Important Questions (1 mark): Working Of Institutions

30 Questions MCQ Test Polity and Constitution (Prelims) by IAS Masters | Important Questions (1 mark): Working Of Institutions

Attempt Important Questions (1 mark): Working Of Institutions | 30 questions in 30 minutes | Mock test for UPSC preparation | Free important questions MCQ to study Polity and Constitution (Prelims) by IAS Masters for UPSC Exam | Download free PDF with solutions

What do the Civil Servants do? 

Solution: Civil Servants are employed to implement Ministers' decisions – irrespective of what they might think of them, except that every Permanent Secretary (Head of Department) is the Accounting Officer for their department, which means they are directly accountable to Parliament for public spending.

Apart from Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha, who else constitutes the Parliament?

Solution: Under article 80 of the Constitution, the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) is composed of not more than 250 members, of whom 12 are nominated by the President of India from amongst persons who have special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such matters as literature, science, art and social service.

How can a judge of the Supreme Court be removed? 

Solution: Removal. Per Article 124(4) of the constitution, President can remove a judge on proved misbehaviour or incapacity when parliament approves with a majority of the total membership of each house in favour of impeachment and not less than two thirds of the members of each house present.

For how long can the Rajya Sabha delay a Money Bill? 


In case a Money Bill is not returned by the Rajya Sabha to the Lok Sabha within a period of fourteen days from the date of its receipt, it is deemed to have been passed by both Houses in the form in which it was passed by the Lok Sabha after the expiry of said period.


Who is the Real Executive of the Indian Union? 


The President of India is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces whilst the elected Prime Minister acts as the head of the executive, and is responsible for running the Union government.The real executive power is thus vested in the Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as its head. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the House of the People (Lok Sabha). Every State has a Legislative Assembly. Certain States have an upper House also called the State Legislative Council.


What is the power of the Supreme Court to judge the constitutional validity of a law passed by the Parliament or an action of the Executive called?

Solution: Judicial review encompasses the power of judiciary to review actions of legislative and judiciary thus enshrining the principle of Rule of Law and maintaining separation of power principle at the grassroots level.Thus, the main frame within which the judiciary limits are circumscribed consist of judicial review of administrative and legislative actions and scrutinizing several constitutional amendments in the light of constitutional provisions thereby protecting the sanctity of the Constitution and protecting the fundamental rights of the citizens.

Which body acts as the guardian of Fundamental Rights?

The supreme court acts as a guardian of fundamental rights of the citizens. when a fundamental right of any citizen is violated by government or any individual , he can seek the protection of supreme court.


Which of the following statements about Judiciary is false? 


No, the Judiciary can just strike down a law if it goes against the spirit of the Constitution.


What is ‘Parliament’? 

Solution: It is a bicameral legislature composed of the President of India and the two houses: the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People). Those elected or nominated (by the President) to either house of Parliament are referred to as Members of Parliament (MP).

Who is the presiding officer of the Lok Sabha? 

Solution: Yes, speaker is the presiding officer or u can say incharge of the Lok Sabha.. currently Sumitra Mahajan is the speaker of Lok Sabha.

Which one of the following institutions exercises greater power over the Union budget?


Lok Sabha had more powers to handle in the Union budget than Rajya Sabha. Finance minister was the responsible one to laid the budget in Parliament.


Judiciary (court) can take up any dispute like
(i) Between citizens and the judiciary
(ii) Between citizens and the government
(iii) Between two or more state governments
(iv) Between government at the Union and governments of the other countries.  
Select the best options


The only original jurisdiction cases commonly handled by the Supreme Court of the United States are disputes between two or more U.S. states, typically regarding boundary lines, water claims, or other property issues.


What are the two types of ‘Executives’ in India?

Solution: The two types of executive are :  Permanent executive : They are elected for a long term basis.The leaders in this executive are known as civil servants.

Who appoints the judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts?

Solution: President and prime minister have equal power . They choice chief justice of India . President think at world level that who becomes our chief justice of India and than take advise from prime minister that it is also good for country .I hope that you are able to get my point.

Can the Houses of Parliament be dissolved? Select the correct option. 

Solution: Rajya Sabha is a permanent house so there is no dissolution of Rajya Sabha, though term of Rajya Sabha members has been fixed for 6 years. The Lok Sabha may dissolve at the end of its five year term or by an order of President.

What does the Supreme Court say over the Parliament’s power of amendment of the Constitution?

Solution: Previously, the Supreme Court had held that the power of Parliament to amend the Constitution was unfettered. The Supreme Court's position on constitutional amendments laid out in its judgements is that Parliament can amend the Constitution but cannot destroy its "basic structure".

When was the Second Backward Class Commission appointed?

The Government of India appointed the Second Backward Classes Commission in the year 1979. B P Mandal was the head of Mandal Commission. Thus, it was popularly known as Mandal Commission.
It was appointed in order to
(i) determine the criteria to identify the Socially and Educationally Backward Classes (SEBCs) in India.
(ii) to recommend steps to be taken for their advancement.
The commission gave its report in 1980 and made following recommendations
27% of the government jobs be reserved for the Socially and Educationally Backward Classes.
The report and recommendations were discussed in the Parliament. On 6th August 1990, the , Government of India took a formal decision to implement the recommendations.

Which of the following statements is true regarding President of India? 


The president of India is the ceremonial head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.


What is the strength of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha?

Solution: For Lok Sabha,
543 members are directly elected by the citizens of India and 2 Anglo-Indians are nominated by the president. Therefore, Lower House consists of 543 + 2 = 545 members.
For Rajya Sabha,
238 members are indirectly elected by the citizens of India i.e., the members of the State Legislative Assembly and Union Territories elect them and 12 members are nominated by the President. Therefore, the Upper House consists of 238 + 12 = 250 members.

Which of these are correct so far as powers of the Parliament are concerned, apart from making laws?


Parliaments all over the world exercise some control over those who run the government. In some countries like India, this control is direct and full.

Parliaments control all the money that governments have. In most countries, any the public money can be spent only when the Parliament sanctions it.

Parliament is the highest forum of discussion and debate on public issues and national policy in any country. Parliament can seek information about any matter.


The President of India is elected by ?

Solution: The President of India is elected by an electoral college. This college comprises the elected representatives of the government that form the government after being elected in the state assembly and national elections. The citizens of the country directly elect these representatives. It is these elected representatives who then vote for the President, in theory representing the people who would ideally vote for the President. Nominated members of state assemblies and the two Houses are not allowed to participate in the presidential election as they have been nominated by the President herself. Issuing whips to garner votes for a particular candidate is also prohibited.

Which of the following institutions can make changes to the existing law of the country?

Solution: Parliament has the final authority for making laws in a country. It can make new laws, change or abolish the existing law and make new one in there place.

Why did people react strongly to the Mandal Commission Report? 

Solution: According to the Mandal Commission's report (headed by B.P. Mandal), 27% of the total number of jobs which were available in the government and public sector were reserved for the caste OBC. This meant that the people from other castes could not compete for those seats which in turn affected the job opportunities of thousands of peoples. That's why people reacted strongly to the Mandal Commission's Report.

What is a Public Interest Litigation?


What is meant by ‘Office Memorandum’? 

Solution: It often called O.M. Each order contain a special order number with which it can be identified. 1) Office Memorandum is basically a communication issued by an appropriate authority stating the policy or decision of the government. 2) It is referred as a Government order or a circular issued by the executive branch.

In what ways Lok Sabha exercises Supreme Power over Rajya Sabha?
(i) Lok Sabha exercises more powers on money matter.
(ii) Lok Sabha controls the President of India
(iii) During the joint session final decision is taken by Lok Sabha because of its larger number of members
(iv) It guides the functioning of Rajya Sabha. 


When there is a difference in passing the ordinary law between the houses, the final decision has to be taken by the members of both the houses in a joint session. As Lok Sabha has larger number of members, it is likely succeed in such a meeting.
In money matters, Lok Sabha exercises more power. If any money related matters or the budget of the government is passed by the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha cannot reject it. The Rajya Sabha can only suggest changes to it or delay the matter for 14 days. It is at Lok Sabha’s discretion to accept the changes or not.
Unlike Rajya Sabha, the Council of Ministers are controlled by Lok Sabha. If a majority of the Lok Sabha members say they have ‘no confidence’ in the Council of Ministers, all ministers including the Prime Minister, have to quit.


Which of these disputes can the Supreme Court take?


The supreme court is highest court and can take all of the cases. 


The cabinet as a team assisted by ?

Solution: The Cabinet Secretary is the senior-most civil servant of the country who heads the cabinet secretariat. He is the principal adviser to the Prime Minister and his office combines an articulate interaction of politics and administration at the top echelons of the Union government.

What happens if there is a difference of opinion between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha over an ordinary bill?

Solution: If the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha fails to agree with the passing of an ordinary bill it will remain as a bill until it is passed.Then the option is that it shall be presented in a joint session of both the house for debate and pass. If the joint session pass the bill with or without amendments already passed in either of the houses it is the end of the law making procedure. The bill may become a law on getting the assent of the President.

Two features of Indian judicial system are:

Solution: Our Constitution provide us with an independent and integrated judiciary .It is called independent as it can hear appeal against the action of high court ,it can change the death sentence if wanted and it's is called integrated as at the apex court of the country's the judicial system is the supreme court which is the head of law of land,it comprises of chief justice of India and other 25 judges. 
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