Typhoid fever is caused by
Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi (S. typhosa). This is fasillus type. Bacterial genus Shigella causes shigellosis or bacillar y dysentr y. Escherichia coli is a facultative anaerobe found in the intestine of human beings.
Giardia is a flagellate protozoan, Glamblia causes giardiasis a prolonged diarroheal disease of humans.
Vaccine contains dead, attenuated form or antigen of a pathogen which can be injected to provide immunity towards that pathogen. Monoclonal antibodies are homogenous immunological reagents of defined specificity, so that these can be utilized for diagnosis and screening with certainty.
The cell in the human body invaded by the human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) is
AIdS is characterized by reduction in the number of helper T- lymphocytes because of HIV infection. It suppresses human immune system due to which any secondary infection may lead to death. T-lymphocytes are main cells of immune system.
It is not possible to apply Koch's postulates to
Koch's postulates are not applicable to the bacteria causing leprosy and syphilis.
Mycobacterium leprae causing leprosy produces endospores on which Koch’s postulates are not applicable, because Mycobacterium leprae cannot be cultured in vitro.
During blood typing agglutination indicates that the
Antibodies bind to specific antigens to produce large insoluble complexes which render them harmless and facilitate their destruction by other cells of the immune system this process is called agglutination.
Hybridoma cells are
Myeloma is a type of cancer associated with abnormal production of irregular antibodies. It occurs in antibody producing cells that have lost their normal control. Hybridomas are clones of hybrid cell resulting from fusion of normal antibody producing B-cells with myeloma cells.
Correctly match sexually transmitted disease with its pathogen?
AIDS is caused by HIV virus and Gonorrhoea is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoea. Urethritis is inflammed of the urethra by bacteria.
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, a bovine disease is related to which human disease ?
Bovine Spongifor m Ence phalopathy (BSE) is a total brain disease known to exist in beef and other dairy cattle in U.K. It is also known as mad cow disease. It is caused by prions.
Creutzfeldt- Jacob disease (CJD) is a slow degenerative disease among human affecting central nervous system with dysfunction and degeneration of the brain. It has been suggested that a few people in Britain might have contracted CJD by eating BSE- infected beef. So both are related. Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain mostly due to viral infection.
Small proteins produced by vertebrate cells in response to viral infections inhibiting viral multiplication are known as
Lipoproteins are conjugated proteins having polypeptides in association with lipids. Immunoglobulins are the constituent of antibodies. Inteferons (INFs) are a group of three vertebrate glycoproteins (i.e. a, b, g,) Out of these three a & b are produced within virally infected cells.
Interferon induces among adjacent cells, as antiviral state by inducing synthesis of the enzymes which inhibit the viral production cycle.
For which of the following disease, there is preventive vaccine?
Hepatitis is a viral disease; two subgroups are hepatitis type A virus (HAV) and hepatitis type B virus (HBV). HBV causes serum hepatitis, it is most frequently transmitted by blood, products of blood or blood contaminated instruments. Since only adults are susceptible to HBV, but vaccines are available. While children and young adults are susceptible to HAV, no vaccines are acceptable.
Which one of the following is correct match?
Morphine is an opiate narcotic, Bhang is a hallucinogen, Reserpine derived form Rauwolfia, is used as tranquilizer, cocaine is a stimulant.
Salmonella is related with
Tetanus is caused by Clostridium tetani. Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosae. Polio is caused by virus. Salmonella typhi causes typhoid fever. The incubation period is about two weeks. The patient first suffers from high fever of 40°C and continual headache.
Which of the following is most infectious disease?
We know that HBV causes serum hepatitis. It is most frequently transmitted by blood or by blood contaminated instruments.
Reason of lung cancer
Asbestos fibres present in atmosphere due to industrial emission cause lung cancers (asbestosis).
L. S. D. is
LSD or (Lysergic acid diethylamide) is an extract of ergot of fungus Claviceps purpurea. It is most powerful hallucinogen which causes horrible dreams, chronic psychosis etc.
Which statement is correct about centre of origin of plant?
Green manure comprises of a quick growing herbaceous crop. They are mixed with the soil to enrich the soil. They supply organic matter and also additional nitrogen.
Cancerous cells can easily be destroyed by radiations due to
The ability of radiations to kill cells is highest in the tissue with the highest number of dividing cells. Tumour cells proliferate rapidly. Hence, tumours are killed more rapidly by radiations.
Short-lived immunity acquired from mother to foetus across placenta or through mother's milk to the infant is categorised as
Carcinoma refers to
Carcinomas are malignant growths of the epithelial tissue that cover or line body organs.
What is true about T- lymphocytes in mammals?
T cells account for about 80% of all lymphocytes. They are named T cells because they mature in the thymus, a gland found in the chest. There are three types of T cell lymphocytes:
Cytotoxic T cell
Suppressor T cell
Helper T cell
Helper T cells are arguably the most important cells in adaptive immunity, as they are required for almost all adaptive immune responses. They not only help activate B cells to secrete antibodies and macrophages to destroy ingested microbes, but they also help activate cytotoxic T cells to kill infected target cells. A cytotoxic T cell is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are damaged in other ways. The regulatory T cells formerly known as suppressor T cells are a subpopulation of T cells that modulate the immune system, maintain tolerance to self-antigens, and prevent autoimmune disease.
So, the correct answer is 'There are three main types-cytotoxic T-cells, helper T-cells, and suppressor T-cells'.
Which one of the following conditions though harmful in itself, is also a potential saviour from a mosquito borne infectious disease ?
A sickle cell anaemia affected person is more resistant to mosquito born infectious disease because the sickle - cell shaped RBCs are hostile to the protozoa Plasmodium.
ELISA is used to detect viruses, where
ELISA test is a technique used to detect and quantitate extremely small amount of a protein, antibody or antigen with the help of enzyme. The commonly used enzymes are peroxidase and alkaline phosphatase. Southern blotting and DNA probes are used in molecular analysis of DNA. Catalase is not involved in ELISA.
AIDS is caused by HIV that principally infects:
AIdS virus infects T4 lymphocytes (also called Helper cells). Cytotoxic T cells called T8 lymphocytes.
Which one of the following depresses brain activity and produced feelings of calmness, relaxation and drowsiness?
Amphetamines bring about increased alertness and sleeplessness. Hashish is a hallucinogen. Valium is a tranquilizer. Valium depresses brain activity and produces feeling of calmness, relaxation and drowsiness. Morphine is an opiate narcotic.
A person showing unpredictable moods, outbursts of emotion, quarrelsome behaviour and conflicts with other is suffering from
In Border line Personality Disorder (BPD) a person suffers from emotionally unstable personality, unpredictable moods, highly reactive, anxeity and irritability. While in Schizophrenia a person suffers from distorted thoughts, he/she shows some extreme responses, sometimes auditory hallucinations.