Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy

90 Questions MCQ Test Biology Class 12 | Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy

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Humulin is the term used for


Humulin is human insulin used for treating diabetes. Prior to its development, diabetics used insulin isolated from pig and cow pancreases. 


Conversion of sugar into alcohol during fermentation is due to the direct action of


The overall process of fermentation is to convert glucose sugar (C6H12O6) to alcohol (CH3CH2OH) and carbon dioxide gas (CO2). The reactions within the yeast to make this happen are very complex but the overall process is as follows: 

C6H12O6 ⇒ 2(CH3CH2OH) + 2(CO2

Sugar ⇒ Alcohol + Carbon dioxide gas. 

The most important type of fermentation is alcoholic fermentation, in which the action of zymase secreted by yeast converts simple sugars, such as glucose and fructose, into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide.


The term antibiotic was coined by


The term 'antibiotics' was first time used by SA Waksman in 1945. Antibiotics are the substances which are produced by microorganisms such as fungi or bacteria. These substances are harmful to the growth of other microorganisms, example of some of the antibiotics are penicillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, etc.


Rennin used in cheese industry is


Chymosin, also known as rennin, a milk-clotting enzyme obtained from the stomach of calves, is used in the manufacture of cheese. The production of this enzyme by recombinant DNA technology is now becoming possible. A new source of this enzyme to replace or supplement the animal product or similar, naturally occurring fungal enzymes will be of great economic value.


A compound which is produced by an organism and inhibits the growth of other organism is called


The word antibiotic means "destructive of life". Antibiotics are chemical substances, produced by living organisms or synthesized (created) in laboratories for purpose of killing other organisms that cause diseases. Xenobiotics is any substance foreign to living organisms. It includes drugs, pesticides and carcinogens. Detoxification of such substances occurs mainly in the liver. An antibody is a large Y-shaped protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. Each antibody recognizes a specific antigen unique to its target. The production of antibodies is the main function of the humoral immune system. Interferons (IFNs) are natural proteins produced by the cells of the immune systems of most animals in response to challenges by foreign agents such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and tumor cells. Interferons belong to the large class of glycoproteins known as cytokines.


Genetically engineered bacteria have been used in commercial production of


Genetic engineering is the transfer of DNA from one organism to another using biotechnology. The organism receiving the DNA is said to be genetically modified (GM).
Organisms are genetically modified in order to give them a combination of genes (genotype) that will result in them having desirable physical characteristics (phenotype). Often the desirable characteristic is simply the ability to produce large quantities of a useful protein.Bacterial cells can be genetically modified so that they have the gene for producing human insulin. As these modified bacteria grow, they produce human insulin. This protein can be purified and supplied to diabetics.


Which one of the following is not true about antibiotics


The statement (d) is wrong regarding to antibiotics because antibiotics are divided into two categories depending upon their effect

(i) Broad spectrum antibiotics They have ability to act on several pathogenic species differing from each others in structure and composition of cell wall.

(ii) Specific antibiotics They act on a few similar type of pathogens.


Antibiotics are mostly obtained from


Penicillin is produced by strains of the fungus Penicillium notatum and P. chrysogenum. Most of the other antibiotics in clinical use are produced by actinomycetes, particularly streptomycetes (natural antibiotics). 


Which one of the microorganism is used for production of citric acid in industries ?


Microorganisms can produce citric acid. The fungus Aspergillus Niger is most commonly used for industrial production of citric acid. The other organisms (although less important) include A. clavatus, A. wentii, Penicillium luteum, Candida catenula, C. guilliermondii and Corynebacterium sp.


Important objective of biotechnology in agriculture section is


Pest resistant varieties are produced by selective breeding and hybridisation.


The new strain of bacteria produced by biotechnology in alcohol industry is


Pseudomonas putida F1 (Bacteria 6.2 Mb) is a versatile environmental isolate that is capable of growth on several aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and p -cymene. Its broad substrate toluene dioxygenase has been widely utilized in biocatalytic syntheses of chiral chemicals, as well as in the metabolism and detoxification of TCE, and in the production of indigo from indole. P. putida F1 is known to be chemotactic to aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated aliphatic compounds and has the potential for use in bioremediation applications. 


Which one of the following is used in the manufacture of alcohol ?


The role of yeast in winemaking is the most important element that distinguishes wine from grape juice. In the absence of oxygen, yeast converts the sugars of wine grapes into alcohol and carbon dioxide through the process of fermentation.


The name of drug used in cancer treatment produced by biotechnology is


Human interferon alpha (hIFN) is a wide biological activity cytokine that is used in hepatitis and cancer treatments. It regulates many genes that are involved in antiviral and antiproliferative activities. 


The prerequisites for biotechnological production of antibiotics is


Propionic-bacteria is an important source of


Biomass of the bacteria from the Propionibacterium genus constitutes sources of vitamins from the B group, including B 12, trehalose and numerous bacteriocins. These bacteria are also capable of synthesizing organic acids such as propionic acid and acetic acid.
Cobalamin also called as vitamin B12, it is an important vitamin for the normal formation of red blood cells and for the health of the nerve tissues. Undetected and untreated vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to anemia and permanent nerve and brain damage.


The microorganism grown on molasses and sold as a food flavouring substance is


The strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungus is commonly known as baker's yeast. The organism is widely used in baking industry. It has the ability to produce desirable flavor. The organisms are added to the dough of bread and cakes and allowed to perform fermentation. The fermentation is brought by converting the fermentable sugars to alcohol and carbon dioxide. The organisms are also cultured or grown on molasses. They bring about the anaerobic fermentation and this helps in providing flavor to the substance. 

Thus, the correct answer is option A. 


Formation of vinegar from alcohol is caused by


Acetic acid (Vinegar) : It is most important acid being produced by two step fermentation of sugarcane juice by yeast and Acetobacter aceti bacteria.


Which one of the following is used in industrial preparation of ethanol ?


Biogas consists of


Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the anaerobic digestion of organic matter including manure, sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, biodegradable waste or any other biodegradable feedstock, under anaerobic conditions. Biogas is comprised primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. It also contains smaller amounts of hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen, hydrogen, methylmercaptans and oxygen.


Bio-energy is the energy obtained from


The energy obtained from biological sources is called bioenergy. Bioenergy is the use of biomass (organic matter) to produce electricity, transportation fuels or chemicals. Bioenergy sources include agriculture and forestry residues and the organic components of municipal and industrial wastes. Fossil fuels (coal, petroleum and natural gas) is not included under bioenergy.


The example of non-renewable source of energy is


The resources which cannot be easily replaced once they are destroyed are called as the Non-renewable resources.

Few examples of Non-renewable resources include few species of plants and animals, minerals, fossil fuels, water, wind, land, soil, coal, petroleum and rocks.


An example of petroleum plant is


The pioneer country in the production of 'Fuel alcohol' is


Brazil is the Pioneer country in the production of fuel alcohol, which is used in automobiles like cars, buses and motorcycles as a substitute of petroleum.


For biogas production besides dung an extensive use of which weed is recommended in our country


An aquatic weed like water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is used as a source of biogas through harvesting, chopping and crushing. 


For biogas production, besides dung, which of the following is used as manure


Gobar gas contains mainly


Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, vegetable matter, sewage, green waste or food waste. It is a renewable energy source, and in many cases, uses a very small carbon footprint.
Biogas is mainly methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), moisture and siloxanes. The methane gas,hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO) can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen.


Domestic cooking gas cylinder is filled with


Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles


Most of the petrocrops belong to family


Malvin Calvin found that certain plants of family-Euphorbiaceae convert a substantial amount of photosynthate into latex containing liquid hydrocarbon, which are potential substitutes for petroleum, eg, Hevea brasiliensis, Euphorbia abyssinica etc and some of the plants of family-Asclepiadaceae, Apocynaceae, Leguminosae, Sapotaceae, Mosaceae, Dipterocarpeceae and Compositae. Dead serum of the algae Botryococcus braunii also contains about 70% hydrocarbon closely resembling the crude oil. Most of it is located on cell wall and can be recovered by centrifugation.


Who is credited with identifying petrocrops?


Euphorbiaceae serve as the petroplants. Dr. M. Calvin (1979) was the first to collect the hydrocarbons from plants of Euphorbiaceae. He suggested that these can be the renewable substitute for the conventional petroleum sources. Latex of Euphorbia lathyrus contains fairly high percentage of terpenoids. These can be converted into high grade transportation fuel. 

Thus, the correct answer is option B.


Biogas is produced by anaerobic breakdown of biomass of agricultural waste by methanogenic bacteria. It is a


Biogas and biofertilizer production from agricultural waste is based on the quality of organic substances to produce biogas when decomposing in anaerobic conditions, i.e. without air. This process is called methane fermentation and can be divided into three steps as a result of decomposition of organic substances by two main groups of microorganisms – acidic and methane bacteria.

Three steps of biogas production 
The whole biogas-process can be divided into three steps: hydrolysis, acidification, and methane formation. Many microorganisms take part in this complex transformation with the main role given to 3 types of methane-producing bacteria.


One of the following is not the renewable source of bio-energy 


Bioenergy is renewable energy made available from materials derived from biological sources. Biomass is any organic material which has stored sunlight in the form of chemical energy. Most non-renewable energy sources are fossil fuels: coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Carbon is the main element in fossil fuels. 

Thus, the correct answer is option D.


Beer is obtained from


Beer is made from four basic ingredients: Barley, water, hops and yeast. The basic idea is to extract the sugars from grains (usually barley) so that the yeast can turn it into alcohol and CO2, creating beer


Maximum percentage of alcohol present in the product of yeast fermentation 


Alcoholic beverages have three categories: wine, beer and distilled liquors. Beer is produced by the fermentation of grains which produces only about 3-6% alcohol. Wine is produced by the fermentation of fruit and produces wine with an alcohol content of 6-14%. A distilled beverage, spirit, liquor or hard liquor is an alcoholic beverage produced by distillation of a mixture produced from alcoholic fermentation. This process purifies it and removes diluting components like water, for the purpose of increasing its proportion of alcohol content. Brandy a spirit, is distinct as a drink from wine (due to distillation), and has a 35% of alcohol content. Other examples of common distilled beverages include vodka, gin, tequila, rum, whisky. 
Rum - 37.5%-80%, Brandy - 35%-60% (usually 40%), Vodka - 35%-50%. Thus, the correct answer is option A.


Modern biotechnology consist :


First fermented acid is :


It was then in 1857 when the French chemist Louis Pasteurfirst described the lactic acid as the product of a microbialfermentation.


Which of the following Microorganisms use for Swiss cheese : 


Propionibacterium is a Gram-positive, non-motile bacterium that plays an important role in the creation of Emmental cheese, and to some extent, Jarlsberg cheese, Leerdammer and Maasdam cheese. Its concentration in Swiss-type cheeses is higher than in any other cheese. It is this Propionibacterium that is responsible for the holes in Swiss cheese. Through the process of consuming the lactic acid, the bacteria produces acetate, propionic acid, and carbon dioxide as a by product.


Mechanism of action of antibiotics are :


Which is not a character of good antibiotic :


What is mode of bacterial resistance against antibiotics


After Viral infection some substances are released by infected cells, these substances called


First artificially synthesised hormone is


Insulin is a protein hormone produced in the pancreas and used in the metabolism of sugar and other carbohydrates. The synthesis of human insulin was done using a process similar to the fermentation process used to make antibiotics.


Recombinant DNA technology prepared vaccine is called


The first generation vaccines consist of live attenuated/ heat killed vaccines in which whole organisms in the weakened live form or heat killed form are injected. Sevcond generation vaccines are those vaccines in which the whole organism is not given. Instead of this a portion called the subunit, which may contain a protein section of the pathogen is given. Third generation vaccines are those in which recombinant techniques are used for the production of vaccines. In this technique DNA encoding the antigen is inserted into a vector which will be recognised as a pathogen in the host. Such that the host immune system generates an immune response against the vector and thereby the antigen. So, the correct answer is 'Third generation vaccines'.



Which of the following vaccine related with tissue culture


A trail batch of tissue culture inactivated anti rabies vaccine was produced at Rabies Vaccine production Laboratory in Kathmandu in 2010. Vero working cell line (164P) was used for propagation of cell that was infected with PV/RV at 100 MOI working rabies virus strain at 170 serial passages of cells.


Dextrin is


Dextrins are polysaccharides formed by heating dry or acid-modified starches in a process called pyrolysis. They can be used at higher solids levels than native or modified starches, creating stronger bonds, more tack and faster-drying properties than pastes made from unmodified starch. 


Which of these is a type of transgenic microorganism 


Transgenic microbes have many commercial and practical applications, including the production of mammalian products. A company called Genentech was among the earliest and most successful commercial enterprises to use genetically engineered bacteria to produce human proteins. Their first product was human insulin produced by genetically engineered Escherichia coli. A variety of other human hormones , blood proteins, and immune modulators are now produced in a similar fashion, in addition to vaccines for such infectious agents as hepatitis B virus and measles.


Cry protein is obtained from


Cry proteins are a large family of crystalline toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis. Individually, the family members are highly specific, but collectively, they target a diverse range of insects and nematodes. Domain II of the toxins is important for target specificity, and three loops at its apex have been studied extensively. 


Which of the following is not related with bio weapons :


Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a bacterium that is commonly found in the gut of humans and warm-blooded animals. Most strains of E. coli are harmless. Some strains however, such as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, can cause severe foodborne disease. It is transmitted to humans primarily through consumption of contaminated foods, such as raw or undercooked ground meat products, raw milk, and contaminated raw vegetables and sprouts.


Rate limiting step in biogas production is


The biogas production takes place by the degradation of the waste products. The wastes are comprised of cellulose, starch and other polymeric molecules. Other can be degraded into simpler ones with the help of the enzymatic activity. The cellulose fibres are made up of strong bonds and difficult to be degraded with the help of other proteolytic enzymes than cellulase. This is the step which limits the process of the formation of methane from the biogas plant. 

Thus, the correct answer is option B. 


Which group is not related with petroplantation


Leguminaceae is the group of plants which are sources of legumes or pulses. These are the plants which are known to have higher protein content. Euphorbiaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Apocyanaceae are the families which have the plants which can produce hydrocarbons. These plants are used for the production of petrochemicals. These plants are used for the process of petroplantation. 

Thus, the correct answer is option D. 


Which country has been successfully used alcohol as a motor fuel


Alcohol has been used as biofuel in many countries, especially Brazil. The alcohols that are used as biofuels are methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol. Ethanol is most commonly used as biofuel. Brazil has the highest production of ethanol as biofuel. Ethanol in brazil is produced from sugarcane. The bagasse of sugar cane i.e. residual cane waste is fermented to produce ethanol. In 2015/16, Brazil raised about 80 billion gallons of ethanol. Ethanol is blended in gasoline and used as fuel for engines.
So, the correct answer is 'Brazil'.


What are the advantage of gobar gas over conventional utilization


Which is not a character of good fire wood


Softwood is wood from gymnosperm trees such as conifers, as well as Amborella. The term is opposed to hardwood, which is the wood from angiosperm trees. Softwood is usually wood from gymnosperm trees such as pines and spruces. Softwoods are not necessarily softer than hardwoods.In both groups there is an enormous variation in actual wood hardness, the range of density in hardwoods completely including that of softwoods. Some hardwoods (e.g. balsa) are softer than most softwoods, while the hardest hardwoods are much harder than any softwood. The woods of longleaf pine, Douglas fir, and yew are much harder in the mechanical sense than several hardwoods.


Fuel wood required wood per person per day is


The correct option is Option B.
Fuel wood required per person per day is 3kg.


Biogas consist of


Biogas is a mixture of different gases, major portion in biogas being methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). It also contains traces of other gases like hydrogen (H2), Moisture (H2O) , hydrogen sulphide (H2S)etc. Improved digesters used for anaerobic digestion can produce biogas with 65% - 75% methane content. Biogas contains water vapour also. The average quantity of methane and carbon dioxide in cow dung based biogas digesters are in 60:40 ratio. 


Biogas production from waste Biomass with the help of methanogenic bacteria is


There are four key biological and chemical stages of anaerobic digestion producing methane gas:
i) hydrolysis ii) acidogenesis iii) acetogenesis and iv) methanogenesis. 

Throughout the steps, methanogens are involved in producing the biogas.

So, the correct answer is 'Multi step process'


Citric acid is produced by


The production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger is one of the most commercially utilized examples of fungal overflow metabolism.


Transgenic animals has


The correct option is Option A.
Transgenic animals have foreign DNA in all its cells. The animals which carry foreign genes are called transgenic animals. The foreig genes are inserted into the genome of animals using recombinant DNA technology or gene manipulation.


Vitamin B12 is formed during fermentation of


Vitamin B12, necessary for the maintenance of the nervous system and the formation of blood cells, is only naturally present in animal products. Vegans have thus far had to take supplements or vitamin pills to ensure a balanced diet. University of Helsinki researchers have now found a way to introduce vitamin B12 into plant-based foods using common food ingredients. The method is the familiar process of fermentation, using the Propionibacterium freudenreichii bacterium, which is used in production of Emmental cheese.


Cheese and yoghurt are products of


Fermented milk is the collective name for products such as yoghurt, ymer, kefir, cultured buttermilk, filmjolk (Scandinavian sour milk), cultured cream and koumiss (a product based on mares’ milk). The generic name of fermented milk is derived from the fact that the milk for the product is inoculated with a starter culture which converts part of the lactose to lactic acid.


Milk is changed into curd by


Milk is converted into curd or yogurt by the process of fermentation. Milk consists of globular proteins called casein. The curd forms because of the chemical reaction between the lactic acid bacteria and casein. During fermentation, the bacteria use enzymes to produce energy (ATP) from lactose. The byproduct of ATP production is lactic acid. Lactic acid acts on the globular proteins present in the milk and denatures them. This denaturation destroys the tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins and the globular proteins are converted into fibrous proteins thus giving a thick texture to the milk due to coagulation of the proteins.


Which of the following is ionic detergent


Ionic detergents contain a head group which is either positively or negatively charged. For example, the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) carries a negatively charged sulfate group on a linear C12 hydrocarbon chain. It is also a strong detergent and will often irreversibly denature proteins.


Which of the following yields citric acid


Aspergillus produces citric acid through fermentation of starch and molasses.


Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used in the formation of                             


Bioethanol is one of the most commonly used biofuels in transportation sector to reduce greenhouse gases. S. cerevisiae is the most employed yeast for ethanol production at industrial level though ethanol is produced by an array of other yeasts, bacteria, and fungi. 


Indicator of water pollution


The presence of E. coli in water indicates that, it has been contaminated with faecal matter. Thus, E. coli is commonly known as indicator of water pollution. Lemna and Eichhornia are free-floating hydrophytes, which remain in contact with water and air but not soil.


Modern farmer's can increase the yields of Paddy upto 50% by the use of :


Azolla pinnata is a species of fern known by several common names, including feathered mosquito-fern and water velvet. It is native to much of Africa, Asia from China to Japan, India and the Philippines and parts of Australia. The leaves contain the Anabaena azollae, which is a symbiont that fixes nitrogen from the atmosphere that the fern can use. This gives the fern the ability to grow in habitats that are low in nitrogen. Rice farmers sometimes, keep this plant in their paddies, because it generates valuable nitrogen via its symbiotic Cyanobacteria. So, modern farmers can increase the yield of paddy up to 50% by the use of Cyanobacteriain Azolla pinnata.

Thus, the correct answer is option C.


Sewage purification is done by


Municipal waste-water which contains large amounts of organic matter is called sewage.

Before disposal, hence, sewage is treated in sewage treatment plants (STPs) by the heterotrophic microbes to make it less polluting.


Most stable pesticides


Organochlorine pesticides are stable and stay in the environment for a long time. Pesticides such as hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), endosulfan and DDT have been used for agricultural purposes. 


Best economic method to harvest the solar energy


Solar radiation on the earth’s surface is abundant and truly a zero-carbon energy source. The solar energy needs to be harnessed using various efficient equipments, which has a very low carbon footprint. Various solar thermal energy harvesting techniques have been used which employ solar radiation incident on the optimal area with the help of concentrators.


First transgenic plant


The first genetically modified crop plant was produced in 1982, an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant.The first field trials occurred in France and the USA in 1986, when tobacco plants were engineered for herbicude resistance.


Which one produce gas by decomposing the gobar (Dung) in gobar gas          


The methanogenic bacteria are a large and diverse group that is united by three features:
1) They form large quantities of methane as the major product of their energy metabolism.
2) They are strict anaerobes.
3) They are members of the domain Archaea, or archaebacteria,  and only distantly related to the more familiar classical bacteria or eubacteria. Like the photosynthetic eubacteria, the methanogenic bacteria are related to each other primarily by their mode of energy metabolism but are very diverse with respect to their other properties.


E. coli are used in production of


Many proteins are produced in E.coli using the recombinant DNA technology. Among the options listed interferon which stimulates non-specific immunity against virus, tumours, bacteria and parasites has been successfully cloned and expressed in E.coli as early as 1986. Thus, the correct option is D.


What is vaccine                           


Most vaccines against bacterial infections are effective at preventing disease, reactions can occur after vaccinations. Vaccines are available against tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type B, cholera, typhoid, and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
A vaccine works by training the immune system to recognize and combat pathogens, either viruses or bacteria. To do this, certain molecules from the pathogen must be introduced into the body to trigger an immune response. These molecules are called antigens, and they are present on all viruses and bacteria.
Protein based subunit vaccines present an antigen to the immune system without viral particles, using a specific, isolated protein of the pathogen. A weakness of this technique is that isolated proteins, if denatured, may bind to different antibodies than the protein of the pathogen.


The bacteria generally used for genetic engineering is                              


The “sharing” of DNA among living forms is well documented as a natural phenomenon. For thousands of years, genes have moved from one organism to another. For example, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a soil bacterium known as ‘nature’s own genetic engineer’, has the natural ability to genetically engineer plants. It causes crown gall disease in a wide range of broad-leaved plants, such as apple, pear, peach, cherry, almond, raspberry, and roses. 


Which of the following is used to manufacture ethanol from starch


The bioconversion of starch into ethanol is a two-step process. The first step is saccharification, where starch is converted into sugar using an amylolytic microorganism or enzymes such as glucoamylase and amylase. The second step is fermentation, where sugar is converted into ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.


Which of the following is the pair of biofertilizers


A Bio fertilizer is a substance which contains living microorganisms which, when applied to seed, plant surfaces, or soil, colonizes the rhizosphere or the interior of the plant and promotes growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant. Bio-fertilizers such asRhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirilium and blue green algae (BGA) have been in use a long time. Blue green algae , Nostoc or Anabaena, fix atmospheric nitrogen and are used as inoculations for paddy crop grown both under upland and low-land conditions. 


Interferen's are synthesized in response to


Interferons are categorized as cytokines, small proteins that are involved in intercellular signaling. Interferon is secreted by cells in response to stimulation by a virus or other foreign substance, but it does not directly inhibit the virus’s multiplication. 


Which bacteria is utilized in Gober gas plant


Methanogens can be also found in non-natural habitats such as landfills, digesters or biogas plants. There, the microbial community varies with the substrate. In biogas plants, due to hydrolysis of complex polymers to sugars and amino acids, followed by fermentation and acetogenesis, acetate, H2 and CO2 is produced as substrates for methanogenesis. 


During the formation of bread it becomes porous due to release of CO2 by the action of


Strains of Saccltarornyces cerevisiae is extensively used for leavening of bread. During fermentation, the yeasts produce alcohol and CO2  which leaves the read porous.


Maximum application of animal cell culture technology today is in the production of


Maximum application of animal cell culture technology is in the production of vaccines. Vaccines are chemical substances prepared from the proteins of other animals which confer immunity to a particular virus. Some of the vaccines synthesized biologically , through genetic engineering are vaccines for hepatitis B virus, vaccines for rabies virus, vaccines for poliovirus and vaccines for small pox virus, etc.


Escherichia coli is used as an indicator organism to determine pollution of water with


During anaerobic digestion of organic waste, such as in producing biogas, which one of the following is left under graded


During bio-gas formation, digestion of cellulose is slow (rate-limiting) and most of the lignin is not decomposed. After cellulose lignin is the most abundant plant polymer. It forms 20 to 30% of the wood of the tree, lignin is a complex polymeric molecule, made up of phenyl propanoid units. Cellulose is a large chained polymer of glucose molecules which are linked with each other by glycosidic bonds. Hemicellulose are branched polymers of glucose, xylose, galactose, mannose and arabinose.


The term ''antibiotic'' was coined by


The term 'antibiotics' was first time used by SA Waksman in 1945. Antibiotics are the substances which are produced by microorganisms such as fungi or bacteria. These substances are harmful to the growth of other microorganisms, example of some of the antibiotics are penicillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, etc.


Recently Govt. of India has allowed mixing of alcohol in petrol . What is the amount of alcohol permitted for mixing in petrol ? 


According to union petroleum minister, 5% of alcohol (ethanol) will be mixed in petrol for meeting energy needs.


A major component of gobar gas is


Biogas is an econimically friendly and clean renewable energy source. The gas can be utilized to meet several energy services, such as lighting and space heating, generation of electricity, and fuel for cooking. "Biogas is produced under anaerobic conditions; the process is denominated as anaerobic digestion. The major constituent of biogas is methane (55-70%), CO2 (30-45%) and some traces of gases such as H2S and ammonia. Common digester feedstock (feeding material) is cow, buffalo, and pig manure".


A free living nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium which can also from symbiotic association with the water fern Azolla is           


Anabaena is a free-living nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium which can form symbiotic association with water fern Azolla. The alga Tolypothrix belongs to class-Cyanophyceae. Some forms of Chlorella form symbiotic association in lichens and in certain invertebrates such as Hydra, Paramecium and sponges. Some species of Nostoc have been reported to fix atmospheric nitrogen and tend to maintain fertility of paddy fields.


Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains have been used for designing novel             


Bacillus thuringiensis strains have been used for designing bio insecticidal plants. A gene from this bacteria have insecticidal property which is transferred to cotton plants to produce Bt cotton which is resistant I to bollworm insect which is a major pest of cotton. Similarly insects affecting maize; cabbage, Sunflower etc., are also controlled by mutant strains of Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria.


Which one of the following is a correct statement ?


Transgenic Brassica napus seeds are being used to produce the anticoagulant hirudin. Bt in "Bt Cotton'' stands for Bacillus thurengiensis. This is naturally occurring soil bacterium. Somatic hybridization involves fusion of protoplast of two cells. "Flavr savr" is genetically engineered tomatoes which express delayed softening by insertion of an additional copy of PG endociding gene. PG is poly galacturonase enzyme which is responsible for the breakdown of cell wall pectin.


Cry 1 endotoxins obtained from Bacillus thuringiensis are effective against


They are actually the insect-resistant transgenic type of plants that contain the gene from the thuringiensis. 

This helps in the production of a protein which can help in the process of crystalline which can be inclusive in the strains of bacteria.


Human insulin is being commercially produced from a transgenic species of


In 1983 an American company Eli Lily produced the first genetically engineered insulin by first synthesizing two DNA sequences corresponding to A and B insulin chains. The two DNA sequences or genes were made to fuse with plasmids of Escherichia coli and later allowed to form Insulin chains. Rhizobium is a Gram negative, aerobic, motile, non-spore forming symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium. It can fix nitrogen only when they are present inside the root nodules. Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes tuberculosis in man. It is an acute bacterial infection of the lungs, lymph and meninges.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known as Baker’s yeast and Saccharomyces ellipsoidens is wine yeast and these are used in baking and brewing industry respectively.


Modern detergents contain enzyme preparations of


Modern detergents contain enzymes preparation of alkaliphiles. Detergents represent the largest industrial application of enzymes amounting to 25-30% of  total sales of enzymes. 

The enzymes used be detergents must be cost effective, safe to use and be able to perform the task in the presence of anionic and non-ionic detergents, soaps, oxidants, etc at pH between 8-10.5%. The chief enzymes used are proteases, α-amylase and sometimes cellulase.