IIFT Paper - 2017


114 Questions MCQ Test IIFT Mock Test Series | IIFT Paper - 2017


Description
This mock test of IIFT Paper - 2017 for CAT helps you for every CAT entrance exam. This contains 114 Multiple Choice Questions for CAT IIFT Paper - 2017 (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this IIFT Paper - 2017 quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. CAT students definitely take this IIFT Paper - 2017 exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other IIFT Paper - 2017 extra questions, long questions & short questions for CAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

News Item Dated 22 Jan 2017: Saina Nehwal's Triumph at Malaysia Masters Final

Days afterrecovering from knee injury during Rio Olympics, Saina Nehwal is back with a bang as this Indian badminton ace thrashes Pompawee Chochuwong of Thailand by 22-20 and 22-20, thereby claiming the Malaysia Masters Grand title

Quashing the air about her ability to win titles, the world No lo Nehwal clinched her rst Masters within ve months since knee injury. Nehwal had to undergo surgery after an early exit from the Rio Olympics where her fellow citizen PV Sindhu created history by claiming the rst silver medal for Indian badminton

Silencing the critiques, Saina returned to action within a quarter of her surgery setback. Once the absolute queen of Indian badminton, she faced early exits and missed the qualication mark for Sharjah World Super Series Finals. Also, she lost to Sindhu in the Premier Badminton League. However, Malaysia Masters Grand title has been her winuing start to 2017.

Solution:

Saina didnot miss out her chance to qualify for the Sharjah World Super Series Finals on 22nd Jan 2017. She lost her chance to qualify by the end of November.
Therefore Option C is incorrect and therefore, it is the right answer.
 

QUESTION: 2

Read the paragraph following and pick out the factual mistakes

News Item dated, April 2017: West Bengal Won the Santosh Trophy​

West Bengal won the Santosh Trophy forthe 32nd time aftera 1-0 winoverGoa, extending their domination in the premier domestic football tournament. Playing in front of a vociferous home crowd, ve-time winners Goa tried their best and controlled the match, but ran out of steam in the extratime.The hosts had their chances to score but the rival keeper pulled off some great saves. West Bengal, thus, ended a six-year wait having last won the title in 2011. Goa last won it in 2010. Goa. who had‘hostedthe tournament thrice, lost to West Bengal in the semi-nal in 1972 and the nal in 1996, while winning against Kemla in 1990.

Solution:

West Bengal, thus, ended a six-year wait having last won the title in 2011. Goa last won it in 2009.
Goa, who had host the tournament thrice, lost to west bwngal in the semifinal in 1972 and final in 1996, while winning against kerala in 1990.

QUESTION: 3

‘Soulrnate" is a famous Indian music band: Identify the genre of music for which they are famous. Also, name the place from where the music band comes from.

Solution:
QUESTION: 4

XYZ is an Indian English-language broadsheet daily Newspaper founded in 1875 and published simultaneously in various cities of India. It is a direct descendant of two newspapers, The Englishman (1821) and The Friend of India (1818) which later merged with XYL It was managed by a British corporate group until it transferred ownership to the Tata Group, with JRd: Tata as Chairman in the mid-19603. It is currently owned by Nachikcta Publications, Kolkata. Identify XY Z out of the following:

Solution:

The Statesman is an Indian English-language broadsheet daily Newspaper founded in 1875 and published simultaneously in various cities of India. It is a direct descendant of two newspapers, The Englishman (1821) and The Friend of India (1818) which later merged with XYL It was managed by a British corporate group until it transferred ownership to the Tata Group, with JRd: Tata as Chairman in the mid-19603.

QUESTION: 5

Which London-based Group founded in mid-1910, started out as a moneylender before expanding the business to include imports of dried fruit, jute, textiles and tea. The business grew steadily under the Iate Shah of Iran as they were having large presence in Iran and continued to ourish even after Islamic Revolution forced it to move to Europe. It is now a multi billion-dollar energy, transport, media and agriculture conglomerate. The company had been in a bidding war to acquire the Express News papers group,and was one of several bidders for Go Fly, British Airways’ low-cost airline. This famous conglomerate has a large presence in India also. Identify the Group.

Solution:
QUESTION: 6

Match the companies with their CEOs of Indian origin (either in the past or present).

Solution:
QUESTION: 7

Choose the odd match from the following Fortune 500 Companies with their respective sector/ industry and headquarters:

Solution:
QUESTION: 8

Match the name of the famous conglomerate I company with its particular tagline:

Solution:
QUESTION: 9

Method to safeguard against losses due to currency uctuations is popularly known as:

Solution:
QUESTION: 10

Which of the following is not correct about Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)?

Solution:
QUESTION: 11

Which of the following is not correct for Government of India’s initiative “Make in India”?

Solution:

This was not the under of government policies of "Make in India",
It aims to attract Foreign Investment for faster industrial development of India.
 

QUESTION: 12

The ‘Ease of Doing Business Index’ is an index created by the World Bank Group. Which of the following is not correct about ‘Ease of Doing Business Index"?

Solution:
QUESTION: 13

Given as under, are part logo of different Organizations. Match the part logo of each with their type of Organization:

Solution:

The first logo is of Mitsubishi, a Japanese conglomerate.
The second logo is the old logo of Adidas, a sport brand.
The third logo is of Lufthansa, German airlines.
The fourth logo is of World Bank, a multilateral organization.
The fifth logo is of Dream Works, a media production house.

QUESTION: 14

Who among the following cricketers has highest individual score in Women‘s One Day International Cricket?

Solution:
QUESTION: 15

India is building which of the following port in Iran in order to improve the trade connectivity with Iran, Afghanistan and Central Asian countries.

Solution:
QUESTION: 16

Which of the following stock market index is not correctly matched with the country’?

Solution:
QUESTION: 17

Which of the following pair of country - present currency is not correctly matched?

Solution:
QUESTION: 18

Megastar Amitabh Bachchan is one of the most popular actors of Bollywood: lt is said that the advertisers line up to rope him in as their brand ambmador. Which of the foowing brands has not been endorsed by Amitabh Bachchan till date ?

Solution:
QUESTION: 19

Read the sentences below carefully and identify the nature of phrase/clause used in the underlined section of the sentences.

He failed in spite of his best efforts

Solution:

The first step is to analyze whether the underline portion is a phrase or clause. The underline portion doesnot have any verb. Therefore, the underline portion is a phrase. The underline portion explains how the person failed(despite his best efforts). Since the underline portion acts as an attribute to the verb, the underline portion is an adverb phrase. 

QUESTION: 20

Read the sentences below carefully and identify the nature of phrase/clause used in the underlined section of the sentences.

How to find way to the ruins is the question.

Solution:

The underline portion acts as the subject of the sentence. Therefore, the underline portion acts as a noun. No verb is present in the underlined portion. Therefore, the underline portion is a noun phrase.

QUESTION: 21

Read the sentences below carefully and identify the nature of phrase/clause used in the underlined section of the sentences.

Since you have already decided, why do you ask my opinion?

Solution:
QUESTION: 22

Read the sentences below carefully and identify the nature of phrase/clause used in the underlined section of the sentences.

The Peer debtor intended to pay back every penny of the money

Solution:
QUESTION: 23

Read the sentences below carefully and identify the nature of phrase/clause used in the underlined section of the sentences.

The Plan has the virtue of committing us to nothing

Solution:

The underline portion does not have a verb. Therefore, the underline portion is a phrase.The phrase describes the virtue.The virtue is a noun.Therefore, the underline portion acts as an adjective and hence, Option A is the right answer.

QUESTION: 24

Insert commas wherever necessary in the following sentences and identify the words sequentially alter which commas will be inserted

ln the old Persian stories Turan the land of darkness is opposed to lran in the land of light.

Solution:

 In the old Persian stories, Turan, the land of darkness is opposed to Iran, the land of light.
 

QUESTION: 25

Insert commas wherever necessary in the following sentences and identify the words sequentially alter which commas will be inserted

A letter from a young lady written in most passionate terms wherein she laments the misfortune of a gentleman her lover who was lately wounded in a duel has turned my thoughts to that subject and inclined me to examine into the causes which precipitate men into so fatal a folly.

Solution:
QUESTION: 26

Insert commas wherever necessary in the following sentences and identify the words sequentially alter which commas will be inserted

When he was a boy Franklin who afterward became a distinguished statesman and philosopher learned his trade in the printing oce of his brother who published a paper in Boston.

Solution:
QUESTION: 27

Match the prex and sux with its meaning

Solution:
QUESTION: 28

Follow the analogy between the given pair of words in the question (in Capital) and identify the most suitable pair which can represent almost similar relationship

FRET: DlSQUIETUDE

Solution:

Fluorescence-detected resonance energy transfer (FRET) has become a popular tool for studying the structures of and interactions between proteins and nucleic acids in biology and and a rotation, which represents the relative angular positions of the molecules, similar in spirit to the coordinate system employed by Knox.
The synonym of DlSQUIETUDE is Condence.
 

QUESTION: 29

Follow the analogy between the given pair of words in the question (in Capital) and identify the most suitable pair which can represent almost similar relationship

COFFER: VALUABLES

Solution:

The COFFER and Sanctuary shows the similar relationship.
The valuables and refuge shows similar relationship.
Eg :- The Arctic Refuge Is Too Valuable to Drill.
 

QUESTION: 30

Follow the analogy between the given pair of words in the question (in Capital) and identify the most suitable pair which can represent almost similar relationship

APOCRYPHAL: CORROBORATION

Solution:
QUESTION: 31

Create a word using all the given letters from the jumbled letters and identify its appropriate meaning.

Solution:

Hermetic will be the word which means completely sealed or isolated.

QUESTION: 32

Create a word using all the given letters from the jumbled letters and identify its appropriate meaning

Solution:

The word would be ELUCIDATE which would mean enlighten.

QUESTION: 33

Create a word using all the given letters from the jumbled letters and identify its appropriate meaning.

Solution:
QUESTION: 34

Passage below is accompanied by a number of questions. For some questions, consider how the passage might be revised to improve the expression of ideas. For other questions, consider bow the passage might be edited to correct errors in sentence structure, usage or punctuation. Alter reading the passage, choose the answer to each question that most effectively improves the quality of writing in the passage or that makes the passage conrm to the conventions of standard written English. The underlined areas in the passage along with the [number] direct you to the question concerned If you've ever been to an art museum, you know the basic layout: long hallways and large rooms with paintings hung a few feet apart You know bow the paintings are [34] by certain means are marked and you know that the paintings have been arranged chronologically or thematically. There’s one thing, however, which you’ve denitely noticed even if you can’t quite articulate it- Particularly when looking at old paintings. [35] paintings all have that vividly new look, Whether they were painted in 1950 or 1450. Even where the subject matter is older, the colors are vibrant, and you're never forced to wonder exactly what the painting must have looked like in its original state. [36] The history of painting is nearly as long as the history of mankind. The incredible feat is the work of a highly specialized group: art restorers. Despite this specialization, the profession has exploded in recent years. Art restoration has been growing steadily since 1930. While the job of an art restorer may seem fairly straight forward [37] When looking, the job is in fact quite complicated: Sometimes, as in the case of Michelangelo's famous sculpture David, the cleaning and restoration of art works is a simple matter: applying chemicals, washing away grime and scrubbing of the dirt. [38] With most paintings however, the process is a good deal more involved because it is not necessarily, just a matter of 'cleaning' the older paintings. One cannot merely take a scrub brush to centuries - old great work, Because of the wide range of restoration techniques, art restoration itself can be controversial business.

Q. Identify the best possible change in the underlined area

Solution:
QUESTION: 35

Passage below is accompanied by a number of questions. For some questions, consider how the passage might be revised to improve the expression of ideas. For other questions, consider bow the passage might be edited to correct errors in sentence structure, usage or punctuation.

Alter reading the passage, choose the answer to each question that most effectively improves the quality of writing in the passage or that makes the passage conrm to the conventions of standard written English.

The underlined areas in the passage along with the [number] direct you to the question concerned

If you've ever been to an art museum, you know the basic layout: long hallways and large rooms with paintings hung a few feet apart You know bow the paintings are [34] by certain means are marked and you know that the paintings have been arranged chronologically or thematically.

There’s one thing, however, which you’ve denitely noticed even if you can’t quite articulate it- Particularly when looking at old paintings. [35] paintings all have that vividly new look, Whether they were painted in 1950 or 1450. Even where the subject matter is older, the colors are vibrant, and you're never forced to wonder exactly what the painting must have looked like in its original state. [36] The history of painting is nearly as long as the history of mankind. The incredible feat is the work of a highly specialized group: art restorers. Despite this specialization, the profession has exploded in recent years. Art restoration has been growing steadily since 1930. While the job of an art restorer may seem fairly straight forward [37] When looking, the job is in fact quite complicated: Sometimes, as in the case of Michelangelo's famous sculpture David, the cleaning and restoration of art works is a simple matter: applying chemicals, washing away grime and scrubbing of the dirt. [38] With most paintings however, the process is a good deal more involved because it is not necessarily, just a matter of 'cleaning' the older paintings. One cannot merely take a scrub brush to centuries - old great work, Because of the wide range of restoration techniques, art restoration itself can be controversial business.

Q. Identify the best possible change in the underlined area.

Solution:
QUESTION: 36

Passage below is accompanied by a number of questions. For some questions, consider how the passage might be revised to improve the expression of ideas. For other questions, consider bow the passage might be edited to correct errors in sentence structure, usage or punctuation.

Alter reading the passage, choose the answer to each question that most effectively improves the quality of writing in the passage or that makes the passage conrm to the conventions of standard written English.

The underlined areas in the passage along with the [number] direct you to the question concerned

If you've ever been to an art museum, you know the basic layout: long hallways and large rooms with paintings hung a few feet apart You know bow the paintings are [34] by certain means are marked and you know that the paintings have been arranged chronologically or thematically.

There’s one thing, however, which you’ve denitely noticed even if you can’t quite articulate it- Particularly when looking at old paintings. [35] paintings all have that vividly new look, Whether they were painted in 1950 or 1450. Even where the subject matter is older, the colors are vibrant, and you're never forced to wonder exactly what the painting must have looked like in its original state. [36] The history of painting is nearly as long as the history of mankind. The incredible feat is the work of a highly specialized group: art restorers. Despite this specialization, the profession has exploded in recent years. Art restoration has been growing steadily since 1930. While the job of an art restorer may seem fairly straight forward [37] When looking, the job is in fact quite complicated: Sometimes, as in the case of Michelangelo's famous sculpture David, the cleaning and restoration of art works is a simple matter: applying chemicals, washing away grime and scrubbing of the dirt. [38] With most paintings however, the process is a good deal more involved because it is not necessarily, just a matter of 'cleaning' the older paintings. One cannot merely take a scrub brush to centuries - old great work, Because of the wide range of restoration techniques, art restoration itself can be controversial business.

Q. The writer is considering deleting the underlined sentence. Should thesentenee be kept or deleted?

Solution:
QUESTION: 37

Passage below is accompanied by a number of questions. For some questions, consider how the passage might be revised to improve the expression of ideas. For other questions, consider bow the passage might be edited to correct errors in sentence structure, usage or punctuation.

Alter reading the passage, choose the answer to each question that most effectively improves the quality of writing in the passage or that makes the passage conrm to the conventions of standard written English.

The underlined areas in the passage along with the [number] direct you to the question concerned

If you've ever been to an art museum, you know the basic layout: long hallways and large rooms with paintings hung a few feet apart You know bow the paintings are [34] by certain means are marked and you know that the paintings have been arranged chronologically or thematically.

There’s one thing, however, which you’ve denitely noticed even if you can’t quite articulate it- Particularly when looking at old paintings. [35] paintings all have that vividly new look, Whether they were painted in 1950 or 1450. Even where the subject matter is older, the colors are vibrant, and you're never forced to wonder exactly what the painting must have looked like in its original state. [36] The history of painting is nearly as long as the history of mankind. The incredible feat is the work of a highly specialized group: art restorers. Despite this specialization, the profession has exploded in recent years. Art restoration has been growing steadily since 1930. While the job of an art restorer may seem fairly straight forward [37] When looking, the job is in fact quite complicated: Sometimes, as in the case of Michelangelo's famous sculpture David, the cleaning and restoration of art works is a simple matter: applying chemicals, washing away grime and scrubbing of the dirt. [38] With most paintings however, the process is a good deal more involved because it is not necessarily, just a matter of 'cleaning' the older paintings. One cannot merely take a scrub brush to centuries - old great work, Because of the wide range of restoration techniques, art restoration itself can be controversial business.

Q. Identify the best possible change in the underlined area

Solution:
QUESTION: 38

Passage below is accompanied by a number of questions. For some questions, consider how the passage might be revised to improve the expression of ideas. For other questions, consider bow the passage might be edited to correct errors in sentence structure, usage or punctuation.

Alter reading the passage, choose the answer to each question that most effectively improves the quality of writing in the passage or that makes the passage conrm to the conventions of standard written English.

The underlined areas in the passage along with the [number] direct you to the question concerned

If you've ever been to an art museum, you know the basic layout: long hallways and large rooms with paintings hung a few feet apart You know bow the paintings are [34] by certain means are marked and you know that the paintings have been arranged chronologically or thematically.

There’s one thing, however, which you’ve denitely noticed even if you can’t quite articulate it- Particularly when looking at old paintings. [35] paintings all have that vividly new look, Whether they were painted in 1950 or 1450. Even where the subject matter is older, the colors are vibrant, and you're never forced to wonder exactly what the painting must have looked like in its original state. [36] The history of painting is nearly as long as the history of mankind. The incredible feat is the work of a highly specialized group: art restorers. Despite this specialization, the profession has exploded in recent years. Art restoration has been growing steadily since 1930. While the job of an art restorer may seem fairly straight forward [37] When looking, the job is in fact quite complicated: Sometimes, as in the case of Michelangelo's famous sculpture David, the cleaning and restoration of art works is a simple matter: applying chemicals, washing away grime and scrubbing of the dirt. [38] With most paintings however, the process is a good deal more involved because it is not necessarily, just a matter of 'cleaning' the older paintings. One cannot merely take a scrub brush to centuries - old great work, Because of the wide range of restoration techniques, art restoration itself can be controversial business.

Q. Identify the best possible change in the underlined area

Solution:
QUESTION: 39

Read the following passages carefully and identify most appropriate answer to the questions given at the end of each passage.

Groupon is one of the fastest-growing companies of all time. Its name comes from "group coupons," an ingenious idea that has spawned an entire industry of social commerce imitators. However, it didn‘t start out successful. When customers took Groupon up on its rst deal, a whOpping twenty people bought two-for-one pizza in a restaurant on the rst oor of the company's Chicago oceshardly a world-changing event. ln fact, Groupon wasn't originally meant to be about commerce at all. The founder, Andrew Mason, intended his company to become a "collective activism platform" called The Point. Its goal was to bring people together to solve problems they couldn't solve on their own, such as fund-raising for a cause or boycotting a certain retailer. The Point's early results were disappointing, however, and at the end of2008 the founders decided to try something new. Although they still had grand ambitions, they were determined to keep the new product simple. They built a minimum viable product. Does this sound like a billiondollar company to you? Mason tells the story: “We took a Word Press Blog and we skinned it to say Groupon and then every day we would do a new post. It was totally ghetto. We would sell T-shirts on the rst version of Groupon. We'd say in the write-up, ”This T-shirt will come in the colour red, size large. If you want a different colour or size, e-mail that to us.” We didn't have a form to add that stuff. lt was just so cobbled together. It was enough to prove the concept and show thatit was something that people really liked: The actual coupon generation that we were doing was all File Maker. We would run a script that would e-mail the coupon PDF to people. It got to the point where we'd sell 500 sushi coupons in a day, and we'd send 500 PDFs to people with Apple Mail at the same time. Really until July of the rst year it was just a scrambling to grab the tiger by the tail. It was trying to catch up and reasonably piece together a product. "Handmade PDFs, a pizza coupon, and simple blog were enough to launch Groupon into-breaking success; it is on pace to become the feastest company in history to acheive $1 billion in sales. It is revolutionizing the way local businesses nd new custmores, offering special deals to consumers in more than 375 cities worldwide. A minimum viable product (MVP) helps enterpremuers start the process of learning as quickly as possible. "It is not necessarly the smallest product imaginable, though; it is simply the fastest way to get through the Build-Measure-Learn feedback loop with the minimum amount of effort. Contrary to traditional product development, which usually involves a long, thoughtful incubation period and strives for product perfection, the goal of the MVP is to begin the process of learning, not end it, Unlike a prototype or concept test, an MVP is designed not just to answer product design or technical questions. Its goal is to test fendamental business hypotheses.

Early adopters use their imagination to ll in what a product is missing. They prefer that state of affairs, because what they care about above all is being the rst io use or adopt a new product or technology. In consumer products, it's often the thrill of being the rst one on the block to show off a new basketball shoe, music player, _or cool pbone. In enterprise products, it's often about gaining a competitive advantage by taking a risk with something new that competitors don't have yet. Early adopters are suspicious of something that is too polished if it's ready for everyone to adopt, how much advantage cart one get by being early? As a result, additional features or polish beyond what early adopters demand is a form of wasted resources and time. This is a hard truth for many entrepreneurs to accept. After all, the vision enttepn:neurs keep in their beads is of a high-quality mainstream product that will change the world, not one used by a small niche of people who are willing to give it a shot before it's ready. That world-changingproduct is polished, slick, and ready for prime time. It wins awards at trade shows and, most of all, is something you can proudly show Mom and Dad: An early, buggy, incomplete product feels like ao unacceptable compromise. How many ofus were raised with'the expectation that we would put our best work forward? As one manager put it to me recently, "I know for me, the MVP feels a little dangerousin a good way-since I have always been such a perfection.isl." Min.imum viable products range in complexity from extremely simple smoke tests (little more than an advertisement) to actual early prototypes complete with problems and missing features. Deciding exactly how complex an MVP needs to be cannot be done formulai"ally. It reqwres judgment. Luckily, this judgment is not dicult to develop: most entrepreneurs and product development people dramatically over estimate how many features are needed in an MVP. When in doubtsimplify. Forexample, consider a service sold with a one-month free trial. Before a customer can use the service, he or she has to sign up for the trial. One obvious assumption, then, of the business model is that customers will sign up for a free trial once they have a certain amount of information about theservice. A critical question to consider is whether customers will in fact signup for the free trial given a certain number of promised features (the value hypothesis). Somewhere in the business model, probably buried io a single cell in a spreadsheet, it species the "percentage of customers whosee the free trial offer who then sign up." Maybe in our projections we say that this number should be I0 percent. lfyou thinkabout it, this is a leap-of-faith question. It really should be represented in giant letters in a bold red font: WE ASSUME 10 PERCENT OF CUSTOMERS WILL SIGN UP.

Mostentrepreneurs approach a question like this by building the product and then checking to see bow customers react to it. I consider this to be exactly backwan) b«ause it can lead to a lot of waste. First,if it turns out that we're building something nobody wants, the whole exercise will be an avoidable expense of time and money. If customers won't sign up for thefree trial, they'll never get to experience the amazing features that await them. Even if they do sign up, there are many other opportunities for waste. For example, bow many features do we really need to include to appeal to early adopters? Every extra feature is a form of waste, and if wedelay the test for these extra features, it comes with a tremendous potential cost in terms oearning and cycle time. The lesson of the MVP is thatany additional work beyond what was required tostart learning is waste, no matter how important it migbt haveseemed at the time

Q. In the above passage the author has used the term 'Rhetoric features'. What does it mean?

Solution:
QUESTION: 40

Read the following passages carefully and identify most appropriate answer to the questions given at the end of each passage.

Groupon is one of the fastest-growing companies of all time. Its name comes from "group coupons," an ingenious idea that has spawned an entire industry of social commerce imitators. However, it didn‘t start out successful. When customers took Groupon up on its rst deal, a whOpping twenty people bought two-for-one pizza in a restaurant on the rst oor of the company's Chicago oceshardly a world-changing event. ln fact, Groupon wasn't originally meant to be about commerce at all. The founder, Andrew Mason, intended his company to become a "collective activism platform" called The Point. Its goal was to bring people together to solve problems they couldn't solve on their own, such as fund-raising for a cause or boycotting a certain retailer. The Point's early results were disappointing, however, and at the end of2008 the founders decided to try something new. Although they still had grand ambitions, they were determined to keep the new product simple. They built a minimum viable product. Does this sound like a billiondollar company to you? Mason tells the story: “We took a Word Press Blog and we skinned it to say Groupon and then every day we would do a new post. It was totally ghetto. We would sell T-shirts on the rst version of Groupon. We'd say in the write-up, ”This T-shirt will come in the colour red, size large. If you want a different colour or size, e-mail that to us.” We didn't have a form to add that stuff. lt was just so cobbled together. It was enough to prove the concept and show thatit was something that people really liked: The actual coupon generation that we were doing was all File Maker. We would run a script that would e-mail the coupon PDF to people. It got to the point where we'd sell 500 sushi coupons in a day, and we'd send 500 PDFs to people with Apple Mail at the same time. Really until July of the rst year it was just a scrambling to grab the tiger by the tail. It was trying to catch up and reasonably piece together a product. "Handmade PDFs, a pizza coupon, and simple blog were enough to launch Groupon into-breaking success; it is on pace to become the feastest company in history to acheive $1 billion in sales. It is revolutionizing the way local businesses nd new custmores, offering special deals to consumers in more than 375 cities worldwide. A minimum viable product (MVP) helps enterpremuers start the process of learning as quickly as possible. "It is not necessarly the smallest product imaginable, though; it is simply the fastest way to get through the Build-Measure-Learn feedback loop with the minimum amount of effort. Contrary to traditional product development, which usually involves a long, thoughtful incubation period and strives for product perfection, the goal of the MVP is to begin the process of learning, not end it, Unlike a prototype or concept test, an MVP is designed not just to answer product design or technical questions. Its goal is to test fendamental business hypotheses.

Early adopters use their imagination to ll in what a product is missing. They prefer that state of affairs, because what they care about above all is being the rst io use or adopt a new product or technology. In consumer products, it's often the thrill of being the rst one on the block to show off a new basketball shoe, music player, _or cool pbone. In enterprise products, it's often about gaining a competitive advantage by taking a risk with something new that competitors don't have yet. Early adopters are suspicious of something that is too polished if it's ready for everyone to adopt, how much advantage cart one get by being early? As a result, additional features or polish beyond what early adopters demand is a form of wasted resources and time. This is a hard truth for many entrepreneurs to accept. After all, the vision enttepn:neurs keep in their beads is of a high-quality mainstream product that will change the world, not one used by a small niche of people who are willing to give it a shot before it's ready. That world-changingproduct is polished, slick, and ready for prime time. It wins awards at trade shows and, most of all, is something you can proudly show Mom and Dad: An early, buggy, incomplete product feels like ao unacceptable compromise. How many ofus were raised with'the expectation that we would put our best work forward? As one manager put it to me recently, "I know for me, the MVP feels a little dangerousin a good way-since I have always been such a perfection.isl." Min.imum viable products range in complexity from extremely simple smoke tests (little more than an advertisement) to actual early prototypes complete with problems and missing features. Deciding exactly how complex an MVP needs to be cannot be done formulai"ally. It reqwres judgment. Luckily, this judgment is not dicult to develop: most entrepreneurs and product development people dramatically over estimate how many features are needed in an MVP. When in doubtsimplify. Forexample, consider a service sold with a one-month free trial. Before a customer can use the service, he or she has to sign up for the trial. One obvious assumption, then, of the business model is that customers will sign up for a free trial once they have a certain amount of information about theservice. A critical question to consider is whether customers will in fact signup for the free trial given a certain number of promised features (the value hypothesis). Somewhere in the business model, probably buried io a single cell in a spreadsheet, it species the "percentage of customers whosee the free trial offer who then sign up." Maybe in our projections we say that this number should be I0 percent. lfyou thinkabout it, this is a leap-of-faith question. It really should be represented in giant letters in a bold red font: WE ASSUME 10 PERCENT OF CUSTOMERS WILL SIGN UP.

Mostentrepreneurs approach a question like this by building the product and then checking to see bow customers react to it. I consider this to be exactly backwan) b«ause it can lead to a lot of waste. First,if it turns out that we're building something nobody wants, the whole exercise will be an avoidable expense of time and money. If customers won't sign up for thefree trial, they'll never get to experience the amazing features that await them. Even if they do sign up, there are many other opportunities for waste. For example, bow many features do we really need to include to appeal to early adopters? Every extra feature is a form of waste, and if wedelay the test for these extra features, it comes with a tremendous potential cost in terms oearning and cycle time. The lesson of the MVP is thatany additional work beyond what was required tostart learning is waste, no matter how important it migbt haveseemed at the time

Q. What is the central idea of the passage?

Solution:
QUESTION: 41

Read the following passages carefully and identify most appropriate answer to the questions given at the end of each passage.

Groupon is one of the fastest-growing companies of all time. Its name comes from "group coupons," an ingenious idea that has spawned an entire industry of social commerce imitators. However, it didn‘t start out successful. When customers took Groupon up on its rst deal, a whOpping twenty people bought two-for-one pizza in a restaurant on the rst oor of the company's Chicago oceshardly a world-changing event. ln fact, Groupon wasn't originally meant to be about commerce at all. The founder, Andrew Mason, intended his company to become a "collective activism platform" called The Point. Its goal was to bring people together to solve problems they couldn't solve on their own, such as fund-raising for a cause or boycotting a certain retailer. The Point's early results were disappointing, however, and at the end of2008 the founders decided to try something new. Although they still had grand ambitions, they were determined to keep the new product simple. They built a minimum viable product. Does this sound like a billiondollar company to you? Mason tells the story: “We took a Word Press Blog and we skinned it to say Groupon and then every day we would do a new post. It was totally ghetto. We would sell T-shirts on the rst version of Groupon. We'd say in the write-up, ”This T-shirt will come in the colour red, size large. If you want a different colour or size, e-mail that to us.” We didn't have a form to add that stuff. lt was just so cobbled together. It was enough to prove the concept and show thatit was something that people really liked: The actual coupon generation that we were doing was all File Maker. We would run a script that would e-mail the coupon PDF to people. It got to the point where we'd sell 500 sushi coupons in a day, and we'd send 500 PDFs to people with Apple Mail at the same time. Really until July of the rst year it was just a scrambling to grab the tiger by the tail. It was trying to catch up and reasonably piece together a product. "Handmade PDFs, a pizza coupon, and simple blog were enough to launch Groupon into-breaking success; it is on pace to become the feastest company in history to acheive $1 billion in sales. It is revolutionizing the way local businesses nd new custmores, offering special deals to consumers in more than 375 cities worldwide. A minimum viable product (MVP) helps enterpremuers start the process of learning as quickly as possible. "It is not necessarly the smallest product imaginable, though; it is simply the fastest way to get through the Build-Measure-Learn feedback loop with the minimum amount of effort. Contrary to traditional product development, which usually involves a long, thoughtful incubation period and strives for product perfection, the goal of the MVP is to begin the process of learning, not end it, Unlike a prototype or concept test, an MVP is designed not just to answer product design or technical questions. Its goal is to test fendamental business hypotheses.

Early adopters use their imagination to ll in what a product is missing. They prefer that state of affairs, because what they care about above all is being the rst io use or adopt a new product or technology. In consumer products, it's often the thrill of being the rst one on the block to show off a new basketball shoe, music player, _or cool pbone. In enterprise products, it's often about gaining a competitive advantage by taking a risk with something new that competitors don't have yet. Early adopters are suspicious of something that is too polished if it's ready for everyone to adopt, how much advantage cart one get by being early? As a result, additional features or polish beyond what early adopters demand is a form of wasted resources and time. This is a hard truth for many entrepreneurs to accept. After all, the vision enttepn:neurs keep in their beads is of a high-quality mainstream product that will change the world, not one used by a small niche of people who are willing to give it a shot before it's ready. That world-changingproduct is polished, slick, and ready for prime time. It wins awards at trade shows and, most of all, is something you can proudly show Mom and Dad: An early, buggy, incomplete product feels like ao unacceptable compromise. How many ofus were raised with'the expectation that we would put our best work forward? As one manager put it to me recently, "I know for me, the MVP feels a little dangerousin a good way-since I have always been such a perfection.isl." Min.imum viable products range in complexity from extremely simple smoke tests (little more than an advertisement) to actual early prototypes complete with problems and missing features. Deciding exactly how complex an MVP needs to be cannot be done formulai"ally. It reqwres judgment. Luckily, this judgment is not dicult to develop: most entrepreneurs and product development people dramatically over estimate how many features are needed in an MVP. When in doubtsimplify. Forexample, consider a service sold with a one-month free trial. Before a customer can use the service, he or she has to sign up for the trial. One obvious assumption, then, of the business model is that customers will sign up for a free trial once they have a certain amount of information about theservice. A critical question to consider is whether customers will in fact signup for the free trial given a certain number of promised features (the value hypothesis). Somewhere in the business model, probably buried io a single cell in a spreadsheet, it species the "percentage of customers whosee the free trial offer who then sign up." Maybe in our projections we say that this number should be I0 percent. lfyou thinkabout it, this is a leap-of-faith question. It really should be represented in giant letters in a bold red font: WE ASSUME 10 PERCENT OF CUSTOMERS WILL SIGN UP.

Mostentrepreneurs approach a question like this by building the product and then checking to see bow customers react to it. I consider this to be exactly backwan) b«ause it can lead to a lot of waste. First,if it turns out that we're building something nobody wants, the whole exercise will be an avoidable expense of time and money. If customers won't sign up for thefree trial, they'll never get to experience the amazing features that await them. Even if they do sign up, there are many other opportunities for waste. For example, bow many features do we really need to include to appeal to early adopters? Every extra feature is a form of waste, and if wedelay the test for these extra features, it comes with a tremendous potential cost in terms oearning and cycle time. The lesson of the MVP is thatany additional work beyond what was required tostart learning is waste, no matter how important it migbt haveseemed at the time

Q. According to the Author, what do early adopters want?

Solution:
QUESTION: 42

Read the following passages carefully and identify most appropriate answer to the questions given at the end of each passage.

Groupon is one of the fastest-growing companies of all time. Its name comes from "group coupons," an ingenious idea that has spawned an entire industry of social commerce imitators. However, it didn‘t start out successful. When customers took Groupon up on its rst deal, a whOpping twenty people bought two-for-one pizza in a restaurant on the rst oor of the company's Chicago oceshardly a world-changing event. ln fact, Groupon wasn't originally meant to be about commerce at all. The founder, Andrew Mason, intended his company to become a "collective activism platform" called The Point. Its goal was to bring people together to solve problems they couldn't solve on their own, such as fund-raising for a cause or boycotting a certain retailer. The Point's early results were disappointing, however, and at the end of2008 the founders decided to try something new. Although they still had grand ambitions, they were determined to keep the new product simple. They built a minimum viable product. Does this sound like a billiondollar company to you? Mason tells the story: “We took a Word Press Blog and we skinned it to say Groupon and then every day we would do a new post. It was totally ghetto. We would sell T-shirts on the rst version of Groupon. We'd say in the write-up, ”This T-shirt will come in the colour red, size large. If you want a different colour or size, e-mail that to us.” We didn't have a form to add that stuff. lt was just so cobbled together. It was enough to prove the concept and show thatit was something that people really liked: The actual coupon generation that we were doing was all File Maker. We would run a script that would e-mail the coupon PDF to people. It got to the point where we'd sell 500 sushi coupons in a day, and we'd send 500 PDFs to people with Apple Mail at the same time. Really until July of the rst year it was just a scrambling to grab the tiger by the tail. It was trying to catch up and reasonably piece together a product. "Handmade PDFs, a pizza coupon, and simple blog were enough to launch Groupon into-breaking success; it is on pace to become the feastest company in history to acheive $1 billion in sales. It is revolutionizing the way local businesses nd new custmores, offering special deals to consumers in more than 375 cities worldwide. A minimum viable product (MVP) helps enterpremuers start the process of learning as quickly as possible. "It is not necessarly the smallest product imaginable, though; it is simply the fastest way to get through the Build-Measure-Learn feedback loop with the minimum amount of effort. Contrary to traditional product development, which usually involves a long, thoughtful incubation period and strives for product perfection, the goal of the MVP is to begin the process of learning, not end it, Unlike a prototype or concept test, an MVP is designed not just to answer product design or technical questions. Its goal is to test fendamental business hypotheses.

Early adopters use their imagination to ll in what a product is missing. They prefer that state of affairs, because what they care about above all is being the rst io use or adopt a new product or technology. In consumer products, it's often the thrill of being the rst one on the block to show off a new basketball shoe, music player, _or cool pbone. In enterprise products, it's often about gaining a competitive advantage by taking a risk with something new that competitors don't have yet. Early adopters are suspicious of something that is too polished if it's ready for everyone to adopt, how much advantage cart one get by being early? As a result, additional features or polish beyond what early adopters demand is a form of wasted resources and time. This is a hard truth for many entrepreneurs to accept. After all, the vision enttepn:neurs keep in their beads is of a high-quality mainstream product that will change the world, not one used by a small niche of people who are willing to give it a shot before it's ready. That world-changingproduct is polished, slick, and ready for prime time. It wins awards at trade shows and, most of all, is something you can proudly show Mom and Dad: An early, buggy, incomplete product feels like ao unacceptable compromise. How many ofus were raised with'the expectation that we would put our best work forward? As one manager put it to me recently, "I know for me, the MVP feels a little dangerousin a good way-since I have always been such a perfection.isl." Min.imum viable products range in complexity from extremely simple smoke tests (little more than an advertisement) to actual early prototypes complete with problems and missing features. Deciding exactly how complex an MVP needs to be cannot be done formulai"ally. It reqwres judgment. Luckily, this judgment is not dicult to develop: most entrepreneurs and product development people dramatically over estimate how many features are needed in an MVP. When in doubtsimplify. Forexample, consider a service sold with a one-month free trial. Before a customer can use the service, he or she has to sign up for the trial. One obvious assumption, then, of the business model is that customers will sign up for a free trial once they have a certain amount of information about theservice. A critical question to consider is whether customers will in fact signup for the free trial given a certain number of promised features (the value hypothesis). Somewhere in the business model, probably buried io a single cell in a spreadsheet, it species the "percentage of customers whosee the free trial offer who then sign up." Maybe in our projections we say that this number should be I0 percent. lfyou thinkabout it, this is a leap-of-faith question. It really should be represented in giant letters in a bold red font: WE ASSUME 10 PERCENT OF CUSTOMERS WILL SIGN UP.

Mostentrepreneurs approach a question like this by building the product and then checking to see bow customers react to it. I consider this to be exactly backwan) b«ause it can lead to a lot of waste. First,if it turns out that we're building something nobody wants, the whole exercise will be an avoidable expense of time and money. If customers won't sign up for thefree trial, they'll never get to experience the amazing features that await them. Even if they do sign up, there are many other opportunities for waste. For example, bow many features do we really need to include to appeal to early adopters? Every extra feature is a form of waste, and if wedelay the test for these extra features, it comes with a tremendous potential cost in terms oearning and cycle time. The lesson of the MVP is thatany additional work beyond what was required tostart learning is waste, no matter how important it migbt haveseemed at the time

Q. What does the author seek to imply by quoting "I know for me, the MVP feels a little dangerous-in a good way-sinceI have always been such a perfectionist"?

Solution:
QUESTION: 43

Read the following passages carefully and identify most appropriate answer to the questions given at the end of each passage.

I wear a variety of professional hats- universityprofessor, literacy consultant to districts, authorof several books related tocomprehensio.nTokeep myself honest (and humble); l spend a lot of time in classrooms watching kids and teachers at work. During the past decade, I've observed a transformationin the teaching of reading from an approw:h that measured readers' successful understanding of text through lengthy packets of comprehension questions to one that requires students to think about their thinking, activating their "good reader" strategies. Close readin-g is deep analysis of bow a literary text works; it is both a· reading process and something you include in a literary analysis paper, though in a rened form. Fiction writers and poets build texts out of many central components, including subject, form, and specic word choices. Essentially, close reading means reading to uncover layers of meaning that lead to deep comprehension. "Close, analytic reading stresses engaging with a text of sucient complexity directly and examining meaning thoroughly and methodically, encouraging students to read and reread deliberately. Directing student attention on the text itself empowers students to understand the central ideas and key supponing details. It also enables students to reecton the meaningsof individual words and sentences; theorder in which sentences unfold; and the development of ideas over the course of the text, which ultimately leads students to arrive at an understanding of the text as a whole." Reread the denition of close reading - closely-to extract .key concepts. You might identify these ideas: examining meaning thoroughly andanalytically; directing attention to the text,central ideas,andsupponiog details; reecting on meanings of individual words and sentences; and developing ideas overthecourse of the text. Notice that reader reection is still integral to the process. But close reading goes beyond that: The best thinkers do monitor and assess their thinking, but in the context of processing the thinking of others (Paul & Elder, 2008).

When you close read, you observe facts and details about the text. You may focus on a particular passage, or on the text as a whole. Your aim may be10 notice all striking features of the text, including rhetorical features, structural elements and cultural references; or, your aim may be to notice only selected features of the text- for instance, oppositions and correspondences, or particular historical references. Either way, making these observations constitutes the rst step in the process of close reading. The second step is interpreting your observations. What we're basically talking about here is inductive reasoning: moving from the observation of particular fac:ts and details to a conclusion, or interpretation, based on those observations. And, as with inductive reasoning, close reading requires careful gathering ofdata (yo,ur observations) and careful thinking about what these data add up to. Literary analysis involves examining these components, which stllows us to nd in small parts of the text clues to help us understand the whole. For example, if an author writes a novel in the fonn of a personal journal about a character's daily life, but that journal reads like a series oab reports, what do we learn about that character? What is theeffect of picking a word like "tome" instead of ''book"? In effect, you are putting the author's choices under a microscope. The process of close reading should produce a lotof questions. It is when you begin to answer these questions that you are ready to participate thoughtfully in class di cussion or write a literary analysis paper that makes the mostof your close reading work.Close reading sometimes feels like overanalyzing, but don worry. Close reading is a process of nding as much informatio.n as you can in order to form as many questions as you can. When it is time to write your paper and formalize your close reading, you ill.sorthrough your work to gure out what is most convincing and helpful to theargument you hope to make and, conversely, what seems like a stretch. It's our responsibility as educators to build students' capacity for indepenllently comprehending a text through close reading. Teaching isabout transfer. The goal isforstudents to!Blee what they learn from the study of one text and apply it to the next text·theyread: How can we ensure that students both reap the requisite knowledge from each text they read and acquire skills to pursue the meaning of other tex:ts independently? I suggest wecoach students toask themselves four basic questions as theyreec!on a specic portion of any text,eventhe shortest: What is theauthor telling me here? Are there anyhard or important words? What does the author want me to understand? How does theauthor playwith language toadd tomeaning? If students take time to ask themselves these questions while reading and become skillful at answering them, there'll beless need for the teacher to doall theasking. For this to happen, we must develop stui:lents' capacity to observe and analyze. First things rst: See whetherstudents have noticed the details of a passage and can recount those details in their own words. Note that the challenge here isn't to be brief (as in a summary); it's to be accurate, precise, andclear.

The recent focus on nding evidence in a text has sent students (even in primary grades) scurrying back to their books to retrieve a quote that validates their opinion. But to paraphrase what that quote means in a student's own language, rather than the author's, is more dicult than you might think. Try it with any paragraph. Expressing the same meaning with different words often requires going back to that text a few timesto getthedetails just right.Paraphrasing is pretty low on Bloom's continuum of lower- to higher-order thinking, yet many students stumble even b:ere. This is the rst stop along the journey to close reading. If students can't paraphrase the basic contentof a passage, howcan they digfor its deeper meaning? Thesecond basic question about hard or important words encourages students to zoom in on precise meaning. When students aresatised that they have a basic grasp of what theauthor is telling them, they're ready to move on to analyzing the ne points of content. If students begin their analysis byasking themselves the thirdquestion- What does the author wan.I me to understand in this passage?-tbey'II be on their way to malcing' app ropriateinference,s determining what theauthor is trying to show without stating it directly.

Wecan also teach students to readcarefully with theeyeof a writer, which means helping them analyze craft. How a text is written is as important as the content itself in getting the author's· message across. Just as a movie director focuses thecamera on a particular detail toget you to view the scene the way be or she wants you to, authors play with words to get you to see a text their way. Introducing students to some of the tricks authors useopens students' minds to an entirely new realm in close reading.

Q. What is the function of MVP?

Solution:
QUESTION: 44

Read the following passages carefully and identify most appropriate answer to the questions given at the end of each passage.

I wear a variety of professional hats- universityprofessor, literacy consultant to districts, authorof several books related tocomprehensio.nTokeep myself honest (and humble); l spend a lot of time in classrooms watching kids and teachers at work. During the past decade, I've observed a transformationin the teaching of reading from an approw:h that measured readers' successful understanding of text through lengthy packets of comprehension questions to one that requires students to think about their thinking, activating their "good reader" strategies. Close readin-g is deep analysis of bow a literary text works; it is both a· reading process and something you include in a literary analysis paper, though in a rened form. Fiction writers and poets build texts out of many central components, including subject, form, and specic word choices. Essentially, close reading means reading to uncover layers of meaning that lead to deep comprehension. "Close, analytic reading stresses engaging with a text of sucient complexity directly and examining meaning thoroughly and methodically, encouraging students to read and reread deliberately. Directing student attention on the text itself empowers students to understand the central ideas and key supponing details. It also enables students to reecton the meaningsof individual words and sentences; theorder in which sentences unfold; and the development of ideas over the course of the text, which ultimately leads students to arrive at an understanding of the text as a whole." Reread the denition of close reading - closely-to extract .key concepts. You might identify these ideas: examining meaning thoroughly andanalytically; directing attention to the text,central ideas,andsupponiog details; reecting on meanings of individual words and sentences; and developing ideas overthecourse of the text. Notice that reader reection is still integral to the process. But close reading goes beyond that: The best thinkers do monitor and assess their thinking, but in the context of processing the thinking of others (Paul & Elder, 2008).

When you close read, you observe facts and details about the text. You may focus on a particular passage, or on the text as a whole. Your aim may be10 notice all striking features of the text, including rhetorical features, structural elements and cultural references; or, your aim may be to notice only selected features of the text- for instance, oppositions and correspondences, or particular historical references. Either way, making these observations constitutes the rst step in the process of close reading. The second step is interpreting your observations. What we're basically talking about here is inductive reasoning: moving from the observation of particular fac:ts and details to a conclusion, or interpretation, based on those observations. And, as with inductive reasoning, close reading requires careful gathering ofdata (yo,ur observations) and careful thinking about what these data add up to. Literary analysis involves examining these components, which stllows us to nd in small parts of the text clues to help us understand the whole. For example, if an author writes a novel in the fonn of a personal journal about a character's daily life, but that journal reads like a series oab reports, what do we learn about that character? What is theeffect of picking a word like "tome" instead of ''book"? In effect, you are putting the author's choices under a microscope. The process of close reading should produce a lotof questions. It is when you begin to answer these questions that you are ready to participate thoughtfully in class di cussion or write a literary analysis paper that makes the mostof your close reading work.Close reading sometimes feels like overanalyzing, but don worry. Close reading is a process of nding as much informatio.n as you can in order to form as many questions as you can. When it is time to write your paper and formalize your close reading, you ill.sorthrough your work to gure out what is most convincing and helpful to theargument you hope to make and, conversely, what seems like a stretch. It's our responsibility as educators to build students' capacity for indepenllently comprehending a text through close reading. Teaching isabout transfer. The goal isforstudents to!Blee what they learn from the study of one text and apply it to the next text·theyread: How can we ensure that students both reap the requisite knowledge from each text they read and acquire skills to pursue the meaning of other tex:ts independently? I suggest wecoach students toask themselves four basic questions as theyreec!on a specic portion of any text,eventhe shortest: What is theauthor telling me here? Are there anyhard or important words? What does the author want me to understand? How does theauthor playwith language toadd tomeaning? If students take time to ask themselves these questions while reading and become skillful at answering them, there'll beless need for the teacher to doall theasking. For this to happen, we must develop stui:lents' capacity to observe and analyze. First things rst: See whetherstudents have noticed the details of a passage and can recount those details in their own words. Note that the challenge here isn't to be brief (as in a summary); it's to be accurate, precise, andclear.

The recent focus on nding evidence in a text has sent students (even in primary grades) scurrying back to their books to retrieve a quote that validates their opinion. But to paraphrase what that quote means in a student's own language, rather than the author's, is more dicult than you might think. Try it with any paragraph. Expressing the same meaning with different words often requires going back to that text a few timesto getthedetails just right.Paraphrasing is pretty low on Bloom's continuum of lower- to higher-order thinking, yet many students stumble even b:ere. This is the rst stop along the journey to close reading. If students can't paraphrase the basic contentof a passage, howcan they digfor its deeper meaning? Thesecond basic question about hard or important words encourages students to zoom in on precise meaning. When students aresatised that they have a basic grasp of what theauthor is telling them, they're ready to move on to analyzing the ne points of content. If students begin their analysis byasking themselves the thirdquestion- What does the author wan.I me to understand in this passage?-tbey'II be on their way to malcing' app ropriateinference,s determining what theauthor is trying to show without stating it directly.

Wecan also teach students to readcarefully with theeyeof a writer, which means helping them analyze craft. How a text is written is as important as the content itself in getting the author's· message across. Just as a movie director focuses thecamera on a particular detail toget you to view the scene the way be or she wants you to, authors play with words to get you to see a text their way. Introducing students to some of the tricks authors useopens students' minds to an entirely new realm in close reading.

Q. According to the author what is inductive reasoning with regard to Close Reading?

Solution:
QUESTION: 45

Read the following passages carefully and identify most appropriate answer to the questions given at the end of each passage.

I wear a variety of professional hats- universityprofessor, literacy consultant to districts, authorof several books related tocomprehensio.nTokeep myself honest (and humble); l spend a lot of time in classrooms watching kids and teachers at work. During the past decade, I've observed a transformationin the teaching of reading from an approw:h that measured readers' successful understanding of text through lengthy packets of comprehension questions to one that requires students to think about their thinking, activating their "good reader" strategies. Close readin-g is deep analysis of bow a literary text works; it is both a· reading process and something you include in a literary analysis paper, though in a rened form. Fiction writers and poets build texts out of many central components, including subject, form, and specic word choices. Essentially, close reading means reading to uncover layers of meaning that lead to deep comprehension. "Close, analytic reading stresses engaging with a text of sucient complexity directly and examining meaning thoroughly and methodically, encouraging students to read and reread deliberately. Directing student attention on the text itself empowers students to understand the central ideas and key supponing details. It also enables students to reecton the meaningsof individual words and sentences; theorder in which sentences unfold; and the development of ideas over the course of the text, which ultimately leads students to arrive at an understanding of the text as a whole." Reread the denition of close reading - closely-to extract .key concepts. You might identify these ideas: examining meaning thoroughly andanalytically; directing attention to the text,central ideas,andsupponiog details; reecting on meanings of individual words and sentences; and developing ideas overthecourse of the text. Notice that reader reection is still integral to the process. But close reading goes beyond that: The best thinkers do monitor and assess their thinking, but in the context of processing the thinking of others (Paul & Elder, 2008).

When you close read, you observe facts and details about the text. You may focus on a particular passage, or on the text as a whole. Your aim may be10 notice all striking features of the text, including rhetorical features, structural elements and cultural references; or, your aim may be to notice only selected features of the text- for instance, oppositions and correspondences, or particular historical references. Either way, making these observations constitutes the rst step in the process of close reading. The second step is interpreting your observations. What we're basically talking about here is inductive reasoning: moving from the observation of particular fac:ts and details to a conclusion, or interpretation, based on those observations. And, as with inductive reasoning, close reading requires careful gathering ofdata (yo,ur observations) and careful thinking about what these data add up to. Literary analysis involves examining these components, which stllows us to nd in small parts of the text clues to help us understand the whole. For example, if an author writes a novel in the fonn of a personal journal about a character's daily life, but that journal reads like a series oab reports, what do we learn about that character? What is theeffect of picking a word like "tome" instead of ''book"? In effect, you are putting the author's choices under a microscope. The process of close reading should produce a lotof questions. It is when you begin to answer these questions that you are ready to participate thoughtfully in class di cussion or write a literary analysis paper that makes the mostof your close reading work.Close reading sometimes feels like overanalyzing, but don worry. Close reading is a process of nding as much informatio.n as you can in order to form as many questions as you can. When it is time to write your paper and formalize your close reading, you ill.sorthrough your work to gure out what is most convincing and helpful to theargument you hope to make and, conversely, what seems like a stretch. It's our responsibility as educators to build students' capacity for indepenllently comprehending a text through close reading. Teaching isabout transfer. The goal isforstudents to!Blee what they learn from the study of one text and apply it to the next text·theyread: How can we ensure that students both reap the requisite knowledge from each text they read and acquire skills to pursue the meaning of other tex:ts independently? I suggest wecoach students toask themselves four basic questions as theyreec!on a specic portion of any text,eventhe shortest: What is theauthor telling me here? Are there anyhard or important words? What does the author want me to understand? How does theauthor playwith language toadd tomeaning? If students take time to ask themselves these questions while reading and become skillful at answering them, there'll beless need for the teacher to doall theasking. For this to happen, we must develop stui:lents' capacity to observe and analyze. First things rst: See whetherstudents have noticed the details of a passage and can recount those details in their own words. Note that the challenge here isn't to be brief (as in a summary); it's to be accurate, precise, andclear.

The recent focus on nding evidence in a text has sent students (even in primary grades) scurrying back to their books to retrieve a quote that validates their opinion. But to paraphrase what that quote means in a student's own language, rather than the author's, is more dicult than you might think. Try it with any paragraph. Expressing the same meaning with different words often requires going back to that text a few timesto getthedetails just right.Paraphrasing is pretty low on Bloom's continuum of lower- to higher-order thinking, yet many students stumble even b:ere. This is the rst stop along the journey to close reading. If students can't paraphrase the basic contentof a passage, howcan they digfor its deeper meaning? Thesecond basic question about hard or important words encourages students to zoom in on precise meaning. When students aresatised that they have a basic grasp of what theauthor is telling them, they're ready to move on to analyzing the ne points of content. If students begin their analysis byasking themselves the thirdquestion- What does the author wan.I me to understand in this passage?-tbey'II be on their way to malcing' app ropriateinference,s determining what theauthor is trying to show without stating it directly.

Wecan also teach students to readcarefully with theeyeof a writer, which means helping them analyze craft. How a text is written is as important as the content itself in getting the author's· message across. Just as a movie director focuses thecamera on a particular detail toget you to view the scene the way be or she wants you to, authors play with words to get you to see a text their way. Introducing students to some of the tricks authors useopens students' minds to an entirely new realm in close reading.

Q. According to the passage, what is the importance of ' paraphrasing' for students?

Solution:
QUESTION: 46

Read the following passages carefully and identify most appropriate answer to the questions given at the end of each passage.

I wear a variety of professional hats- universityprofessor, literacy consultant to districts, authorof several books related tocomprehensio.nTokeep myself honest (and humble); l spend a lot of time in classrooms watching kids and teachers at work. During the past decade, I've observed a transformationin the teaching of reading from an approw:h that measured readers' successful understanding of text through lengthy packets of comprehension questions to one that requires students to think about their thinking, activating their "good reader" strategies. Close readin-g is deep analysis of bow a literary text works; it is both a· reading process and something you include in a literary analysis paper, though in a rened form. Fiction writers and poets build texts out of many central components, including subject, form, and specic word choices. Essentially, close reading means reading to uncover layers of meaning that lead to deep comprehension. "Close, analytic reading stresses engaging with a text of sucient complexity directly and examining meaning thoroughly and methodically, encouraging students to read and reread deliberately. Directing student attention on the text itself empowers students to understand the central ideas and key supponing details. It also enables students to reecton the meaningsof individual words and sentences; theorder in which sentences unfold; and the development of ideas over the course of the text, which ultimately leads students to arrive at an understanding of the text as a whole." Reread the denition of close reading - closely-to extract .key concepts. You might identify these ideas: examining meaning thoroughly andanalytically; directing attention to the text,central ideas,andsupponiog details; reecting on meanings of individual words and sentences; and developing ideas overthecourse of the text. Notice that reader reection is still integral to the process. But close reading goes beyond that: The best thinkers do monitor and assess their thinking, but in the context of processing the thinking of others (Paul & Elder, 2008).

When you close read, you observe facts and details about the text. You may focus on a particular passage, or on the text as a whole. Your aim may be10 notice all striking features of the text, including rhetorical features, structural elements and cultural references; or, your aim may be to notice only selected features of the text- for instance, oppositions and correspondences, or particular historical references. Either way, making these observations constitutes the rst step in the process of close reading. The second step is interpreting your observations. What we're basically talking about here is inductive reasoning: moving from the observation of particular fac:ts and details to a conclusion, or interpretation, based on those observations. And, as with inductive reasoning, close reading requires careful gathering ofdata (yo,ur observations) and careful thinking about what these data add up to. Literary analysis involves examining these components, which stllows us to nd in small parts of the text clues to help us understand the whole. For example, if an author writes a novel in the fonn of a personal journal about a character's daily life, but that journal reads like a series oab reports, what do we learn about that character? What is theeffect of picking a word like "tome" instead of ''book"? In effect, you are putting the author's choices under a microscope. The process of close reading should produce a lotof questions. It is when you begin to answer these questions that you are ready to participate thoughtfully in class di cussion or write a literary analysis paper that makes the mostof your close reading work.Close reading sometimes feels like overanalyzing, but don worry. Close reading is a process of nding as much informatio.n as you can in order to form as many questions as you can. When it is time to write your paper and formalize your close reading, you ill.sorthrough your work to gure out what is most convincing and helpful to theargument you hope to make and, conversely, what seems like a stretch. It's our responsibility as educators to build students' capacity for indepenllently comprehending a text through close reading. Teaching isabout transfer. The goal isforstudents to!Blee what they learn from the study of one text and apply it to the next text·theyread: How can we ensure that students both reap the requisite knowledge from each text they read and acquire skills to pursue the meaning of other tex:ts independently? I suggest wecoach students toask themselves four basic questions as theyreec!on a specic portion of any text,eventhe shortest: What is theauthor telling me here? Are there anyhard or important words? What does the author want me to understand? How does theauthor playwith language toadd tomeaning? If students take time to ask themselves these questions while reading and become skillful at answering them, there'll beless need for the teacher to doall theasking. For this to happen, we must develop stui:lents' capacity to observe and analyze. First things rst: See whetherstudents have noticed the details of a passage and can recount those details in their own words. Note that the challenge here isn't to be brief (as in a summary); it's to be accurate, precise, andclear.

The recent focus on nding evidence in a text has sent students (even in primary grades) scurrying back to their books to retrieve a quote that validates their opinion. But to paraphrase what that quote means in a student's own language, rather than the author's, is more dicult than you might think. Try it with any paragraph. Expressing the same meaning with different words often requires going back to that text a few timesto getthedetails just right.Paraphrasing is pretty low on Bloom's continuum of lower- to higher-order thinking, yet many students stumble even b:ere. This is the rst stop along the journey to close reading. If students can't paraphrase the basic contentof a passage, howcan they digfor its deeper meaning? Thesecond basic question about hard or important words encourages students to zoom in on precise meaning. When students aresatised that they have a basic grasp of what theauthor is telling them, they're ready to move on to analyzing the ne points of content. If students begin their analysis byasking themselves the thirdquestion- What does the author wan.I me to understand in this passage?-tbey'II be on their way to malcing' app ropriateinference,s determining what theauthor is trying to show without stating it directly.

Wecan also teach students to readcarefully with theeyeof a writer, which means helping them analyze craft. How a text is written is as important as the content itself in getting the author's· message across. Just as a movie director focuses thecamera on a particular detail toget you to view the scene the way be or she wants you to, authors play with words to get you to see a text their way. Introducing students to some of the tricks authors useopens students' minds to an entirely new realm in close reading.

Q. With reference to the above passage, what responsibility, according to the author, do educators have?

Solution:
QUESTION: 47

Read the following passages carefully and identify most appropriate answer to the questions given at the end of each passage:

As someone' said, this crisis was too valuable to waste. 1, for one, learnt many lessons on crisis management and leadership. By far the most important lesson I learnt is that the primary focus of a central bank during a crisis has to be on restoring condence in the markets, and what this requires is swift, bold and decisive action. This is not as obvious'as it sounds because central banks are typically given to agonizing over every !hove they make out of anxiety that failure of their actions to deliver the intended impact will hurt their creditability and their policy effectiveness down the line.There is a lot to besaid forsuch deliberative action in normal rimes: In crisis times though, it is important for them to take more chances without being too mindful of whether all of their actions are going to be fully effective or even mildly successful. After all, crisis management is a percentage game and you do what you think bas the best chance of reversing the momentum. Oftentimes, it is the fact of the action rather than the precise nature of the action that bolsters condence. Take the R rve Bank's measure I wrote about earlier of instituting exclusive lines of credit for augmenting the liquidity of NBFCs and mutual funds (MFs) which came under redemption pressure. lt is s imply unthinkable that the Reserve Bank would have done anything like this in normal times. In the event of a liquidity constraint in normal times, the standard responseof the Reserve Bank would be to ease liquidity in the overall system an_d leave it to the banks to determine bow 10 usethat additional liquidity.

But here, we were targeting monetary policy at a particular class of nancial institutions-the MFs &Qd; NBFCs-a decidedly unconventional action. This departure from standard protocol pushed some of our senior staff beyond their comfort zones. Their reservations ranged from: 'this is not bow monetary policy is done' to 'this will make the Reserve Bank vulnerable to pressures to bail out other sectors'. After hearing them out, I made the call to go ahead: Market participants applauded the new facility and saw it as the Reserve Bank's willingness to embrace unorthodox measures to address Specic areas of pressure in the system. In the event, these facilities were not signicantly tapped: In normal times, that would have been seen as a failure of policy. From the crisis perspective though, it was a success inasmuch as the very existence of the central bank backstop restored condence in the NBFCs and MFs, and smoothed pressures in the nancial system. Similarly, the cut in the repo rate of one full percentage point that I effected in October 2008 was a non-standard action from the perspective of a central bank used to cutting the interest rate by a maximum of half a percentage point (50 basis points in the jargon) when it wanted to signal strong action. Of course, we deliberated the advisability of going into uncharted waters and how it might set expectations. for the future. For example, in the future, the market may discount a 50 basis-point cut as too tame. But considering the uncertainand unpredictable globalenvironment and th. e imperativeto improve the owof credit in a stressed situation, I bit the bullet again and decided on a full percentage-point cut.

Managing the tension between short-term pay-offs and longer-term consequences is a constant struggle in all central bank policychoices as indeed it is in all public policy decisions. This balance between horizons shifts in crisis times, as dousing the res becomes an overriding priority even if some of the actions taken to do that may have·some longer-term costs. For example, in 2008, we saw massive infusion of liquidity as the best bet for preserving the nancial stability of our markets. Indee, d in uncharted waters, erring on the sideof caution meant providing the system with more liquidity than considered adequate. This strategy was effective in the s hort-term, but with hindsight, we know that excess liquidity may have reinfQICed ination pressures down the line. But remember, we were making a judgement call in real time. Analysts wh.o are criticizing us are doing so with the benet of hindsight. Another lesson we learnt is that even in a global crisis, central banks have to adapt their responses to domestic conditions. I am saying this because all through rhc crisis months. whenever another central bank, especially an advanced economy central bank, announced any measure, there was immediate pressure that the Reserve Bank too should institute a similar measure. Such straightforward copying of measures of other central banks without rst e xamining their appropriateness for the domestic situation can often do more harm than good: Let me illustrate. During th depth of the crisis, fearing a run on their banks, the UK authorities bad extended deposit insurance across board to all deposits in the UK banking system. Immediately, there were commentators asking that the Reserve Bank too must embrace s uch an all-out measure. If we had actually done that, the results would have been counterproductive if not outright hannful. First, the available premium would not have been able to support such a blanket insurance, and the markets were aware of that.

If we had glossed over that and announced a blanket cover anyway, that action would have clearly lacked credibility. Besides, any such move would be at odds with what we had been asserting-that our banks and our nancial systems were safe and sound: The inconsistency between our walk and talk would have confused the markets; instead of reassuring them, any blanket insurance of the UK type·would have scared the public and sown seeds of doubt about thesafety of their bank deposits, potentially triggering a run on some vulnerable banks. Finally, an importani lesson from thecrisis relates to the imperative of the government and the regulators speaking and acting in unisoo. It is possible to argue that public disclosure of differences within closed doors of policymaking could actually be helpful in enhancing public understanding on how policy might evolve in the future. For example, a 6-6 vote conveys a different message from a 12-0 vote. During crisis times, though, sending mixed signals to fragile markets can do huge damage. On the other hand, thedemonstration of unity of purpose would reassure markets and yield great synergies. The experience of the crisis from around the world, and our own experience too, showedthat coordination could be managed without compromising regulatory autonomy. Merely synchro nizing policy announcements for exploiting the synergistic impact need not necessarily imply that regulators were being forced into actions they did not own.

Q. What 'crisis' is theauthor referring to, in the above passage?

Solution:
QUESTION: 48

Read the following passages carefully and identify most appropriate answer to the questions given at the end of each passage:

As someone' said, this crisis was too valuable to waste. 1, for one, learnt many lessons on crisis management and leadership. By far the most important lesson I learnt is that the primary focus of a central bank during a crisis has to be on restoring condence in the markets, and what this requires is swift, bold and decisive action. This is not as obvious'as it sounds because central banks are typically given to agonizing over every !hove they make out of anxiety that failure of their actions to deliver the intended impact will hurt their creditability and their policy effectiveness down the line.There is a lot to besaid forsuch deliberative action in normal rimes: In crisis times though, it is important for them to take more chances without being too mindful of whether all of their actions are going to be fully effective or even mildly successful. After all, crisis management is a percentage game and you do what you think bas the best chance of reversing the momentum. Oftentimes, it is the fact of the action rather than the precise nature of the action that bolsters condence. Take the R rve Bank's measure I wrote about earlier of instituting exclusive lines of credit for augmenting the liquidity of NBFCs and mutual funds (MFs) which came under redemption pressure. lt is s imply unthinkable that the Reserve Bank would have done anything like this in normal times. In the event of a liquidity constraint in normal times, the standard responseof the Reserve Bank would be to ease liquidity in the overall system an_d leave it to the banks to determine bow 10 usethat additional liquidity.

But here, we were targeting monetary policy at a particular class of nancial institutions-the MFs &Qd; NBFCs-a decidedly unconventional action. This departure from standard protocol pushed some of our senior staff beyond their comfort zones. Their reservations ranged from: 'this is not bow monetary policy is done' to 'this will make the Reserve Bank vulnerable to pressures to bail out other sectors'. After hearing them out, I made the call to go ahead: Market participants applauded the new facility and saw it as the Reserve Bank's willingness to embrace unorthodox measures to address Specic areas of pressure in the system. In the event, these facilities were not signicantly tapped: In normal times, that would have been seen as a failure of policy. From the crisis perspective though, it was a success inasmuch as the very existence of the central bank backstop restored condence in the NBFCs and MFs, and smoothed pressures in the nancial system. Similarly, the cut in the repo rate of one full percentage point that I effected in October 2008 was a non-standard action from the perspective of a central bank used to cutting the interest rate by a maximum of half a percentage point (50 basis points in the jargon) when it wanted to signal strong action. Of course, we deliberated the advisability of going into uncharted waters and how it might set expectations. for the future. For example, in the future, the market may discount a 50 basis-point cut as too tame. But considering the uncertainand unpredictable globalenvironment and th. e imperativeto improve the owof credit in a stressed situation, I bit the bullet again and decided on a full percentage-point cut.

Managing the tension between short-term pay-offs and longer-term consequences is a constant struggle in all central bank policychoices as indeed it is in all public policy decisions. This balance between horizons shifts in crisis times, as dousing the res becomes an overriding priority even if some of the actions taken to do that may have·some longer-term costs. For example, in 2008, we saw massive infusion of liquidity as the best bet for preserving the nancial stability of our markets. Indee, d in uncharted waters, erring on the sideof caution meant providing the system with more liquidity than considered adequate. This strategy was effective in the s hort-term, but with hindsight, we know that excess liquidity may have reinfQICed ination pressures down the line. But remember, we were making a judgement call in real time. Analysts wh.o are criticizing us are doing so with the benet of hindsight. Another lesson we learnt is that even in a global crisis, central banks have to adapt their responses to domestic conditions. I am saying this because all through rhc crisis months. whenever another central bank, especially an advanced economy central bank, announced any measure, there was immediate pressure that the Reserve Bank too should institute a similar measure. Such straightforward copying of measures of other central banks without rst e xamining their appropriateness for the domestic situation can often do more harm than good: Let me illustrate. During th depth of the crisis, fearing a run on their banks, the UK authorities bad extended deposit insurance across board to all deposits in the UK banking system. Immediately, there were commentators asking that the Reserve Bank too must embrace s uch an all-out measure. If we had actually done that, the results would have been counterproductive if not outright hannful. First, the available premium would not have been able to support such a blanket insurance, and the markets were aware of that.

If we had glossed over that and announced a blanket cover anyway, that action would have clearly lacked credibility. Besides, any such move would be at odds with what we had been asserting-that our banks and our nancial systems were safe and sound: The inconsistency between our walk and talk would have confused the markets; instead of reassuring them, any blanket insurance of the UK type·would have scared the public and sown seeds of doubt about thesafety of their bank deposits, potentially triggering a run on some vulnerable banks. Finally, an importani lesson from thecrisis relates to the imperative of the government and the regulators speaking and acting in unisoo. It is possible to argue that public disclosure of differences within closed doors of policymaking could actually be helpful in enhancing public understanding on how policy might evolve in the future. For example, a 6-6 vote conveys a different message from a 12-0 vote. During crisis times, though, sending mixed signals to fragile markets can do huge damage. On the other hand, thedemonstration of unity of purpose would reassure markets and yield great synergies. The experience of the crisis from around the world, and our own experience too, showedthat coordination could be managed without compromising regulatory autonomy. Merely synchro nizing policy announcements for exploiting the synergistic impact need not necessarily imply that regulators were being forced into actions they did not own.

Q. According to the author, what is the typical response of central banks in times of crisis? Answer with reference to the passage.

Solution:
QUESTION: 49

Read the following passages carefully and identify most appropriate answer to the questions given at the end of each passage:

As someone' said, this crisis was too valuable to waste. 1, for one, learnt many lessons on crisis management and leadership. By far the most important lesson I learnt is that the primary focus of a central bank during a crisis has to be on restoring condence in the markets, and what this requires is swift, bold and decisive action. This is not as obvious'as it sounds because central banks are typically given to agonizing over every !hove they make out of anxiety that failure of their actions to deliver the intended impact will hurt their creditability and their policy effectiveness down the line.There is a lot to besaid forsuch deliberative action in normal rimes: In crisis times though, it is important for them to take more chances without being too mindful of whether all of their actions are going to be fully effective or even mildly successful. After all, crisis management is a percentage game and you do what you think bas the best chance of reversing the momentum. Oftentimes, it is the fact of the action rather than the precise nature of the action that bolsters condence. Take the R rve Bank's measure I wrote about earlier of instituting exclusive lines of credit for augmenting the liquidity of NBFCs and mutual funds (MFs) which came under redemption pressure. lt is s imply unthinkable that the Reserve Bank would have done anything like this in normal times. In the event of a liquidity constraint in normal times, the standard responseof the Reserve Bank would be to ease liquidity in the overall system an_d leave it to the banks to determine bow 10 usethat additional liquidity.

But here, we were targeting monetary policy at a particular class of nancial institutions-the MFs &Qd; NBFCs-a decidedly unconventional action. This departure from standard protocol pushed some of our senior staff beyond their comfort zones. Their reservations ranged from: 'this is not bow monetary policy is done' to 'this will make the Reserve Bank vulnerable to pressures to bail out other sectors'. After hearing them out, I made the call to go ahead: Market participants applauded the new facility and saw it as the Reserve Bank's willingness to embrace unorthodox measures to address Specic areas of pressure in the system. In the event, these facilities were not signicantly tapped: In normal times, that would have been seen as a failure of policy. From the crisis perspective though, it was a success inasmuch as the very existence of the central bank backstop restored condence in the NBFCs and MFs, and smoothed pressures in the nancial system. Similarly, the cut in the repo rate of one full percentage point that I effected in October 2008 was a non-standard action from the perspective of a central bank used to cutting the interest rate by a maximum of half a percentage point (50 basis points in the jargon) when it wanted to signal strong action. Of course, we deliberated the advisability of going into uncharted waters and how it might set expectations. for the future. For example, in the future, the market may discount a 50 basis-point cut as too tame. But considering the uncertainand unpredictable globalenvironment and th. e imperativeto improve the owof credit in a stressed situation, I bit the bullet again and decided on a full percentage-point cut.

Managing the tension between short-term pay-offs and longer-term consequences is a constant struggle in all central bank policychoices as indeed it is in all public policy decisions. This balance between horizons shifts in crisis times, as dousing the res becomes an overriding priority even if some of the actions taken to do that may have·some longer-term costs. For example, in 2008, we saw massive infusion of liquidity as the best bet for preserving the nancial stability of our markets. Indee, d in uncharted waters, erring on the sideof caution meant providing the system with more liquidity than considered adequate. This strategy was effective in the s hort-term, but with hindsight, we know that excess liquidity may have reinfQICed ination pressures down the line. But remember, we were making a judgement call in real time. Analysts wh.o are criticizing us are doing so with the benet of hindsight. Another lesson we learnt is that even in a global crisis, central banks have to adapt their responses to domestic conditions. I am saying this because all through rhc crisis months. whenever another central bank, especially an advanced economy central bank, announced any measure, there was immediate pressure that the Reserve Bank too should institute a similar measure. Such straightforward copying of measures of other central banks without rst e xamining their appropriateness for the domestic situation can often do more harm than good: Let me illustrate. During th depth of the crisis, fearing a run on their banks, the UK authorities bad extended deposit insurance across board to all deposits in the UK banking system. Immediately, there were commentators asking that the Reserve Bank too must embrace s uch an all-out measure. If we had actually done that, the results would have been counterproductive if not outright hannful. First, the available premium would not have been able to support such a blanket insurance, and the markets were aware of that.

If we had glossed over that and announced a blanket cover anyway, that action would have clearly lacked credibility. Besides, any such move would be at odds with what we had been asserting-that our banks and our nancial systems were safe and sound: The inconsistency between our walk and talk would have confused the markets; instead of reassuring them, any blanket insurance of the UK type·would have scared the public and sown seeds of doubt about thesafety of their bank deposits, potentially triggering a run on some vulnerable banks. Finally, an importani lesson from thecrisis relates to the imperative of the government and the regulators speaking and acting in unisoo. It is possible to argue that public disclosure of differences within closed doors of policymaking could actually be helpful in enhancing public understanding on how policy might evolve in the future. For example, a 6-6 vote conveys a different message from a 12-0 vote. During crisis times, though, sending mixed signals to fragile markets can do huge damage. On the other hand, thedemonstration of unity of purpose would reassure markets and yield great synergies. The experience of the crisis from around the world, and our own experience too, showedthat coordination could be managed without compromising regulatory autonomy. Merely synchro nizing policy announcements for exploiting the synergistic impact need not necessarily imply that regulators were being forced into actions they did not own.

Q. Why does the author say ".. .even in a global crisis, central banks have to adapt their responses to domestic conditions"? Answer with reference to passage

Solution:
QUESTION: 50

Read the following passages carefully and identify most appropriate answer to the questions given at the end of each passage:

As someone' said, this crisis was too valuable to waste. 1, for one, learnt many lessons on crisis management and leadership. By far the most important lesson I learnt is that the primary focus of a central bank during a crisis has to be on restoring condence in the markets, and what this requires is swift, bold and decisive action. This is not as obvious'as it sounds because central banks are typically given to agonizing over every !hove they make out of anxiety that failure of their actions to deliver the intended impact will hurt their creditability and their policy effectiveness down the line.There is a lot to besaid forsuch deliberative action in normal rimes: In crisis times though, it is important for them to take more chances without being too mindful of whether all of their actions are going to be fully effective or even mildly successful. After all, crisis management is a percentage game and you do what you think bas the best chance of reversing the momentum. Oftentimes, it is the fact of the action rather than the precise nature of the action that bolsters condence. Take the R rve Bank's measure I wrote about earlier of instituting exclusive lines of credit for augmenting the liquidity of NBFCs and mutual funds (MFs) which came under redemption pressure. lt is s imply unthinkable that the Reserve Bank would have done anything like this in normal times. In the event of a liquidity constraint in normal times, the standard responseof the Reserve Bank would be to ease liquidity in the overall system an_d leave it to the banks to determine bow 10 usethat additional liquidity.

But here, we were targeting monetary policy at a particular class of nancial institutions-the MFs &Qd; NBFCs-a decidedly unconventional action. This departure from standard protocol pushed some of our senior staff beyond their comfort zones. Their reservations ranged from: 'this is not bow monetary policy is done' to 'this will make the Reserve Bank vulnerable to pressures to bail out other sectors'. After hearing them out, I made the call to go ahead: Market participants applauded the new facility and saw it as the Reserve Bank's willingness to embrace unorthodox measures to address Specic areas of pressure in the system. In the event, these facilities were not signicantly tapped: In normal times, that would have been seen as a failure of policy. From the crisis perspective though, it was a success inasmuch as the very existence of the central bank backstop restored condence in the NBFCs and MFs, and smoothed pressures in the nancial system. Similarly, the cut in the repo rate of one full percentage point that I effected in October 2008 was a non-standard action from the perspective of a central bank used to cutting the interest rate by a maximum of half a percentage point (50 basis points in the jargon) when it wanted to signal strong action. Of course, we deliberated the advisability of going into uncharted waters and how it might set expectations. for the future. For example, in the future, the market may discount a 50 basis-point cut as too tame. But considering the uncertainand unpredictable globalenvironment and th. e imperativeto improve the owof credit in a stressed situation, I bit the bullet again and decided on a full percentage-point cut.

Managing the tension between short-term pay-offs and longer-term consequences is a constant struggle in all central bank policychoices as indeed it is in all public policy decisions. This balance between horizons shifts in crisis times, as dousing the res becomes an overriding priority even if some of the actions taken to do that may have·some longer-term costs. For example, in 2008, we saw massive infusion of liquidity as the best bet for preserving the nancial stability of our markets. Indee, d in uncharted waters, erring on the sideof caution meant providing the system with more liquidity than considered adequate. This strategy was effective in the s hort-term, but with hindsight, we know that excess liquidity may have reinfQICed ination pressures down the line. But remember, we were making a judgement call in real time. Analysts wh.o are criticizing us are doing so with the benet of hindsight. Another lesson we learnt is that even in a global crisis, central banks have to adapt their responses to domestic conditions. I am saying this because all through rhc crisis months. whenever another central bank, especially an advanced economy central bank, announced any measure, there was immediate pressure that the Reserve Bank too should institute a similar measure. Such straightforward copying of measures of other central banks without rst e xamining their appropriateness for the domestic situation can often do more harm than good: Let me illustrate. During th depth of the crisis, fearing a run on their banks, the UK authorities bad extended deposit insurance across board to all deposits in the UK banking system. Immediately, there were commentators asking that the Reserve Bank too must embrace s uch an all-out measure. If we had actually done that, the results would have been counterproductive if not outright hannful. First, the available premium would not have been able to support such a blanket insurance, and the markets were aware of that.

If we had glossed over that and announced a blanket cover anyway, that action would have clearly lacked credibility. Besides, any such move would be at odds with what we had been asserting-that our banks and our nancial systems were safe and sound: The inconsistency between our walk and talk would have confused the markets; instead of reassuring them, any blanket insurance of the UK type·would have scared the public and sown seeds of doubt about thesafety of their bank deposits, potentially triggering a run on some vulnerable banks. Finally, an importani lesson from thecrisis relates to the imperative of the government and the regulators speaking and acting in unisoo. It is possible to argue that public disclosure of differences within closed doors of policymaking could actually be helpful in enhancing public understanding on how policy might evolve in the future. For example, a 6-6 vote conveys a different message from a 12-0 vote. During crisis times, though, sending mixed signals to fragile markets can do huge damage. On the other hand, thedemonstration of unity of purpose would reassure markets and yield great synergies. The experience of the crisis from around the world, and our own experience too, showedthat coordination could be managed without compromising regulatory autonomy. Merely synchro nizing policy announcements for exploiting the synergistic impact need not necessarily imply that regulators were being forced into actions they did not own.

Q. With reference to theabove passage, what is the role of government and regulators in times of crisis? Select the most ppropriate response with reference to information provided in the passage.

Solution:
QUESTION: 51

Read the following passages carefully and identify most appropriate answer to the questions given at the end of each passage:

Any company can generate simple desc riptive statistics about aspects of its business-average revenue per employee, for example, or average order size. But analytics competitors look well beyond basic statistics. These companies ose predictive modelling to identify the most protable customers-plus those with the greate t prot potential and the ones mo.st likely to cancel their accounts. They pool data generated in-house and data acquired from outside sources (which they analyze more deeply than do their lessstatisticallysavvy competitors) for a comprehensive understanding of their customers. They optimize their supply chains and can thus detennine the impact of an unexpected constraint, simulate alternatives and route shipmentS around problems. They establish prices in real time to get the highest yield possible from each of theircustomer transactions. They create complex models of how theiroperational costs relate to their nancial perfonnance. Leaders in analytics also use sophisticated experiments to measure the overall impact or "lift" of intervention strategies and then apply the results to continuously improve subsequent analyses. Capital One, for example, conducts more than 30,000 experiments a year, with different interest rates, incentives, direct-mail packaging, and other variables. Its goal is to maximize the likelihood both that potential customers will sign up for credit cards and that they will pay back Capital One.

Analytics competitorsunderstand that most business functions- even tllose, like marketing, that have historically depended on art rather than science-can be improved with sophisticated quantitative techniques. These organizations don't gain advantag·e from·one killer app, but rather from multiple applications supporting many parts of the business-and, in-a few cases, bein·grolled out for use by customers and suppliers. UPS embodies the evolution from targeted analytics user to comprehensive analytics competitor. Although the company is among the world's most rigorous practitioners of operations research and industrial engineering, its capabilities were, until fairly recently, narrowly focused: Today, UPS is wielding its statistical skill to track the movement of packages and to anticipate and inuence the actions of peopleassessing the likelihood of customer attrition and identifying sources of problems. The UPS Customer Intelligence Group, for example, is able to accurately predict customer defections by examining usage patterns and complaints.

When the data point to a potential defector, a salesperson contacts that customer to review and resolve the problem, dramatically reducing the loss of accounts. UPS still lacks the breadth of initiatives of a full-bore analytics competitor, but it is heading in that direction. Analytics competitors treat.all such activities from all provenances as a single, coherent initiative, often massed under one rubric,such as "infonnation-based strategy" at Capital One or "informationbased c:ustomer management" at Barclays Bank. These programs operate not just under a common label but also under common leadership and with common technology and tools. In traditional companies, "business intelligence" (the term IT people use for analytics and reporting processes and software) is generally managed by departments; number-crunching functions select their own tools, control theirown data warehouses, and train their own people. But that way, chaos lies. For one thing, the proliferation of user-developed spreadsheets and databases inevita bly leads to multiple versions of key indicators within an C?rg anization.

Furthermore, research has shown that between 20% and 40% of spreadsheets contain errors; the more spreadsheetS oating around a company, therefore, the more fecwid the breeding ground for mist,lkes. Analytics competitors, by contrast, eld centralized groups to ensure that critical data and other resources are well managed and that different parts of the organization can share. data easily, without the impediments of inconsistent fonnats, denitions, and standards. Some analytics competitors apply the same eoterp e approach to people as to technology. Procter & Gamble, for example, recently created a kind of uberaoalytics group consisting of more than 100 analysts from such functions as operations, supply chain, sales, consumer research, and' marketing. Although most of the analysts are embedded in business operating units, the group is centrally managed: As a result of this consolidation, P&G; can apply a critical mass of expertise to its most pressing issues. So, for example, sales and marketing analysts supply data onopportunities for growth in existing markets to analysts who design corporate supply nctwotlcs. The supply chain analysts, in rum, apply their exper.tise in certain decision-analysis techniques to such new areas as competitive intelligence. Tbe group at P&G; also raises the visibility of analytical and data basaj decision making within the company. Previously, P&G;'s crack analysts had improved business processes and saved the f!ll money; but because they were squirreled away in dispersed domains, many executives didn't know what services tbey·offered or how effective they could be. Now those executives are more likely to tap the company's deep pool of expertise for their projects. Mean hile, masterful number crunching has become part of the story P &. G tells to investors, the press and the publi .

A cornpaoywide embrace of analytics impels changes in culture, processes, behaviour, and skills for·many employees. And so, like any major transition, it requires leadership from executives at the very top who have a passion for the quantitative approach. Ideally, the principal advocate is the CEO.·Indeed, we found several chief executives who have driven the sltift to analytics at their companies over the past few years, including LovC1!18D of Harrah's, Jeff Bezos of Amazon, and Rich Fairbank of Capital One. Before he retired from theSara Lee BalceryGroup, formerCEOBarry Beracba kepta sign on hisdesk thatsummed up bispersoll41 and organizational philosophy: "In God we trust. All others bring data!' We did come across some companies in which a single functional or business unit leader was trying to push llllalytics throughout the organization, and a few were makii\g some progress. But we found dlat these lowerlevel people lacked the clout, tl:ic P«'spective, and the cross-functional scope to change the culture in any meaningful way. CEOs leading the analytics charge require both an appreciation ofand a familiarity with thesubject.

A backgJOUOd in statistics isn't necessary, but those leaders must understand the theory beltiod various quantitative methods so that they recognize those metl)ods' limitations-which factors are being weighed and wltich ones aren't When the CEOs need help grasping quantitative techniques, they rum to ex rts who understand the business and bow analytics canbe appiied to it We interviewed several leaders who had retained such advisers, and these executives stressed the need to nd someone whocan explain things in plain language and be trusted not . to spin the numbers. A few CEOs we spoke with had surrounded themselves with very analytical peopleprofessors, consutlants, MIT graduates and the like. But that was a personal preference rather than a necessary practise. Of course, no.t all decisions should begrounded in analytics - atleast not wboUy so. Research shows that human beings can make quick, surprisingly accuraie assessments of personality and character based on simple obsetvations. For analytics minded leaders then the challenge boils down to knowing when to run with the numbers and when to run with their guts

Q. With reference to tbe above passage what does the phrase "uberanalytic group" mean?

Solution:
QUESTION: 52

Read the following passages carefully and identify most appropriate answer to the questions given at the end of each passage:

Any company can generate simple desc riptive statistics about aspects of its business-average revenue per employee, for example, or average order size. But analytics competitors look well beyond basic statistics. These companies ose predictive modelling to identify the most protable customers-plus those with the greate t prot potential and the ones mo.st likely to cancel their accounts. They pool data generated in-house and data acquired from outside sources (which they analyze more deeply than do their lessstatisticallysavvy competitors) for a comprehensive understanding of their customers. They optimize their supply chains and can thus detennine the impact of an unexpected constraint, simulate alternatives and route shipmentS around problems. They establish prices in real time to get the highest yield possible from each of theircustomer transactions. They create complex models of how theiroperational costs relate to their nancial perfonnance. Leaders in analytics also use sophisticated experiments to measure the overall impact or "lift" of intervention strategies and then apply the results to continuously improve subsequent analyses. Capital One, for example, conducts more than 30,000 experiments a year, with different interest rates, incentives, direct-mail packaging, and other variables. Its goal is to maximize the likelihood both that potential customers will sign up for credit cards and that they will pay back Capital One.

Analytics competitorsunderstand that most business functions- even tllose, like marketing, that have historically depended on art rather than science-can be improved with sophisticated quantitative techniques. These organizations don't gain advantag·e from·one killer app, but rather from multiple applications supporting many parts of the business-and, in-a few cases, bein·grolled out for use by customers and suppliers. UPS embodies the evolution from targeted analytics user to comprehensive analytics competitor. Although the company is among the world's most rigorous practitioners of operations research and industrial engineering, its capabilities were, until fairly recently, narrowly focused: Today, UPS is wielding its statistical skill to track the movement of packages and to anticipate and inuence the actions of peopleassessing the likelihood of customer attrition and identifying sources of problems. The UPS Customer Intelligence Group, for example, is able to accurately predict customer defections by examining usage patterns and complaints.

When the data point to a potential defector, a salesperson contacts that customer to review and resolve the problem, dramatically reducing the loss of accounts. UPS still lacks the breadth of initiatives of a full-bore analytics competitor, but it is heading in that direction. Analytics competitors treat.all such activities from all provenances as a single, coherent initiative, often massed under one rubric,such as "infonnation-based strategy" at Capital One or "informationbased c:ustomer management" at Barclays Bank. These programs operate not just under a common label but also under common leadership and with common technology and tools. In traditional companies, "business intelligence" (the term IT people use for analytics and reporting processes and software) is generally managed by departments; number-crunching functions select their own tools, control theirown data warehouses, and train their own people. But that way, chaos lies. For one thing, the proliferation of user-developed spreadsheets and databases inevita bly leads to multiple versions of key indicators within an C?rg anization.

Furthermore, research has shown that between 20% and 40% of spreadsheets contain errors; the more spreadsheetS oating around a company, therefore, the more fecwid the breeding ground for mist,lkes. Analytics competitors, by contrast, eld centralized groups to ensure that critical data and other resources are well managed and that different parts of the organization can share. data easily, without the impediments of inconsistent fonnats, denitions, and standards. Some analytics competitors apply the same eoterp e approach to people as to technology. Procter & Gamble, for example, recently created a kind of uberaoalytics group consisting of more than 100 analysts from such functions as operations, supply chain, sales, consumer research, and' marketing. Although most of the analysts are embedded in business operating units, the group is centrally managed: As a result of this consolidation, P&G; can apply a critical mass of expertise to its most pressing issues. So, for example, sales and marketing analysts supply data onopportunities for growth in existing markets to analysts who design corporate supply nctwotlcs. The supply chain analysts, in rum, apply their exper.tise in certain decision-analysis techniques to such new areas as competitive intelligence. Tbe group at P&G; also raises the visibility of analytical and data basaj decision making within the company. Previously, P&G;'s crack analysts had improved business processes and saved the f!ll money; but because they were squirreled away in dispersed domains, many executives didn't know what services tbey·offered or how effective they could be. Now those executives are more likely to tap the company's deep pool of expertise for their projects. Mean hile, masterful number crunching has become part of the story P &. G tells to investors, the press and the publi .

A cornpaoywide embrace of analytics impels changes in culture, processes, behaviour, and skills for·many employees. And so, like any major transition, it requires leadership from executives at the very top who have a passion for the quantitative approach. Ideally, the principal advocate is the CEO.·Indeed, we found several chief executives who have driven the sltift to analytics at their companies over the past few years, including LovC1!18D of Harrah's, Jeff Bezos of Amazon, and Rich Fairbank of Capital One. Before he retired from theSara Lee BalceryGroup, formerCEOBarry Beracba kepta sign on hisdesk thatsummed up bispersoll41 and organizational philosophy: "In God we trust. All others bring data!' We did come across some companies in which a single functional or business unit leader was trying to push llllalytics throughout the organization, and a few were makii\g some progress. But we found dlat these lowerlevel people lacked the clout, tl:ic P«'spective, and the cross-functional scope to change the culture in any meaningful way. CEOs leading the analytics charge require both an appreciation ofand a familiarity with thesubject.

A backgJOUOd in statistics isn't necessary, but those leaders must understand the theory beltiod various quantitative methods so that they recognize those metl)ods' limitations-which factors are being weighed and wltich ones aren't When the CEOs need help grasping quantitative techniques, they rum to ex rts who understand the business and bow analytics canbe appiied to it We interviewed several leaders who had retained such advisers, and these executives stressed the need to nd someone whocan explain things in plain language and be trusted not . to spin the numbers. A few CEOs we spoke with had surrounded themselves with very analytical peopleprofessors, consutlants, MIT graduates and the like. But that was a personal preference rather than a necessary practise. Of course, no.t all decisions should begrounded in analytics - atleast not wboUy so. Research shows that human beings can make quick, surprisingly accuraie assessments of personality and character based on simple obsetvations. For analytics minded leaders then the challenge boils down to knowing when to run with the numbers and when to run with their guts

Q. Replace the phrase' more fecund the breeding ground for mistakes' from the passage by selecting the most appropriate phrase without changing the meaning.

Solution:
QUESTION: 53

Read the following passages carefully and identify most appropriate answer to the questions given at the end of each passage:

Any company can generate simple desc riptive statistics about aspects of its business-average revenue per employee, for example, or average order size. But analytics competitors look well beyond basic statistics. These companies ose predictive modelling to identify the most protable customers-plus those with the greate t prot potential and the ones mo.st likely to cancel their accounts. They pool data generated in-house and data acquired from outside sources (which they analyze more deeply than do their lessstatisticallysavvy competitors) for a comprehensive understanding of their customers. They optimize their supply chains and can thus detennine the impact of an unexpected constraint, simulate alternatives and route shipmentS around problems. They establish prices in real time to get the highest yield possible from each of theircustomer transactions. They create complex models of how theiroperational costs relate to their nancial perfonnance. Leaders in analytics also use sophisticated experiments to measure the overall impact or "lift" of intervention strategies and then apply the results to continuously improve subsequent analyses. Capital One, for example, conducts more than 30,000 experiments a year, with different interest rates, incentives, direct-mail packaging, and other variables. Its goal is to maximize the likelihood both that potential customers will sign up for credit cards and that they will pay back Capital One.

Analytics competitorsunderstand that most business functions- even tllose, like marketing, that have historically depended on art rather than science-can be improved with sophisticated quantitative techniques. These organizations don't gain advantag·e from·one killer app, but rather from multiple applications supporting many parts of the business-and, in-a few cases, bein·grolled out for use by customers and suppliers. UPS embodies the evolution from targeted analytics user to comprehensive analytics competitor. Although the company is among the world's most rigorous practitioners of operations research and industrial engineering, its capabilities were, until fairly recently, narrowly focused: Today, UPS is wielding its statistical skill to track the movement of packages and to anticipate and inuence the actions of peopleassessing the likelihood of customer attrition and identifying sources of problems. The UPS Customer Intelligence Group, for example, is able to accurately predict customer defections by examining usage patterns and complaints.

When the data point to a potential defector, a salesperson contacts that customer to review and resolve the problem, dramatically reducing the loss of accounts. UPS still lacks the breadth of initiatives of a full-bore analytics competitor, but it is heading in that direction. Analytics competitors treat.all such activities from all provenances as a single, coherent initiative, often massed under one rubric,such as "infonnation-based strategy" at Capital One or "informationbased c:ustomer management" at Barclays Bank. These programs operate not just under a common label but also under common leadership and with common technology and tools. In traditional companies, "business intelligence" (the term IT people use for analytics and reporting processes and software) is generally managed by departments; number-crunching functions select their own tools, control theirown data warehouses, and train their own people. But that way, chaos lies. For one thing, the proliferation of user-developed spreadsheets and databases inevita bly leads to multiple versions of key indicators within an C?rg anization.

Furthermore, research has shown that between 20% and 40% of spreadsheets contain errors; the more spreadsheetS oating around a company, therefore, the more fecwid the breeding ground for mist,lkes. Analytics competitors, by contrast, eld centralized groups to ensure that critical data and other resources are well managed and that different parts of the organization can share. data easily, without the impediments of inconsistent fonnats, denitions, and standards. Some analytics competitors apply the same eoterp e approach to people as to technology. Procter & Gamble, for example, recently created a kind of uberaoalytics group consisting of more than 100 analysts from such functions as operations, supply chain, sales, consumer research, and' marketing. Although most of the analysts are embedded in business operating units, the group is centrally managed: As a result of this consolidation, P&G; can apply a critical mass of expertise to its most pressing issues. So, for example, sales and marketing analysts supply data onopportunities for growth in existing markets to analysts who design corporate supply nctwotlcs. The supply chain analysts, in rum, apply their exper.tise in certain decision-analysis techniques to such new areas as competitive intelligence. Tbe group at P&G; also raises the visibility of analytical and data basaj decision making within the company. Previously, P&G;'s crack analysts had improved business processes and saved the f!ll money; but because they were squirreled away in dispersed domains, many executives didn't know what services tbey·offered or how effective they could be. Now those executives are more likely to tap the company's deep pool of expertise for their projects. Mean hile, masterful number crunching has become part of the story P &. G tells to investors, the press and the publi .

A cornpaoywide embrace of analytics impels changes in culture, processes, behaviour, and skills for·many employees. And so, like any major transition, it requires leadership from executives at the very top who have a passion for the quantitative approach. Ideally, the principal advocate is the CEO.·Indeed, we found several chief executives who have driven the sltift to analytics at their companies over the past few years, including LovC1!18D of Harrah's, Jeff Bezos of Amazon, and Rich Fairbank of Capital One. Before he retired from theSara Lee BalceryGroup, formerCEOBarry Beracba kepta sign on hisdesk thatsummed up bispersoll41 and organizational philosophy: "In God we trust. All others bring data!' We did come across some companies in which a single functional or business unit leader was trying to push llllalytics throughout the organization, and a few were makii\g some progress. But we found dlat these lowerlevel people lacked the clout, tl:ic P«'spective, and the cross-functional scope to change the culture in any meaningful way. CEOs leading the analytics charge require both an appreciation ofand a familiarity with thesubject.

A backgJOUOd in statistics isn't necessary, but those leaders must understand the theory beltiod various quantitative methods so that they recognize those metl)ods' limitations-which factors are being weighed and wltich ones aren't When the CEOs need help grasping quantitative techniques, they rum to ex rts who understand the business and bow analytics canbe appiied to it We interviewed several leaders who had retained such advisers, and these executives stressed the need to nd someone whocan explain things in plain language and be trusted not . to spin the numbers. A few CEOs we spoke with had surrounded themselves with very analytical peopleprofessors, consutlants, MIT graduates and the like. But that was a personal preference rather than a necessary practise. Of course, no.t all decisions should begrounded in analytics - atleast not wboUy so. Research shows that human beings can make quick, surprisingly accuraie assessments of personality and character based on simple obsetvations. For analytics minded leaders then the challenge boils down to knowing when to run with the numbers and when to run with their guts

Q. According tothe author, what is the leadership challenge for analytics minded leaders?

Solution:
QUESTION: 54

Read the following passages carefully and identify most appropriate answer to the questions given at the end of each passage:

Any company can generate simple desc riptive statistics about aspects of its business-average revenue per employee, for example, or average order size. But analytics competitors look well beyond basic statistics. These companies ose predictive modelling to identify the most protable customers-plus those with the greate t prot potential and the ones mo.st likely to cancel their accounts. They pool data generated in-house and data acquired from outside sources (which they analyze more deeply than do their lessstatisticallysavvy competitors) for a comprehensive understanding of their customers. They optimize their supply chains and can thus detennine the impact of an unexpected constraint, simulate alternatives and route shipmentS around problems. They establish prices in real time to get the highest yield possible from each of theircustomer transactions. They create complex models of how theiroperational costs relate to their nancial perfonnance. Leaders in analytics also use sophisticated experiments to measure the overall impact or "lift" of intervention strategies and then apply the results to continuously improve subsequent analyses. Capital One, for example, conducts more than 30,000 experiments a year, with different interest rates, incentives, direct-mail packaging, and other variables. Its goal is to maximize the likelihood both that potential customers will sign up for credit cards and that they will pay back Capital One.

Analytics competitorsunderstand that most business functions- even tllose, like marketing, that have historically depended on art rather than science-can be improved with sophisticated quantitative techniques. These organizations don't gain advantag·e from·one killer app, but rather from multiple applications supporting many parts of the business-and, in-a few cases, bein·grolled out for use by customers and suppliers. UPS embodies the evolution from targeted analytics user to comprehensive analytics competitor. Although the company is among the world's most rigorous practitioners of operations research and industrial engineering, its capabilities were, until fairly recently, narrowly focused: Today, UPS is wielding its statistical skill to track the movement of packages and to anticipate and inuence the actions of peopleassessing the likelihood of customer attrition and identifying sources of problems. The UPS Customer Intelligence Group, for example, is able to accurately predict customer defections by examining usage patterns and complaints.

When the data point to a potential defector, a salesperson contacts that customer to review and resolve the problem, dramatically reducing the loss of accounts. UPS still lacks the breadth of initiatives of a full-bore analytics competitor, but it is heading in that direction. Analytics competitors treat.all such activities from all provenances as a single, coherent initiative, often massed under one rubric,such as "infonnation-based strategy" at Capital One or "informationbased c:ustomer management" at Barclays Bank. These programs operate not just under a common label but also under common leadership and with common technology and tools. In traditional companies, "business intelligence" (the term IT people use for analytics and reporting processes and software) is generally managed by departments; number-crunching functions select their own tools, control theirown data warehouses, and train their own people. But that way, chaos lies. For one thing, the proliferation of user-developed spreadsheets and databases inevita bly leads to multiple versions of key indicators within an C?rg anization.

Furthermore, research has shown that between 20% and 40% of spreadsheets contain errors; the more spreadsheetS oating around a company, therefore, the more fecwid the breeding ground for mist,lkes. Analytics competitors, by contrast, eld centralized groups to ensure that critical data and other resources are well managed and that different parts of the organization can share. data easily, without the impediments of inconsistent fonnats, denitions, and standards. Some analytics competitors apply the same eoterp e approach to people as to technology. Procter & Gamble, for example, recently created a kind of uberaoalytics group consisting of more than 100 analysts from such functions as operations, supply chain, sales, consumer research, and' marketing. Although most of the analysts are embedded in business operating units, the group is centrally managed: As a result of this consolidation, P&G; can apply a critical mass of expertise to its most pressing issues. So, for example, sales and marketing analysts supply data onopportunities for growth in existing markets to analysts who design corporate supply nctwotlcs. The supply chain analysts, in rum, apply their exper.tise in certain decision-analysis techniques to such new areas as competitive intelligence. Tbe group at P&G; also raises the visibility of analytical and data basaj decision making within the company. Previously, P&G;'s crack analysts had improved business processes and saved the f!ll money; but because they were squirreled away in dispersed domains, many executives didn't know what services tbey·offered or how effective they could be. Now those executives are more likely to tap the company's deep pool of expertise for their projects. Mean hile, masterful number crunching has become part of the story P &. G tells to investors, the press and the publi .

A cornpaoywide embrace of analytics impels changes in culture, processes, behaviour, and skills for·many employees. And so, like any major transition, it requires leadership from executives at the very top who have a passion for the quantitative approach. Ideally, the principal advocate is the CEO.·Indeed, we found several chief executives who have driven the sltift to analytics at their companies over the past few years, including LovC1!18D of Harrah's, Jeff Bezos of Amazon, and Rich Fairbank of Capital One. Before he retired from theSara Lee BalceryGroup, formerCEOBarry Beracba kepta sign on hisdesk thatsummed up bispersoll41 and organizational philosophy: "In God we trust. All others bring data!' We did come across some companies in which a single functional or business unit leader was trying to push llllalytics throughout the organization, and a few were makii\g some progress. But we found dlat these lowerlevel people lacked the clout, tl:ic P«'spective, and the cross-functional scope to change the culture in any meaningful way. CEOs leading the analytics charge require both an appreciation ofand a familiarity with thesubject.

A backgJOUOd in statistics isn't necessary, but those leaders must understand the theory beltiod various quantitative methods so that they recognize those metl)ods' limitations-which factors are being weighed and wltich ones aren't When the CEOs need help grasping quantitative techniques, they rum to ex rts who understand the business and bow analytics canbe appiied to it We interviewed several leaders who had retained such advisers, and these executives stressed the need to nd someone whocan explain things in plain language and be trusted not . to spin the numbers. A few CEOs we spoke with had surrounded themselves with very analytical peopleprofessors, consutlants, MIT graduates and the like. But that was a personal preference rather than a necessary practise. Of course, no.t all decisions should begrounded in analytics - atleast not wboUy so. Research shows that human beings can make quick, surprisingly accuraie assessments of personality and character based on simple obsetvations. For analytics minded leaders then the challenge boils down to knowing when to run with the numbers and when to run with their guts

Q. In the above passage, how does the author differentiate between 'Analytics competitors' and 'traditional companies' with regard to their strategy towards data management?

Solution:
QUESTION: 55

Read the infonnation provided and answer thequestions which follow.

Five MBA studentS - Aman. Manish, Rohit, Sandeep and Vinay, specializing in sales and marketing got nal campus placement in ve different companies - Asian Paints, Dabur, Hindustan Unilever, ITC and L' Oreal.(though not necessarily in the same order). Their initial Job assignment has been xed in ve different cities - Bhopal, Chenna Delhi, Mumba·i and Patna (in any order). They are avid book readers, but like different themes - business and management, classic ction, historical ction, mystery ction and non-ction (again in any order). Further the following additional information are provided: ·

(a)Vinay got placed in Asian Paints.
(b)Aman is not placed in Hindustan Unilever.
(c)Manish's job location isnot in Chennai and hedoes not like books on mystery ction.
(d)Sandeep got placed at Delhi, while Vinay is not placed at Mwnbai.
(e)Aman likes reading books on historical ction and is placed either at Chennai or Patna and the studentwho got placed in ITC does not lilce mystery ction and his job posting . is in theother city amongst Chennai or Patna.
(f) The student who got placed in L'Oreal likes reading non-ction books and is not posted at Mumbai.
(g)The student who likes reading classic ction, is posted at Bhopal.

Q. In whicb company has Amangot placed?

Solution:

Aman got placed at Dabur.

QUESTION: 56

Read the infonnation provided and answer thequestions which follow.

Five MBA studentS - Aman. Manish, Rohit, Sandeep and Vinay, specializing in sales and marketing got nal campus placement in ve different companies - Asian Paints, Dabur, Hindustan Unilever, ITC and L' Oreal.(though not necessarily in the same order). Their initial Job assignment has been xed in ve different cities - Bhopal, Chenna Delhi, Mumba·i and Patna (in any order). They are avid book readers, but like different themes - business and management, classic ction, historical ction, mystery ction and non-ction (again in any order). Further the following additional information are provided: ·

(a)Vinay got placed in Asian Paints.
(b)Aman is not placed in Hindustan Unilever.
(c)Manish's job location isnot in Chennai and hedoes not like books on mystery ction.
(d)Sandeep got placed at Delhi, while Vinay is not placed at Mwnbai.
(e)Aman likes reading books on historical ction and is placed either at Chennai or Patna and the studentwho got placed in ITC does not lilce mystery ction and his job posting . is in theother city amongst Chennai or Patna.
(f) The student who got placed in L'Oreal likes reading non-ction books and is not posted at Mumbai.
(g)The student who likes reading classic ction, is posted at Bhopal.

Q.Name the person who likes reading books on business and management

Solution:

Manish got placed at Business and Management.

QUESTION: 57

Read the infonnation provided and answer thequestions which follow.

Five MBA studentS - Aman. Manish, Rohit, Sandeep and Vinay, specializing in sales and marketing got nal campus placement in ve different companies - Asian Paints, Dabur, Hindustan Unilever, ITC and L' Oreal.(though not necessarily in the same order). Their initial Job assignment has been xed in ve different cities - Bhopal, Chenna Delhi, Mumba·i and Patna (in any order). They are avid book readers, but like different themes - business and management, classic ction, historical ction, mystery ction and non-ction (again in any order). Further the following additional information are provided: ·

(a)Vinay got placed in Asian Paints.
(b)Aman is not placed in Hindustan Unilever.
(c)Manish's job location isnot in Chennai and hedoes not like books on mystery fiction.
(d)Sandeep got placed at Delhi, while Vinay is not placed at Mwnbai.
(e)Aman likes reading books on historical ction and is placed either at Chennai or Patna and the studentwho got placed in ITC does not lilce mystery ction and his job posting . is in theother city amongst Chennai or Patna.
(f) The student who got placed in L'Oreal likes reading non-ction books and is not posted at Mumbai.
(g)The student who likes reading classic ction, is posted at Bhopal.

Q.Name the type of books the student who is placed in Mwnbai likes reading.

Solution:

Mystery fiction is the type of books the student who is placed in Mumbai likes reading.

QUESTION: 58

Read the infonnation provided and answer thequestions which follow.

Five MBA studentS - Aman. Manish, Rohit, Sandeep and Vinay, specializing in sales and marketing got nal campus placement in ve different companies - Asian Paints, Dabur, Hindustan Unilever, ITC and L' Oreal.(though not necessarily in the same order). Their initial Job assignment has been xed in ve different cities - Bhopal, Chenna Delhi, Mumba·i and Patna (in any order). They are avid book readers, but like different themes - business and management, classic ction, historical ction, mystery ction and non-ction (again in any order). Further the following additional information are provided: ·

(a)Vinay got placed in Asian Paints.
(b)Aman is not placed in Hindustan Unilever.
(c)Manish's job location isnot in Chennai and hedoes not like books on mystery fiction.
(d)Sandeep got placed at Delhi, while Vinay is not placed at Mwnbai.
(e)Aman likes reading books on historical ction and is placed either at Chennai or Patna and the student who got placed in ITC does not lilce mystery ction and his job posting . is in theother city amongst Chennai or Patna.
(f) The student who got placed in L'Oreal likes reading non-ction books and is not posted at Mumbai.
(g)The student who likes reading classic ction, is posted at Bhopal.

Q.If Sandeep is transferred to Rohit's city and Rohit is transferred to Sandeep's city, then in which city the student who likes reading mystery ctions will work?

Solution:
QUESTION: 59

Read the infonnation provided and answer thequestions which follow.

Five MBA studentS - Aman. Manish, Rohit, Sandeep and Vinay, specializing in sales and marketing got nal campus placement in ve different companies - Asian Paints, Dabur, Hindustan Unilever, ITC and L' Oreal.(though not necessarily in the same order). Their initial Job assignment has been xed in ve different cities - Bhopal, Chenna Delhi, Mumba·i and Patna (in any order). They are avid book readers, but like different themes - business and management, classic ction, historical ction, mystery ction and non-ction (again in any order). Further the following additional information are provided: ·

(a)Vinay got placed in Asian Paints.
(b)Aman is not placed in Hindustan Unilever.
(c)Manish's job location isnot in Chennai and hedoes not like books on mystery fiction.
(d)Sandeep got placed at Delhi, while Vinay is not placed at Mwnbai.
(e)Aman likes reading books on historical ction and is placed either at Chennai or Patna and the student who got placed in ITC does not lilce mystery ction and his job posting . is in theother city amongst Chennai or Patna.
(f) The student who got placed in L'Oreal likes reading non-ction books and is not posted at Mumbai.
(g)The student who likes reading classic ction, is posted at Bhopal.

Q.Who among the following is posted in Patna?

Solution:
QUESTION: 60

Read the information provided andanswer thequestions which follow.

In ISL football competition, eight football teams - Atletico De Kollcata, Chennaiyan FC, Delhi Oynamos, FC Goa, FC Punc City, Kerala Blasters, Mumbai City FC and North-East United FC-participated where each team played against every other team exactly once. Every win earned three points for the teams and a loss earned 0. If there was a draw, each team was rewarded one point. Now, as per the xtures, following aiesome of the observations:

(a)Out of the seven matches played by Chennaiyan FC, it woo ve and the other two matches were drawn.
(b)FC pune City won the match against FC Goa and Kerala Blasters but lost the match against Delhi Dynamos and Chennaiyan Fc.
(c)Atletico De Kollcata drew a match against FCGoa, Chennaiyan FCand FC Punc City.
(d)None of theteams lost all the matches.

Q. If Chennaiyan FC won the match against FC Goa, what could have been the maximum score of FCGoa?

Solution:
QUESTION: 61

Read the information provided andanswer thequestions which follow.

In ISL football competition, eight football teams - Atletico De Kollcata, Chennaiyan FC, Delhi Oynamos, FC Goa, FC Punc City, Kerala Blasters, Mumbai City FC and North-East United FC-participated where each team played against every other team exactly once. Every win earned three points for the teams and a loss earned 0. If there was a draw, each team was rewarded one point. Now, as per the xtures, following aiesome of the observations:

(a)Out of the seven matches played by Chennaiyan FC, it woo ve and the other two matches were drawn.
(b)FC pune City won the match against FC Goa and Kerala Blasters but lost the match against Delhi Dynamos and Chennaiyan Fc.
(c)Atletico De Kollcata drew a match against FCGoa, Chennaiyan FCand FC Punc City.
(d)None of theteams lost all the matches.

Q. What could be the minimum absolute difference between the scores ofFC Pune City and Chennaiyan FC?

Solution:

Chennaiyin FC-
Chennaiyan FC won 5 matches- 5*3= 15 points.
Chennaiyan FC drawn 2 matches-2*1=2 points.
Total points for Chennaiyin FC-15+2= 17 points.

FC Pune City-
FC Pune City won against FC Goa and Kerala Blasters. So, they have-3*2=6 points.
FC Pune City lost against Delhi Dynamos and Chennaiyin FC.So for these 2 matches they will get 0 points.
FC Pune City played a draw against Atletico Kolkata.So, they will get 1 point for that match.

Now as we have to find the minimum difference between Chennaiyan FC and FC Pune City we assume they won there last 2 matches hence giving them 3*2=6 points.
Total Points for FC Pune City-6+1+6=13 points.

Difference-17-13= 4 points.

QUESTION: 62

Read the information provided and answe the questions which follow.

Ona cricket ground, five players - A, B, C Dand E are standing as descn'bed below facing the North

(a) B is 75 metres to the right of D

(b) A is 95 metres to the south of B

(c) C is 45 metres to the west of D

(d) E is IIO metres to the north of A

Q. Who is to the north-east of the player who is to the left of B?

Solution:
QUESTION: 63

Read the information provided and answe the questions which follow.

Ona cricket ground, five players - A, B, C Dand E are standing as descn'bed below facing the North

(a) B is 75 metres to the right of D

(b) A is 95 metres to the south of B

(c) C is 45 metres to the west of D

(d) E is IIO metres to the north of A

Q. If a player walks from C, mec!S D followed by B, then Aaod nally E, bow many metres bas the player walked if he bas travelled the straight distance all through?

Solution:
QUESTION: 64

Read the information provided and answer the questions which follow
Given an input, a coding machine generates passcodes everyday as follows:

Input : my bag carries oo more than ten books

Passcodes :

Batch I : niore my.thanbag ten caaries books oo Batch
II : bagten than carries rny books more oo Batch
III : my bag books ten more than nocarries Batch
IV : ten more books tl)an IJag no my carries and so on.

Q. If the pass code on a particular day for the second batch is 'if winter comes can spring be far behind', what will be the pass code for the batch at 2.30 PM on that day?

Solution:
QUESTION: 65

Read the information provided and answer the questions which follow
Given an input, a coding machine generates passcodes everyday as follows:

Input : my bag carries oo more than ten books

Passcodes :

Batch I : niore my than bag ten caaries books oo Batch
II : bagten than carries rny books more oo Batch
III : my bag books ten more than nocarries Batch
IV : ten more books tl)an IJag no my carries and so on.

Q. On a particular day, Rahul was to begin the work in the batch at I0.30 AM with a pass code 'I like tea and biscuit but not together'. However, hecame late on thatday and hence joined the next batch. What was his new pass code?

Solution:

At 10:30 2nd batch will start. Since Rahul was late, he will join the 3rd batch. In the 3rd batch, the passcode is generated according the following rule:
Last four words are alternatively placed behind the first four words in the same order.
So, 12345678 becomes (5)1 (6)2 (7)3 (8)4
Hence, C is the answer. 

QUESTION: 66

Read the information provided and answer the questions which follow
Given an input, a coding machine generates passcodes everyday as follows:

Input : my bag carries oo more than ten books

Passcodes :

Batch I : niore my than bag ten caaries books oo Batch
II : bagten than carries rny books more oo Batch
III : my bag books ten more than nocarries Batch
IV : ten more books tl)an IJag no my carries and so on.

Q. On a particular day, the pass code for the batch immediately before the rest hour was 'bah bah black sheep have you any wool'. What was the input for the pass code on that day?

Solution:
QUESTION: 67

Read the information provided and answer the questions which follow
Given an input, a coding machine generates passcodes everyday as follows:

Input : my bag carries oo more than ten books

Passcodes :

Batch I : niore my than bag ten caaries books oo Batch
II : bagten than carries rny books more oo Batch
III : my bag books ten more than nocarries Batch
IV : ten more books tl)an IJag no my carries and so on.

Q. On a particular day, the pass code for the second batch was ' India's core strength lies in unity in diversity'. What was the input on that day in the reverse order of its words?

Solution:
QUESTION: 68

ln the following question, two statements are given followed by four conclusions. Taking the given statements to be true, decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements:

Statements: Some rivers are plateau. No plateau is mountain.

Conclusions:
I. Some plateau are rivers.
II.Some mountains are rivers.
III.Some rivers are not mountains.
IV. All mountains are rivers.

Solution:

QUESTION: 69

In each of the following problems, there is one question and three statements I, II and lll given below the question. You have to decide whether the data given-in the statements is sucient to answer the question. Read all the statements carefully and nd which of the statement(s) is/are sucient to answer the given question.

Q. What is Mobil's rank from the top in an annual appraisal of a FMCG Company comprising of 70sales executives?

I.Mohit is 5 ranlcs below Rashmi from the top
II.Rashmi's rank from the bottom is 44
lll. Mobit is 5 ranks above Rashmi from the bottom

Solution:
QUESTION: 70

In each of the following problems, there is one question and three statements I, II and lll given below the question. You have to decide whether the data given-in the statements is sucient to answer the question. Read all the statements carefully and nd which of the statement(s) is/are sucient to answer the given question.

Q. What does ' orange' represent in a code language?

I. 'rim pa xab' means 'orange and apple' in that code language
II.'na pie tac' means 'I dislike sweet' in that code language
III. 'natsi pa' means ' orange is sweet' in that code language

Solution:
QUESTION: 71

Read the information provided below andanswer thequestions which follow

Seven friends-A, B, C, D, E, F and G- are traveling from Delhi to Amritsar in Swarna Sbatabdi train. They are seated in three different coaches - A1, A2 and A3. Further the following additional information are provided:

(a)There are two married co uples among them.
(b)Three friends love playing tennis, two love playing cricket and two love playing volleyball amongst them.
(c)There are at least two of them in each coach and each of thein loves playing different games.
(d)No husband-wife couple loves playing the same game. .
(e)C is seated in coach AI and is married to A, who loves playing tennis.
(f) Gloves playingvolleyball and is married to D who is seated in coach A2 with F, a cricket enthusiast.
(g)B and G are not seated with c
(h)E, who loves playing tennis, is seated in Coach A3.

Q. Which game does C like to play?  

Solution:
QUESTION: 72

Read the information provided below andanswer thequestions which follow

Seven friends-A, B, C, D, E, F and G- are traveling from Delhi to Amritsar in Swarna Sbatabdi train. They are seated in three different coaches - A1, A2 and A3. Further the following additional information are provided:

(a)There are two married co uples among them.
(b)Three friends love playing tennis, two love playing cricket and two love playing volleyball amongst them.
(c)There are at least two of them in each coach and each of thein loves playing different games.
(d)No husband-wife couple loves playing the same game. .
(e)C is seated in coach AI and is married to A, who loves playing tennis.
(f) Gloves playingvolleyball and is married to D who is seated in coach A2 with F, a cricket enthusiast.
(g)B and G are not seated with c
(h)E, who loves playing tennis, is seated in Coach A3.

Q. How many friends areseated in coach A1?

Solution:
QUESTION: 73

Read the information provided below and answer the questions which follow.

Last week, Rajeev watched four sports of different types: tennis, cricket, football and kabaddi. The sports were shown by four different channels - Star Sports 1, Ten Sports 2, Sony Six and NcoSports (not necessarily in the same order):Toese sports were telecasted on different days -Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday (not necessarily in the same order). Further the following additional information are provided:

(a) The sport by Star Sports I was shown on Friday.
(b) Tennis was shown on Monday.
(c) Kabaddi was shown by Sony Six and not telecasted on Thursday.
(d) Football was shown by Nco Sports

Q. Which of the following combination is true?

Solution:
QUESTION: 74

Read the information provided below and answer the questions which follow.

Last week, Rajeev watched four sports of different types: tennis, cricket, football and kabaddi. The sports were shown by four different channels - Star Sports 1, Ten Sports 2, Sony Six and NcoSports (not necessarily in the same order):Toese sports were telecasted on different days -Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday (not necessarily in the same order). Further the following additional information are provided:

(a) The sport by Star Sports I was shown on Friday.
(b) Tennis was shown on Monday.
(c) Kabaddi was shown by Sony Six and not telecasted on Thursday.
(d) Football was shown by Nco Sports

Q. Which sports was telecasted in Ten Sports 2 and on which day of the week?

Solution:
QUESTION: 75

Swarn a SME enterprise borrowed a sum of money from a nationalized bank at 10% simple interest per annum and the same amount at 8% simple interest per annum from a micronance rm for the same period: It cleared the first loan 6 months before the scheduled date of repayment and repaid the second loan just at the end of the scheduled period: If in each case it had to pay Rs. 62100 as amount then how much money and for what time period did it borrow?

Solution:

The sum that was returned is same as in both cases that means interest accured is same in both cases.
Assume that the duration is 't' years for which amount is borrowed in both cases and principle amount is 'P'
= [P*(t-0.5)*10]/100
= [P*t*8]/100
= t = 2.5years
Principle amount that the enterprise borrowed :
P(1+(2*10)/100) = 62100
P = 51750

QUESTION: 76

A rectangular plank √10 metre wide, is placed symmetrically along the diagonal of a square of side 10 metres as shown in the gure. The area of the plank is:

Solution:

In given diagram AB = √10
Given that PQRS is a square and the plank is placed symmetrically ▲BPA and ▲AQC will be isosceles right triangle.
Hence AB2 = PA2 + PB2
As the plank is symmetrical PA = PB
Hence, AB2 = 2 * PA2
= (√10)2 = 2 * PA2
So PA = PB = (√10/2) = √5m
PQ = PA + AQ
AQ = PQ - PA 
= 10 -√5m
We know that AQ = QC(▲AQC is isosceles right triangle)
So AC = √2AQ
= √2(10 -√5)m
We can calculate area of plank
Area of ABCD = AB*AC
= √10*√2(10-√5)
= 10(√20 - 1)sq mt
 

QUESTION: 77

Somesh, Tarun and Nikhil can complete a work separately in 45, 60 and 75 days. They started the work together but Nikhil left after 5 days of start and Somesh left 2 days before the completion of the work. In how many days will the work be completed?

Solution:

Let the duration in which the will be completed be 't' days

Work done by Nikhil = 1/15  ( Since He worked for 5 days)

Somesh left 2 days early that means Somesh must have worked for 't-2' days

Work done by Somesh = (t-2) * 1/45

Similarly work done by Tarun = t*1/60

QUESTION: 78

Solution:

QUESTION: 79

Solution:

QUESTION: 80

A Pharmaceutical company produces two chemicals X and Y, such that X consists of 5% salt A and 10% salt B and Y consists of 10% salt A and 6% salt b: For producing the chemicals X and Y, the company requires at least 7 gm of Salt A and at least 7 gm of Salt b:If chemical X costs Rs. 10.50 per gm and chemical Y costs Rs. 7.80 per gm, what is the minimum cost at which the company can meet the requirement by using a combination of both types of chemicals?

Solution:

Let assume that P gm of chemical X and Q gm of chemical Y to be used to meet the requirement.
So net quantity of salt A in both the chemicals
A = 5/100*P + 10/100*Q ≥ 7
Similarly net quantity of salt B in both the chemicals
B = 10/100*P + 6/100*Q ≥ 7
For minimum cost
A = 5/100*P + 10/100*Q = 7
B = 10/100*P + 6/100*Q = 7
On solving A and B, we get
P = 40, Q = 50
Minimum cost will be : 40*10.5 + 50*7.8
= 810

QUESTION: 81

Suntex Company plans to manufacture a new product line of Razor next year and sell it at a price of Rs. 12 per unit.The variable costs per unit in each production run is estimated to be 50%.of the selling price, and the xed costs for each production run is estimated to be Rs. 50,400. Based on their estimated costs bow many units of the new product will company Suntex need to manufacture and sell in order for their revenue to be equal to their total costs for each production run?

Solution:

Let's assume 'n' be the number of units that Suntex needs to manufacture and sell in order for their revenue to be equal to their total costs for each production run.

Cost incurred for manufacturing these 'n' units = 50400 + 6n

Revenue generated by selling these units = = 12n

For break-even   Revenue generated = Cost incurred

QUESTION: 82

In a certain sequence the term xn  is given by formula xn = 5xn-1  - 3/4 xn-2 - 3/4 xn-2  for .n> 2 What is the value of x3 , if  x0 = 4 and x1 = 2?

Solution:

QUESTION: 83

A mobile company that sells two models ACN-I and ACN-II of mobile, reported that·revenues from ACN-I in 2016 were down 12% from 2015 and revenue from ACN-II sales in 2016 were up by 9% from 2015. If the total revenues from sales of both the mobile models ACN-I and ACN-II in 2016 were up by 3% from 2015, what is the ratio of revenue from ACN-I sales in 2015 to revenue from ACN-II sales in 2015?

Solution:

Let's assume that revenue reported from ACN-I and ACN-II sales in 2015 be X and Y respectively

So revenue generated from ACN-I sales in 2016 -= X(1-12/100) = 0.88K

Similarly revenue generated from ACN-II sales in 2016 = Y(1+9/100) = 1.09Y

QUESTION: 84

If 1067 - 87 is written as an integer in base 10 notation, what is the sum of digits in that integer?

Solution:

QUESTION: 85

A ag pole on the top of a mall building is 75 m high. The height of the mall building is 325 m. To an observer at a height of 400 m, the mall building and the pole subtend equal angle θ. If the horizontal distance of the observer from the pole is 'x', then what is the value of x?

Solution:

In the given diagram AE is the mall building and DE is pole. The observer is at C point which is 400 mts from the ground. 

QUESTION: 86

Witrex Brown, an E-commerce company gives home delivery of its valuable products after receiving nal order on their website by different modes of transportation like bike, scooter, tempo and truck. The probabilities of using bike, scooter, tempo and truck are respectively 2/9, 1/9, 4/9 and 2/9. The probabilities of his delivering the product late to the destination by using these modes of transport are 3/5, 2/5, 1/5 and 4/5. If the product reach to the destination in time, and the probability that be has used scooter to reach the oce.

Solution:

Given that  probabilities of his delivering the product late to the destination by using  bike, scooter, tempo and truck are 3/5, 2/5, 1/5 and 4/5 respectively.

Hence the probabilities of his delivering the product on time by using these modes of transport are 2/5, 3/5, 4/5 and 1/5 respectively. Hence the required probability  

QUESTION: 87

A pest control person uses a particular machine for his job, it moves along the circumference of a circular hall of radius 49 metres in 148 minutes to finish the pest control. How many minutes more will it take him to move along the perimeter of a hexagon of side 54 metres?

Solution:

Distance covered by the pest control person = Circumference of the circular hall = 2 * 22/7 * 49 = 308 m

So machine's speed = 308/108 m/min = 2.08 m/min

The distance that is to be covered =  Perimeter of hexagon = 6 * 54 = 324 m

So additional time taken by the machine is = 155.7-148 = 7.7  minute

QUESTION: 88

A premier B-school, which is in process of getting an AACSB accreditation, has 360 second year students. To incorporate sustainability into their curriculum, it has offered 3 new elective subjects in the second year namely Green Supply Chain, Global Climate Change & Business and Corporate Governance. Twelve students have taken all the three electives, and 120 students have taken Green Supply Chain. There are twice as many students who study Green Supply Chain and Corporate Governance but not Global Climate Change & Business, as those who study both Green Supply Chain and Global Climate Change & Business but not the Corporate Governance, and 4 times as many who study all the three. 124 students.study Corporate Governance. There are 72 students who could not muster up the courage to take up any of these subjects. The group of students who study both Green Supply Chain and Corporate Governance but not Global Climate Change & Business is exactly the same as the group made up of the students who study both Global Climate Change & Business and Corporate governance. How many students study Global Climate Change & Business only?

Solution:

With the help of given information we can make Venn diagram:

 It's given that   e=2d= 4(12)=48 and d=48/2= 24

 So   e= 12+f  so f=e-12=48-12=36

    total number of students in GSC= 120 =a+e+d+12

 a=120-48-24-12 =36'

 Similarly in case of CG,   CG=124=c+e+f+12
 c=124-12-48-36=28

 total number of students a+b+c+d+e+f+g+12=360'

36+b+28+24+48+36+72+12=360

b = 104

QUESTION: 89

Ramesh and Sohan start walking away from each other from a point P at an angle of 120°. Ramesh walks at a speed of 3 km/hour while Sohan walks at a speed of 4 km/hour. What is the distance between them after 90 minutes?

Solution:

The distance covered by Ramesh in 90 minutes = 1.5*3 = 4.5 kms

Similarly the distance covered by Sohan in 90 minutes = 1.5*4 = 6 kms

The distance between Sohan and Ramesh after 90 minutes will be :

QUESTION: 90

A chord AB of length 24 cm is drawn in a circle of radius 13cm.Find the area of the shaded portion APB.

Solution:

So area of shaded region = Area of sector OAPB - Area of OAB

QUESTION: 91

Two tangents are drawn from a point P on the circle with centre at O, touching the circle at point Q and T respectively. Another tangent AB touches the circle at point S. If angle QPT =55°, nd the angle AOB= ?

Solution:

Since PQ and PT are tangent on circle so PQO = PTO = 90

In quadrilateral PQOT    PQO+ PTO+ QOT+ TPQ = 360

90+90+ QOT+55 =360

  QOT = 125

Since AB touches the circle hence OA and OB are the angle bisector of  QOS and  TOS respectively

QUESTION: 92

The coordinates of a triangle ABC are A(1, 5), B(-2, 3), and C(0,-4); nd the equation of the median AD? ·

Solution:

Since AD is the median to BC, D will be mid point of BC. So coordinates of 

Equation of line passing through points A(1,5) and D( -1,-1/2) will be :

QUESTION: 93

The Drizzle Pvt. Ltd:, a squash company has 2 cans of juice. The rst contains 25% water and the rest is fruit pulp. The second contains 50% water and rest is fruit pulp: How much juice should be mixed from each of the containers so as to get 12 litres of juice such that the ratio of water to fruit pulp is 3:5?  

Solution:

Let's assume that quantities of juice taken from the rst and second cans be x and y respectively.

So we can say that  x+y = 12           ..(i)

Net quantity of water in resulting mixture = 

Ratio of water to pulp in resulting mixture = 3:5 hence the mixture will contain 

 Solving equation (1) and (2) for x and y 

x=6 , y=6

QUESTION: 94

An overhead tank, which supplies water to a settlement, is lled by three bore wells. First two bore wells operating together ll the tank in the same time as taken by third bore well to ll it. The second bore well lls the tank 10 hours faster then the rst one and 8 hours slower than the third one. The time required by the third bore well to ll the tank alone is:

 

Solution:

Let the time taken by second bore well be t hours, then the time taken by rst bore well will be t + 10 and the time taken by the third bore well will be t - 8. Now since rst two bore wells operating together take same time as taken by the third bore well we can say that work done in unit time will be same in both cases :

So the time taken by the third bore well will be t - 8 = 20 - 8 =12 hours

QUESTION: 95

Exhibit I as under provides the data of India's Merchandize Imports (Billion US Dollar) on left axis  and Percentage of Food: Fuel, Manufactures and Ores & Metals lmports of India's on the right axis. Similarly; Exhibit 2 provides data of India's Merchandize Exports (Billion US Dollar) on left axis and Percentage exports of Food, Fuel, Manufactures and Ores & Metals on the right axis. Attempt the questions in the context of information provided as under:

A.Trade Balance = Import Minus Exports
B:Trade Decit If Imports are more than Exports
C:TradeSurplus= If Exports are more than Imports

Exhibit 1: India's Total Merchandize Imports (US Dollar in Billion) and Percentage Imports of Food, Fuel, Manufacturers and Ores and Metals (2012 - 2016)

Exhibit 2: India's Total Merchandize Exports (US Dollar in Billion) and Percentage Exports of Food, Fuel, Manufacturers and Ores and Metals (2012 - 2016)

Q. What shall be approximate Manufactures exportS of India in ihe year 2016 based on average exports for the period 2012-2016?

Solution:
QUESTION: 96

Exhibit I as under provides the data of India's Merchandize Imports (Billion US Dollar) on left axis  and Percentage of Food: Fuel, Manufactures and Ores & Metals lmports of India's on the right axis. Similarly; Exhibit 2 provides data of India's Merchandize Exports (Billion US Dollar) on left axis and Percentage exports of Food, Fuel, Manufactures and Ores & Metals on the right axis. Attempt the questions in the context of information provided as under:

A.Trade Balance = Import Minus Exports
B:Trade Decit If Imports are more than Exports
C:TradeSurplus= If Exports are more than Imports

Exhibit 1: India's Total Merchandize Imports (US Dollar in Billion) and Percentage Imports of Food, Fuel, Manufacturers and Ores and Metals (2012 - 2016)

Exhibit 2: India's Total Merchandize Exports (US Dollar in Billion) and Percentage Exports of Food, Fuel, Manufacturers and Ores and Metals (2012 - 2016)

Q. What is the proportion of positive and negative Manufactures trade balance in the period 2012-2016 ?

Solution:

Trade balance = import - export
For 2012 :
Manufactures Trade Balance = Manufactures import - Manufactures export
= 500(35/100) - 275(65/100)
= -3.75
For 2013 :
Manufactures Trade Balance = 475(40/100) - 350(60/100)
= -20
For 2014 :
Manufactures Trade Balance = 450(45/100) - 325(55/100)
= 23.75
For 2015 :
Manufactures Trade Balance = 375(50/100) - 275(70/100)
= -5
For 2016 :
Manufactures Trade Balance = 350(55/100) - 250(75/100)
= 5
Number of positive trade balances = 2
Number of positive trade balances = 3
Ratio is 2:3
 

QUESTION: 97

Exhibit I as under provides the data of India's Merchandize Imports (Billion US Dollar) on left axis  and Percentage of Food: Fuel, Manufactures and Ores & Metals lmports of India's on the right axis. Similarly; Exhibit 2 provides data of India's Merchandize Exports (Billion US Dollar) on left axis and Percentage exports of Food, Fuel, Manufactures and Ores & Metals on the right axis. Attempt the questions in the context of information provided as under:

A.Trade Balance = Import Minus Exports
B:Trade Decit If Imports are more than Exports
C:TradeSurplus= If Exports are more than Imports

Exhibit 1: India's Total Merchandize Imports (US Dollar in Billion) and Percentage Imports of Food, Fuel, Manufacturers and Ores and Metals (2012 - 2016)

Exhibit 2: India's Total Merchandize Exports (US Dollar in Billion) and Percentage Exports of Food, Fuel, Manufacturers and Ores and Metals (2012 - 2016)

Q. In which year, trade decit o(fuel bas been the second lowest?

Solution:
QUESTION: 98

Exhibit I as under provides the data of India's Merchandize Imports (Billion US Dollar) on left axis  and Percentage of Food: Fuel, Manufactures and Ores & Metals lmports of India's on the right axis. Similarly; Exhibit 2 provides data of India's Merchandize Exports (Billion US Dollar) on left axis and Percentage exports of Food, Fuel, Manufactures and Ores & Metals on the right axis. Attempt the questions in the context of information provided as under:

A.Trade Balance = Import Minus Exports
B:Trade Decit If Imports are more than Exports
C:TradeSurplus= If Exports are more than Imports

Exhibit 1: India's Total Merchandize Imports (US Dollar in Billion) and Percentage Imports of Food, Fuel, Manufacturers and Ores and Metals (2012 - 2016)

Exhibit 2: India's Total Merchandize Exports (US Dollar in Billion) and Percentage Exports of Food, Fuel, Manufacturers and Ores and Metals (2012 - 2016)