Mutations in plant cells can be induced by: 
It is possible to induce mutations artificially through use of chemicals or radiations (like gamma radiations), and selecting and using the plants that have the desirable character as a source in breeding – this process is called mutation breeding.
By which method was a new breed ‘Hisardale’ of sheep formed by using Bikaneri ewes and Marino rams ? 
Cross-breeding is the process where the breeding between the two individuals of different species takes place.“Hisardale" is a new breed of sheep developed by crossing Bikaneri ewes and Marino rams in Punjab.
Select the incorrect statement. 
Inbreeding strategies allow the desirable qualities of more closely related individuals to be continued within the same breed for 4-6 generations. It increases homozygosity and thus, is necessary for evolving a pureline. Inbreeding exposes harmful recessive genes that are eliminated by selection. It also helps in accumulation of superior genes and elimination of less desirable genes. Therefore, this approach where there is selection at each step, increases the productivity of inbred population. However, continued inbreeding, especially close inbreeding usually leads to reduce fertility and even productivity. This is called inbreeding depression.
Homozygous purelines in cattle can be obtained by 
When breeding is between animals of the same breed for 4-6 generation, it is called inbreeding. Inbreeding, as a rule, increases homozygosity. Thus, inbreeding is necessary if we want to obtain a pureline in any animal.
A system of rotating crops with legume or grass pasture to improve soil structure and fertility is called 
Ley farming is an agricultural system where the field is alternately seeded for grain and left fallow for growing hay or used for pasture. During the fallow/pasture period the soil is filled with roots of grasses and other plants. New ploughing mixes them in the soil and also increases the amount of nitrogen in the soil especially when legume forage are used. It also protects soil from erosion by maintaining constant soil coverage.
The most likely reason for the development of resistance against pesticides in insects damaging a crop is 
According to Darwin resistance to pesticides has a genetic basis due to presence of certain alleles. In the presence of pesticides, the insects devoid of the allele for resistance die while the ones having them survive. They are selected by nature.
Reason of fast speciation in present day crop plants is 
The phenomenon of having one or more genomes in addition to the normal for the species is called polyploidy.
The long-term prospects for a truly human civilization depend in a large measure on 
The long -term prospects for a truly human civilization depend in a large measure on control of human diseases.
One of the major difficulties in the biological control of insect pests is the 
The major difficulty in the biological control of insects’ pests is that the predator develops a preference to other diets and may itself become a pest. Biological control is mainly referred to the introduction of living organisms which destroy other harmful organisms.
Tissue culture technique can produce infinite number of new plants from a small parental tissue. The economic importance of the technique is in raising
[NEET Kar. 2013]
The method of producing thousands of plants through tissue culture is called micro-propagation. Each of these plants will be genetically identical to the original plant from which they were grown, i.e., they are somaclones. Many important food plants like tomato, banana, apple have been produed on commercial scale using this method.
Which of the following has maximum genetic diversity in India?
[NEET Kar. 2013]
During the period 1960 to 2000 rice production went up from 35 million tonnes to 89.5 million tonnes. This was due to the development of semi-dwarf varieties of rice. There are 2,00,000 varieties of rice in India.
In plant breeding programmes, the entire collection (of plants/seeds) having all the diverse alleles for all genes in a given crop is called :
Germplasm collection is the first step of plant breeding programmes. As genetic variability is the root of any breeding programme. In many crops pre-existing genetic variability is available from wild relatives of the crop. Collection and preservation of all the different wild varieties, species and relatives of the cultivated species (followed by their characteristics) is a pre requisite for effective exploitation of natural genes available in the population.
Consider the following four statements (A-D) and select the option which includes all the correct ones only.
(1) Single cell Spirulina can produce large quantities of food rich in protein, minerals, vitamins etc.
(2) Body weight-wise the micro-organism Methylophilus methylotrophus may be able to produce several times more proteins than the cows per day.
(3) Common button mushrooms are a very rich source of vitamin C.
(4) A rice variety has been developed which is very rich in calcium.
Spirulina is SCP rich in protein, vitamins & minerals. 250 gram biomass of Methylophilus methylotrophus produces 25tonn protein/day while cow of 250 Kg. produces only 200 gm. protein/day.
Common button mushrooms are a very rich source of vitamin D. A rice variety has been developed which is very rich in iron content.
Green revolution in India occurred during
Green revolution is the introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds and the increased use of fertilizers and irrigation, which provided the increase in production needed to make India selfsufficient in food grains, thus improving agriculture in India. Green revolution in India occurred in 1960.s
Which one of the following is a case of wrong matching
Vector DNA are the DNA molecules that can carry a foreign DNA segment and replicate inside the host cells. Vector DNA may be plasmids, a bacteriophage, cosmids, yeast artificial chromosomes.
Which part would be most suitable for raising virus-free plants for micropropagation ?
Meristem is most suitable for raising virus free plants for micropropagation.
The process of RNA interference has been used in the development of plants resistant to
RNA interference has been used to develop plants resistant to nematodes. RNA interference is a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) induced for gene silencing phenomenon.
Himgiri developed by hybridisation and selection for disease resistance against rust pathogens is a variety of
‘Himgiri’ developed by hybridisation and selection for disease resistance against rust pathogens is a variety of wheat. It is resistant to leaf/stripe rust and hill bunt.
Jaya and Ratna developed for green revolution in India are the varieties of
Jaya and Ratna are two rice varieties developed for green revolution in India.
• The scientific name of Jaya is IET-723. This paddy variety takes about 130 days to grow and the grain is long, bold and white. Its yield is 50-60 quintals per hectare.
• The scientific name of ‘Ratna’ is IET1411. It takes about 130-135 days to grow. The grain is long, slender and white. Its yield is 45-50 quintal/hectare.
An improved variety of transgenic basmati rice
An improved variety of transgenic basmati rice gives high yield and is rich in vitamin A.
Breeding of crops with high levels of minerals, vitamins and proteins is called
Breeding of crops with high levels of minerals, vitamin and minerals is called biofortification. This is most practical aspect to improve the health of people.
Somaclones are obtained by
Genetic variation present among plant cells during tissue culture is called somaclonal variation. The term somaclonal variation is also used for the genetic variation present in plants regenerated from a single culture. This variation has been used to develop several useful varieties against resistance to diseases and pests, better yield, better quality etc.
Which of the following is not used as a biopesticide ?
Xanthomonas campestris is not used as a biopesticide. Xanthomonas campestris is a plant pathogen that causes black rot in cotton plants.
What is antisense technology?
An RNA molecule whose base sequence is complementary to that of the RNA transcript of a gene, ie. the sense RNA, such as a messenger RNA (m RNA). Hence, an antisense RNA can undergo base pairing with its complementary mRNA sequence. This blocks gene expression, either by preventing access for ribosome to translate the mRNA or by triggering degradation of the double stranded RNA by ribonuclease enzymes. Antisense RNA and DNA both have therapeutic potential for modifying the activity of disease causing genes.
Which one of the following proved effective for biological control of nematodal disease in plants?
Paexcilomyces Lilacinus is proved effective for biological control of nematodal disease in plants. it is easily produced in vitro, Rhizosphere competent, attack the eggs of several nematodes species and treatment of plant matter, eg, seed tuber, can be effective.
Consider the following four measures (a-d) that could be taken to successfully grow chickpea in an area where bacteri blight disease is common
(a) Spray with Bordeaux mixture
(b) Control of the insect vector of the disease pathogen
(c) Use of only disease-free seeds
(d) Use of varieties resistant to the disease Which two of the above measures can control the disease?
Use of only disease free seeds and use of disease resistant varieties are the most important control measures that could be taken to successfully grow chickpea in an area where bacterial blight disease is common.
Which one of the following is a viral disease of poultry ?
Newcastle disease (ND) is a hig hly contagious, generalised viral disease of domestic poultry and wild birds characterised by gastro-intestinal, respiratory and nervous signs.
Compared to a bull a bullock is docile because of
The bullock is castrated and therefore secretion of testosterone is not adequate.
Which one of the following pairs of organisms are exotic species introduced in India ?
Exotic Species - a species that has been introduced from another geographic region to an area outside its natural range. Examples are water hyacinth, Lantana camara.
In maize, hybrid vigour is exploited by
Hybrid vigour is also called Helorosis which is measured in terms of size growth rate / field and number of other characters. Hybridisation increases vigour and fertility. It is exploited by crosing of two in bred parental lines. It is best maintained in vegetatively reproducing crops because of genetic recombinations.