Human eggs are
Eggs are of 4 types regarding the amount of yolk present in them :
(i) Alecithal Egg : Almost free of yolk eg. most mammals like man.
(ii) Microlecithal Egg : Very small amount of yolk eg. Branchiostoma.
(iii) Mesolecithal Egg : Moderate amount of yolk eg. Frog’s egg
(iv) Macrolecithal Egg : Large amount of yolk eg. Reptiles, birds and egglaying mammals.
Egg is liberated from ovary in
Oogonia is the immature female reproductive cell which migrates to the ovary during development of the baby mature to forms a primary oocyte. The primart oocyte arrests at prophase -1 of meiosis till the child reaches puberty. At puberty meiosis -1 end and the primary converts to secondary oocyte which is liberated from the ovary. Meiosis -2 ends when it fuses with the sperm and that’s when the egg becomes a mature ovum.
Gonads develop from embryonic
Ectoderm produces – Liver, Epidermis, glands, hair, nervous system etc.
Endoderm produces – Pancreas, lining of urinary bladder etc.
Mesoderm produces – Dermis, most muscles, Kidneys, Gonads etc.
How many sperms are formed from a secondary spermatocyte?
Primary spermatocyte (46) divides through meiosis to give two secondary spermatocytes (23). Each secondary spermatocyte divides through mitosis giving rise to two spermatids (23) which on spermeogenesis mature as sperms.
Fertilizins are emitted by
A glycoprotein fertilizin (composed of monosaccharides and amino acids) is secreted by a mature egg. Penetrating sperm also has some proteinaceous substance on its surface called antifertilizin. Due to the interaction between fertilizin & antifertilizin, the sperm adheres to the egg.
Freshly released human egg has
Human female has X X chromosomes. When eggs formed each egg carries 22 autosomes & one X chromosome. In human male each sperm carries 22 autosomes & either X or Y-chromosomes.
Location and secretion of Leydig cells are
Interstitial cells = Leydig’s cells are present in testes and secrete male hormone testosterone.
Middle piece of mammalian sperm possess
Middle piece of mammalian sperm possess mitochondria which are coiled around an axial filament called mitochondrial spiral. Mitochondria produce energy for the movement of sperm.
Extrusion of second polar body from egg nucleus occurs
Theentry of sperm stimulate the secondary oocyte to resume and complete the suspended meiosis II. This produces a haploid mature ovum and a second polar body. The second polar body and sperm tail immediately degenerate.
Acrosome reaction in sperm is triggered by
The activated spermatozoan on reaching the egg plasma membrane, undergoes a number of changes in its acrosomal region. All these changes are collectively described under acrosome reaction. Acrosome reaction is calcium-dependent involving massive uptake of calcium with an efflux of hydrogen generating high pH and osmotic pressure, producing negative surface charge, and
partial or total release of the acrosomal enzymes Calcium influx may activate phospholipase
resulting in accumulation of unsaturated fatty acids and fusiogenic lysophospholipids contributing to
Extra - embryonic membranes of the mammalian embryo are derived from
Four extra-embryonic membranes are present in mammals which originally arise from trophoblast viz. amnion, chorion, allantois and yolk sac. The trophoblast is the outermost layer of cells in morula.
At the end of first meiotic division, male sperm differentiates into
After first meiotic division primary spermatocyte (diploid) gives rise to two secondary spermatocytes (haploid).
In 28 day human ovarian cycle, ovulation occurs on
The 28 days human ovarian cycle is called menstrual cycle. On 14th day a mature ovarian follicle leaves ovary & comes into the fallopian tube.
The estrous cycle is a characteristic of
Estrous cycle is the characteristic of mammalian females other than primates. It is due to estrogen hormone. Estrous is the period during which ovulation occurs and the females mate with male.
Test tube baby is one who
In test tube baby, fertilization of the sperm and the ova is carried out in lab conditions (in vitro) and when the embryos have reached the 32-celled stage, it is implanted back into the uterus of the mother.
Amniocentesis is a technique
Amniocentesis is the most widely used method for prenatal detection of many genetic disorders. It is also a technique used for determining the sex of the foetus.
After ovulation the collapsed ovarian follicle shrinks and becomes filled with cell to form
After ovulation ovarian follicle, undergo several stages of degeneration the pilicular cells inlarge and fill with a yellow fluid to form corpus luteum.
The growth of corpus luteum is initiated by
Luteinizing hormone causes ovulation. The remaining cells of ovarian follicle are stimulated by LH to develop corpus luteum.
Exponential growth of cells is a characteristic feature of
Cells in culture usually follow a standard growth pattern. The first phase of growth after the culture is seeded is the lag phase, which is a period of slow growth when the cells are adapting to the culture environment. The lag phase is followed by the log phase (logarithmic phase), a period where the cells divide exponentially and consume the nutrients in the growth medium. When all the growth medium is spent (one or more of the nutrients is depleted) or when the cells occupy all of the available substrates, the cells enter the stationary phase.
The shared terminal duct of the reproductive and urinary system in the human male is:
Urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the genitals for the removal of fluids from the body. The urethra travels through the penis, and carries semen as well as urine.
During embryonic development, the establishment of polarity along anterior/ posterior, dorsal/ventral or medial/lateral axis is called
Option ( b) organizer phenomenon is the correct answer.
During embryonic development, the establishment of polarity along anterior/ posterior, dorsal/ventral or medial/lateral axis is called as organizer phenomenon. It is a region of a developing embryo or a substance produced by such a region that is capable inducing a specific type of development in undifferentiated tissue.
If mammalian ovum fails to get fertilized, which one of the following is unlikely?
Since cor pus luteum degenerates so progesterone also decreases rapidly (progesterone is essential for maintenance of pregnancy). Also estrogen continues to curve growth of the endometrium which ultimately becomes thick enough to break down and cause menstruation. Hence choice (c) is incorrect as estrogen secretion does not decreases further. Primary follicles start developing.
Grey crescent is the area
On the surface of the egg opposite to the point of sperm entry, the peripheral area of the egg becomes lighter in colour and assumes a grey appearance. This area is crescentric in shape and is known as the grey crescent.
Withdrawal of which of the following hormones is the immediate cause of menstruation?
Progesterone hormone which is secreted by the corpus luteum in the ovaries is responsible to stop ovulation (during pregnancy) and fixes the foetus to the uterine wall, facilitates placenta formation and controls the foetus development in uterus. If this hormone is withdrawn then fixation of foetus to uterine wall will not take place, formation of placenta will also not take place, ovulation starts from the ovaries and hence in human female menstruation starts.
In the human female, menstruation can be deferred by the administration of
When the production of progesterone and estrogen hormone stops in blood this leads to shed off the lying of uterine endometrium. Therefore, by supply of estrogen and progesterone the menstruation can be deferred.