii. Kochi
iii. Chennai
iv. Visakhapatnam

Solution:
QUESTION: 98

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

Which of the following is headquartered in USA?

Solution:
QUESTION: 99

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Name the private sector bank which has launched a new initiative named ‘Gig-a-Opportunities’ to attract skilled talent that can work with the bank remotely, from anywhere in the country.

Solution:
QUESTION: 100

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

Name the person who has been appointed by the Government of India as the managing director (MD) of the State Bank of India (SBI).

Solution:
QUESTION: 101

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

What words were inscribed in the first postage stamp issued in India after independence?

Solution:
QUESTION: 102

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Which Indian institute has developed the prototype for indigenous ventilator under project Praana?

Solution:
QUESTION: 103

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

The theme for International Day of families is “Families in Development: Copenhagen & Beijing + 25”. The Day was observed annually on _____.

Solution:
QUESTION: 104

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Name the Indian state which has signed MoU with SIDBI and launched “Startup fund” to promoted young entrepreneurs.

Solution:
QUESTION: 105

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:
Name the initiative launched by civil services officer’s association to fight COVID-19.

Solution:
QUESTION: 106

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Which state government has launched KapuNestham scheme to provide financial support to women of Kapu community?

Solution:
QUESTION: 107

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The ‘Mi-8AMTSh-VN’, which is test fired recently is the attack transport helicopter of which country?

Solution:
QUESTION: 108

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

What is the range of advanced version of BrahMos missile, which was recently successfully tested by Indian Air Force(IAF)?

Solution:
QUESTION: 109

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

The Indian railways has operationalised 1st 12,000 hp electric made in India Locomotive named WAG12. Name the company which manufactured the locomotive (JV with France based Atlsom).

Solution:
QUESTION: 110

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

In collaboration with which world organisation Odisha government has launched the “Mo Prativa” (My Talent) programme to engage kids during lockdown?

Solution:

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