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Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - NEET MCQ


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90 Questions MCQ Test Biology Class 12 - Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy

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Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 1

Humulin is the term used for

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 1

Humulin is human insulin used for treating diabetes. Prior to its development, diabetics used insulin isolated from pig and cow pancreases. 

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 2

Conversion of sugar into alcohol during fermentation is due to the direct action of

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 2

The overall process of fermentation is to convert glucose sugar (C6H12O6) to alcohol (CH3CH2OH) and carbon dioxide gas (CO2). The reactions within the yeast to make this happen are very complex but the overall process is as follows: 

C6H12O6 ⇒ 2(CH3CH2OH) + 2(CO2

Sugar ⇒ Alcohol + Carbon dioxide gas. 

The most important type of fermentation is alcoholic fermentation, in which the action of zymase secreted by yeast converts simple sugars, such as glucose and fructose, into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 3

The term antibiotic was coined by

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 3

The term 'antibiotics' was first time used by SA Waksman in 1945. Antibiotics are the substances which are produced by microorganisms such as fungi or bacteria. These substances are harmful to the growth of other microorganisms, example of some of the antibiotics are penicillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, etc.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 4

Rennin used in cheese industry is

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 4

Chymosin, also known as rennin, a milk-clotting enzyme obtained from the stomach of calves, is used in the manufacture of cheese. The production of this enzyme by recombinant DNA technology is now becoming possible. A new source of this enzyme to replace or supplement the animal product or similar, naturally occurring fungal enzymes will be of great economic value.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 5

A compound which is produced by an organism and inhibits the growth of other organism is called

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 5

The word antibiotic means "destructive of life". Antibiotics are chemical substances, produced by living organisms or synthesized (created) in laboratories for purpose of killing other organisms that cause diseases. Xenobiotics is any substance foreign to living organisms. It includes drugs, pesticides and carcinogens. Detoxification of such substances occurs mainly in the liver. An antibody is a large Y-shaped protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. Each antibody recognizes a specific antigen unique to its target. The production of antibodies is the main function of the humoral immune system. Interferons (IFNs) are natural proteins produced by the cells of the immune systems of most animals in response to challenges by foreign agents such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and tumor cells. Interferons belong to the large class of glycoproteins known as cytokines.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 6

Genetically engineered bacteria have been used in commercial production of

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 6

Genetic engineering is the transfer of DNA from one organism to another using biotechnology. The organism receiving the DNA is said to be genetically modified (GM).
Organisms are genetically modified in order to give them a combination of genes (genotype) that will result in them having desirable physical characteristics (phenotype). Often the desirable characteristic is simply the ability to produce large quantities of a useful protein.Bacterial cells can be genetically modified so that they have the gene for producing human insulin. As these modified bacteria grow, they produce human insulin. This protein can be purified and supplied to diabetics.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 7

Which one of the following is not true about antibiotics

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 7

The statement (d) is wrong regarding to antibiotics because antibiotics are divided into two categories depending upon their effect

(i) Broad spectrum antibiotics They have ability to act on several pathogenic species differing from each others in structure and composition of cell wall.

(ii) Specific antibiotics They act on a few similar type of pathogens.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 8

Antibiotics are mostly obtained from

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 8

Penicillin is produced by strains of the fungus Penicillium notatum and P. chrysogenum. Most of the other antibiotics in clinical use are produced by actinomycetes, particularly streptomycetes (natural antibiotics). 

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 9

Which one of the microorganism is used for production of citric acid in industries ?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 9

Microorganisms can produce citric acid. The fungus Aspergillus Niger is most commonly used for industrial production of citric acid. The other organisms (although less important) include A. clavatus, A. wentii, Penicillium luteum, Candida catenula, C. guilliermondii and Corynebacterium sp.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 10

Important objective of biotechnology in agriculture section is

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 10

Pest resistant varieties are produced by selective breeding and hybridisation.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 11

The new strain of bacteria produced by biotechnology in alcohol industry is

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 11

Pseudomonas putida F1 (Bacteria 6.2 Mb) is a versatile environmental isolate that is capable of growth on several aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and p -cymene. Its broad substrate toluene dioxygenase has been widely utilized in biocatalytic syntheses of chiral chemicals, as well as in the metabolism and detoxification of TCE, and in the production of indigo from indole. P. putida F1 is known to be chemotactic to aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated aliphatic compounds and has the potential for use in bioremediation applications. 
 

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 12

Which one of the following is used in the manufacture of alcohol ?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 12

The role of yeast in winemaking is the most important element that distinguishes wine from grape juice. In the absence of oxygen, yeast converts the sugars of wine grapes into alcohol and carbon dioxide through the process of fermentation.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 13

The name of drug used in cancer treatment produced by biotechnology is

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 13

Human interferon alpha (hIFN) is a wide biological activity cytokine that is used in hepatitis and cancer treatments. It regulates many genes that are involved in antiviral and antiproliferative activities. 

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 14

The prerequisites for biotechnological production of antibiotics is

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 15

Propionic-bacteria is an important source of

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 15

Biomass of the bacteria from the Propionibacterium genus constitutes sources of vitamins from the B group, including B 12, trehalose and numerous bacteriocins. These bacteria are also capable of synthesizing organic acids such as propionic acid and acetic acid.
Cobalamin also called as vitamin B12, it is an important vitamin for the normal formation of red blood cells and for the health of the nerve tissues. Undetected and untreated vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to anemia and permanent nerve and brain damage.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 16

The microorganism grown on molasses and sold as a food flavouring substance is

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 16

The strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungus is commonly known as baker's yeast. The organism is widely used in baking industry. It has the ability to produce desirable flavor. The organisms are added to the dough of bread and cakes and allowed to perform fermentation. The fermentation is brought by converting the fermentable sugars to alcohol and carbon dioxide. The organisms are also cultured or grown on molasses. They bring about the anaerobic fermentation and this helps in providing flavor to the substance. 

Thus, the correct answer is option A. 

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 17

Formation of vinegar from alcohol is caused by

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 17

Acetic acid (Vinegar) : It is most important acid being produced by two step fermentation of sugarcane juice by yeast and Acetobacter aceti bacteria.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 18

Which one of the following is used in industrial preparation of ethanol ?

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 19

Biogas consists of

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 19

Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the anaerobic digestion of organic matter including manure, sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, biodegradable waste or any other biodegradable feedstock, under anaerobic conditions. Biogas is comprised primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. It also contains smaller amounts of hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen, hydrogen, methylmercaptans and oxygen.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 20

Bio-energy is the energy obtained from

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 20

The energy obtained from biological sources is called bioenergy. Bioenergy is the use of biomass (organic matter) to produce electricity, transportation fuels or chemicals. Bioenergy sources include agriculture and forestry residues and the organic components of municipal and industrial wastes. Fossil fuels (coal, petroleum and natural gas) is not included under bioenergy.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 21

The example of non-renewable source of energy is

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 21

The resources which cannot be easily replaced once they are destroyed are called as the Non-renewable resources.

Few examples of Non-renewable resources include few species of plants and animals, minerals, fossil fuels, water, wind, land, soil, coal, petroleum and rocks.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 22

A person with the hereditary disease can be cured with the help of _________

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 22

Gene therapy is a technique used to cure many hereditary diseases. It involves changing the genome in order to prevent or cure diseases. It is one of the most successful techniques used to cure hereditary diseases or to cure deficiency of various hormones.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 23

In gene therapy, the gene defects are cured in a child or ________ stage.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 23

In gene therapy, the gene defects are cured in child or embryonic stage. This phase is chosen to avoid complications and each and every cell will receive a healthy, functional gene.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 24

For biogas production besides dung an extensive use of which weed is recommended in our country

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 24

An aquatic weed like water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is used as a source of biogas through harvesting, chopping and crushing. 

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 25

For biogas production, besides dung, which of the following is used as manure

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 26

Gobar gas contains mainly

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 26

Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, vegetable matter, sewage, green waste or food waste. It is a renewable energy source, and in many cases, uses a very small carbon footprint.
Biogas is mainly methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), moisture and siloxanes. The methane gas,hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO) can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 27

Domestic cooking gas cylinder is filled with

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 27

Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 28

Most of the petrocrops belong to family

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 28

Malvin Calvin found that certain plants of family-Euphorbiaceae convert a substantial amount of photosynthate into latex containing liquid hydrocarbon, which are potential substitutes for petroleum, eg, Hevea brasiliensis, Euphorbia abyssinica etc and some of the plants of family-Asclepiadaceae, Apocynaceae, Leguminosae, Sapotaceae, Mosaceae, Dipterocarpeceae and Compositae. Dead serum of the algae Botryococcus braunii also contains about 70% hydrocarbon closely resembling the crude oil. Most of it is located on cell wall and can be recovered by centrifugation.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 29

Who is credited with identifying petrocrops?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 29

Euphorbiaceae serve as the petroplants. Dr. M. Calvin (1979) was the first to collect the hydrocarbons from plants of Euphorbiaceae. He suggested that these can be the renewable substitute for the conventional petroleum sources. Latex of Euphorbia lathyrus contains fairly high percentage of terpenoids. These can be converted into high grade transportation fuel. 

Thus, the correct answer is option B.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 30

Biogas is produced by anaerobic breakdown of biomass of agricultural waste by methanogenic bacteria. It is a

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 30

Biogas and biofertilizer production from agricultural waste is based on the quality of organic substances to produce biogas when decomposing in anaerobic conditions, i.e. without air. This process is called methane fermentation and can be divided into three steps as a result of decomposition of organic substances by two main groups of microorganisms – acidic and methane bacteria.

Three steps of biogas production 
The whole biogas-process can be divided into three steps: hydrolysis, acidification, and methane formation. Many microorganisms take part in this complex transformation with the main role given to 3 types of methane-producing bacteria.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 31

One of the following is not the renewable source of bio-energy 

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 31

Bioenergy is renewable energy made available from materials derived from biological sources. Biomass is any organic material which has stored sunlight in the form of chemical energy. Most non-renewable energy sources are fossil fuels: coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Carbon is the main element in fossil fuels. 

Thus, the correct answer is option D.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 32

Beer is obtained from

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 32

Beer is made from four basic ingredients: Barley, water, hops and yeast. The basic idea is to extract the sugars from grains (usually barley) so that the yeast can turn it into alcohol and CO2, creating beer

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 33

Maximum percentage of alcohol present in the product of yeast fermentation 

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 33

Alcoholic beverages have three categories: wine, beer and distilled liquors. Beer is produced by the fermentation of grains which produces only about 3-6% alcohol. Wine is produced by the fermentation of fruit and produces wine with an alcohol content of 6-14%. A distilled beverage, spirit, liquor or hard liquor is an alcoholic beverage produced by distillation of a mixture produced from alcoholic fermentation. This process purifies it and removes diluting components like water, for the purpose of increasing its proportion of alcohol content. Brandy a spirit, is distinct as a drink from wine (due to distillation), and has a 35% of alcohol content. Other examples of common distilled beverages include vodka, gin, tequila, rum, whisky. 
Rum - 37.5%-80%, Brandy - 35%-60% (usually 40%), Vodka - 35%-50%. Thus, the correct answer is option A.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 34

Modern biotechnology consist :

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 35

First fermented acid is :

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 35

It was then in 1857 when the French chemist Louis Pasteurfirst described the lactic acid as the product of a microbialfermentation.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 36

Which of the following Microorganisms use for Swiss cheese : 

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 36

Propionibacterium is a Gram-positive, non-motile bacterium that plays an important role in the creation of Emmental cheese, and to some extent, Jarlsberg cheese, Leerdammer and Maasdam cheese. Its concentration in Swiss-type cheeses is higher than in any other cheese. It is this Propionibacterium that is responsible for the holes in Swiss cheese. Through the process of consuming the lactic acid, the bacteria produces acetate, propionic acid, and carbon dioxide as a by product.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 37

Mechanism of action of antibiotics are :

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 38

Which is not a character of good antibiotic :

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 39

What is mode of bacterial resistance against antibiotics

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 40

After Viral infection some substances are released by infected cells, these substances called

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 41

First artificially synthesised hormone is

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 41

Insulin is a protein hormone produced in the pancreas and used in the metabolism of sugar and other carbohydrates. The synthesis of human insulin was done using a process similar to the fermentation process used to make antibiotics.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 42

Recombinant DNA technology prepared vaccine is called

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 42

The first generation vaccines consist of live attenuated/ heat killed vaccines in which whole organisms in the weakened live form or heat killed form are injected. Sevcond generation vaccines are those vaccines in which the whole organism is not given. Instead of this a portion called the subunit, which may contain a protein section of the pathogen is given. Third generation vaccines are those in which recombinant techniques are used for the production of vaccines. In this technique DNA encoding the antigen is inserted into a vector which will be recognised as a pathogen in the host. Such that the host immune system generates an immune response against the vector and thereby the antigen. So, the correct answer is 'Third generation vaccines'.

 

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 43

Which of the following vaccine related with tissue culture

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 43

A trail batch of tissue culture inactivated anti rabies vaccine was produced at Rabies Vaccine production Laboratory in Kathmandu in 2010. Vero working cell line (164P) was used for propagation of cell that was infected with PV/RV at 100 MOI working rabies virus strain at 170 serial passages of cells.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 44

Dextrin is

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 44

Dextrins are polysaccharides formed by heating dry or acid-modified starches in a process called pyrolysis. They can be used at higher solids levels than native or modified starches, creating stronger bonds, more tack and faster-drying properties than pastes made from unmodified starch. 

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 45

Which of these is a type of transgenic microorganism 

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 45

Transgenic microbes have many commercial and practical applications, including the production of mammalian products. A company called Genentech was among the earliest and most successful commercial enterprises to use genetically engineered bacteria to produce human proteins. Their first product was human insulin produced by genetically engineered Escherichia coli. A variety of other human hormones , blood proteins, and immune modulators are now produced in a similar fashion, in addition to vaccines for such infectious agents as hepatitis B virus and measles.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 46

Cry protein is obtained from

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 46

Cry proteins are a large family of crystalline toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis. Individually, the family members are highly specific, but collectively, they target a diverse range of insects and nematodes. Domain II of the toxins is important for target specificity, and three loops at its apex have been studied extensively. 

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 47

Which of the following is not related with bio weapons :

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 47

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a bacterium that is commonly found in the gut of humans and warm-blooded animals. Most strains of E. coli are harmless. Some strains however, such as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, can cause severe foodborne disease. It is transmitted to humans primarily through consumption of contaminated foods, such as raw or undercooked ground meat products, raw milk, and contaminated raw vegetables and sprouts.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 48

In gene therapy, the genetic defect is corrected by delivery of _______ gene into the individual.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 48

In gene therapy, the genetic defect is corrected by the delivery of a normal gene into the individual. This normal gene when replaced cures that deficiency. It is a functional gene and is useful in the curing of that disorder.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 49

The inserted normal gene takes over the function of _________ gene.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 49

In gene therapy, the inserted normal gene takes over the function of the non-functional gene. This non-functional gene is also called as an incorrect or mutant gene. This change in function is useful in successfully curing of the disease.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 50

Biological products can be created with the help of transgenic animals by the introduction of a portion of ______

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 50

Biological products can be created with the help of transgenic animals by the introduction of a portion of a gene that code for that product. This gene will then express and give us the desired product.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 51

What are the advantage of gobar gas over conventional utilization

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 52

Which is not a character of good fire wood

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 52

Softwood is wood from gymnosperm trees such as conifers, as well as Amborella. The term is opposed to hardwood, which is the wood from angiosperm trees. Softwood is usually wood from gymnosperm trees such as pines and spruces. Softwoods are not necessarily softer than hardwoods.In both groups there is an enormous variation in actual wood hardness, the range of density in hardwoods completely including that of softwoods. Some hardwoods (e.g. balsa) are softer than most softwoods, while the hardest hardwoods are much harder than any softwood. The woods of longleaf pine, Douglas fir, and yew are much harder in the mechanical sense than several hardwoods.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 53

Fuel wood required wood per person per day is

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 53

The correct option is Option B.
Fuel wood required per person per day is 3kg.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 54

Biogas consist of

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 54

Biogas is a mixture of different gases, major portion in biogas being methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). It also contains traces of other gases like hydrogen (H2), Moisture (H2O) , hydrogen sulphide (H2S)etc. Improved digesters used for anaerobic digestion can produce biogas with 65% - 75% methane content. Biogas contains water vapour also. The average quantity of methane and carbon dioxide in cow dung based biogas digesters are in 60:40 ratio. 

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 55

Biogas production from waste Biomass with the help of methanogenic bacteria is

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 55

Biogas production from waste biomass with the help of methanogenic bacteria is a 3- step process. Solubulization, Acidogenesis, Methanogenesis

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 56

Citric acid is produced by

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 56

The production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger is one of the most commercially utilized examples of fungal overflow metabolism.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 57

Transgenic animals has

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 57

The correct option is Option A.
Transgenic animals have foreign DNA in all its cells. The animals which carry foreign genes are called transgenic animals. The foreig genes are inserted into the genome of animals using recombinant DNA technology or gene manipulation.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 58

Vitamin B12 is formed during fermentation of

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 58

Vitamin B12, necessary for the maintenance of the nervous system and the formation of blood cells, is only naturally present in animal products. Vegans have thus far had to take supplements or vitamin pills to ensure a balanced diet. University of Helsinki researchers have now found a way to introduce vitamin B12 into plant-based foods using common food ingredients. The method is the familiar process of fermentation, using the Propionibacterium freudenreichii bacterium, which is used in production of Emmental cheese.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 59

Cheese and yoghurt are products of

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 59

Fermented milk is the collective name for products such as yoghurt, ymer, kefir, cultured buttermilk, filmjolk (Scandinavian sour milk), cultured cream and koumiss (a product based on mares’ milk). The generic name of fermented milk is derived from the fact that the milk for the product is inoculated with a starter culture which converts part of the lactose to lactic acid.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 60

Milk is changed into curd by

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 60

Milk is converted into curd or yogurt by the process of fermentation. Milk consists of globular proteins called casein. The curd forms because of the chemical reaction between the lactic acid bacteria and casein. During fermentation, the bacteria use enzymes to produce energy (ATP) from lactose. The byproduct of ATP production is lactic acid. Lactic acid acts on the globular proteins present in the milk and denatures them. This denaturation destroys the tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins and the globular proteins are converted into fibrous proteins thus giving a thick texture to the milk due to coagulation of the proteins.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 61

What is used to treat emphysema?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 61

α-1-antitrypsin is an inherited disorder. It causes lung and liver diseases. It may lead to emphysema. Thus this emphysema can be cured by giving the person α-1-antitrypsin.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 62

Which of the following yields citric acid

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 62

Aspergillus produces citric acid through fermentation of starch and molasses.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 63

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used in the formation of                             

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 63

Bioethanol is one of the most commonly used biofuels in transportation sector to reduce greenhouse gases. S. cerevisiae is the most employed yeast for ethanol production at industrial level though ethanol is produced by an array of other yeasts, bacteria, and fungi. 

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 64

Indicator of water pollution

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 64

The presence of E. coli in water indicates that, it has been contaminated with faecal matter. Thus, E. coli is commonly known as indicator of water pollution. Lemna and Eichhornia are free-floating hydrophytes, which remain in contact with water and air but not soil.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 65

The name of the first transgenic cow was _____

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 65

The first transgenic cow was produced in 1997. The first transgenic cow named Rosie produced human-protein enriched milk that was rich in human alpha-lactalbumin protein.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 66

Sewage purification is done by

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 66

Municipal waste-water which contains large amounts of organic matter is called sewage.

Before disposal, hence, sewage is treated in sewage treatment plants (STPs) by the heterotrophic microbes to make it less polluting.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 67

Attempts are being made to treat ________ using transgenic animals.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 67

Transgenic animals useful in better understanding and finding new treatments against a particular disease. Several attempts are made to treat phenylketonuria using transgenic animals. Phenylketonuria is an inherited disorder in which there is an increased level of amino acid phenylalanine in the body.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 68

Best economic method to harvest the solar energy

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 68

Solar radiation on the earth’s surface is abundant and truly a zero-carbon energy source. The solar energy needs to be harnessed using various efficient equipments, which has a very low carbon footprint. Various solar thermal energy harvesting techniques have been used which employ solar radiation incident on the optimal area with the help of concentrators.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 69

First transgenic plant

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 69

The first genetically modified crop plant was produced in 1982, an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant.The first field trials occurred in France and the USA in 1986, when tobacco plants were engineered for herbicude resistance.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 70

Which one produce gas by decomposing the gobar (Dung) in gobar gas          

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 70

The methanogenic bacteria are a large and diverse group that is united by three features:
1) They form large quantities of methane as the major product of their energy metabolism.
2) They are strict anaerobes.
3) They are members of the domain Archaea, or archaebacteria,  and only distantly related to the more familiar classical bacteria or eubacteria. Like the photosynthetic eubacteria, the methanogenic bacteria are related to each other primarily by their mode of energy metabolism but are very diverse with respect to their other properties.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 71

______ includes rules of conduct that may be used to regulate our activities concerning the biological world.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 71

Bioethics includes rules of conduct that may be used to regulate our activities concerning the biological world. It blends philosophy, theology, history, and law with the medical field.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 72

What is vaccine                           

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 72

Most vaccines against bacterial infections are effective at preventing disease, reactions can occur after vaccinations. Vaccines are available against tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type B, cholera, typhoid, and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
A vaccine works by training the immune system to recognize and combat pathogens, either viruses or bacteria. To do this, certain molecules from the pathogen must be introduced into the body to trigger an immune response. These molecules are called antigens, and they are present on all viruses and bacteria.
Protein based subunit vaccines present an antigen to the immune system without viral particles, using a specific, isolated protein of the pathogen. A weakness of this technique is that isolated proteins, if denatured, may bind to different antibodies than the protein of the pathogen.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 73

The bacteria generally used for genetic engineering is                              

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 73

The “sharing” of DNA among living forms is well documented as a natural phenomenon. For thousands of years, genes have moved from one organism to another. For example, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a soil bacterium known as ‘nature’s own genetic engineer’, has the natural ability to genetically engineer plants. It causes crown gall disease in a wide range of broad-leaved plants, such as apple, pear, peach, cherry, almond, raspberry, and roses. 

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 74

Which of the following is used to manufacture ethanol from starch

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 74

The bioconversion of starch into ethanol is a two-step process. The first step is saccharification, where starch is converted into sugar using an amylolytic microorganism or enzymes such as glucoamylase and amylase. The second step is fermentation, where sugar is converted into ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 75

Which of the following is the pair of biofertilizers

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 75

A Bio fertilizer is a substance which contains living microorganisms which, when applied to seed, plant surfaces, or soil, colonizes the rhizosphere or the interior of the plant and promotes growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant. Bio-fertilizers such asRhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirilium and blue green algae (BGA) have been in use a long time. Blue green algae , Nostoc or Anabaena, fix atmospheric nitrogen and are used as inoculations for paddy crop grown both under upland and low-land conditions. 

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 76

Interferen's are synthesized in response to

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 76

Interferons are categorized as cytokines, small proteins that are involved in intercellular signaling. Interferon is secreted by cells in response to stimulation by a virus or other foreign substance, but it does not directly inhibit the virus’s multiplication. 

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 77

Which bacteria is utilized in Gober gas plant

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 77

Methanogens can be also found in non-natural habitats such as landfills, digesters or biogas plants. There, the microbial community varies with the substrate. In biogas plants, due to hydrolysis of complex polymers to sugars and amino acids, followed by fermentation and acetogenesis, acetate, H2 and CO2 is produced as substrates for methanogenesis. 

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 78

During the formation of bread it becomes porous due to release of CO2 by the action of

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 78

Strains of Saccltarornyces cerevisiae is extensively used for leavening of bread. During fermentation, the yeasts produce alcohol and CO2  which leaves the read porous.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 79

Maximum application of animal cell culture technology today is in the production of

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 79

Maximum application of animal cell culture technology is in the production of vaccines. Vaccines are chemical substances prepared from the proteins of other animals which confer immunity to a particular virus. Some of the vaccines synthesized biologically , through genetic engineering are vaccines for hepatitis B virus, vaccines for rabies virus, vaccines for poliovirus and vaccines for small pox virus, etc.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 80

Escherichia coli is used as an indicator organism to determine pollution of water with

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 81

During anaerobic digestion of organic waste, such as in producing biogas, which one of the following is left under graded

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 81

During bio-gas formation, digestion of cellulose is slow (rate-limiting) and most of the lignin is not decomposed. After cellulose lignin is the most abundant plant polymer. It forms 20 to 30% of the wood of the tree, lignin is a complex polymeric molecule, made up of phenyl propanoid units. Cellulose is a large chained polymer of glucose molecules which are linked with each other by glycosidic bonds. Hemicellulose are branched polymers of glucose, xylose, galactose, mannose and arabinose.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 82

The term ''antibiotic'' was coined by

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 82

The term 'antibiotics' was first time used by SA Waksman in 1945. Antibiotics are the substances which are produced by microorganisms such as fungi or bacteria. These substances are harmful to the growth of other microorganisms, example of some of the antibiotics are penicillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, etc.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 83

Which of the following are the types of bioenergy?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 83

Bioenergy is the energy obtainable from biological sources i.e. living organisms, their wastes and residues. This includes animal energy and biofuels.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 84

A major component of gobar gas is

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 84

Biogas is an econimically friendly and clean renewable energy source. The gas can be utilized to meet several energy services, such as lighting and space heating, generation of electricity, and fuel for cooking. "Biogas is produced under anaerobic conditions; the process is denominated as anaerobic digestion. The major constituent of biogas is methane (55-70%), CO2 (30-45%) and some traces of gases such as H2S and ammonia. Common digester feedstock (feeding material) is cow, buffalo, and pig manure".

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 85

A free living nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium which can also from symbiotic association with the water fern Azolla is           

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 85

Anabaena is a free-living nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium which can form symbiotic association with water fern Azolla. The alga Tolypothrix belongs to class-Cyanophyceae. Some forms of Chlorella form symbiotic association in lichens and in certain invertebrates such as Hydra, Paramecium and sponges. Some species of Nostoc have been reported to fix atmospheric nitrogen and tend to maintain fertility of paddy fields.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 86

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains have been used for designing novel             

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 86

Bacillus thuringiensis strains have been used for designing bio insecticidal plants. A gene from this bacteria have insecticidal property which is transferred to cotton plants to produce Bt cotton which is resistant I to bollworm insect which is a major pest of cotton. Similarly insects affecting maize; cabbage, Sunflower etc., are also controlled by mutant strains of Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 87

Which one of the following is a correct statement ?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 87

Transgenic Brassica napus seeds are being used to produce the anticoagulant hirudin. Bt in "Bt Cotton'' stands for Bacillus thurengiensis. This is naturally occurring soil bacterium. Somatic hybridization involves fusion of protoplast of two cells. "Flavr savr" is genetically engineered tomatoes which express delayed softening by insertion of an additional copy of PG endociding gene. PG is poly galacturonase enzyme which is responsible for the breakdown of cell wall pectin.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 88

Cry 1 endotoxins obtained from Bacillus thuringiensis are effective against

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 88

They are actually the insect-resistant transgenic type of plants that contain the gene from the thuringiensis. 

This helps in the production of a protein which can help in the process of crystalline which can be inclusive in the strains of bacteria.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 89

Human insulin is being commercially produced from a transgenic species of

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 89

In 1983 an American company Eli Lily produced the first genetically engineered insulin by first synthesizing two DNA sequences corresponding to A and B insulin chains. The two DNA sequences or genes were made to fuse with plasmids of Escherichia coli and later allowed to form Insulin chains. Rhizobium is a Gram negative, aerobic, motile, non-spore forming symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium. It can fix nitrogen only when they are present inside the root nodules. Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes tuberculosis in man. It is an acute bacterial infection of the lungs, lymph and meninges.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known as Baker’s yeast and Saccharomyces ellipsoidens is wine yeast and these are used in baking and brewing industry respectively.

Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 90

GEAC makes decisions regarding the validity and the safety of _______ organisms.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology & Bioenergy - Question 90

GEAC makes decisions regarding the validity and the safety of genetically modified organisms. It works under the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change and takes decisions regarding the validity of GM research and safety of introducing GM products for public services.

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