Making equal access to opportunities available to everybody refers to
Equity refers to making equal access to opportunities available to everybody. The opportunities available to people must be equal irrespective of their gender, race, income and in the Indian case, caste.
A qualitative change is always:
Development means a qualitative change, which is always value positive. Development cannot take place unless there is an addition to the existing condition. It occurs only when positive growth takes place.
Countries with high levels of human development invest more in:
Countries with high levels of human development invest more in social sectors and are generally free from political turmoil and instability. Distribution of the country’s resources is also far more equitable.
Number of countries score low on the HDI in 2013:
Their score on HDI in 2013 was less than 0.540. As many as 43 countries record low levels of human development. A large proportion of these are small countries which have been going through political turmoil and social instability in the form of civil war, famine or a high incidence of diseases.
Number of countries score very high human index in 2013
The HDI ranks the countries based on their performance in the key areas of health, education and access to resources. They have score of 0.808 and above. They are Norway, Australia, Switzerland, Netherlands, United States, etc. Government of these countries has made a higher investment in people. The degree of social diversity in these countries is not very high.
The country with high human development is
Egypt is an African country with low levels of development. The country with high human development are japan, Argentina, Norway.
Who among the following economists introduced the term Human Development?
In 1990 two economists - Prof. Mehbub Al Haque and Prof. Amartya Sen introduced the concept of Human Development. From 1990 onwards, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), each year calculate Human Development Index (HDI) and publish as a report which is known as Human Development Report (HDR).
Human Development is a process of improving power and functioning and capabilities. This definition is given by the :
Dr. Haq published the first Human Development Report, which was commissioned by the United Nations Development Programme.
Empowerment means to have the power
Empowerment means to have the power to make choices. Such power comes from increasing freedom and capability. Good governance and people-oriented policies are required to empower people.
Which of the following is/are considered as the indicator (s) of Human Development?
Apart from Human Development Index (HDI), the other four indicators of human development have been selected which were used by the Human Development Report. These are:
(i) Human Poverty Index for developing countries (HPI-1)
(ii) Human Poverty Index for selected DECD Countries (HPI-2)
(iii) Gender - related Development Index (GDI)
(iv) Gender Empowered Measurement (GEM)