CLAT: Mock Test (New Pattern) - 13


150 Questions MCQ Test Mock Test Series for CLAT 2020 | CLAT: Mock Test (New Pattern) - 13


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This mock test of CLAT: Mock Test (New Pattern) - 13 for CLAT helps you for every CLAT entrance exam. This contains 150 Multiple Choice Questions for CLAT CLAT: Mock Test (New Pattern) - 13 (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this CLAT: Mock Test (New Pattern) - 13 quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. CLAT students definitely take this CLAT: Mock Test (New Pattern) - 13 exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other CLAT: Mock Test (New Pattern) - 13 extra questions, long questions & short questions for CLAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

According to neo-Malthusians, population problem (as it presently exists in underdeveloped countries) is an inevitable result of the reproductive behaviour of man. The theory of Demographic Transition, however, rejects this view and asserts that the population explosion implying a sudden spurt in the rate of population growth is a transitory phenomenon that occurs in the second stage of demographic transition due to a rapid fall in the mortality rate without a corresponding fall in the birth rate. According to the Theory of Demographic Transition, every country passes through three stages of demographic transition. These stages are empirically verifiable.
In the first stage, both birth and death rates are high. Hence the population remains more or less stable. Even if there is some increase in the population because birth rate is somewhat higher than death rate, it does not pose any serious problem. Generally in backward economies where agriculture is the main occupation of the people, per capita incomes are low. This inevitably results in a low level of standard of living. Mass of the population in these countries is deprived of even the basic necessities of life.
The second stage of demographic transition is characterised by rapid growth of population. With the beginning of the process of development, the living standards of the people improve, the education expands medical and health facilities increase and governments make special efforts to check small pox, malaria, cholera, plague etc. These developments generally bring down the death rate. But as long as society remains primarily agrarian and the education remains confined to a narrow section of the society, attitude of the people towards the size of family does not change radically and the birth rate remains high. In this situation population increases at an alarming rate. In the second stage of demographic transition, the birth rate generally stays around 35 to 40 per thousand, whereas the death rate comes down to roughly 15 per thousand. Consequently population increases at an annual rate of about 2 per cent or more. In a country where economy has not grown adequately for a long time and a sizable section of the population has remained below the poverty line, this is really a grave situation. Economists call it population explosion.
In the third stage of demographic transition the birth rate declines significantly and thus the rate of population growth remains low. A country can hope to overcome the problem of population explosion if the process of industrialisation accompanied by urbanisation is fast and education becomes widespread. Only in this situation birth rate shows a tendency to fall.

Q. Which of the following best expresses the author's main idea in the passage?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. This is because the entire passage is describing what Demographic Transition includes and provides descriptions of all the stages it goes through. Option 1 is stated in the passage, but it is not the main idea because the whole passage is not about it. Option 3 is contradictory to what is stated in the passage. Option 4 is not stated in the passage.

QUESTION: 2

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

According to neo-Malthusians, population problem (as it presently exists in underdeveloped countries) is an inevitable result of the reproductive behaviour of man. The theory of Demographic Transition, however, rejects this view and asserts that the population explosion implying a sudden spurt in the rate of population growth is a transitory phenomenon that occurs in the second stage of demographic transition due to a rapid fall in the mortality rate without a corresponding fall in the birth rate. According to the Theory of Demographic Transition, every country passes through three stages of demographic transition. These stages are empirically verifiable.
In the first stage, both birth and death rates are high. Hence the population remains more or less stable. Even if there is some increase in the population because birth rate is somewhat higher than death rate, it does not pose any serious problem. Generally in backward economies where agriculture is the main occupation of the people, per capita incomes are low. This inevitably results in a low level of standard of living. Mass of the population in these countries is deprived of even the basic necessities of life.
The second stage of demographic transition is characterised by rapid growth of population. With the beginning of the process of development, the living standards of the people improve, the education expands medical and health facilities increase and governments make special efforts to check small pox, malaria, cholera, plague etc. These developments generally bring down the death rate. But as long as society remains primarily agrarian and the education remains confined to a narrow section of the society, attitude of the people towards the size of family does not change radically and the birth rate remains high. In this situation population increases at an alarming rate. In the second stage of demographic transition, the birth rate generally stays around 35 to 40 per thousand, whereas the death rate comes down to roughly 15 per thousand. Consequently population increases at an annual rate of about 2 per cent or more. In a country where economy has not grown adequately for a long time and a sizable section of the population has remained below the poverty line, this is really a grave situation. Economists call it population explosion.
In the third stage of demographic transition the birth rate declines significantly and thus the rate of population growth remains low. A country can hope to overcome the problem of population explosion if the process of industrialisation accompanied by urbanisation is fast and education becomes widespread. Only in this situation birth rate shows a tendency to fall.

Q. According to the author, why do people in nations that have backward economies live without having their basic needs met?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 1. The answer can be derived from the following sentence; 'Generally in backward economies where agriculture is the main occupation of the people, per capita incomes are low. This inevitably results in a low level of standard of living.'
Options 2 and 4 are out of context. Option 3 is not stated in the passage.

QUESTION: 3

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

According to neo-Malthusians, population problem (as it presently exists in underdeveloped countries) is an inevitable result of the reproductive behaviour of man. The theory of Demographic Transition, however, rejects this view and asserts that the population explosion implying a sudden spurt in the rate of population growth is a transitory phenomenon that occurs in the second stage of demographic transition due to a rapid fall in the mortality rate without a corresponding fall in the birth rate. According to the Theory of Demographic Transition, every country passes through three stages of demographic transition. These stages are empirically verifiable.
In the first stage, both birth and death rates are high. Hence the population remains more or less stable. Even if there is some increase in the population because birth rate is somewhat higher than death rate, it does not pose any serious problem. Generally in backward economies where agriculture is the main occupation of the people, per capita incomes are low. This inevitably results in a low level of standard of living. Mass of the population in these countries is deprived of even the basic necessities of life.
The second stage of demographic transition is characterised by rapid growth of population. With the beginning of the process of development, the living standards of the people improve, the education expands medical and health facilities increase and governments make special efforts to check small pox, malaria, cholera, plague etc. These developments generally bring down the death rate. But as long as society remains primarily agrarian and the education remains confined to a narrow section of the society, attitude of the people towards the size of family does not change radically and the birth rate remains high. In this situation population increases at an alarming rate. In the second stage of demographic transition, the birth rate generally stays around 35 to 40 per thousand, whereas the death rate comes down to roughly 15 per thousand. Consequently population increases at an annual rate of about 2 per cent or more. In a country where economy has not grown adequately for a long time and a sizable section of the population has remained below the poverty line, this is really a grave situation. Economists call it population explosion.
In the third stage of demographic transition the birth rate declines significantly and thus the rate of population growth remains low. A country can hope to overcome the problem of population explosion if the process of industrialisation accompanied by urbanisation is fast and education becomes widespread. Only in this situation birth rate shows a tendency to fall.

Q. What does the word 'alarming' as used in the passage mean?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 3. This is because alarming means worrying or disturbing. This can be derived from the context as the growth of population has been described in a negative context. All other options do not match the context or are contradictory in meaning.

QUESTION: 4

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

According to neo-Malthusians, population problem (as it presently exists in underdeveloped countries) is an inevitable result of the reproductive behaviour of man. The theory of Demographic Transition, however, rejects this view and asserts that the population explosion implying a sudden spurt in the rate of population growth is a transitory phenomenon that occurs in the second stage of demographic transition due to a rapid fall in the mortality rate without a corresponding fall in the birth rate. According to the Theory of Demographic Transition, every country passes through three stages of demographic transition. These stages are empirically verifiable.
In the first stage, both birth and death rates are high. Hence the population remains more or less stable. Even if there is some increase in the population because birth rate is somewhat higher than death rate, it does not pose any serious problem. Generally in backward economies where agriculture is the main occupation of the people, per capita incomes are low. This inevitably results in a low level of standard of living. Mass of the population in these countries is deprived of even the basic necessities of life.
The second stage of demographic transition is characterised by rapid growth of population. With the beginning of the process of development, the living standards of the people improve, the education expands medical and health facilities increase and governments make special efforts to check small pox, malaria, cholera, plague etc. These developments generally bring down the death rate. But as long as society remains primarily agrarian and the education remains confined to a narrow section of the society, attitude of the people towards the size of family does not change radically and the birth rate remains high. In this situation population increases at an alarming rate. In the second stage of demographic transition, the birth rate generally stays around 35 to 40 per thousand, whereas the death rate comes down to roughly 15 per thousand. Consequently population increases at an annual rate of about 2 per cent or more. In a country where economy has not grown adequately for a long time and a sizable section of the population has remained below the poverty line, this is really a grave situation. Economists call it population explosion.
In the third stage of demographic transition the birth rate declines significantly and thus the rate of population growth remains low. A country can hope to overcome the problem of population explosion if the process of industrialisation accompanied by urbanisation is fast and education becomes widespread. Only in this situation birth rate shows a tendency to fall.

Q. Why does rapid increase in population take place during the second stage of demographic transition?

Solution:

The following sentences suggest that option 4 is correct: 'The second stage of demographic transition is characterised by rapid growth of population. With the beginning of the process of development, the living standards of the people improve, the education expands medical and health facilities increase and governments make special efforts to check small pox, malaria, cholera, plague etc. These developments generally bring down the death rate.'

QUESTION: 5

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

According to neo-Malthusians, population problem (as it presently exists in underdeveloped countries) is an inevitable result of the reproductive behaviour of man. The theory of Demographic Transition, however, rejects this view and asserts that the population explosion implying a sudden spurt in the rate of population growth is a transitory phenomenon that occurs in the second stage of demographic transition due to a rapid fall in the mortality rate without a corresponding fall in the birth rate. According to the Theory of Demographic Transition, every country passes through three stages of demographic transition. These stages are empirically verifiable.
In the first stage, both birth and death rates are high. Hence the population remains more or less stable. Even if there is some increase in the population because birth rate is somewhat higher than death rate, it does not pose any serious problem. Generally in backward economies where agriculture is the main occupation of the people, per capita incomes are low. This inevitably results in a low level of standard of living. Mass of the population in these countries is deprived of even the basic necessities of life.
The second stage of demographic transition is characterised by rapid growth of population. With the beginning of the process of development, the living standards of the people improve, the education expands medical and health facilities increase and governments make special efforts to check small pox, malaria, cholera, plague etc. These developments generally bring down the death rate. But as long as society remains primarily agrarian and the education remains confined to a narrow section of the society, attitude of the people towards the size of family does not change radically and the birth rate remains high. In this situation population increases at an alarming rate. In the second stage of demographic transition, the birth rate generally stays around 35 to 40 per thousand, whereas the death rate comes down to roughly 15 per thousand. Consequently population increases at an annual rate of about 2 per cent or more. In a country where economy has not grown adequately for a long time and a sizable section of the population has remained below the poverty line, this is really a grave situation. Economists call it population explosion.
In the third stage of demographic transition the birth rate declines significantly and thus the rate of population growth remains low. A country can hope to overcome the problem of population explosion if the process of industrialisation accompanied by urbanisation is fast and education becomes widespread. Only in this situation birth rate shows a tendency to fall.

Q. According to the author, how can a nation hope to defeat population explosion?

Solution:

The answer can be derived from the following sentences: 'A country can hope to overcome the problem of population explosion if the process of industrialisation accompanied by urbanisation is fast and education becomes widespread. Only in this situation birth rate shows a tendency to fall.' Option 1 might seem correct, but is does not provide a way to decrease birth rates. Options 3 and 4 are out of context.

QUESTION: 6

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

Since World War II, the nation-state has been regarded with approval by every political system and ideology. In the name or modernization in the West, of socialism in the Eastern bloc, and of development in the Third World, it was expected to guarantee the happiness of individuals as citizens and of peoples as societies. However the state today appears to have broken down in many parts of the world. It has failed to guarantee either security or social justice, and has been unable to prevent either international wars or civil wars. Disturbed by the claims of communities within it, the nation state tries to repress their demands and to proclaim itself as the only guarantor of security of all. In the name of national unity, territorial integrity, equality of all its citizens and non-partisan secularism, the state can use its powerful resources to reject the demands of the communities; it may even go so far as genocide to ensure that order prevails.

As one observes the awakening of communities in different parts of the world, one cannot ignore the context in which identity issues arise. It is no longer a context of sealed frontiers and isolated regions but is one of integrated global systems. In a reaction to this trend towards globalisation individuals and communities everywhere are voicing their desire to exist, to use their power of creation and to play an active part in national and international life.

There are two ways to look at the current upsurge in demands for the recognition of identities can be looked up. On the positive side, the efforts by certain population groups to assert their identity can be regarded as “liberation movements”, challenging oppression and injustice. What these groups are doing - proclaiming that they are different, rediscovering the roots of their culture or strengthening group solidarity - may accordingly be seen as legitimate attempts to escape from their state of subjugation and enjoy a certain measure of dignity. On the downside, however, militant action for recognition tends to make such groups more deeply entrenched in their attitude and to make their cultural compartments even more watertight. The assertion of identity then starts turning into self-absorption and isolation and is liable to slide into intolerance of others and towards idea of “ethnic cleansing”, xenophobia and violence.

Whereas continuous variations among peoples prevent drawing of clear dividing lines between the groups, those militating for recognition of their group’s identity arbitrarily choose a limited number of criteria such as religion, language, skin colour, and place of origin so that their members recognize themselves primarily in terms of the labels attached to the group whose existence is being asserted. This distinction between the group in question and other groups is established by simplifying the feature selected. Simplification also works 'by transforming groups into essences, abstractions endowed with the capacity to remain unchanged through time. In some cases, people actually act as though the groups has remained unchanged and talk, for example, about the history of nations and communities as if these entities survived for centuries without changing, with the same ways of action and thinking, the same desires, anxieties, and aspirations.

Paradoxically, precisely because identity represents a simplifying fiction, creating uniform groups out of disparate people, that identity performs a cognitive function. It enables us to put names to ourselves and others, form some idea of who we are and who others are, and ascertain the place we occupy along with the others in the world and society. The current upsurge to assert the identity of groups can thus be partly explained by the cognitive function performed by identity. However, that said, people would not go along as they do, often in large numbers, with the propositions put to them, in spite of the sacrifices they entail, if there was not a very strong feeling of need for identity, a need to take stock of things and know “who we are”, where we come from and where we are going.

Identity is thus a necessity in a constantly changing world, but it can also be a potent source of violence and disruption. How can these two contradictory aspects of identity be reconciled? First, we must bear the arbitrary nature of identity categories in mind, not with a view to eliminating all forms of identification - which would be unrealistic since identity is a cognitive necessity - but simply to remind ourselves that each of us has several identities at the same time. Second, since tears of nostalgia are being shed over the past, we recognize that culture is constantly being recreated by cobbling together fresh and original elements and counter-cultures. There are in our own country a large number of syncretic cults wherein modem elements are blended with traditional values or people of different communities venerate saints or divinities of particular faiths. Such cults and movements are characterised by a continual inflow and outflow of members which prevent them from taking on a self-perpetuating existence of their own and hold out hope for the future, indeed, perhaps for the only possible future. Finally the nation state must respond to the identity urges of its constituent communities and to their legitimate quest for security and social justice. It must do so by inventing what the French philosopher and sociologist Raymond Aron called “peace through law.” That would guarantee justice both to the state as a whole and its parts and respect the claims of both reason and emotions. The problem is one of reconciling nationalist demands with the exercise of democracy.

Q. According to the author, happiness of individuals was expected to be guaranteed in the name of:

Solution:

The very few starting lines of the passage point to this idea.

QUESTION: 7

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

Since World War II, the nation-state has been regarded with approval by every political system and ideology. In the name or modernization in the West, of socialism in the Eastern bloc, and of development in the Third World, it was expected to guarantee the happiness of individuals as citizens and of peoples as societies. However the state today appears to have broken down in many parts of the world. It has failed to guarantee either security or social justice, and has been unable to prevent either international wars or civil wars. Disturbed by the claims of communities within it, the nation state tries to repress their demands and to proclaim itself as the only guarantor of security of all. In the name of national unity, territorial integrity, equality of all its citizens and non-partisan secularism, the state can use its powerful resources to reject the demands of the communities; it may even go so far as genocide to ensure that order prevails.

As one observes the awakening of communities in different parts of the world, one cannot ignore the context in which identity issues arise. It is no longer a context of sealed frontiers and isolated regions but is one of integrated global systems. In a reaction to this trend towards globalisation individuals and communities everywhere are voicing their desire to exist, to use their power of creation and to play an active part in national and international life.

There are two ways to look at the current upsurge in demands for the recognition of identities can be looked up. On the positive side, the efforts by certain population groups to assert their identity can be regarded as “liberation movements”, challenging oppression and injustice. What these groups are doing - proclaiming that they are different, rediscovering the roots of their culture or strengthening group solidarity - may accordingly be seen as legitimate attempts to escape from their state of subjugation and enjoy a certain measure of dignity. On the downside, however, militant action for recognition tends to make such groups more deeply entrenched in their attitude and to make their cultural compartments even more watertight. The assertion of identity then starts turning into self-absorption and isolation and is liable to slide into intolerance of others and towards idea of “ethnic cleansing”, xenophobia and violence.

Whereas continuous variations among peoples prevent drawing of clear dividing lines between the groups, those militating for recognition of their group’s identity arbitrarily choose a limited number of criteria such as religion, language, skin colour, and place of origin so that their members recognize themselves primarily in terms of the labels attached to the group whose existence is being asserted. This distinction between the group in question and other groups is established by simplifying the feature selected. Simplification also works 'by transforming groups into essences, abstractions endowed with the capacity to remain unchanged through time. In some cases, people actually act as though the groups has remained unchanged and talk, for example, about the history of nations and communities as if these entities survived for centuries without changing, with the same ways of action and thinking, the same desires, anxieties, and aspirations.

Paradoxically, precisely because identity represents a simplifying fiction, creating uniform groups out of disparate people, that identity performs a cognitive function. It enables us to put names to ourselves and others, form some idea of who we are and who others are, and ascertain the place we occupy along with the others in the world and society. The current upsurge to assert the identity of groups can thus be partly explained by the cognitive function performed by identity. However, that said, people would not go along as they do, often in large numbers, with the propositions put to them, in spite of the sacrifices they entail, if there was not a very strong feeling of need for identity, a need to take stock of things and know “who we are”, where we come from and where we are going.

Identity is thus a necessity in a constantly changing world, but it can also be a potent source of violence and disruption. How can these two contradictory aspects of identity be reconciled? First, we must bear the arbitrary nature of identity categories in mind, not with a view to eliminating all forms of identification - which would be unrealistic since identity is a cognitive necessity - but simply to remind ourselves that each of us has several identities at the same time. Second, since tears of nostalgia are being shed over the past, we recognize that culture is constantly being recreated by cobbling together fresh and original elements and counter-cultures. There are in our own country a large number of syncretic cults wherein modem elements are blended with traditional values or people of different communities venerate saints or divinities of particular faiths. Such cults and movements are characterised by a continual inflow and outflow of members which prevent them from taking on a self-perpetuating existence of their own and hold out hope for the future, indeed, perhaps for the only possible future. Finally the nation state must respond to the identity urges of its constituent communities and to their legitimate quest for security and social justice. It must do so by inventing what the French philosopher and sociologist Raymond Aron called “peace through law.” That would guarantee justice both to the state as a whole and its parts and respect the claims of both reason and emotions. The problem is one of reconciling nationalist demands with the exercise of democracy.

Q. Demands for recognition of identities can be viewed:

Solution:

Read the second the subsequent paragraphs.

QUESTION: 8

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

Since World War II, the nation-state has been regarded with approval by every political system and ideology. In the name or modernization in the West, of socialism in the Eastern bloc, and of development in the Third World, it was expected to guarantee the happiness of individuals as citizens and of peoples as societies. However the state today appears to have broken down in many parts of the world. It has failed to guarantee either security or social justice, and has been unable to prevent either international wars or civil wars. Disturbed by the claims of communities within it, the nation state tries to repress their demands and to proclaim itself as the only guarantor of security of all. In the name of national unity, territorial integrity, equality of all its citizens and non-partisan secularism, the state can use its powerful resources to reject the demands of the communities; it may even go so far as genocide to ensure that order prevails.

As one observes the awakening of communities in different parts of the world, one cannot ignore the context in which identity issues arise. It is no longer a context of sealed frontiers and isolated regions but is one of integrated global systems. In a reaction to this trend towards globalisation individuals and communities everywhere are voicing their desire to exist, to use their power of creation and to play an active part in national and international life.

There are two ways to look at the current upsurge in demands for the recognition of identities can be looked up. On the positive side, the efforts by certain population groups to assert their identity can be regarded as “liberation movements”, challenging oppression and injustice. What these groups are doing - proclaiming that they are different, rediscovering the roots of their culture or strengthening group solidarity - may accordingly be seen as legitimate attempts to escape from their state of subjugation and enjoy a certain measure of dignity. On the downside, however, militant action for recognition tends to make such groups more deeply entrenched in their attitude and to make their cultural compartments even more watertight. The assertion of identity then starts turning into self-absorption and isolation and is liable to slide into intolerance of others and towards idea of “ethnic cleansing”, xenophobia and violence.

Whereas continuous variations among peoples prevent drawing of clear dividing lines between the groups, those militating for recognition of their group’s identity arbitrarily choose a limited number of criteria such as religion, language, skin colour, and place of origin so that their members recognize themselves primarily in terms of the labels attached to the group whose existence is being asserted. This distinction between the group in question and other groups is established by simplifying the feature selected. Simplification also works 'by transforming groups into essences, abstractions endowed with the capacity to remain unchanged through time. In some cases, people actually act as though the groups has remained unchanged and talk, for example, about the history of nations and communities as if these entities survived for centuries without changing, with the same ways of action and thinking, the same desires, anxieties, and aspirations.

Paradoxically, precisely because identity represents a simplifying fiction, creating uniform groups out of disparate people, that identity performs a cognitive function. It enables us to put names to ourselves and others, form some idea of who we are and who others are, and ascertain the place we occupy along with the others in the world and society. The current upsurge to assert the identity of groups can thus be partly explained by the cognitive function performed by identity. However, that said, people would not go along as they do, often in large numbers, with the propositions put to them, in spite of the sacrifices they entail, if there was not a very strong feeling of need for identity, a need to take stock of things and know “who we are”, where we come from and where we are going.

Identity is thus a necessity in a constantly changing world, but it can also be a potent source of violence and disruption. How can these two contradictory aspects of identity be reconciled? First, we must bear the arbitrary nature of identity categories in mind, not with a view to eliminating all forms of identification - which would be unrealistic since identity is a cognitive necessity - but simply to remind ourselves that each of us has several identities at the same time. Second, since tears of nostalgia are being shed over the past, we recognize that culture is constantly being recreated by cobbling together fresh and original elements and counter-cultures. There are in our own country a large number of syncretic cults wherein modem elements are blended with traditional values or people of different communities venerate saints or divinities of particular faiths. Such cults and movements are characterised by a continual inflow and outflow of members which prevent them from taking on a self-perpetuating existence of their own and hold out hope for the future, indeed, perhaps for the only possible future. Finally the nation state must respond to the identity urges of its constituent communities and to their legitimate quest for security and social justice. It must do so by inventing what the French philosopher and sociologist Raymond Aron called “peace through law.” That would guarantee justice both to the state as a whole and its parts and respect the claims of both reason and emotions. The problem is one of reconciling nationalist demands with the exercise of democracy.

Q. Going by the author’s exposition of the nature of identity, which of the following statement is untrue?

Solution:
QUESTION: 9

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

Since World War II, the nation-state has been regarded with approval by every political system and ideology. In the name or modernization in the West, of socialism in the Eastern bloc, and of development in the Third World, it was expected to guarantee the happiness of individuals as citizens and of peoples as societies. However the state today appears to have broken down in many parts of the world. It has failed to guarantee either security or social justice, and has been unable to prevent either international wars or civil wars. Disturbed by the claims of communities within it, the nation state tries to repress their demands and to proclaim itself as the only guarantor of security of all. In the name of national unity, territorial integrity, equality of all its citizens and non-partisan secularism, the state can use its powerful resources to reject the demands of the communities; it may even go so far as genocide to ensure that order prevails.

As one observes the awakening of communities in different parts of the world, one cannot ignore the context in which identity issues arise. It is no longer a context of sealed frontiers and isolated regions but is one of integrated global systems. In a reaction to this trend towards globalisation individuals and communities everywhere are voicing their desire to exist, to use their power of creation and to play an active part in national and international life.

There are two ways to look at the current upsurge in demands for the recognition of identities can be looked up. On the positive side, the efforts by certain population groups to assert their identity can be regarded as “liberation movements”, challenging oppression and injustice. What these groups are doing - proclaiming that they are different, rediscovering the roots of their culture or strengthening group solidarity - may accordingly be seen as legitimate attempts to escape from their state of subjugation and enjoy a certain measure of dignity. On the downside, however, militant action for recognition tends to make such groups more deeply entrenched in their attitude and to make their cultural compartments even more watertight. The assertion of identity then starts turning into self-absorption and isolation and is liable to slide into intolerance of others and towards idea of “ethnic cleansing”, xenophobia and violence.

Whereas continuous variations among peoples prevent drawing of clear dividing lines between the groups, those militating for recognition of their group’s identity arbitrarily choose a limited number of criteria such as religion, language, skin colour, and place of origin so that their members recognize themselves primarily in terms of the labels attached to the group whose existence is being asserted. This distinction between the group in question and other groups is established by simplifying the feature selected. Simplification also works 'by transforming groups into essences, abstractions endowed with the capacity to remain unchanged through time. In some cases, people actually act as though the groups has remained unchanged and talk, for example, about the history of nations and communities as if these entities survived for centuries without changing, with the same ways of action and thinking, the same desires, anxieties, and aspirations.

Paradoxically, precisely because identity represents a simplifying fiction, creating uniform groups out of disparate people, that identity performs a cognitive function. It enables us to put names to ourselves and others, form some idea of who we are and who others are, and ascertain the place we occupy along with the others in the world and society. The current upsurge to assert the identity of groups can thus be partly explained by the cognitive function performed by identity. However, that said, people would not go along as they do, often in large numbers, with the propositions put to them, in spite of the sacrifices they entail, if there was not a very strong feeling of need for identity, a need to take stock of things and know “who we are”, where we come from and where we are going.

Identity is thus a necessity in a constantly changing world, but it can also be a potent source of violence and disruption. How can these two contradictory aspects of identity be reconciled? First, we must bear the arbitrary nature of identity categories in mind, not with a view to eliminating all forms of identification - which would be unrealistic since identity is a cognitive necessity - but simply to remind ourselves that each of us has several identities at the same time. Second, since tears of nostalgia are being shed over the past, we recognize that culture is constantly being recreated by cobbling together fresh and original elements and counter-cultures. There are in our own country a large number of syncretic cults wherein modem elements are blended with traditional values or people of different communities venerate saints or divinities of particular faiths. Such cults and movements are characterised by a continual inflow and outflow of members which prevent them from taking on a self-perpetuating existence of their own and hold out hope for the future, indeed, perhaps for the only possible future. Finally the nation state must respond to the identity urges of its constituent communities and to their legitimate quest for security and social justice. It must do so by inventing what the French philosopher and sociologist Raymond Aron called “peace through law.” That would guarantee justice both to the state as a whole and its parts and respect the claims of both reason and emotions. The problem is one of reconciling nationalist demands with the exercise of democracy.

Q. According to the author, the nation-state

Solution:

Please refer to the last few lines of the first paragraph for the right answer.

QUESTION: 10

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

Since World War II, the nation-state has been regarded with approval by every political system and ideology. In the name or modernization in the West, of socialism in the Eastern bloc, and of development in the Third World, it was expected to guarantee the happiness of individuals as citizens and of peoples as societies. However the state today appears to have broken down in many parts of the world. It has failed to guarantee either security or social justice, and has been unable to prevent either international wars or civil wars. Disturbed by the claims of communities within it, the nation state tries to repress their demands and to proclaim itself as the only guarantor of security of all. In the name of national unity, territorial integrity, equality of all its citizens and non-partisan secularism, the state can use its powerful resources to reject the demands of the communities; it may even go so far as genocide to ensure that order prevails.

As one observes the awakening of communities in different parts of the world, one cannot ignore the context in which identity issues arise. It is no longer a context of sealed frontiers and isolated regions but is one of integrated global systems. In a reaction to this trend towards globalisation individuals and communities everywhere are voicing their desire to exist, to use their power of creation and to play an active part in national and international life.

There are two ways to look at the current upsurge in demands for the recognition of identities can be looked up. On the positive side, the efforts by certain population groups to assert their identity can be regarded as “liberation movements”, challenging oppression and injustice. What these groups are doing - proclaiming that they are different, rediscovering the roots of their culture or strengthening group solidarity - may accordingly be seen as legitimate attempts to escape from their state of subjugation and enjoy a certain measure of dignity. On the downside, however, militant action for recognition tends to make such groups more deeply entrenched in their attitude and to make their cultural compartments even more watertight. The assertion of identity then starts turning into self-absorption and isolation and is liable to slide into intolerance of others and towards idea of “ethnic cleansing”, xenophobia and violence.

Whereas continuous variations among peoples prevent drawing of clear dividing lines between the groups, those militating for recognition of their group’s identity arbitrarily choose a limited number of criteria such as religion, language, skin colour, and place of origin so that their members recognize themselves primarily in terms of the labels attached to the group whose existence is being asserted. This distinction between the group in question and other groups is established by simplifying the feature selected. Simplification also works 'by transforming groups into essences, abstractions endowed with the capacity to remain unchanged through time. In some cases, people actually act as though the groups has remained unchanged and talk, for example, about the history of nations and communities as if these entities survived for centuries without changing, with the same ways of action and thinking, the same desires, anxieties, and aspirations.

Paradoxically, precisely because identity represents a simplifying fiction, creating uniform groups out of disparate people, that identity performs a cognitive function. It enables us to put names to ourselves and others, form some idea of who we are and who others are, and ascertain the place we occupy along with the others in the world and society. The current upsurge to assert the identity of groups can thus be partly explained by the cognitive function performed by identity. However, that said, people would not go along as they do, often in large numbers, with the propositions put to them, in spite of the sacrifices they entail, if there was not a very strong feeling of need for identity, a need to take stock of things and know “who we are”, where we come from and where we are going.

Identity is thus a necessity in a constantly changing world, but it can also be a potent source of violence and disruption. How can these two contradictory aspects of identity be reconciled? First, we must bear the arbitrary nature of identity categories in mind, not with a view to eliminating all forms of identification - which would be unrealistic since identity is a cognitive necessity - but simply to remind ourselves that each of us has several identities at the same time. Second, since tears of nostalgia are being shed over the past, we recognize that culture is constantly being recreated by cobbling together fresh and original elements and counter-cultures. There are in our own country a large number of syncretic cults wherein modem elements are blended with traditional values or people of different communities venerate saints or divinities of particular faiths. Such cults and movements are characterised by a continual inflow and outflow of members which prevent them from taking on a self-perpetuating existence of their own and hold out hope for the future, indeed, perhaps for the only possible future. Finally the nation state must respond to the identity urges of its constituent communities and to their legitimate quest for security and social justice. It must do so by inventing what the French philosopher and sociologist Raymond Aron called “peace through law.” That would guarantee justice both to the state as a whole and its parts and respect the claims of both reason and emotions. The problem is one of reconciling nationalist demands with the exercise of democracy.

Q. Which of the following views of the nation-state cannot be attributed to the author?

Solution:

The first paragraph contains the answer.

QUESTION: 11

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

I decided at 10 years of age that I was going to be a teacher, because I wanted superpowers. There! I've said it. It's true. When I was in primary school I could clearly see that some of my teachers had extraordinary powers. My classmates went about their day with joyful abandon. Not me. I was the quietly observant one, noticing things.
There was our English-language teacher in fifth grade who could magically transport us to different worlds every day, simply by telling us stories and reading to us from books we would otherwise never pick up. This was our secret, because fifth graders were considered too old to have stories read out to them.

Then there was the founder–principal of the school, a teacher as well, who knew everything about every child, knew not just their parents but even their grandparents. You couldn't escape her superpowered laser-like eyes that could see right into you—through flesh, bones and all. That was a scary superpower. Her hawk-eyed scrutiny often left us feeling like there was no escape.

But, our class teacher in fourth standard could see the invisible. I was one of those who remained invisible, being rather quiet and shy as a child. Yet my teacher would notice me, even when I was unnoticeable. The unspoken message in her superpowered eyes told me: "I see you, I know you, I understand you." She knew, without needing to be told, the days I felt sad and lost and needed that extra pat. Being a dreamer, I found school a bit trying at times. She clearly had a superpower if, after four decades, I can still vividly remember her lessons about the great masters of art, expanding our horizons and kindling, at least in me, a lifelong interest in the subject. She did this even though her area of specialization wasn't art; it was geography. I don't remember much of the geography now, but I do remember how she made me feel. The lessons went beyond the textbook. As I learnt from her, the role of a primary school educator is to teach children, not subjects.
I knew I wanted to be such a teacher, one of those all-seeing ones with superpowers that made children feel safe and valued.

What seems amazing to me is that all those extraordinary men and women went about their business, calmly creating daily magic in their ordinary classrooms. No one noticed, no one gave them medals for bravery or Nobel prizes for creativity, although they were being the most creative anyone could be, in shaping and moulding young human beings.

Q. Why did the author believe that by becoming a teacher the author would receive superpowers?

Solution:

The answer can be derived from these lines: "I decided at 10 years of age that I was going to be a teacher, because I wanted superpowers. There! I've said it. It's true. When I was in primary school I could clearly see that some of my teachers had extraordinary powers."

QUESTION: 12

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

I decided at 10 years of age that I was going to be a teacher, because I wanted superpowers. There! I've said it. It's true. When I was in primary school I could clearly see that some of my teachers had extraordinary powers. My classmates went about their day with joyful abandon. Not me. I was the quietly observant one, noticing things.
There was our English-language teacher in fifth grade who could magically transport us to different worlds every day, simply by telling us stories and reading to us from books we would otherwise never pick up. This was our secret, because fifth graders were considered too old to have stories read out to them.

Then there was the founder–principal of the school, a teacher as well, who knew everything about every child, knew not just their parents but even their grandparents. You couldn't escape her superpowered laser-like eyes that could see right into you—through flesh, bones and all. That was a scary superpower. Her hawk-eyed scrutiny often left us feeling like there was no escape.

But, our class teacher in fourth standard could see the invisible. I was one of those who remained invisible, being rather quiet and shy as a child. Yet my teacher would notice me, even when I was unnoticeable. The unspoken message in her superpowered eyes told me: "I see you, I know you, I understand you." She knew, without needing to be told, the days I felt sad and lost and needed that extra pat. Being a dreamer, I found school a bit trying at times. She clearly had a superpower if, after four decades, I can still vividly remember her lessons about the great masters of art, expanding our horizons and kindling, at least in me, a lifelong interest in the subject. She did this even though her area of specialization wasn't art; it was geography. I don't remember much of the geography now, but I do remember how she made me feel. The lessons went beyond the textbook. As I learnt from her, the role of a primary school educator is to teach children, not subjects.
I knew I wanted to be such a teacher, one of those all-seeing ones with superpowers that made children feel safe and valued.

What seems amazing to me is that all those extraordinary men and women went about their business, calmly creating daily magic in their ordinary classrooms. No one noticed, no one gave them medals for bravery or Nobel prizes for creativity, although they were being the most creative anyone could be, in shaping and moulding young human beings.

Q. What, according to the author, was scary about the founder-principal?

Solution:

Option 1 is correct and can be inferred from these sentences: "Then there was the founder–principal of the school, a teacher as well, who knew everything about every child, knew not just their parents but even their grandparents. You couldn't escape her superpowered laser-like eyes that could see right into you—through flesh, bones and all. That was a scary superpower. Her hawk-eyed scrutiny often left us feeling like there was no escape."

QUESTION: 13

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

I decided at 10 years of age that I was going to be a teacher, because I wanted superpowers. There! I've said it. It's true. When I was in primary school I could clearly see that some of my teachers had extraordinary powers. My classmates went about their day with joyful abandon. Not me. I was the quietly observant one, noticing things.
There was our English-language teacher in fifth grade who could magically transport us to different worlds every day, simply by telling us stories and reading to us from books we would otherwise never pick up. This was our secret, because fifth graders were considered too old to have stories read out to them.

Then there was the founder–principal of the school, a teacher as well, who knew everything about every child, knew not just their parents but even their grandparents. You couldn't escape her superpowered laser-like eyes that could see right into you—through flesh, bones and all. That was a scary superpower. Her hawk-eyed scrutiny often left us feeling like there was no escape.

But, our class teacher in fourth standard could see the invisible. I was one of those who remained invisible, being rather quiet and shy as a child. Yet my teacher would notice me, even when I was unnoticeable. The unspoken message in her superpowered eyes told me: "I see you, I know you, I understand you." She knew, without needing to be told, the days I felt sad and lost and needed that extra pat. Being a dreamer, I found school a bit trying at times. She clearly had a superpower if, after four decades, I can still vividly remember her lessons about the great masters of art, expanding our horizons and kindling, at least in me, a lifelong interest in the subject. She did this even though her area of specialization wasn't art; it was geography. I don't remember much of the geography now, but I do remember how she made me feel. The lessons went beyond the textbook. As I learnt from her, the role of a primary school educator is to teach children, not subjects.
I knew I wanted to be such a teacher, one of those all-seeing ones with superpowers that made children feel safe and valued.

What seems amazing to me is that all those extraordinary men and women went about their business, calmly creating daily magic in their ordinary classrooms. No one noticed, no one gave them medals for bravery or Nobel prizes for creativity, although they were being the most creative anyone could be, in shaping and moulding young human beings.

Q. What does the phrase 'expanding our horizons' as used in the passage mean?

Solution:

The phrase as used in the passage means 'to experience and learn new things'. We know at this point that the author was still in school. So she couldn't have achieved what is stated in options 1 and 4. Option 2 is contrary to what is implied by the phrase.

QUESTION: 14

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

I decided at 10 years of age that I was going to be a teacher, because I wanted superpowers. There! I've said it. It's true. When I was in primary school I could clearly see that some of my teachers had extraordinary powers. My classmates went about their day with joyful abandon. Not me. I was the quietly observant one, noticing things.
There was our English-language teacher in fifth grade who could magically transport us to different worlds every day, simply by telling us stories and reading to us from books we would otherwise never pick up. This was our secret, because fifth graders were considered too old to have stories read out to them.

Then there was the founder–principal of the school, a teacher as well, who knew everything about every child, knew not just their parents but even their grandparents. You couldn't escape her superpowered laser-like eyes that could see right into you—through flesh, bones and all. That was a scary superpower. Her hawk-eyed scrutiny often left us feeling like there was no escape.

But, our class teacher in fourth standard could see the invisible. I was one of those who remained invisible, being rather quiet and shy as a child. Yet my teacher would notice me, even when I was unnoticeable. The unspoken message in her superpowered eyes told me: "I see you, I know you, I understand you." She knew, without needing to be told, the days I felt sad and lost and needed that extra pat. Being a dreamer, I found school a bit trying at times. She clearly had a superpower if, after four decades, I can still vividly remember her lessons about the great masters of art, expanding our horizons and kindling, at least in me, a lifelong interest in the subject. She did this even though her area of specialization wasn't art; it was geography. I don't remember much of the geography now, but I do remember how she made me feel. The lessons went beyond the textbook. As I learnt from her, the role of a primary school educator is to teach children, not subjects.
I knew I wanted to be such a teacher, one of those all-seeing ones with superpowers that made children feel safe and valued.

What seems amazing to me is that all those extraordinary men and women went about their business, calmly creating daily magic in their ordinary classrooms. No one noticed, no one gave them medals for bravery or Nobel prizes for creativity, although they were being the most creative anyone could be, in shaping and moulding young human beings.

Q. As mentioned in the text, how did the author feel when he was in the fourth grade?

Solution:

The answer can be derived from the following sentences: "But, our class teacher in fourth standard could see the invisible. I was one of those who remained invisible, being rather quiet and shy as a child. Yet my teacher would notice me, even when I was unnoticeable. The unspoken message in her superpowered eyes told me: I see you, I know you, I understand you. She knew, without needing to be told, the days I felt sad and lost and needed that extra pat. Being a dreamer, I found school a bit trying at times."

QUESTION: 15

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

I decided at 10 years of age that I was going to be a teacher, because I wanted superpowers. There! I've said it. It's true. When I was in primary school I could clearly see that some of my teachers had extraordinary powers. My classmates went about their day with joyful abandon. Not me. I was the quietly observant one, noticing things.
There was our English-language teacher in fifth grade who could magically transport us to different worlds every day, simply by telling us stories and reading to us from books we would otherwise never pick up. This was our secret, because fifth graders were considered too old to have stories read out to them.

Then there was the founder–principal of the school, a teacher as well, who knew everything about every child, knew not just their parents but even their grandparents. You couldn't escape her superpowered laser-like eyes that could see right into you—through flesh, bones and all. That was a scary superpower. Her hawk-eyed scrutiny often left us feeling like there was no escape.

But, our class teacher in fourth standard could see the invisible. I was one of those who remained invisible, being rather quiet and shy as a child. Yet my teacher would notice me, even when I was unnoticeable. The unspoken message in her superpowered eyes told me: "I see you, I know you, I understand you." She knew, without needing to be told, the days I felt sad and lost and needed that extra pat. Being a dreamer, I found school a bit trying at times. She clearly had a superpower if, after four decades, I can still vividly remember her lessons about the great masters of art, expanding our horizons and kindling, at least in me, a lifelong interest in the subject. She did this even though her area of specialization wasn't art; it was geography. I don't remember much of the geography now, but I do remember how she made me feel. The lessons went beyond the textbook. As I learnt from her, the role of a primary school educator is to teach children, not subjects.
I knew I wanted to be such a teacher, one of those all-seeing ones with superpowers that made children feel safe and valued.

What seems amazing to me is that all those extraordinary men and women went about their business, calmly creating daily magic in their ordinary classrooms. No one noticed, no one gave them medals for bravery or Nobel prizes for creativity, although they were being the most creative anyone could be, in shaping and moulding young human beings.

Q. According to the passage, what does the author find amazing about the extraordinary teachers?

Solution:

The answer is suggested in these sentences: "What seems amazing to me is that all those extraordinary men and women went about their business, calmly creating daily magic in their ordinary classrooms. No one noticed, no one gave them medals for bravery or Nobel prizes for creativity, although they were being the most creative anyone could be, in shaping and moulding young human beings."

QUESTION: 16

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

The persistent patterns in the way nations fight reflect their cultural and historical traditions and deeply rooted attitudes that collectively make up their strategic culture. These patterns provide insights that go beyond what can be learnt just by comparing armaments and divisions. In the Vietnam War, the strategic tradition of the United States called for forcing the enemy to fight a massed battle in an open area, where superior American weapons would prevail. The United States was trying to re-fight World War II in the jungles of Southeast Asia, against an enemy with no intention of doing so.

Some British military historians describe the Asian way of war as one of indirect attacks, avoiding frontal attacks meant to overpower an opponent. This traces back to Asian history and geography: the great distances and harsh terrain have often made it difficult to execute the sort of open field clashes allowed by the flat terrain and relatively compact size of Europe. A very different strategic tradition arose in Asia.

The bow and arrow were metaphors for an Eastern way of war. By its nature, the arrow is an indirect weapon. Fired from a distance of hundreds of yards, it does not necessitate immediate physical contact with the enemy. Thus, it can be fired from hidden positions. When fired from behind a ridge, the barrage seems to come out of nowhere, taking the enemy by surprise. The tradition of this kind of fighting is captured in the classical strategic writings of the East. The 2,000 years' worth of Chinese writings on war constitutes the most subtle writings on the subject in any language. Not until Clausewitz, did the West produce a strategic theorist to match the sophistication of Sun-tzu, whose Art of War was written 2,300 years earlier.

In Sun-tzu and other Chinese writings, the highest achievement of arms is to defeat an adversary without fighting. He wrote: "To win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the supreme excellence." Actual combat is just one among many means towards the goal of subduing an adversary. War contains too many surprises to be a first resort. It can lead to ruinous losses, as has been seen time and again. It can have the unwanted effect of inspiring heroic efforts in an enemy, as the United States learned in Vietnam, and as the Japanese found out after Pearl Harbor.

Aware of the uncertainties of a military campaign, Sun-tzu advocated war only after the most thorough preparations. Even then it should be quick and clean. Ideally, the army is just an instrument to deal the final blow to an enemy already weakened by isolation, poor morale, and disunity. Ever since Sun-tzu, the Chinese have been seen as masters of-subtlety who take measured actions to manipulate an adversary without his knowledge. The dividing line between war and peace can be obscure. Low level violence often is the backdrop to a larger strategic campaign. The unwitting victim, focused on the day-to-day events, never realizes what's happening to him until it's too late. History holds many examples. The Viet Cong lured French and U.S. infantry deep into the jungle, weakening their morale over several years. The mobile army of the United States was designed to fight on the plains of Europe, where it could quickly move unhindered from one spot to the next. The jungle did more than make quick movement impossible; broken down into smaller units and scattered in isolated bases, US forces were deprived of the feeling of support and protection that ordinarily comes from being part of a big army.

The isolation of U.S. troops in Vietnam was not just a ‘logistical detail’, something that could be overcome by, for instance, bringing in reinforcements by helicopter. In a big army reinforcements are readily available. It was Napoleon who realized the extraordinary effects on morale that come from being part of a larger formation. Just the knowledge of it lowers the soldier's fear and increases his aggressiveness. In the jungle and on isolated bases, this feeling was removed. The thick vegetation slowed down the reinforcements and made it difficult to find stranded units. Soldiers felt they were on their own.

More important, by altering the way the war was fought, the Viet Cong stripped the United States of its belief in the inevitability of victory, as it had done to the French before them. Morale was high when these armies first went to Vietnam. Only after many years of debilitating and demoralizing fighting did Hanoi launch its decisive attacks, at Dienbienphu in 1954 and against Saigon in 1975. It should be recalled that in the final push to victory the North Vietnamese abandoned their jungle guerrilla tactics completely, committing their entire army of twenty divisions to pushing the South Vietnamese into collapse. This final battle, with the enemy's army all in one place, was the one that the United States had desperately wanted to fight in 1965. When it did come out into the open in 1975, Washington had already withdrawn its forces and there was no possibility of re-intervention.

The Japanese early in World War II used a modem form of the indirect attack, one that relied on stealth and surprise for its effect. At Pearl Harbor, in the Philippines, and in Southeast Asia, stealth and surprise were attained by sailing under radio silence so that the navy's movements could not be tracked. Moving troops aboard ships into Southeast Asia made it appear that the Japanese army was also "invisible." Attacks against Hawaii and Singapore seemed, to the American and British defenders, to come from nowhere. In Indonesia and the Philippines the Japanese attack was even faster than the German blitz against France in the West.

The greatest military surprises in American history have all been in Asia. Surely there is something going on here beyond the purely technical difficulties of detecting enemy movements. Pearl Harbor, the Chinese intervention in Korea, and the Tet offensive in Vietnam all came out of a tradition of surprise and stealth. U.S. technical intelligence - the location of enemy units and their movements -was greatly improved after each surprise, but with no noticeable improvement in the American ability to foresee or prepare what would happen next. There is a cultural divide here, not just a technical one. Even when it was possible to track an army with intelligence satellites, as when Iraq invaded Kuwait or when Syria and Egypt attacked Israel, surprise was achieved. The United States was stunned by Iraq's attack on Kuwait even though it had satellite pictures of Iraqi troops massing at the border.

The exception that proves the point that cultural differences obscure the West's understanding of Asian behavior was the Soviet Union's 1979 invasion of Afghanistan. This was fully anticipated and understood in advance. There was no surprise because the United States understood Moscow's worldview and thinking. It could anticipate Soviet action almost as well as the Soviets themselves, because the Soviet Union was really a Western country.

The difference between the Eastern and the Western way of war is striking. The West's great strategic writer, Clausewitz, linked war to politics, as did Sun-tzu. Both were opponents of militarism, of turning war over to the generals. But there all similarity ends. Clausewitz wrote that the way to achieve a larger political purpose is through destruction of the enemy's army. After observing Napoleon conquer Europe by smashing enemy armies to bits, Clausewitz made his famous remark in On War (1932) that combat is the continuation of politics by violent means. Morale and unity are important, but they should be harnessed for the ultimate battle. If the Eastern way of war is embodied by the stealthy archer, the metaphorical Western counterpart is the swordsman charging forward, seeking a decisive showdown, eager to administer the blow that will obliterate the enemy once and for all. In this view, war proceeds along a fixed course and occupies a finite extent of time, like a play in three acts with a beginning, a middle, and an end. The end, the final scene, decides the issue for good.

When things don't work out quite this way, the Western military mind feels tremendous frustration. Sun-tzu's great disciples, Mao Zedong and Ho Chi Minh, are respected in Asia for their clever use of indirection and deception to achieve an advantage over stronger adversaries. But in the West their approach is seen as underhanded and devious. To the American strategic mind, the Viet Cong guerrilla did not fight fairly. He should have come out into the open and fought like a man, instead of hiding in the jungle and sneaking around like a cat in the night.

Q. According to the author, the greatest military surprises in American history have been in Asia because

Solution:

Please go back to the 9th paragraph from the top.

QUESTION: 17

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

The persistent patterns in the way nations fight reflect their cultural and historical traditions and deeply rooted attitudes that collectively make up their strategic culture. These patterns provide insights that go beyond what can be learnt just by comparing armaments and divisions. In the Vietnam War, the strategic tradition of the United States called for forcing the enemy to fight a massed battle in an open area, where superior American weapons would prevail. The United States was trying to re-fight World War II in the jungles of Southeast Asia, against an enemy with no intention of doing so.

Some British military historians describe the Asian way of war as one of indirect attacks, avoiding frontal attacks meant to overpower an opponent. This traces back to Asian history and geography: the great distances and harsh terrain have often made it difficult to execute the sort of open field clashes allowed by the flat terrain and relatively compact size of Europe. A very different strategic tradition arose in Asia.

The bow and arrow were metaphors for an Eastern way of war. By its nature, the arrow is an indirect weapon. Fired from a distance of hundreds of yards, it does not necessitate immediate physical contact with the enemy. Thus, it can be fired from hidden positions. When fired from behind a ridge, the barrage seems to come out of nowhere, taking the enemy by surprise. The tradition of this kind of fighting is captured in the classical strategic writings of the East. The 2,000 years' worth of Chinese writings on war constitutes the most subtle writings on the subject in any language. Not until Clausewitz, did the West produce a strategic theorist to match the sophistication of Sun-tzu, whose Art of War was written 2,300 years earlier.

In Sun-tzu and other Chinese writings, the highest achievement of arms is to defeat an adversary without fighting. He wrote: "To win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the supreme excellence." Actual combat is just one among many means towards the goal of subduing an adversary. War contains too many surprises to be a first resort. It can lead to ruinous losses, as has been seen time and again. It can have the unwanted effect of inspiring heroic efforts in an enemy, as the United States learned in Vietnam, and as the Japanese found out after Pearl Harbor.

Aware of the uncertainties of a military campaign, Sun-tzu advocated war only after the most thorough preparations. Even then it should be quick and clean. Ideally, the army is just an instrument to deal the final blow to an enemy already weakened by isolation, poor morale, and disunity. Ever since Sun-tzu, the Chinese have been seen as masters of-subtlety who take measured actions to manipulate an adversary without his knowledge. The dividing line between war and peace can be obscure. Low level violence often is the backdrop to a larger strategic campaign. The unwitting victim, focused on the day-to-day events, never realizes what's happening to him until it's too late. History holds many examples. The Viet Cong lured French and U.S. infantry deep into the jungle, weakening their morale over several years. The mobile army of the United States was designed to fight on the plains of Europe, where it could quickly move unhindered from one spot to the next. The jungle did more than make quick movement impossible; broken down into smaller units and scattered in isolated bases, US forces were deprived of the feeling of support and protection that ordinarily comes from being part of a big army.

The isolation of U.S. troops in Vietnam was not just a ‘logistical detail’, something that could be overcome by, for instance, bringing in reinforcements by helicopter. In a big army reinforcements are readily available. It was Napoleon who realized the extraordinary effects on morale that come from being part of a larger formation. Just the knowledge of it lowers the soldier's fear and increases his aggressiveness. In the jungle and on isolated bases, this feeling was removed. The thick vegetation slowed down the reinforcements and made it difficult to find stranded units. Soldiers felt they were on their own.

More important, by altering the way the war was fought, the Viet Cong stripped the United States of its belief in the inevitability of victory, as it had done to the French before them. Morale was high when these armies first went to Vietnam. Only after many years of debilitating and demoralizing fighting did Hanoi launch its decisive attacks, at Dienbienphu in 1954 and against Saigon in 1975. It should be recalled that in the final push to victory the North Vietnamese abandoned their jungle guerrilla tactics completely, committing their entire army of twenty divisions to pushing the South Vietnamese into collapse. This final battle, with the enemy's army all in one place, was the one that the United States had desperately wanted to fight in 1965. When it did come out into the open in 1975, Washington had already withdrawn its forces and there was no possibility of re-intervention.

The Japanese early in World War II used a modem form of the indirect attack, one that relied on stealth and surprise for its effect. At Pearl Harbor, in the Philippines, and in Southeast Asia, stealth and surprise were attained by sailing under radio silence so that the navy's movements could not be tracked. Moving troops aboard ships into Southeast Asia made it appear that the Japanese army was also "invisible." Attacks against Hawaii and Singapore seemed, to the American and British defenders, to come from nowhere. In Indonesia and the Philippines the Japanese attack was even faster than the German blitz against France in the West.

The greatest military surprises in American history have all been in Asia. Surely there is something going on here beyond the purely technical difficulties of detecting enemy movements. Pearl Harbor, the Chinese intervention in Korea, and the Tet offensive in Vietnam all came out of a tradition of surprise and stealth. U.S. technical intelligence - the location of enemy units and their movements -was greatly improved after each surprise, but with no noticeable improvement in the American ability to foresee or prepare what would happen next. There is a cultural divide here, not just a technical one. Even when it was possible to track an army with intelligence satellites, as when Iraq invaded Kuwait or when Syria and Egypt attacked Israel, surprise was achieved. The United States was stunned by Iraq's attack on Kuwait even though it had satellite pictures of Iraqi troops massing at the border.

The exception that proves the point that cultural differences obscure the West's understanding of Asian behavior was the Soviet Union's 1979 invasion of Afghanistan. This was fully anticipated and understood in advance. There was no surprise because the United States understood Moscow's worldview and thinking. It could anticipate Soviet action almost as well as the Soviets themselves, because the Soviet Union was really a Western country.

The difference between the Eastern and the Western way of war is striking. The West's great strategic writer, Clausewitz, linked war to politics, as did Sun-tzu. Both were opponents of militarism, of turning war over to the generals. But there all similarity ends. Clausewitz wrote that the way to achieve a larger political purpose is through destruction of the enemy's army. After observing Napoleon conquer Europe by smashing enemy armies to bits, Clausewitz made his famous remark in On War (1932) that combat is the continuation of politics by violent means. Morale and unity are important, but they should be harnessed for the ultimate battle. If the Eastern way of war is embodied by the stealthy archer, the metaphorical Western counterpart is the swordsman charging forward, seeking a decisive showdown, eager to administer the blow that will obliterate the enemy once and for all. In this view, war proceeds along a fixed course and occupies a finite extent of time, like a play in three acts with a beginning, a middle, and an end. The end, the final scene, decides the issue for good.

When things don't work out quite this way, the Western military mind feels tremendous frustration. Sun-tzu's great disciples, Mao Zedong and Ho Chi Minh, are respected in Asia for their clever use of indirection and deception to achieve an advantage over stronger adversaries. But in the West their approach is seen as underhanded and devious. To the American strategic mind, the Viet Cong guerrilla did not fight fairly. He should have come out into the open and fought like a man, instead of hiding in the jungle and sneaking around like a cat in the night.

Q. Which of the following statements does not describe the ‘Asian’ way of war?

Solution:

In term of stealth and surprise, both of which are essential ingredients of the Asian way of war, this proposition certainly does not hold the ground.

QUESTION: 18

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

The persistent patterns in the way nations fight reflect their cultural and historical traditions and deeply rooted attitudes that collectively make up their strategic culture. These patterns provide insights that go beyond what can be learnt just by comparing armaments and divisions. In the Vietnam War, the strategic tradition of the United States called for forcing the enemy to fight a massed battle in an open area, where superior American weapons would prevail. The United States was trying to re-fight World War II in the jungles of Southeast Asia, against an enemy with no intention of doing so.

Some British military historians describe the Asian way of war as one of indirect attacks, avoiding frontal attacks meant to overpower an opponent. This traces back to Asian history and geography: the great distances and harsh terrain have often made it difficult to execute the sort of open field clashes allowed by the flat terrain and relatively compact size of Europe. A very different strategic tradition arose in Asia.

The bow and arrow were metaphors for an Eastern way of war. By its nature, the arrow is an indirect weapon. Fired from a distance of hundreds of yards, it does not necessitate immediate physical contact with the enemy. Thus, it can be fired from hidden positions. When fired from behind a ridge, the barrage seems to come out of nowhere, taking the enemy by surprise. The tradition of this kind of fighting is captured in the classical strategic writings of the East. The 2,000 years' worth of Chinese writings on war constitutes the most subtle writings on the subject in any language. Not until Clausewitz, did the West produce a strategic theorist to match the sophistication of Sun-tzu, whose Art of War was written 2,300 years earlier.

In Sun-tzu and other Chinese writings, the highest achievement of arms is to defeat an adversary without fighting. He wrote: "To win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the supreme excellence." Actual combat is just one among many means towards the goal of subduing an adversary. War contains too many surprises to be a first resort. It can lead to ruinous losses, as has been seen time and again. It can have the unwanted effect of inspiring heroic efforts in an enemy, as the United States learned in Vietnam, and as the Japanese found out after Pearl Harbor.

Aware of the uncertainties of a military campaign, Sun-tzu advocated war only after the most thorough preparations. Even then it should be quick and clean. Ideally, the army is just an instrument to deal the final blow to an enemy already weakened by isolation, poor morale, and disunity. Ever since Sun-tzu, the Chinese have been seen as masters of-subtlety who take measured actions to manipulate an adversary without his knowledge. The dividing line between war and peace can be obscure. Low level violence often is the backdrop to a larger strategic campaign. The unwitting victim, focused on the day-to-day events, never realizes what's happening to him until it's too late. History holds many examples. The Viet Cong lured French and U.S. infantry deep into the jungle, weakening their morale over several years. The mobile army of the United States was designed to fight on the plains of Europe, where it could quickly move unhindered from one spot to the next. The jungle did more than make quick movement impossible; broken down into smaller units and scattered in isolated bases, US forces were deprived of the feeling of support and protection that ordinarily comes from being part of a big army.

The isolation of U.S. troops in Vietnam was not just a ‘logistical detail’, something that could be overcome by, for instance, bringing in reinforcements by helicopter. In a big army reinforcements are readily available. It was Napoleon who realized the extraordinary effects on morale that come from being part of a larger formation. Just the knowledge of it lowers the soldier's fear and increases his aggressiveness. In the jungle and on isolated bases, this feeling was removed. The thick vegetation slowed down the reinforcements and made it difficult to find stranded units. Soldiers felt they were on their own.

More important, by altering the way the war was fought, the Viet Cong stripped the United States of its belief in the inevitability of victory, as it had done to the French before them. Morale was high when these armies first went to Vietnam. Only after many years of debilitating and demoralizing fighting did Hanoi launch its decisive attacks, at Dienbienphu in 1954 and against Saigon in 1975. It should be recalled that in the final push to victory the North Vietnamese abandoned their jungle guerrilla tactics completely, committing their entire army of twenty divisions to pushing the South Vietnamese into collapse. This final battle, with the enemy's army all in one place, was the one that the United States had desperately wanted to fight in 1965. When it did come out into the open in 1975, Washington had already withdrawn its forces and there was no possibility of re-intervention.

The Japanese early in World War II used a modem form of the indirect attack, one that relied on stealth and surprise for its effect. At Pearl Harbor, in the Philippines, and in Southeast Asia, stealth and surprise were attained by sailing under radio silence so that the navy's movements could not be tracked. Moving troops aboard ships into Southeast Asia made it appear that the Japanese army was also "invisible." Attacks against Hawaii and Singapore seemed, to the American and British defenders, to come from nowhere. In Indonesia and the Philippines the Japanese attack was even faster than the German blitz against France in the West.

The greatest military surprises in American history have all been in Asia. Surely there is something going on here beyond the purely technical difficulties of detecting enemy movements. Pearl Harbor, the Chinese intervention in Korea, and the Tet offensive in Vietnam all came out of a tradition of surprise and stealth. U.S. technical intelligence - the location of enemy units and their movements -was greatly improved after each surprise, but with no noticeable improvement in the American ability to foresee or prepare what would happen next. There is a cultural divide here, not just a technical one. Even when it was possible to track an army with intelligence satellites, as when Iraq invaded Kuwait or when Syria and Egypt attacked Israel, surprise was achieved. The United States was stunned by Iraq's attack on Kuwait even though it had satellite pictures of Iraqi troops massing at the border.

The exception that proves the point that cultural differences obscure the West's understanding of Asian behavior was the Soviet Union's 1979 invasion of Afghanistan. This was fully anticipated and understood in advance. There was no surprise because the United States understood Moscow's worldview and thinking. It could anticipate Soviet action almost as well as the Soviets themselves, because the Soviet Union was really a Western country.

The difference between the Eastern and the Western way of war is striking. The West's great strategic writer, Clausewitz, linked war to politics, as did Sun-tzu. Both were opponents of militarism, of turning war over to the generals. But there all similarity ends. Clausewitz wrote that the way to achieve a larger political purpose is through destruction of the enemy's army. After observing Napoleon conquer Europe by smashing enemy armies to bits, Clausewitz made his famous remark in On War (1932) that combat is the continuation of politics by violent means. Morale and unity are important, but they should be harnessed for the ultimate battle. If the Eastern way of war is embodied by the stealthy archer, the metaphorical Western counterpart is the swordsman charging forward, seeking a decisive showdown, eager to administer the blow that will obliterate the enemy once and for all. In this view, war proceeds along a fixed course and occupies a finite extent of time, like a play in three acts with a beginning, a middle, and an end. The end, the final scene, decides the issue for good.

When things don't work out quite this way, the Western military mind feels tremendous frustration. Sun-tzu's great disciples, Mao Zedong and Ho Chi Minh, are respected in Asia for their clever use of indirection and deception to achieve an advantage over stronger adversaries. But in the West their approach is seen as underhanded and devious. To the American strategic mind, the Viet Cong guerrilla did not fight fairly. He should have come out into the open and fought like a man, instead of hiding in the jungle and sneaking around like a cat in the night.

Q. The difference in the concepts of war of Clausewitz and Sun-tzu is best characterized by

Solution:

Refer to the penultimate passage for the right answer.

QUESTION: 19

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

The persistent patterns in the way nations fight reflect their cultural and historical traditions and deeply rooted attitudes that collectively make up their strategic culture. These patterns provide insights that go beyond what can be learnt just by comparing armaments and divisions. In the Vietnam War, the strategic tradition of the United States called for forcing the enemy to fight a massed battle in an open area, where superior American weapons would prevail. The United States was trying to re-fight World War II in the jungles of Southeast Asia, against an enemy with no intention of doing so.

Some British military historians describe the Asian way of war as one of indirect attacks, avoiding frontal attacks meant to overpower an opponent. This traces back to Asian history and geography: the great distances and harsh terrain have often made it difficult to execute the sort of open field clashes allowed by the flat terrain and relatively compact size of Europe. A very different strategic tradition arose in Asia.

The bow and arrow were metaphors for an Eastern way of war. By its nature, the arrow is an indirect weapon. Fired from a distance of hundreds of yards, it does not necessitate immediate physical contact with the enemy. Thus, it can be fired from hidden positions. When fired from behind a ridge, the barrage seems to come out of nowhere, taking the enemy by surprise. The tradition of this kind of fighting is captured in the classical strategic writings of the East. The 2,000 years' worth of Chinese writings on war constitutes the most subtle writings on the subject in any language. Not until Clausewitz, did the West produce a strategic theorist to match the sophistication of Sun-tzu, whose Art of War was written 2,300 years earlier.

In Sun-tzu and other Chinese writings, the highest achievement of arms is to defeat an adversary without fighting. He wrote: "To win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the supreme excellence." Actual combat is just one among many means towards the goal of subduing an adversary. War contains too many surprises to be a first resort. It can lead to ruinous losses, as has been seen time and again. It can have the unwanted effect of inspiring heroic efforts in an enemy, as the United States learned in Vietnam, and as the Japanese found out after Pearl Harbor.

Aware of the uncertainties of a military campaign, Sun-tzu advocated war only after the most thorough preparations. Even then it should be quick and clean. Ideally, the army is just an instrument to deal the final blow to an enemy already weakened by isolation, poor morale, and disunity. Ever since Sun-tzu, the Chinese have been seen as masters of-subtlety who take measured actions to manipulate an adversary without his knowledge. The dividing line between war and peace can be obscure. Low level violence often is the backdrop to a larger strategic campaign. The unwitting victim, focused on the day-to-day events, never realizes what's happening to him until it's too late. History holds many examples. The Viet Cong lured French and U.S. infantry deep into the jungle, weakening their morale over several years. The mobile army of the United States was designed to fight on the plains of Europe, where it could quickly move unhindered from one spot to the next. The jungle did more than make quick movement impossible; broken down into smaller units and scattered in isolated bases, US forces were deprived of the feeling of support and protection that ordinarily comes from being part of a big army.

The isolation of U.S. troops in Vietnam was not just a ‘logistical detail’, something that could be overcome by, for instance, bringing in reinforcements by helicopter. In a big army reinforcements are readily available. It was Napoleon who realized the extraordinary effects on morale that come from being part of a larger formation. Just the knowledge of it lowers the soldier's fear and increases his aggressiveness. In the jungle and on isolated bases, this feeling was removed. The thick vegetation slowed down the reinforcements and made it difficult to find stranded units. Soldiers felt they were on their own.

More important, by altering the way the war was fought, the Viet Cong stripped the United States of its belief in the inevitability of victory, as it had done to the French before them. Morale was high when these armies first went to Vietnam. Only after many years of debilitating and demoralizing fighting did Hanoi launch its decisive attacks, at Dienbienphu in 1954 and against Saigon in 1975. It should be recalled that in the final push to victory the North Vietnamese abandoned their jungle guerrilla tactics completely, committing their entire army of twenty divisions to pushing the South Vietnamese into collapse. This final battle, with the enemy's army all in one place, was the one that the United States had desperately wanted to fight in 1965. When it did come out into the open in 1975, Washington had already withdrawn its forces and there was no possibility of re-intervention.

The Japanese early in World War II used a modem form of the indirect attack, one that relied on stealth and surprise for its effect. At Pearl Harbor, in the Philippines, and in Southeast Asia, stealth and surprise were attained by sailing under radio silence so that the navy's movements could not be tracked. Moving troops aboard ships into Southeast Asia made it appear that the Japanese army was also "invisible." Attacks against Hawaii and Singapore seemed, to the American and British defenders, to come from nowhere. In Indonesia and the Philippines the Japanese attack was even faster than the German blitz against France in the West.

The greatest military surprises in American history have all been in Asia. Surely there is something going on here beyond the purely technical difficulties of detecting enemy movements. Pearl Harbor, the Chinese intervention in Korea, and the Tet offensive in Vietnam all came out of a tradition of surprise and stealth. U.S. technical intelligence - the location of enemy units and their movements -was greatly improved after each surprise, but with no noticeable improvement in the American ability to foresee or prepare what would happen next. There is a cultural divide here, not just a technical one. Even when it was possible to track an army with intelligence satellites, as when Iraq invaded Kuwait or when Syria and Egypt attacked Israel, surprise was achieved. The United States was stunned by Iraq's attack on Kuwait even though it had satellite pictures of Iraqi troops massing at the border.

The exception that proves the point that cultural differences obscure the West's understanding of Asian behavior was the Soviet Union's 1979 invasion of Afghanistan. This was fully anticipated and understood in advance. There was no surprise because the United States understood Moscow's worldview and thinking. It could anticipate Soviet action almost as well as the Soviets themselves, because the Soviet Union was really a Western country.

The difference between the Eastern and the Western way of war is striking. The West's great strategic writer, Clausewitz, linked war to politics, as did Sun-tzu. Both were opponents of militarism, of turning war over to the generals. But there all similarity ends. Clausewitz wrote that the way to achieve a larger political purpose is through destruction of the enemy's army. After observing Napoleon conquer Europe by smashing enemy armies to bits, Clausewitz made his famous remark in On War (1932) that combat is the continuation of politics by violent means. Morale and unity are important, but they should be harnessed for the ultimate battle. If the Eastern way of war is embodied by the stealthy archer, the metaphorical Western counterpart is the swordsman charging forward, seeking a decisive showdown, eager to administer the blow that will obliterate the enemy once and for all. In this view, war proceeds along a fixed course and occupies a finite extent of time, like a play in three acts with a beginning, a middle, and an end. The end, the final scene, decides the issue for good.

When things don't work out quite this way, the Western military mind feels tremendous frustration. Sun-tzu's great disciples, Mao Zedong and Ho Chi Minh, are respected in Asia for their clever use of indirection and deception to achieve an advantage over stronger adversaries. But in the West their approach is seen as underhanded and devious. To the American strategic mind, the Viet Cong guerrilla did not fight fairly. He should have come out into the open and fought like a man, instead of hiding in the jungle and sneaking around like a cat in the night.

Q. Which of the following is not .one of Sun-tzu’s ideas?

Solution:

The opening line of the fourth paragraph says something just opposite to it.

QUESTION: 20

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

The persistent patterns in the way nations fight reflect their cultural and historical traditions and deeply rooted attitudes that collectively make up their strategic culture. These patterns provide insights that go beyond what can be learnt just by comparing armaments and divisions. In the Vietnam War, the strategic tradition of the United States called for forcing the enemy to fight a massed battle in an open area, where superior American weapons would prevail. The United States was trying to re-fight World War II in the jungles of Southeast Asia, against an enemy with no intention of doing so.

Some British military historians describe the Asian way of war as one of indirect attacks, avoiding frontal attacks meant to overpower an opponent. This traces back to Asian history and geography: the great distances and harsh terrain have often made it difficult to execute the sort of open field clashes allowed by the flat terrain and relatively compact size of Europe. A very different strategic tradition arose in Asia.

The bow and arrow were metaphors for an Eastern way of war. By its nature, the arrow is an indirect weapon. Fired from a distance of hundreds of yards, it does not necessitate immediate physical contact with the enemy. Thus, it can be fired from hidden positions. When fired from behind a ridge, the barrage seems to come out of nowhere, taking the enemy by surprise. The tradition of this kind of fighting is captured in the classical strategic writings of the East. The 2,000 years' worth of Chinese writings on war constitutes the most subtle writings on the subject in any language. Not until Clausewitz, did the West produce a strategic theorist to match the sophistication of Sun-tzu, whose Art of War was written 2,300 years earlier.

In Sun-tzu and other Chinese writings, the highest achievement of arms is to defeat an adversary without fighting. He wrote: "To win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the supreme excellence." Actual combat is just one among many means towards the goal of subduing an adversary. War contains too many surprises to be a first resort. It can lead to ruinous losses, as has been seen time and again. It can have the unwanted effect of inspiring heroic efforts in an enemy, as the United States learned in Vietnam, and as the Japanese found out after Pearl Harbor.

Aware of the uncertainties of a military campaign, Sun-tzu advocated war only after the most thorough preparations. Even then it should be quick and clean. Ideally, the army is just an instrument to deal the final blow to an enemy already weakened by isolation, poor morale, and disunity. Ever since Sun-tzu, the Chinese have been seen as masters of-subtlety who take measured actions to manipulate an adversary without his knowledge. The dividing line between war and peace can be obscure. Low level violence often is the backdrop to a larger strategic campaign. The unwitting victim, focused on the day-to-day events, never realizes what's happening to him until it's too late. History holds many examples. The Viet Cong lured French and U.S. infantry deep into the jungle, weakening their morale over several years. The mobile army of the United States was designed to fight on the plains of Europe, where it could quickly move unhindered from one spot to the next. The jungle did more than make quick movement impossible; broken down into smaller units and scattered in isolated bases, US forces were deprived of the feeling of support and protection that ordinarily comes from being part of a big army.

The isolation of U.S. troops in Vietnam was not just a ‘logistical detail’, something that could be overcome by, for instance, bringing in reinforcements by helicopter. In a big army reinforcements are readily available. It was Napoleon who realized the extraordinary effects on morale that come from being part of a larger formation. Just the knowledge of it lowers the soldier's fear and increases his aggressiveness. In the jungle and on isolated bases, this feeling was removed. The thick vegetation slowed down the reinforcements and made it difficult to find stranded units. Soldiers felt they were on their own.

More important, by altering the way the war was fought, the Viet Cong stripped the United States of its belief in the inevitability of victory, as it had done to the French before them. Morale was high when these armies first went to Vietnam. Only after many years of debilitating and demoralizing fighting did Hanoi launch its decisive attacks, at Dienbienphu in 1954 and against Saigon in 1975. It should be recalled that in the final push to victory the North Vietnamese abandoned their jungle guerrilla tactics completely, committing their entire army of twenty divisions to pushing the South Vietnamese into collapse. This final battle, with the enemy's army all in one place, was the one that the United States had desperately wanted to fight in 1965. When it did come out into the open in 1975, Washington had already withdrawn its forces and there was no possibility of re-intervention.

The Japanese early in World War II used a modem form of the indirect attack, one that relied on stealth and surprise for its effect. At Pearl Harbor, in the Philippines, and in Southeast Asia, stealth and surprise were attained by sailing under radio silence so that the navy's movements could not be tracked. Moving troops aboard ships into Southeast Asia made it appear that the Japanese army was also "invisible." Attacks against Hawaii and Singapore seemed, to the American and British defenders, to come from nowhere. In Indonesia and the Philippines the Japanese attack was even faster than the German blitz against France in the West.

The greatest military surprises in American history have all been in Asia. Surely there is something going on here beyond the purely technical difficulties of detecting enemy movements. Pearl Harbor, the Chinese intervention in Korea, and the Tet offensive in Vietnam all came out of a tradition of surprise and stealth. U.S. technical intelligence - the location of enemy units and their movements -was greatly improved after each surprise, but with no noticeable improvement in the American ability to foresee or prepare what would happen next. There is a cultural divide here, not just a technical one. Even when it was possible to track an army with intelligence satellites, as when Iraq invaded Kuwait or when Syria and Egypt attacked Israel, surprise was achieved. The United States was stunned by Iraq's attack on Kuwait even though it had satellite pictures of Iraqi troops massing at the border.

The exception that proves the point that cultural differences obscure the West's understanding of Asian behavior was the Soviet Union's 1979 invasion of Afghanistan. This was fully anticipated and understood in advance. There was no surprise because the United States understood Moscow's worldview and thinking. It could anticipate Soviet action almost as well as the Soviets themselves, because the Soviet Union was really a Western country.

The difference between the Eastern and the Western way of war is striking. The West's great strategic writer, Clausewitz, linked war to politics, as did Sun-tzu. Both were opponents of militarism, of turning war over to the generals. But there all similarity ends. Clausewitz wrote that the way to achieve a larger political purpose is through destruction of the enemy's army. After observing Napoleon conquer Europe by smashing enemy armies to bits, Clausewitz made his famous remark in On War (1932) that combat is the continuation of politics by violent means. Morale and unity are important, but they should be harnessed for the ultimate battle. If the Eastern way of war is embodied by the stealthy archer, the metaphorical Western counterpart is the swordsman charging forward, seeking a decisive showdown, eager to administer the blow that will obliterate the enemy once and for all. In this view, war proceeds along a fixed course and occupies a finite extent of time, like a play in three acts with a beginning, a middle, and an end. The end, the final scene, decides the issue for good.

When things don't work out quite this way, the Western military mind feels tremendous frustration. Sun-tzu's great disciples, Mao Zedong and Ho Chi Minh, are respected in Asia for their clever use of indirection and deception to achieve an advantage over stronger adversaries. But in the West their approach is seen as underhanded and devious. To the American strategic mind, the Viet Cong guerrilla did not fight fairly. He should have come out into the open and fought like a man, instead of hiding in the jungle and sneaking around like a cat in the night.

Q. To the Americans, the approach of the Viet Cong seemed devious because

Solution:
QUESTION: 21

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

The persistent patterns in the way nations fight reflect their cultural and historical traditions and deeply rooted attitudes that collectively make up their strategic culture. These patterns provide insights that go beyond what can be learnt just by comparing armaments and divisions. In the Vietnam War, the strategic tradition of the United States called for forcing the enemy to fight a massed battle in an open area, where superior American weapons would prevail. The United States was trying to re-fight World War II in the jungles of Southeast Asia, against an enemy with no intention of doing so.

Some British military historians describe the Asian way of war as one of indirect attacks, avoiding frontal attacks meant to overpower an opponent. This traces back to Asian history and geography: the great distances and harsh terrain have often made it difficult to execute the sort of open field clashes allowed by the flat terrain and relatively compact size of Europe. A very different strategic tradition arose in Asia.

The bow and arrow were metaphors for an Eastern way of war. By its nature, the arrow is an indirect weapon. Fired from a distance of hundreds of yards, it does not necessitate immediate physical contact with the enemy. Thus, it can be fired from hidden positions. When fired from behind a ridge, the barrage seems to come out of nowhere, taking the enemy by surprise. The tradition of this kind of fighting is captured in the classical strategic writings of the East. The 2,000 years' worth of Chinese writings on war constitutes the most subtle writings on the subject in any language. Not until Clausewitz, did the West produce a strategic theorist to match the sophistication of Sun-tzu, whose Art of War was written 2,300 years earlier.

In Sun-tzu and other Chinese writings, the highest achievement of arms is to defeat an adversary without fighting. He wrote: "To win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the supreme excellence." Actual combat is just one among many means towards the goal of subduing an adversary. War contains too many surprises to be a first resort. It can lead to ruinous losses, as has been seen time and again. It can have the unwanted effect of inspiring heroic efforts in an enemy, as the United States learned in Vietnam, and as the Japanese found out after Pearl Harbor.

Aware of the uncertainties of a military campaign, Sun-tzu advocated war only after the most thorough preparations. Even then it should be quick and clean. Ideally, the army is just an instrument to deal the final blow to an enemy already weakened by isolation, poor morale, and disunity. Ever since Sun-tzu, the Chinese have been seen as masters of-subtlety who take measured actions to manipulate an adversary without his knowledge. The dividing line between war and peace can be obscure. Low level violence often is the backdrop to a larger strategic campaign. The unwitting victim, focused on the day-to-day events, never realizes what's happening to him until it's too late. History holds many examples. The Viet Cong lured French and U.S. infantry deep into the jungle, weakening their morale over several years. The mobile army of the United States was designed to fight on the plains of Europe, where it could quickly move unhindered from one spot to the next. The jungle did more than make quick movement impossible; broken down into smaller units and scattered in isolated bases, US forces were deprived of the feeling of support and protection that ordinarily comes from being part of a big army.

The isolation of U.S. troops in Vietnam was not just a ‘logistical detail’, something that could be overcome by, for instance, bringing in reinforcements by helicopter. In a big army reinforcements are readily available. It was Napoleon who realized the extraordinary effects on morale that come from being part of a larger formation. Just the knowledge of it lowers the soldier's fear and increases his aggressiveness. In the jungle and on isolated bases, this feeling was removed. The thick vegetation slowed down the reinforcements and made it difficult to find stranded units. Soldiers felt they were on their own.

More important, by altering the way the war was fought, the Viet Cong stripped the United States of its belief in the inevitability of victory, as it had done to the French before them. Morale was high when these armies first went to Vietnam. Only after many years of debilitating and demoralizing fighting did Hanoi launch its decisive attacks, at Dienbienphu in 1954 and against Saigon in 1975. It should be recalled that in the final push to victory the North Vietnamese abandoned their jungle guerrilla tactics completely, committing their entire army of twenty divisions to pushing the South Vietnamese into collapse. This final battle, with the enemy's army all in one place, was the one that the United States had desperately wanted to fight in 1965. When it did come out into the open in 1975, Washington had already withdrawn its forces and there was no possibility of re-intervention.

The Japanese early in World War II used a modem form of the indirect attack, one that relied on stealth and surprise for its effect. At Pearl Harbor, in the Philippines, and in Southeast Asia, stealth and surprise were attained by sailing under radio silence so that the navy's movements could not be tracked. Moving troops aboard ships into Southeast Asia made it appear that the Japanese army was also "invisible." Attacks against Hawaii and Singapore seemed, to the American and British defenders, to come from nowhere. In Indonesia and the Philippines the Japanese attack was even faster than the German blitz against France in the West.

The greatest military surprises in American history have all been in Asia. Surely there is something going on here beyond the purely technical difficulties of detecting enemy movements. Pearl Harbor, the Chinese intervention in Korea, and the Tet offensive in Vietnam all came out of a tradition of surprise and stealth. U.S. technical intelligence - the location of enemy units and their movements -was greatly improved after each surprise, but with no noticeable improvement in the American ability to foresee or prepare what would happen next. There is a cultural divide here, not just a technical one. Even when it was possible to track an army with intelligence satellites, as when Iraq invaded Kuwait or when Syria and Egypt attacked Israel, surprise was achieved. The United States was stunned by Iraq's attack on Kuwait even though it had satellite pictures of Iraqi troops massing at the border.

The exception that proves the point that cultural differences obscure the West's understanding of Asian behavior was the Soviet Union's 1979 invasion of Afghanistan. This was fully anticipated and understood in advance. There was no surprise because the United States understood Moscow's worldview and thinking. It could anticipate Soviet action almost as well as the Soviets themselves, because the Soviet Union was really a Western country.

The difference between the Eastern and the Western way of war is striking. The West's great strategic writer, Clausewitz, linked war to politics, as did Sun-tzu. Both were opponents of militarism, of turning war over to the generals. But there all similarity ends. Clausewitz wrote that the way to achieve a larger political purpose is through destruction of the enemy's army. After observing Napoleon conquer Europe by smashing enemy armies to bits, Clausewitz made his famous remark in On War (1932) that combat is the continuation of politics by violent means. Morale and unity are important, but they should be harnessed for the ultimate battle. If the Eastern way of war is embodied by the stealthy archer, the metaphorical Western counterpart is the swordsman charging forward, seeking a decisive showdown, eager to administer the blow that will obliterate the enemy once and for all. In this view, war proceeds along a fixed course and occupies a finite extent of time, like a play in three acts with a beginning, a middle, and an end. The end, the final scene, decides the issue for good.

When things don't work out quite this way, the Western military mind feels tremendous frustration. Sun-tzu's great disciples, Mao Zedong and Ho Chi Minh, are respected in Asia for their clever use of indirection and deception to achieve an advantage over stronger adversaries. But in the West their approach is seen as underhanded and devious. To the American strategic mind, the Viet Cong guerrilla did not fight fairly. He should have come out into the open and fought like a man, instead of hiding in the jungle and sneaking around like a cat in the night.

Q. According to the author, the main reason for the U.S. losing the Vietnam war was

Solution:
QUESTION: 22

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed summoned his secretary, K. Balachandran, at around 11:15 p.m. on 25 June 1975. Ten minutes later, Balachandran met the pyjama-clad president in the private sitting room of his official residence at Rashtrapati Bhavan. The president handed his secretary a one-page letter from Indira Gandhi marked 'Top Secret'. Referring to the prime minister's discussion with the president earlier that day, the letter said she was in receipt of information that internal disturbances posed an imminent threat to India's internal security. It requested a proclamation of Emergency under Article 352 (1) if the president was satisfied on this score. She would have preferred to have first consulted the cabinet, but there was no time to lose. Therefore, she was invoking a departure from the Transaction of Business Rules in exercise of her powers under Rule 12 thereof. The president asked for his aide's opinion on the letter, which did not have the proposed proclamation attached. Balachandran said that such a proclamation was constitutionally impermissible on more than one ground. At this, the president said that he wanted to consult the Indian Constitution. Balachandran retreated to his office to locate a copy. Meanwhile, the deputy secretary in the president's secretariat showed up. The two officials launched into a discussion about the constitutionality of the prime minister's proposal before they returned to President Ahmed with a copy of the Constitution. Balachandran explained that the president's personal satisfaction that internal disturbances posed a threat to internal security was constitutionally irrelevant. What the Constitution required was the advice of the council of ministers. Balachandran withdrew when the president said he wanted to speak to the prime minister. When he re-entered the room 10 minutes later, President Ahmed informed him that R. K. Dhawan had come over with a draft Emergency proclamation, which he had signed. Then the president swallowed a tranquilizer and went to bed.
This late-night concern for constitutional propriety is revealing. What we see unfolding in the hunt for a copy of the Constitution, the leafing through of its pages to make sure that the draft proclamation met the letter of the law, is the meticulous process of the paradoxical suspension of the law by law. The substance of the discussion concerns the legality of the procedures to follow in issuing the Emergency proclamation. The political will behind the act goes unmentioned. This is because Article 352 (1) of the Constitution itself had left the judgement of the necessity for the Emergency proclamation outside the law. The doctrine of necessity regards the judgement of crisis conditions as something that the law itself cannot handle; it is a lacuna in the juridical order that the executive is obligated to remedy.

Q. What reason for declaring Emergency does Indira Gandhi provide in her letter to President Ahmed marked 'Top Secret'?

Solution:

The correct answer can be derived from the following sentences: "The president handed his secretary a one-page letter from Indira Gandhi marked 'Top Secret'. Referring to the prime minister's discussion with the president earlier that day, the letter said she was in receipt of information that internal disturbances posed an imminent threat to India's internal security. It requested a proclamation of Emergency under Article 352 (1) if the president was satisfied on this score."

QUESTION: 23

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed summoned his secretary, K. Balachandran, at around 11:15 p.m. on 25 June 1975. Ten minutes later, Balachandran met the pyjama-clad president in the private sitting room of his official residence at Rashtrapati Bhavan. The president handed his secretary a one-page letter from Indira Gandhi marked 'Top Secret'. Referring to the prime minister's discussion with the president earlier that day, the letter said she was in receipt of information that internal disturbances posed an imminent threat to India's internal security. It requested a proclamation of Emergency under Article 352 (1) if the president was satisfied on this score. She would have preferred to have first consulted the cabinet, but there was no time to lose. Therefore, she was invoking a departure from the Transaction of Business Rules in exercise of her powers under Rule 12 thereof. The president asked for his aide's opinion on the letter, which did not have the proposed proclamation attached. Balachandran said that such a proclamation was constitutionally impermissible on more than one ground. At this, the president said that he wanted to consult the Indian Constitution. Balachandran retreated to his office to locate a copy. Meanwhile, the deputy secretary in the president's secretariat showed up. The two officials launched into a discussion about the constitutionality of the prime minister's proposal before they returned to President Ahmed with a copy of the Constitution. Balachandran explained that the president's personal satisfaction that internal disturbances posed a threat to internal security was constitutionally irrelevant. What the Constitution required was the advice of the council of ministers. Balachandran withdrew when the president said he wanted to speak to the prime minister. When he re-entered the room 10 minutes later, President Ahmed informed him that R. K. Dhawan had come over with a draft Emergency proclamation, which he had signed. Then the president swallowed a tranquilizer and went to bed.
This late-night concern for constitutional propriety is revealing. What we see unfolding in the hunt for a copy of the Constitution, the leafing through of its pages to make sure that the draft proclamation met the letter of the law, is the meticulous process of the paradoxical suspension of the law by law. The substance of the discussion concerns the legality of the procedures to follow in issuing the Emergency proclamation. The political will behind the act goes unmentioned. This is because Article 352 (1) of the Constitution itself had left the judgement of the necessity for the Emergency proclamation outside the law. The doctrine of necessity regards the judgement of crisis conditions as something that the law itself cannot handle; it is a lacuna in the juridical order that the executive is obligated to remedy.

Q. According to the passage, why did Balachandran advise the President that Gandhi's request for a proclamation of Emergency was impermissible?

Solution:

The correct answer can be derived from these sentences: "The president asked for his aide's opinion on the letter, which did not have the proposed proclamation attached. Balachandran said that such a proclamation was constitutionally impermissible on more than one ground. At this, the president said that he wanted to consult the Indian Constitution."

QUESTION: 24

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed summoned his secretary, K. Balachandran, at around 11:15 p.m. on 25 June 1975. Ten minutes later, Balachandran met the pyjama-clad president in the private sitting room of his official residence at Rashtrapati Bhavan. The president handed his secretary a one-page letter from Indira Gandhi marked 'Top Secret'. Referring to the prime minister's discussion with the president earlier that day, the letter said she was in receipt of information that internal disturbances posed an imminent threat to India's internal security. It requested a proclamation of Emergency under Article 352 (1) if the president was satisfied on this score. She would have preferred to have first consulted the cabinet, but there was no time to lose. Therefore, she was invoking a departure from the Transaction of Business Rules in exercise of her powers under Rule 12 thereof. The president asked for his aide's opinion on the letter, which did not have the proposed proclamation attached. Balachandran said that such a proclamation was constitutionally impermissible on more than one ground. At this, the president said that he wanted to consult the Indian Constitution. Balachandran retreated to his office to locate a copy. Meanwhile, the deputy secretary in the president's secretariat showed up. The two officials launched into a discussion about the constitutionality of the prime minister's proposal before they returned to President Ahmed with a copy of the Constitution. Balachandran explained that the president's personal satisfaction that internal disturbances posed a threat to internal security was constitutionally irrelevant. What the Constitution required was the advice of the council of ministers. Balachandran withdrew when the president said he wanted to speak to the prime minister. When he re-entered the room 10 minutes later, President Ahmed informed him that R. K. Dhawan had come over with a draft Emergency proclamation, which he had signed. Then the president swallowed a tranquilizer and went to bed.
This late-night concern for constitutional propriety is revealing. What we see unfolding in the hunt for a copy of the Constitution, the leafing through of its pages to make sure that the draft proclamation met the letter of the law, is the meticulous process of the paradoxical suspension of the law by law. The substance of the discussion concerns the legality of the procedures to follow in issuing the Emergency proclamation. The political will behind the act goes unmentioned. This is because Article 352 (1) of the Constitution itself had left the judgement of the necessity for the Emergency proclamation outside the law. The doctrine of necessity regards the judgement of crisis conditions as something that the law itself cannot handle; it is a lacuna in the juridical order that the executive is obligated to remedy.

Q. What does the word 'propriety' as used in the passage mean?

Solution:

The correct meaning of propriety is given in option 3. It means 'legitimacy and accordance'. This is derived from 'leafing through of its pages to make sure that the draft proclamation met the letter of the law' which suggests that there is a concern to ensure that the proclamation is legal and is provided for under the Constitution.

QUESTION: 25

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed summoned his secretary, K. Balachandran, at around 11:15 p.m. on 25 June 1975. Ten minutes later, Balachandran met the pyjama-clad president in the private sitting room of his official residence at Rashtrapati Bhavan. The president handed his secretary a one-page letter from Indira Gandhi marked 'Top Secret'. Referring to the prime minister's discussion with the president earlier that day, the letter said she was in receipt of information that internal disturbances posed an imminent threat to India's internal security. It requested a proclamation of Emergency under Article 352 (1) if the president was satisfied on this score. She would have preferred to have first consulted the cabinet, but there was no time to lose. Therefore, she was invoking a departure from the Transaction of Business Rules in exercise of her powers under Rule 12 thereof. The president asked for his aide's opinion on the letter, which did not have the proposed proclamation attached. Balachandran said that such a proclamation was constitutionally impermissible on more than one ground. At this, the president said that he wanted to consult the Indian Constitution. Balachandran retreated to his office to locate a copy. Meanwhile, the deputy secretary in the president's secretariat showed up. The two officials launched into a discussion about the constitutionality of the prime minister's proposal before they returned to President Ahmed with a copy of the Constitution. Balachandran explained that the president's personal satisfaction that internal disturbances posed a threat to internal security was constitutionally irrelevant. What the Constitution required was the advice of the council of ministers. Balachandran withdrew when the president said he wanted to speak to the prime minister. When he re-entered the room 10 minutes later, President Ahmed informed him that R. K. Dhawan had come over with a draft Emergency proclamation, which he had signed. Then the president swallowed a tranquilizer and went to bed.
This late-night concern for constitutional propriety is revealing. What we see unfolding in the hunt for a copy of the Constitution, the leafing through of its pages to make sure that the draft proclamation met the letter of the law, is the meticulous process of the paradoxical suspension of the law by law. The substance of the discussion concerns the legality of the procedures to follow in issuing the Emergency proclamation. The political will behind the act goes unmentioned. This is because Article 352 (1) of the Constitution itself had left the judgement of the necessity for the Emergency proclamation outside the law. The doctrine of necessity regards the judgement of crisis conditions as something that the law itself cannot handle; it is a lacuna in the juridical order that the executive is obligated to remedy.

Q. Why does the author state that the late-night concern for constitutional propriety is revealing?

Solution:

The answer can be derived from the following sentence: 'What we see unfolding in the hunt for a copy of the Constitution, is the meticulous process of the paradoxical suspension of the law by law'. By going through the Constitution, they are attempting to use the law to justify the proclamation which itself has been suggested to be illegal (constitutionally impermissible). This is also seen in their effort to mull over this Emergency proclamation in the middle of the night.

QUESTION: 26

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed summoned his secretary, K. Balachandran, at around 11:15 p.m. on 25 June 1975. Ten minutes later, Balachandran met the pyjama-clad president in the private sitting room of his official residence at Rashtrapati Bhavan. The president handed his secretary a one-page letter from Indira Gandhi marked 'Top Secret'. Referring to the prime minister's discussion with the president earlier that day, the letter said she was in receipt of information that internal disturbances posed an imminent threat to India's internal security. It requested a proclamation of Emergency under Article 352 (1) if the president was satisfied on this score. She would have preferred to have first consulted the cabinet, but there was no time to lose. Therefore, she was invoking a departure from the Transaction of Business Rules in exercise of her powers under Rule 12 thereof. The president asked for his aide's opinion on the letter, which did not have the proposed proclamation attached. Balachandran said that such a proclamation was constitutionally impermissible on more than one ground. At this, the president said that he wanted to consult the Indian Constitution. Balachandran retreated to his office to locate a copy. Meanwhile, the deputy secretary in the president's secretariat showed up. The two officials launched into a discussion about the constitutionality of the prime minister's proposal before they returned to President Ahmed with a copy of the Constitution. Balachandran explained that the president's personal satisfaction that internal disturbances posed a threat to internal security was constitutionally irrelevant. What the Constitution required was the advice of the council of ministers. Balachandran withdrew when the president said he wanted to speak to the prime minister. When he re-entered the room 10 minutes later, President Ahmed informed him that R. K. Dhawan had come over with a draft Emergency proclamation, which he had signed. Then the president swallowed a tranquilizer and went to bed.
This late-night concern for constitutional propriety is revealing. What we see unfolding in the hunt for a copy of the Constitution, the leafing through of its pages to make sure that the draft proclamation met the letter of the law, is the meticulous process of the paradoxical suspension of the law by law. The substance of the discussion concerns the legality of the procedures to follow in issuing the Emergency proclamation. The political will behind the act goes unmentioned. This is because Article 352 (1) of the Constitution itself had left the judgement of the necessity for the Emergency proclamation outside the law. The doctrine of necessity regards the judgement of crisis conditions as something that the law itself cannot handle; it is a lacuna in the juridical order that the executive is obligated to remedy.

Q. What can be inferred from the passage about the request for the Emergency proclamation?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 4. From the passage, we can infer that there was some gap in the understanding of the conditions required for declaring the Emergency. This is stated in lines: "This is because Article 352 (1) of the Constitution itself had left the judgement of the necessity for the Emergency proclamation outside the law. The doctrine of necessity regards the judgement of crisis conditions as something that the law itself cannot handle; it is a lacuna in the juridical order that the executive is obligated to remedy".

QUESTION: 27

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

English Ivy betrays its poor reputation as a nuisance by its unparalleled ability to provide shade. By seamlessly covering the exterior of a building, it works as a natural insulator, blocking the sun and decreasing air conditioning costs. This means big savings for both building tenants and homeowners alike. And it can happen quickly, too. Under the proper conditions, established English Ivy can grow to cover an area of roughly 500 square feet per year. Given that most homes have a roof measuring roughly 2000 square feet, ivy-friendly homeowners can rest assured that their roofs will be completely covered in about four years. When considering growth rates of newly planted ivy, just remember the old adage: First year, it sleeps. Second year, it creeps. Third year, it leaps! For English Ivy, this is especially true.

Now, detractors may take this opportunity to remind readers about how invasive English Ivy can be. For what ivy enthusiast hasn't been cautioned about its ability to burrow holes, fracture windows, and even deteriorate brick? But be warned. Oftentimes, this suggestion is taken to the comical extreme. Naysayers take a strange pleasure in spinning yarns about a particularly malevolent strand of ivy—one that slips in through the cracks on a hot summer night, silently strangling homeowners in their sleep. Admittedly, this can be a funny story to tell. But are we to believe such a tale? The intelligent gardener will quickly dismiss such rubbish for what it is.

Q. The primary purpose of the passage is to

Solution:

To answer this question correctly, we must study the first sentence: “English Ivy betrays its poor reputation as a nuisance by its unparalleled ability to provide shade.” In this sentence, the author lets us know that he or she is providing reasons why English Ivy betrays, or contradicts, its poor reputation. In other words, the author intends to point out some benefits of English Ivy.

By pointing out these benefits, as well as discrediting detractors of ivy who often “take a strange pleasure in spinning yarns” about it, the author defends the reputation of English Ivy. Therefore (D) is correct. Although the author does highlight one reason why English Ivy’s fast growth rate is beneficial (it will quickly cover a house and thus act as a natural insulator), he or she does not point out more than one reason.

Furthermore, this minor point serves the author’s larger argument, which is that English Ivy does not deserve its poor reputation. Therefore (A) is incorrect. The author does not argue that English Ivy is an essential plant for homeowners, only that it does not deserve its reputation as a nuisance. This means (B) is incorrect. In paragraph 1, the author states that homeowners can use ivy to insulate their homes, but he or she does not provide details about precisely how to do this. The author’s lack of specific directions indicates that he or she is more concerned with defending English Ivy’s reputation than with educating readers. This makes (C) incorrect.

QUESTION: 28

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

English Ivy betrays its poor reputation as a nuisance by its unparalleled ability to provide shade. By seamlessly covering the exterior of a building, it works as a natural insulator, blocking the sun and decreasing air conditioning costs. This means big savings for both building tenants and homeowners alike. And it can happen quickly, too. Under the proper conditions, established English Ivy can grow to cover an area of roughly 500 square feet per year. Given that most homes have a roof measuring roughly 2000 square feet, ivy-friendly homeowners can rest assured that their roofs will be completely covered in about four years. When considering growth rates of newly planted ivy, just remember the old adage: First year, it sleeps. Second year, it creeps. Third year, it leaps! For English Ivy, this is especially true.

Now, detractors may take this opportunity to remind readers about how invasive English Ivy can be. For what ivy enthusiast hasn't been cautioned about its ability to burrow holes, fracture windows, and even deteriorate brick? But be warned. Oftentimes, this suggestion is taken to the comical extreme. Naysayers take a strange pleasure in spinning yarns about a particularly malevolent strand of ivy—one that slips in through the cracks on a hot summer night, silently strangling homeowners in their sleep. Admittedly, this can be a funny story to tell. But are we to believe such a tale? The intelligent gardener will quickly dismiss such rubbish for what it is.

Q. As used in paragraph 1, which is the best definition for betrays?

Solution:

betray (verb): to be unfaithful in guarding, maintaining, or fulfilling. In paragraph 1, the author indicates his or her intention to explain how English Ivy “betrays its poor reputation as a nuisance.” The author then goes on to cite reasons why English Ivy is beneficial. Based on this information, we can infer that English Ivy has a bad reputation, but in the author’s opinion, it does not deserve such a reputation.

This means that in this context betrays means goes against or fails to remain true to. Contradicts is the only answer choice that reflects this meaning, so it is a good definition in this context. Therefore (B) is correct. Although the word betray is often used to describe the act of treason, or someone who disloyally gives away secrets, this is not the definition used in the passage.

This means (A) is incorrect. While betray can mean to reveal information that should remain secret, this is not the definition used in the passage. Indeed, in this context, if the English Ivy revealed its poor reputation as a nuisance, it would confirm it, not contradict it. This makes (C) incorrect. Support means to maintain. This is the opposite meaning of contradict, so (D) is incorrect.

QUESTION: 29

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

English Ivy betrays its poor reputation as a nuisance by its unparalleled ability to provide shade. By seamlessly covering the exterior of a building, it works as a natural insulator, blocking the sun and decreasing air conditioning costs. This means big savings for both building tenants and homeowners alike. And it can happen quickly, too. Under the proper conditions, established English Ivy can grow to cover an area of roughly 500 square feet per year. Given that most homes have a roof measuring roughly 2000 square feet, ivy-friendly homeowners can rest assured that their roofs will be completely covered in about four years. When considering growth rates of newly planted ivy, just remember the old adage: First year, it sleeps. Second year, it creeps. Third year, it leaps! For English Ivy, this is especially true.

Now, detractors may take this opportunity to remind readers about how invasive English Ivy can be. For what ivy enthusiast hasn't been cautioned about its ability to burrow holes, fracture windows, and even deteriorate brick? But be warned. Oftentimes, this suggestion is taken to the comical extreme. Naysayers take a strange pleasure in spinning yarns about a particularly malevolent strand of ivy—one that slips in through the cracks on a hot summer night, silently strangling homeowners in their sleep. Admittedly, this can be a funny story to tell. But are we to believe such a tale? The intelligent gardener will quickly dismiss such rubbish for what it is.

Q. In paragraph 1, the author states, “Given that most homes have a roof measuring roughly 2000 square feet, ivy-friendly homeowners can rest assured that their roofs will be completely covered in about four years.” Which of the following logical mistakes does the author make in drawing this conclusion?
I. English Ivy will not cover the area of most roofs in 4 years if it only grows 500 square feet per year.
II. Most homes may not have the proper conditions necessary for English Ivy to grow at the specified rate.
III. Newly planted ivy does not grow as fast as established ivy.

Solution:

In paragraph 1, the author states, “Under the proper conditions, established English Ivy can grow to cover an area of roughly 500 square feet per year. Given that most homes have a roof measuring roughly 2000 square feet, ivy-friendly homeowners can rest assured that their roofs will be completely covered in about four years.” 500 (square feet) multiplied by 4 (years) equals 2000 (square feet).

Given that English Ivy can grow to cover an area of roughly 500 square feet per year, and most homes have a roof measuring roughly 2000 square feet, then it makes mathematical sense to figure that English Ivy will indeed have enough time to cover the area of most roofs in 4 years. This means the author does not make a logical mistake in this calculation.

This eliminates option (I). While the author's math checks out correctly, there are other flaws in his or her logic. In paragraph 1, the author states, “Under the proper conditions, established English Ivy can grow to cover an area of roughly 500 square feet per year.” Given that these figures only hold true under the proper conditions, it is wrong to assume that English Ivy will grow at this rate at most homes. After all, many houses may not get the proper light, rain, or temperatures necessary for English Ivy to grow well.

This supports option (II). At the end of paragraph 1, the author states, “When considering growth rates of newly planted ivy, just remember the old adage: First year, it sleeps. Second year, it creeps. Third year, it leaps! For English Ivy, this is especially true.” Using this information, it can be inferred that English Ivy will need up to two years before it begins to grow at a regular pace. The author cites the growth rates for “established” ivy, or ivy that is not newly planted. Using this information, we can infer that newly planted English Ivy will likely take longer than 4 years to cover a 2000-square foot roof. This supports option (III).

QUESTION: 30

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

English Ivy betrays its poor reputation as a nuisance by its unparalleled ability to provide shade. By seamlessly covering the exterior of a building, it works as a natural insulator, blocking the sun and decreasing air conditioning costs. This means big savings for both building tenants and homeowners alike. And it can happen quickly, too. Under the proper conditions, established English Ivy can grow to cover an area of roughly 500 square feet per year. Given that most homes have a roof measuring roughly 2000 square feet, ivy-friendly homeowners can rest assured that their roofs will be completely covered in about four years. When considering growth rates of newly planted ivy, just remember the old adage: First year, it sleeps. Second year, it creeps. Third year, it leaps! For English Ivy, this is especially true.

Now, detractors may take this opportunity to remind readers about how invasive English Ivy can be. For what ivy enthusiast hasn't been cautioned about its ability to burrow holes, fracture windows, and even deteriorate brick? But be warned. Oftentimes, this suggestion is taken to the comical extreme. Naysayers take a strange pleasure in spinning yarns about a particularly malevolent strand of ivy—one that slips in through the cracks on a hot summer night, silently strangling homeowners in their sleep. Admittedly, this can be a funny story to tell. But are we to believe such a tale? The intelligent gardener will quickly dismiss such rubbish for what it is.

Q. As used in paragraph 2, which is the best definition for deteriorate?

Solution:

Deteriorate (verb): to make or become worse in quality or character; to disintegrate or wear away. In paragraph 2, the author writes, “Now, detractors may take this opportunity to remind readers about how invasive English Ivy can be. For what ivy enthusiast hasn't been cautioned about its ability to burrow holes, fracture windows, and even deteriorate brick?” The author describes how invasive ivy can be by listing ways in which it can be destructive.

Based on this information, we can infer that deteriorate has a negative, destructive connotation. Wear away is the only answer choice that has a destructive connotation, so it is the best definition for deteriorate. Therefore (A) is correct. Shield means to cover or protect, which is not a negative or destructive action.

Since the author uses deteriorate in a list of negative actions, we know that (B) is incorrect. Add to means to increase or build on, which is not a negative or destructive action. Since the author uses deteriorate in a list of negative actions, we know that (C) is incorrect. Climb on means to ascend or crawl up. Although this may accurately describe how ivy grows, it does not indicate a way that ivy could be destructive to brick. Therefore (D) is incorrect.

QUESTION: 31

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

English Ivy betrays its poor reputation as a nuisance by its unparalleled ability to provide shade. By seamlessly covering the exterior of a building, it works as a natural insulator, blocking the sun and decreasing air conditioning costs. This means big savings for both building tenants and homeowners alike. And it can happen quickly, too. Under the proper conditions, established English Ivy can grow to cover an area of roughly 500 square feet per year. Given that most homes have a roof measuring roughly 2000 square feet, ivy-friendly homeowners can rest assured that their roofs will be completely covered in about four years. When considering growth rates of newly planted ivy, just remember the old adage: First year, it sleeps. Second year, it creeps. Third year, it leaps! For English Ivy, this is especially true.

Now, detractors may take this opportunity to remind readers about how invasive English Ivy can be. For what ivy enthusiast hasn't been cautioned about its ability to burrow holes, fracture windows, and even deteriorate brick? But be warned. Oftentimes, this suggestion is taken to the comical extreme. Naysayers take a strange pleasure in spinning yarns about a particularly malevolent strand of ivy—one that slips in through the cracks on a hot summer night, silently strangling homeowners in their sleep. Admittedly, this can be a funny story to tell. But are we to believe such a tale? The intelligent gardener will quickly dismiss such rubbish for what it is.

Q. Based on information in paragraph 1, which of the following would most likely be considered an insulator?

Solution:

In paragraph 1, the author writes, “By seamlessly covering the exterior of a building, [English Ivy] works as a natural insulator, blocking the sun and decreasing air conditioning costs.” According to this statement, an insulator is something that covers the exterior of something else, thus providing protection and regulating temperature. The English Ivy covers the outside of the house, providing shade from the sun and therefore keeping the temperature of the house down.

A winter jacket is something that covers the exterior of the body, providing protection from winter elements such as wind, rain, snow, and cold air, and therefore keeping the temperature of the wearer’s body up. Given that an insulator covers the exterior of something, regulates temperature, and protects it from the elements, it can be inferred that a winter jacket would most likely be considered an insulator.

An umbrella does provide protection from the rain, but it is held above one’s head and does not cover the exterior of the body as ivy covers a house. Furthermore, an umbrella does not help regulate temperature. This means (A) is incorrect. Although an automobile surrounds its occupant, its primary purpose is not to provide protection, but rather to provide transportation. It also does not cover those who ride in it in the same way that ivy covers a house. Therefore (B) is incorrect. Suntan lotion can provide protection from the sun’s rays, but it does not regulate temperature as an insulator does. This means (C) is incorrect.

QUESTION: 32

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

The 4th India International Cherry Blossom Festival, organised by the Forest & Environment Department, Government of Meghalaya and Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development (IBSD), Government of India in collaboration with the Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR), Government of India concluded at 5th Polo Ground, {X}. The festival got underway on November 13, 2019.
The festival hosted a plethora of activities such as live music gigs, a beauty pageant, and stalls showcasing the cuisine, wine, arts and craft of the region. Travellers enjoyed illuminated cherry blossoms and fine dining at Ward's Lake.
Not only that there were also a rock concert along with unplugged western music and dance performances from all over the north-east India. The event also housed choir performances, bicycle rallies and storytelling sessions. What else could one want?
Visitors brought their golf set along and participated in the amateur golf tournament. All events were free and open to all.
The programme was also attended by PCCF & HoFF and Principal Secretary to the Government of Meghalaya, Forest & Environment Department, C.P. Marak, Additional PCCF (Social Forestry), Meghalaya, R.S. Gill, Regional Director, ICCR, {X}, Dr. N. Munish Singh among others.
The closing ceremony was graced by Ambassador of {Y} to India, Shin Bong-Kil as the Chief Guest and Forest & Environment Minister, Lahkmen Rymbui as the Guest of Honour.
Addressing the closing ceremony, Shin Bong-Kil said that cherry blossom is a majestic sight to see and festivals such as these reminded him of {Y} where cherry blossom marks the onset of spring season. Shin Bong-Kil also said that {Y} and Meghalaya are exploring opportunities for mutual bilateral relations to promote not only tourism but also in terms of exchanging ideas on technological know-how.
Forest & Environment Minister, Lahkmen Rymbui said that earlier in a day the bilateral meet between Meghalaya and {Y} was held where various issues were discussed and ideas were exchanged on socio-economic partnership.
During the programme, the Chief Guest, the Guest of Honour and other dignitaries handed over certificates and prizes to the winners of various competitions conducted as part of the festival.

Q. In the above passage, which city of the north-east India has been redacted with {X}?

Solution:

From 13-16 November 2019, the Cherry Blossom Festival in Shillong was celebrated. The unique autumn flowering of Himalayan Cherry Blossoms was celebrated with community events such as live music gigs, a beauty pageant, and stalls showcasing the cuisine, wine, arts and craft of the region.

QUESTION: 33

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

The 4th India International Cherry Blossom Festival, organised by the Forest & Environment Department, Government of Meghalaya and Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development (IBSD), Government of India in collaboration with the Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR), Government of India concluded at 5th Polo Ground, {X}. The festival got underway on November 13, 2019.
The festival hosted a plethora of activities such as live music gigs, a beauty pageant, and stalls showcasing the cuisine, wine, arts and craft of the region. Travellers enjoyed illuminated cherry blossoms and fine dining at Ward's Lake.
Not only that there were also a rock concert along with unplugged western music and dance performances from all over the north-east India. The event also housed choir performances, bicycle rallies and storytelling sessions. What else could one want?
Visitors brought their golf set along and participated in the amateur golf tournament. All events were free and open to all.
The programme was also attended by PCCF & HoFF and Principal Secretary to the Government of Meghalaya, Forest & Environment Department, C.P. Marak, Additional PCCF (Social Forestry), Meghalaya, R.S. Gill, Regional Director, ICCR, {X}, Dr. N. Munish Singh among others.
The closing ceremony was graced by Ambassador of {Y} to India, Shin Bong-Kil as the Chief Guest and Forest & Environment Minister, Lahkmen Rymbui as the Guest of Honour.
Addressing the closing ceremony, Shin Bong-Kil said that cherry blossom is a majestic sight to see and festivals such as these reminded him of {Y} where cherry blossom marks the onset of spring season. Shin Bong-Kil also said that {Y} and Meghalaya are exploring opportunities for mutual bilateral relations to promote not only tourism but also in terms of exchanging ideas on technological know-how.
Forest & Environment Minister, Lahkmen Rymbui said that earlier in a day the bilateral meet between Meghalaya and {Y} was held where various issues were discussed and ideas were exchanged on socio-economic partnership.
During the programme, the Chief Guest, the Guest of Honour and other dignitaries handed over certificates and prizes to the winners of various competitions conducted as part of the festival.

Q. In the above passage, which partner country has been redacted with {Y}?

Solution:

India and South Korea prepared to jointly celebrate the unique autumn flowering of Himalayan cherry blossoms in the mountainous state of Meghalaya. This is the first time that India and South Korea are partnered to celebrate the four-day 4th International Cherry Blossom Festival from November 13 to 16, 2019 at the Polo grounds in Shillong.
Japan had partnered with India in the third edition of the festival held here in November, 2018.

QUESTION: 34

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

The 4th India International Cherry Blossom Festival, organised by the Forest & Environment Department, Government of Meghalaya and Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development (IBSD), Government of India in collaboration with the Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR), Government of India concluded at 5th Polo Ground, {X}. The festival got underway on November 13, 2019.
The festival hosted a plethora of activities such as live music gigs, a beauty pageant, and stalls showcasing the cuisine, wine, arts and craft of the region. Travellers enjoyed illuminated cherry blossoms and fine dining at Ward's Lake.
Not only that there were also a rock concert along with unplugged western music and dance performances from all over the north-east India. The event also housed choir performances, bicycle rallies and storytelling sessions. What else could one want?
Visitors brought their golf set along and participated in the amateur golf tournament. All events were free and open to all.
The programme was also attended by PCCF & HoFF and Principal Secretary to the Government of Meghalaya, Forest & Environment Department, C.P. Marak, Additional PCCF (Social Forestry), Meghalaya, R.S. Gill, Regional Director, ICCR, {X}, Dr. N. Munish Singh among others.
The closing ceremony was graced by Ambassador of {Y} to India, Shin Bong-Kil as the Chief Guest and Forest & Environment Minister, Lahkmen Rymbui as the Guest of Honour.
Addressing the closing ceremony, Shin Bong-Kil said that cherry blossom is a majestic sight to see and festivals such as these reminded him of {Y} where cherry blossom marks the onset of spring season. Shin Bong-Kil also said that {Y} and Meghalaya are exploring opportunities for mutual bilateral relations to promote not only tourism but also in terms of exchanging ideas on technological know-how.
Forest & Environment Minister, Lahkmen Rymbui said that earlier in a day the bilateral meet between Meghalaya and {Y} was held where various issues were discussed and ideas were exchanged on socio-economic partnership.
During the programme, the Chief Guest, the Guest of Honour and other dignitaries handed over certificates and prizes to the winners of various competitions conducted as part of the festival.

Q. Consider the following statements and mark the correct option
Statement I: The India International Cherry Blossom Festival-2019 is organised by the Government of Meghalaya in association with Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development (IBSD).
Statement II: India and {Y) for the 3rd time jointly celebrated Cherry blossom festival.

Solution:

Statement I is correct:
The 4th India International Cherry Blossom Festival was organised by the Forest & Environment Department, Government of Meghalaya and Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development (IBSD), Government of India in collaboration with the Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR).
Statement II is incorrect:
For the 1st time, India and Republic of Korea jointly celebrated Cherry blossom festival.

QUESTION: 35

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

The 4th India International Cherry Blossom Festival, organised by the Forest & Environment Department, Government of Meghalaya and Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development (IBSD), Government of India in collaboration with the Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR), Government of India concluded at 5th Polo Ground, {X}. The festival got underway on November 13, 2019.
The festival hosted a plethora of activities such as live music gigs, a beauty pageant, and stalls showcasing the cuisine, wine, arts and craft of the region. Travellers enjoyed illuminated cherry blossoms and fine dining at Ward's Lake.
Not only that there were also a rock concert along with unplugged western music and dance performances from all over the north-east India. The event also housed choir performances, bicycle rallies and storytelling sessions. What else could one want?
Visitors brought their golf set along and participated in the amateur golf tournament. All events were free and open to all.
The programme was also attended by PCCF & HoFF and Principal Secretary to the Government of Meghalaya, Forest & Environment Department, C.P. Marak, Additional PCCF (Social Forestry), Meghalaya, R.S. Gill, Regional Director, ICCR, {X}, Dr. N. Munish Singh among others.
The closing ceremony was graced by Ambassador of {Y} to India, Shin Bong-Kil as the Chief Guest and Forest & Environment Minister, Lahkmen Rymbui as the Guest of Honour.
Addressing the closing ceremony, Shin Bong-Kil said that cherry blossom is a majestic sight to see and festivals such as these reminded him of {Y} where cherry blossom marks the onset of spring season. Shin Bong-Kil also said that {Y} and Meghalaya are exploring opportunities for mutual bilateral relations to promote not only tourism but also in terms of exchanging ideas on technological know-how.
Forest & Environment Minister, Lahkmen Rymbui said that earlier in a day the bilateral meet between Meghalaya and {Y} was held where various issues were discussed and ideas were exchanged on socio-economic partnership.
During the programme, the Chief Guest, the Guest of Honour and other dignitaries handed over certificates and prizes to the winners of various competitions conducted as part of the festival.

Q. Who holds the chair of Forest & Environment Minister in India as in 2020?

Solution:

The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) is an Indian Government Ministry. The ministry portfolio is held by Prakash Javadekar, Union Minister of Environment, Forest and Climate Change as in 2020. The ministry is responsible for planning, promoting, coordinating, and overseeing the implementation of environmental and forestry programmes in the country.

QUESTION: 36

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

The 4th India International Cherry Blossom Festival, organised by the Forest & Environment Department, Government of Meghalaya and Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development (IBSD), Government of India in collaboration with the Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR), Government of India concluded at 5th Polo Ground, {X}. The festival got underway on November 13, 2019.
The festival hosted a plethora of activities such as live music gigs, a beauty pageant, and stalls showcasing the cuisine, wine, arts and craft of the region. Travellers enjoyed illuminated cherry blossoms and fine dining at Ward's Lake.
Not only that there were also a rock concert along with unplugged western music and dance performances from all over the north-east India. The event also housed choir performances, bicycle rallies and storytelling sessions. What else could one want?
Visitors brought their golf set along and participated in the amateur golf tournament. All events were free and open to all.
The programme was also attended by PCCF & HoFF and Principal Secretary to the Government of Meghalaya, Forest & Environment Department, C.P. Marak, Additional PCCF (Social Forestry), Meghalaya, R.S. Gill, Regional Director, ICCR, {X}, Dr. N. Munish Singh among others.
The closing ceremony was graced by Ambassador of {Y} to India, Shin Bong-Kil as the Chief Guest and Forest & Environment Minister, Lahkmen Rymbui as the Guest of Honour.
Addressing the closing ceremony, Shin Bong-Kil said that cherry blossom is a majestic sight to see and festivals such as these reminded him of {Y} where cherry blossom marks the onset of spring season. Shin Bong-Kil also said that {Y} and Meghalaya are exploring opportunities for mutual bilateral relations to promote not only tourism but also in terms of exchanging ideas on technological know-how.
Forest & Environment Minister, Lahkmen Rymbui said that earlier in a day the bilateral meet between Meghalaya and {Y} was held where various issues were discussed and ideas were exchanged on socio-economic partnership.
During the programme, the Chief Guest, the Guest of Honour and other dignitaries handed over certificates and prizes to the winners of various competitions conducted as part of the festival.

Q. Which city is known as the 'Cherry Blossom Capital of the World'?

Solution:

Macon, Georgia, holds the title of the Cherry Blossom Capital of the World.
The home of the annual International Cherry Blossom Festival, Macon has over 3,50,000 cherry trees. That's more than 90 times more cherry trees than Washington D.C., which has between 3,700 and 3,800 cherry trees, according to the National Park Service.

QUESTION: 37

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

Festivals of India are so full of life that one needs to explore each and every corner of the country. Nagaland’s [X] Festival is one such extravaganza that celebrates the age-old customs and traditions of the state, which are also unique in every sense. [X] Festival 2019 promises the splendour and amazement of every other [X] Festival in the past. One of the most important festivals of northeast India, [X] is celebrated at the Naga Heritage Village that is about 12 km away from Kohima.

The festival is a traditional celebration involving seventeen Naga tribes, and is a chance for every traveller to get a closer look into the different tribes of the state. A once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to explore the Naga lifestyle, their tribal huts, and their customs. The festival that first started in the year 2000 is celebrated in the month of December every year. It starts on December 1, a day that is celebrated as Nagaland Statehood Day, and it goes on for ten days, ending on December 10. The 17 tribes that take part in the festival are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Dimasa Kachari, Garo, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Kuki, Lotha, Phom, Pochury, Rengma, Sangtam, Sumi, Yumchungru, and Zeliang. Each of these tribes showcase its unique dance, music, and customs, while there is plenty to eat, drink, and more. After sundown, there are bonfires and lots of performances, so do not miss out on that.

Q. In the above passage, the name of the festival has been replaced with ’[X]’. What is the name of the festival?

Solution:
QUESTION: 38

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

Festivals of India are so full of life that one needs to explore each and every corner of the country. Nagaland’s [X] Festival is one such extravaganza that celebrates the age-old customs and traditions of the state, which are also unique in every sense. [X] Festival 2019 promises the splendour and amazement of every other [X] Festival in the past. One of the most important festivals of northeast India, [X] is celebrated at the Naga Heritage Village that is about 12 km away from Kohima.

The festival is a traditional celebration involving seventeen Naga tribes, and is a chance for every traveller to get a closer look into the different tribes of the state. A once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to explore the Naga lifestyle, their tribal huts, and their customs. The festival that first started in the year 2000 is celebrated in the month of December every year. It starts on December 1, a day that is celebrated as Nagaland Statehood Day, and it goes on for ten days, ending on December 10. The 17 tribes that take part in the festival are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Dimasa Kachari, Garo, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Kuki, Lotha, Phom, Pochury, Rengma, Sangtam, Sumi, Yumchungru, and Zeliang. Each of these tribes showcase its unique dance, music, and customs, while there is plenty to eat, drink, and more. After sundown, there are bonfires and lots of performances, so do not miss out on that.

Q. The year 2019 celebrates the ___ edition of ‘[X]’ Festival and the festival this year coincides with Nagaland Statehood Day?

Solution:
QUESTION: 39

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

Festivals of India are so full of life that one needs to explore each and every corner of the country. Nagaland’s [X] Festival is one such extravaganza that celebrates the age-old customs and traditions of the state, which are also unique in every sense. [X] Festival 2019 promises the splendour and amazement of every other [X] Festival in the past. One of the most important festivals of northeast India, [X] is celebrated at the Naga Heritage Village that is about 12 km away from Kohima.

The festival is a traditional celebration involving seventeen Naga tribes, and is a chance for every traveller to get a closer look into the different tribes of the state. A once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to explore the Naga lifestyle, their tribal huts, and their customs. The festival that first started in the year 2000 is celebrated in the month of December every year. It starts on December 1, a day that is celebrated as Nagaland Statehood Day, and it goes on for ten days, ending on December 10. The 17 tribes that take part in the festival are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Dimasa Kachari, Garo, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Kuki, Lotha, Phom, Pochury, Rengma, Sangtam, Sumi, Yumchungru, and Zeliang. Each of these tribes showcase its unique dance, music, and customs, while there is plenty to eat, drink, and more. After sundown, there are bonfires and lots of performances, so do not miss out on that.

Q. Which festival in Nagaland is known as the “Festival of Festivals”?

Solution:
QUESTION: 40

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

Festivals of India are so full of life that one needs to explore each and every corner of the country. Nagaland’s [X] Festival is one such extravaganza that celebrates the age-old customs and traditions of the state, which are also unique in every sense. [X] Festival 2019 promises the splendour and amazement of every other [X] Festival in the past. One of the most important festivals of northeast India, [X] is celebrated at the Naga Heritage Village that is about 12 km away from Kohima.

The festival is a traditional celebration involving seventeen Naga tribes, and is a chance for every traveller to get a closer look into the different tribes of the state. A once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to explore the Naga lifestyle, their tribal huts, and their customs. The festival that first started in the year 2000 is celebrated in the month of December every year. It starts on December 1, a day that is celebrated as Nagaland Statehood Day, and it goes on for ten days, ending on December 10. The 17 tribes that take part in the festival are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Dimasa Kachari, Garo, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Kuki, Lotha, Phom, Pochury, Rengma, Sangtam, Sumi, Yumchungru, and Zeliang. Each of these tribes showcase its unique dance, music, and customs, while there is plenty to eat, drink, and more. After sundown, there are bonfires and lots of performances, so do not miss out on that.

Q. When did the Hornbill festival start in Nagaland?

Solution:
QUESTION: 41

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

Festivals of India are so full of life that one needs to explore each and every corner of the country. Nagaland’s [X] Festival is one such extravaganza that celebrates the age-old customs and traditions of the state, which are also unique in every sense. [X] Festival 2019 promises the splendour and amazement of every other [X] Festival in the past. One of the most important festivals of northeast India, [X] is celebrated at the Naga Heritage Village that is about 12 km away from Kohima.

The festival is a traditional celebration involving seventeen Naga tribes, and is a chance for every traveller to get a closer look into the different tribes of the state. A once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to explore the Naga lifestyle, their tribal huts, and their customs. The festival that first started in the year 2000 is celebrated in the month of December every year. It starts on December 1, a day that is celebrated as Nagaland Statehood Day, and it goes on for ten days, ending on December 10. The 17 tribes that take part in the festival are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Dimasa Kachari, Garo, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Kuki, Lotha, Phom, Pochury, Rengma, Sangtam, Sumi, Yumchungru, and Zeliang. Each of these tribes showcase its unique dance, music, and customs, while there is plenty to eat, drink, and more. After sundown, there are bonfires and lots of performances, so do not miss out on that.

Q. Moa Subong of Abiogenesis band received a National Award from the President of India on 4th March 2017 for his invention of a wind bamboo musical instrument called:

Solution:
QUESTION: 42

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, inaugurated the India International Science Festival (IISF) 2019 in {X}.
The four-day science festival, being organised from 5th to 8th November, 2019, aims to build a strategy for inclusive advancement of science and technology. Highlighting India's contribution in the field of science and technology, Prime Minister said that unprecedented work is being done for higher education and innovation.
Prime Minister urged the scientists to be far more proactive in recognising and responding to their broader social responsibilities with an aim to improve the quality of life of under-served communities.
Prime Minister said that the Government is providing institutional support for both invention and innovation with an aim to make ecosystem for science & technology very strong.
Prime Minister said that India has jumped from 81st rank to 52nd rank on the Global Innovation Index by initiatives taken by the government. While, India has emerged 3rd largest ecosystems for successful startups.
He said that more than 5,000 Atal Tinkering Labs have been set up and over 200 Atal Incubation Centres have been created with an aim to instil scientific temper among the masses.
India International Science Festival (IISF) is a celebration to promote science and technology and demonstrate how science could lead India towards a developed nation within a short span of time. The aim is to engage the public with science and celebrate the joy of science and show the ways how science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) provide us with the solutions to improve our lives. Ministry of Science and Technology and Ministry of Earth Sciences in association with {Z}, has created a unique platform of India International Science Festival which intends to inspire curiosity and make learning more rewarding. The goal of the Science festivity is to help youth, develop 21st century skills, with a focus on scientific knowledge, creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving, and teamwork. The theme for this year's festival is '{Y}'. The India International Science Festival 2019 hosted a gathering of about 12,000 participants from India and abroad. The festival hosted more than 28 different events during this period.

Q. In the above passage, which city was the host for India International Science Festival (IISF), 2019, as redacted with {X}?

Solution:

The 5th edition of India International Science Festival (IISF), 2019, was held at Kolkata from 5th to 8th November, 2019. Kolkata was the choice of the venue in 2019, as Kolkata's scientific institutions had been the work place of several of these scientists who gave shape to science in India.

QUESTION: 43

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, inaugurated the India International Science Festival (IISF) 2019 in {X}.
The four-day science festival, being organised from 5th to 8th November, 2019, aims to build a strategy for inclusive advancement of science and technology. Highlighting India's contribution in the field of science and technology, Prime Minister said that unprecedented work is being done for higher education and innovation.
Prime Minister urged the scientists to be far more proactive in recognising and responding to their broader social responsibilities with an aim to improve the quality of life of under-served communities.
Prime Minister said that the Government is providing institutional support for both invention and innovation with an aim to make ecosystem for science & technology very strong.
Prime Minister said that India has jumped from 81st rank to 52nd rank on the Global Innovation Index by initiatives taken by the government. While, India has emerged 3rd largest ecosystems for successful startups.
He said that more than 5,000 Atal Tinkering Labs have been set up and over 200 Atal Incubation Centres have been created with an aim to instil scientific temper among the masses.
India International Science Festival (IISF) is a celebration to promote science and technology and demonstrate how science could lead India towards a developed nation within a short span of time. The aim is to engage the public with science and celebrate the joy of science and show the ways how science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) provide us with the solutions to improve our lives. Ministry of Science and Technology and Ministry of Earth Sciences in association with {Z}, has created a unique platform of India International Science Festival which intends to inspire curiosity and make learning more rewarding. The goal of the Science festivity is to help youth, develop 21st century skills, with a focus on scientific knowledge, creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving, and teamwork. The theme for this year's festival is '{Y}'. The India International Science Festival 2019 hosted a gathering of about 12,000 participants from India and abroad. The festival hosted more than 28 different events during this period.

Q. In the above passage, what theme has been redacted with {Y}?

Solution:

The 5th India International Science Festival (IISF) was based on the theme 'RISEN India – Research, Innovation, and Science Empowering the Nation'. The prime objective of the festival was to instill scientific temper among the masses, showcase India's contribution in the field of S&T over the years and encourage translation of its benefits to people.
The Young Scientists' Conference based on the theme Young Scientists in the Making of Scientific India was one of the major events of the IISF 2019. In this, young scientists, researchers, faculty, science innovators and professionals from national laboratories, academic institutions and industry participated and enhanced their research as well as academic network with other experts.

QUESTION: 44

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, inaugurated the India International Science Festival (IISF) 2019 in {X}.
The four-day science festival, being organised from 5th to 8th November, 2019, aims to build a strategy for inclusive advancement of science and technology. Highlighting India's contribution in the field of science and technology, Prime Minister said that unprecedented work is being done for higher education and innovation.
Prime Minister urged the scientists to be far more proactive in recognising and responding to their broader social responsibilities with an aim to improve the quality of life of under-served communities.
Prime Minister said that the Government is providing institutional support for both invention and innovation with an aim to make ecosystem for science & technology very strong.
Prime Minister said that India has jumped from 81st rank to 52nd rank on the Global Innovation Index by initiatives taken by the government. While, India has emerged 3rd largest ecosystems for successful startups.
He said that more than 5,000 Atal Tinkering Labs have been set up and over 200 Atal Incubation Centres have been created with an aim to instil scientific temper among the masses.
India International Science Festival (IISF) is a celebration to promote science and technology and demonstrate how science could lead India towards a developed nation within a short span of time. The aim is to engage the public with science and celebrate the joy of science and show the ways how science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) provide us with the solutions to improve our lives. Ministry of Science and Technology and Ministry of Earth Sciences in association with {Z}, has created a unique platform of India International Science Festival which intends to inspire curiosity and make learning more rewarding. The goal of the Science festivity is to help youth, develop 21st century skills, with a focus on scientific knowledge, creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving, and teamwork. The theme for this year's festival is '{Y}'. The India International Science Festival 2019 hosted a gathering of about 12,000 participants from India and abroad. The festival hosted more than 28 different events during this period.

Q. In the above passage, what has been redacted with {Z}?

Solution:

Ministry of Science and Technology and Ministry of Earth Sciences in association with Vijnana Bharati (VIBHA), has created a unique platform of India International Science Festival. Vijnana Bharati or VIBHA, previously known as "Swadeshi Science Movement" is a Non-profit organisation, working for science popularisation, and implementation of modern technology and ancient sciences in India. It was founded by the eminent scientists of Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru led by Prof. K.I. Vasu.

QUESTION: 45

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, inaugurated the India International Science Festival (IISF) 2019 in {X}.
The four-day science festival, being organised from 5th to 8th November, 2019, aims to build a strategy for inclusive advancement of science and technology. Highlighting India's contribution in the field of science and technology, Prime Minister said that unprecedented work is being done for higher education and innovation.
Prime Minister urged the scientists to be far more proactive in recognising and responding to their broader social responsibilities with an aim to improve the quality of life of under-served communities.
Prime Minister said that the Government is providing institutional support for both invention and innovation with an aim to make ecosystem for science & technology very strong.
Prime Minister said that India has jumped from 81st rank to 52nd rank on the Global Innovation Index by initiatives taken by the government. While, India has emerged 3rd largest ecosystems for successful startups.
He said that more than 5,000 Atal Tinkering Labs have been set up and over 200 Atal Incubation Centres have been created with an aim to instil scientific temper among the masses.
India International Science Festival (IISF) is a celebration to promote science and technology and demonstrate how science could lead India towards a developed nation within a short span of time. The aim is to engage the public with science and celebrate the joy of science and show the ways how science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) provide us with the solutions to improve our lives. Ministry of Science and Technology and Ministry of Earth Sciences in association with {Z}, has created a unique platform of India International Science Festival which intends to inspire curiosity and make learning more rewarding. The goal of the Science festivity is to help youth, develop 21st century skills, with a focus on scientific knowledge, creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving, and teamwork. The theme for this year's festival is '{Y}'. The India International Science Festival 2019 hosted a gathering of about 12,000 participants from India and abroad. The festival hosted more than 28 different events during this period.

Q. Consider the following statements and mark the correct option.
Statement I: Prime Minister Narendra Modi attended the first two days of the IISF on the venue and personally addressed the gathering.
Statement II: The aim is to engage the public with science and celebrate the joy of science and show the ways how (STEM) provides us with the solutions to improve our lives.

Solution:

Statement I is incorrect: The four-day festival was inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi digitally via video conference.
Statement II is correct: Its aim is to engage the public with science and celebrate the joy of science and show the ways how science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) provide us with the solutions to improve our lives. The science in STEM typically refers to two out of the three major branches of science: natural sciences, formal sciences and social sciences, including psychology, sociology, and political science.

QUESTION: 46

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, inaugurated the India International Science Festival (IISF) 2019 in {X}.
The four-day science festival, being organised from 5th to 8th November, 2019, aims to build a strategy for inclusive advancement of science and technology. Highlighting India's contribution in the field of science and technology, Prime Minister said that unprecedented work is being done for higher education and innovation.
Prime Minister urged the scientists to be far more proactive in recognising and responding to their broader social responsibilities with an aim to improve the quality of life of under-served communities.
Prime Minister said that the Government is providing institutional support for both invention and innovation with an aim to make ecosystem for science & technology very strong.
Prime Minister said that India has jumped from 81st rank to 52nd rank on the Global Innovation Index by initiatives taken by the government. While, India has emerged 3rd largest ecosystems for successful startups.
He said that more than 5,000 Atal Tinkering Labs have been set up and over 200 Atal Incubation Centres have been created with an aim to instil scientific temper among the masses.
India International Science Festival (IISF) is a celebration to promote science and technology and demonstrate how science could lead India towards a developed nation within a short span of time. The aim is to engage the public with science and celebrate the joy of science and show the ways how science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) provide us with the solutions to improve our lives. Ministry of Science and Technology and Ministry of Earth Sciences in association with {Z}, has created a unique platform of India International Science Festival which intends to inspire curiosity and make learning more rewarding. The goal of the Science festivity is to help youth, develop 21st century skills, with a focus on scientific knowledge, creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving, and teamwork. The theme for this year's festival is '{Y}'. The India International Science Festival 2019 hosted a gathering of about 12,000 participants from India and abroad. The festival hosted more than 28 different events during this period.

Q. Where was the first IISF held in 2015?

Solution:

The first India International Science Festival (IISF 2015), a joint event of Ministry of Science and Technology and Ministry of Earth Sciences, was organised in December, 2015 at Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), New Delhi.

QUESTION: 47

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, inaugurated the India International Science Festival (IISF) 2019 in {X}.
The four-day science festival, being organised from 5th to 8th November, 2019, aims to build a strategy for inclusive advancement of science and technology. Highlighting India's contribution in the field of science and technology, Prime Minister said that unprecedented work is being done for higher education and innovation.
Prime Minister urged the scientists to be far more proactive in recognising and responding to their broader social responsibilities with an aim to improve the quality of life of under-served communities.
Prime Minister said that the Government is providing institutional support for both invention and innovation with an aim to make ecosystem for science & technology very strong.
Prime Minister said that India has jumped from 81st rank to 52nd rank on the Global Innovation Index by initiatives taken by the government. While, India has emerged 3rd largest ecosystems for successful startups.
He said that more than 5,000 Atal Tinkering Labs have been set up and over 200 Atal Incubation Centres have been created with an aim to instil scientific temper among the masses.
India International Science Festival (IISF) is a celebration to promote science and technology and demonstrate how science could lead India towards a developed nation within a short span of time. The aim is to engage the public with science and celebrate the joy of science and show the ways how science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) provide us with the solutions to improve our lives. Ministry of Science and Technology and Ministry of Earth Sciences in association with {Z}, has created a unique platform of India International Science Festival which intends to inspire curiosity and make learning more rewarding. The goal of the Science festivity is to help youth, develop 21st century skills, with a focus on scientific knowledge, creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving, and teamwork. The theme for this year's festival is '{Y}'. The India International Science Festival 2019 hosted a gathering of about 12,000 participants from India and abroad. The festival hosted more than 28 different events during this period.

Q. How many Guinness world records were set during the course of the 5th edition of the India International Science Festival (IISF), 2019?

Solution:

Three Guinness world records were set during the course of the 5th edition of the India International Science Festival (IISF), 2019.
The first record was set on the opening day of the four-day mega program when 1,598 school students attended a class on Astrophysics and assembled working models of spectroscopes using nothing but discarded CDs and ordinary cardboard boxes.
The second record was set when 268 students successfully assembled radio kits from scratch.
The third record was set when a group of 415 school students came together to form the largest ever human image of a chromosome.

QUESTION: 48

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

The 92nd Academy Awards drew an average of 23.6 million viewers for ABC on Sunday — a new low for Hollywood's biggest night. The awards show saw a decrease of 20% from last year's show, which brought in 29.6 million viewers. The previous low was 2018's telecast, which drew in an average 26.5 million viewers. The low ratings for one of the entertainment world's biggest nights are still higher than most programs on television, but hardly ideal. Just six years ago, the awards show brought in more than 40 million viewers. A number of factors were at play, from the show's length to the array of other entertainment options viewers can choose from. It probably didn't help that some of the year's biggest blockbusters like "Avengers: Endgame" didn't win any major awards. The Oscars' low ratings follows the trend with other award shows like the Grammys and the Emmys, which have taken big viewership hits recently.

Q. In which year Oscar prize was started.

Solution:
QUESTION: 49

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

The 92nd Academy Awards drew an average of 23.6 million viewers for ABC on Sunday — a new low for Hollywood's biggest night. The awards show saw a decrease of 20% from last year's show, which brought in 29.6 million viewers. The previous low was 2018's telecast, which drew in an average 26.5 million viewers. The low ratings for one of the entertainment world's biggest nights are still higher than most programs on television, but hardly ideal. Just six years ago, the awards show brought in more than 40 million viewers. A number of factors were at play, from the show's length to the array of other entertainment options viewers can choose from. It probably didn't help that some of the year's biggest blockbusters like "Avengers: Endgame" didn't win any major awards. The Oscars' low ratings follows the trend with other award shows like the Grammys and the Emmys, which have taken big viewership hits recently.

Q. Who was the first Indian who received Oscar prize?

Solution:
QUESTION: 50

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

The 92nd Academy Awards drew an average of 23.6 million viewers for ABC on Sunday — a new low for Hollywood's biggest night. The awards show saw a decrease of 20% from last year's show, which brought in 29.6 million viewers. The previous low was 2018's telecast, which drew in an average 26.5 million viewers. The low ratings for one of the entertainment world's biggest nights are still higher than most programs on television, but hardly ideal. Just six years ago, the awards show brought in more than 40 million viewers. A number of factors were at play, from the show's length to the array of other entertainment options viewers can choose from. It probably didn't help that some of the year's biggest blockbusters like "Avengers: Endgame" didn't win any major awards. The Oscars' low ratings follows the trend with other award shows like the Grammys and the Emmys, which have taken big viewership hits recently.

Q. Which was the first film nominated for Oscar in foreign language film category?

Solution:
QUESTION: 51

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

The 92nd Academy Awards drew an average of 23.6 million viewers for ABC on Sunday — a new low for Hollywood's biggest night. The awards show saw a decrease of 20% from last year's show, which brought in 29.6 million viewers. The previous low was 2018's telecast, which drew in an average 26.5 million viewers. The low ratings for one of the entertainment world's biggest nights are still higher than most programs on television, but hardly ideal. Just six years ago, the awards show brought in more than 40 million viewers. A number of factors were at play, from the show's length to the array of other entertainment options viewers can choose from. It probably didn't help that some of the year's biggest blockbusters like "Avengers: Endgame" didn't win any major awards. The Oscars' low ratings follows the trend with other award shows like the Grammys and the Emmys, which have taken big viewership hits recently.

Q. Who got the Best Director award in Oscar 2020?

Solution:
QUESTION: 52

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

The 92nd Academy Awards drew an average of 23.6 million viewers for ABC on Sunday — a new low for Hollywood's biggest night. The awards show saw a decrease of 20% from last year's show, which brought in 29.6 million viewers. The previous low was 2018's telecast, which drew in an average 26.5 million viewers. The low ratings for one of the entertainment world's biggest nights are still higher than most programs on television, but hardly ideal. Just six years ago, the awards show brought in more than 40 million viewers. A number of factors were at play, from the show's length to the array of other entertainment options viewers can choose from. It probably didn't help that some of the year's biggest blockbusters like "Avengers: Endgame" didn't win any major awards. The Oscars' low ratings follows the trend with other award shows like the Grammys and the Emmys, which have taken big viewership hits recently.

Q. Which Film received the Oscar prize in maximum categories till date?

Solution:
QUESTION: 53

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

With an aim to boost the ailing realty sector, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs on January 14, 2020 launched an online platform to facilitate home-buyers. The platform will list projects that have received _____(i)____. It will create a safe and transparent home-buying experience that it will create positive sentiment for the real estate industry, boosting confidence and faith among home-buyers, enhancement of liquidity flow in the industry and contributing to growth of the economy.
Urban Affairs Secretary launched realtors' body NAREDCO's e-commerce platform which will list completed residential units and said the portal has the potential to become Amazon of Indian real estate.
"The portal is designed for the all industry stakeholders with a powerful back-end platform which manages and displays the most accurate inventory data in the market, and allows buyers to book their flats directly online", said Niranjan Hiranandani.
The portal ___(ii)___ should be credible and transparent, he said, adding that there should also be a system for consumers' grievances. The portal, will help buyers in accessing best priced inventory by builders for a limited time to take full advantage of best pricing. Buyers will be able to view complete listing info including floor plans, room dimensions, video tours of units and external views looking out from windows/balconies.
This website is not for NAREDCO, but for consumers and home-buyers who can take an informed decision. Officials said that the move will create positive sentiment for the real estate industry, boosting confidence and faith among home-buyers, enhancement of liquidity flow in the industry and contributing to the growth of the economy.
NAREDCO formed under the aegis of Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, would list only completed RERA-registered housing projects on the platform. Buyers will start making purchases from March 1 till March 31, 2020.

Q. In the above passage, what has been redacted with ___(i)__ ?

Solution:

In the above passage, occupancy certificate has been redacted with blank ___(i)__. A certificate of occupancy is a document issued by a local government agency or building department certifying a building's compliance with applicable building codes and other laws, and indicating it to be in a condition suitable for occupancy.

QUESTION: 54

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

With an aim to boost the ailing realty sector, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs on January 14, 2020 launched an online platform to facilitate home-buyers. The platform will list projects that have received _____(i)____. It will create a safe and transparent home-buying experience that it will create positive sentiment for the real estate industry, boosting confidence and faith among home-buyers, enhancement of liquidity flow in the industry and contributing to growth of the economy.
Urban Affairs Secretary launched realtors' body NAREDCO's e-commerce platform which will list completed residential units and said the portal has the potential to become Amazon of Indian real estate.
"The portal is designed for the all industry stakeholders with a powerful back-end platform which manages and displays the most accurate inventory data in the market, and allows buyers to book their flats directly online", said Niranjan Hiranandani.
The portal ___(ii)___ should be credible and transparent, he said, adding that there should also be a system for consumers' grievances. The portal, will help buyers in accessing best priced inventory by builders for a limited time to take full advantage of best pricing. Buyers will be able to view complete listing info including floor plans, room dimensions, video tours of units and external views looking out from windows/balconies.
This website is not for NAREDCO, but for consumers and home-buyers who can take an informed decision. Officials said that the move will create positive sentiment for the real estate industry, boosting confidence and faith among home-buyers, enhancement of liquidity flow in the industry and contributing to the growth of the economy.
NAREDCO formed under the aegis of Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, would list only completed RERA-registered housing projects on the platform. Buyers will start making purchases from March 1 till March 31, 2020.

Q. In the above passage, what has been redacted with ___(ii)___?

Solution:

''housingforall.com'' portal has been launched with the support of Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs for the buyer, builder and broker of housing properties. This portal has been launched to bring trust in Real Estate Sector.

QUESTION: 55

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

With an aim to boost the ailing realty sector, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs on January 14, 2020 launched an online platform to facilitate home-buyers. The platform will list projects that have received _____(i)____. It will create a safe and transparent home-buying experience that it will create positive sentiment for the real estate industry, boosting confidence and faith among home-buyers, enhancement of liquidity flow in the industry and contributing to growth of the economy.
Urban Affairs Secretary launched realtors' body NAREDCO's e-commerce platform which will list completed residential units and said the portal has the potential to become Amazon of Indian real estate.
"The portal is designed for the all industry stakeholders with a powerful back-end platform which manages and displays the most accurate inventory data in the market, and allows buyers to book their flats directly online", said Niranjan Hiranandani.
The portal ___(ii)___ should be credible and transparent, he said, adding that there should also be a system for consumers' grievances. The portal, will help buyers in accessing best priced inventory by builders for a limited time to take full advantage of best pricing. Buyers will be able to view complete listing info including floor plans, room dimensions, video tours of units and external views looking out from windows/balconies.
This website is not for NAREDCO, but for consumers and home-buyers who can take an informed decision. Officials said that the move will create positive sentiment for the real estate industry, boosting confidence and faith among home-buyers, enhancement of liquidity flow in the industry and contributing to the growth of the economy.
NAREDCO formed under the aegis of Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, would list only completed RERA-registered housing projects on the platform. Buyers will start making purchases from March 1 till March 31, 2020.

Q. In the above passage, what is the full form for the acronym 'NAREDCO'?

Solution:

National Real Estate Development Council (NAREDCO), under the aegis of Ministry of Housing and Urban affairs, Government of India, is the apex body of real estate sector at national level representing all spheres of stakeholders engaged in various aspects of real estate development. The National Real Estate Development Council (NAREDCO) was established as a self-regulatory body in 1998.

QUESTION: 56

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

With an aim to boost the ailing realty sector, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs on January 14, 2020 launched an online platform to facilitate home-buyers. The platform will list projects that have received _____(i)____. It will create a safe and transparent home-buying experience that it will create positive sentiment for the real estate industry, boosting confidence and faith among home-buyers, enhancement of liquidity flow in the industry and contributing to growth of the economy.
Urban Affairs Secretary launched realtors' body NAREDCO's e-commerce platform which will list completed residential units and said the portal has the potential to become Amazon of Indian real estate.
"The portal is designed for the all industry stakeholders with a powerful back-end platform which manages and displays the most accurate inventory data in the market, and allows buyers to book their flats directly online", said Niranjan Hiranandani.
The portal ___(ii)___ should be credible and transparent, he said, adding that there should also be a system for consumers' grievances. The portal, will help buyers in accessing best priced inventory by builders for a limited time to take full advantage of best pricing. Buyers will be able to view complete listing info including floor plans, room dimensions, video tours of units and external views looking out from windows/balconies.
This website is not for NAREDCO, but for consumers and home-buyers who can take an informed decision. Officials said that the move will create positive sentiment for the real estate industry, boosting confidence and faith among home-buyers, enhancement of liquidity flow in the industry and contributing to the growth of the economy.
NAREDCO formed under the aegis of Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, would list only completed RERA-registered housing projects on the platform. Buyers will start making purchases from March 1 till March 31, 2020.

Q. Who launched the e-commerce housing platform in January, 2020?

Solution:

The e-commerce housing portal was launched by Durga Shanker Mishra, Secretary, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA). Durga Shanker Mishra is a 1984 batch Indian Administrative Service officer of Uttar Pradesh cadre. He is also the Chairman of the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation.

QUESTION: 57

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

With an aim to boost the ailing realty sector, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs on January 14, 2020 launched an online platform to facilitate home-buyers. The platform will list projects that have received _____(i)____. It will create a safe and transparent home-buying experience that it will create positive sentiment for the real estate industry, boosting confidence and faith among home-buyers, enhancement of liquidity flow in the industry and contributing to growth of the economy.
Urban Affairs Secretary launched realtors' body NAREDCO's e-commerce platform which will list completed residential units and said the portal has the potential to become Amazon of Indian real estate.
"The portal is designed for the all industry stakeholders with a powerful back-end platform which manages and displays the most accurate inventory data in the market, and allows buyers to book their flats directly online", said Niranjan Hiranandani.
The portal ___(ii)___ should be credible and transparent, he said, adding that there should also be a system for consumers' grievances. The portal, will help buyers in accessing best priced inventory by builders for a limited time to take full advantage of best pricing. Buyers will be able to view complete listing info including floor plans, room dimensions, video tours of units and external views looking out from windows/balconies.
This website is not for NAREDCO, but for consumers and home-buyers who can take an informed decision. Officials said that the move will create positive sentiment for the real estate industry, boosting confidence and faith among home-buyers, enhancement of liquidity flow in the industry and contributing to the growth of the economy.
NAREDCO formed under the aegis of Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, would list only completed RERA-registered housing projects on the platform. Buyers will start making purchases from March 1 till March 31, 2020.

Q. Which among the following statements is/are incorrect?
Statement I: The portal will be opened for home-buyers with a 50-day sale period.
Statement II: They will also get 'money back guarantee'.
Statement III: MoHUA will host an All-India Online Home-Buying Festival.

Solution:

Statement I is incorrect.
Correct statement: The portal will be open for one month only for the real estate developers to register their projects following which the portal will be opened for home buyers with a 45-day sale period starting February 14, 2020.
Provisions:
The portal will be opened for home buyers with a 45-day sale period starting February 14, 2020.
They will also get 'money back guarantee' for their initial buyer deposit made on the portal.
Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) will host a 45-day all-India online home-buying festival for ready-to-move-in homes, with around 1,000 projects to be listed.
The portal will enhance the liquidity flow in the industry.

QUESTION: 58

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

Union Minister for Science & Technology has given information about imports of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in the country during the Budget session of 2020-21. India has quadrupled its imports of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. 175 million such batteries were imported in 2016, 313 million in 2017, 712 million in 2018 and 450 million in 2019. It has more than tripled its import bill on the products vital for powering a range of devices from cellphones to electric vehicles from 2016-2018. The cost of these imports rose from ₹2,600 crores in 2016 to ₹6,500 crores in 2019 Origin of Imports: India imports Li-ion batteries from China, Japan and South Korea and is among the largest importers in the world. China dominates the Li-ion battery market. Around three-quarters of battery cell manufacturing capacity is in China, and Chinese companies have unparalleled control of required domestic and foreign battery raw materials and processing facilities.

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) manufactures Li-ion batteries but volumes are limited and they are restricted for use in space applications. Need to Increase Manufacturing by India: The government has announced investments worth $1.4 billion to make India one of the largest manufacturing hubs for electric vehicles by 2040. Electric vehicles are expected to account for a significant share in the growth of the Li-ion battery demand in India till 2025. Steps taken by India: The Central Electro Chemical Research Institute (CECRI) of CSIR and RAASI Solar Power Pvt Ltd had signed a Memorandum of Agreement for transfer of technology for India’s first lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery project in 2018. The Union Cabinet has also approved a National Mission on Transformative Mobility and Battery Storage to drive clean, connected, shared sustainable and holistic mobility initiatives.

Q. Which of the following is the heaviest metal?

Solution:
QUESTION: 59

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

Union Minister for Science & Technology has given information about imports of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in the country during the Budget session of 2020-21. India has quadrupled its imports of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. 175 million such batteries were imported in 2016, 313 million in 2017, 712 million in 2018 and 450 million in 2019. It has more than tripled its import bill on the products vital for powering a range of devices from cellphones to electric vehicles from 2016-2018. The cost of these imports rose from ₹2,600 crores in 2016 to ₹6,500 crores in 2019 Origin of Imports: India imports Li-ion batteries from China, Japan and South Korea and is among the largest importers in the world. China dominates the Li-ion battery market. Around three-quarters of battery cell manufacturing capacity is in China, and Chinese companies have unparalleled control of required domestic and foreign battery raw materials and processing facilities.

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) manufactures Li-ion batteries but volumes are limited and they are restricted for use in space applications. Need to Increase Manufacturing by India: The government has announced investments worth $1.4 billion to make India one of the largest manufacturing hubs for electric vehicles by 2040. Electric vehicles are expected to account for a significant share in the growth of the Li-ion battery demand in India till 2025. Steps taken by India: The Central Electro Chemical Research Institute (CECRI) of CSIR and RAASI Solar Power Pvt Ltd had signed a Memorandum of Agreement for transfer of technology for India’s first lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery project in 2018. The Union Cabinet has also approved a National Mission on Transformative Mobility and Battery Storage to drive clean, connected, shared sustainable and holistic mobility initiatives.

Q. Where is Central Electrochemical Research Institute located?

Solution:
QUESTION: 60

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

Union Minister for Science & Technology has given information about imports of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in the country during the Budget session of 2020-21. India has quadrupled its imports of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. 175 million such batteries were imported in 2016, 313 million in 2017, 712 million in 2018 and 450 million in 2019. It has more than tripled its import bill on the products vital for powering a range of devices from cellphones to electric vehicles from 2016-2018. The cost of these imports rose from ₹2,600 crores in 2016 to ₹6,500 crores in 2019 Origin of Imports: India imports Li-ion batteries from China, Japan and South Korea and is among the largest importers in the world. China dominates the Li-ion battery market. Around three-quarters of battery cell manufacturing capacity is in China, and Chinese companies have unparalleled control of required domestic and foreign battery raw materials and processing facilities.

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) manufactures Li-ion batteries but volumes are limited and they are restricted for use in space applications. Need to Increase Manufacturing by India: The government has announced investments worth $1.4 billion to make India one of the largest manufacturing hubs for electric vehicles by 2040. Electric vehicles are expected to account for a significant share in the growth of the Li-ion battery demand in India till 2025. Steps taken by India: The Central Electro Chemical Research Institute (CECRI) of CSIR and RAASI Solar Power Pvt Ltd had signed a Memorandum of Agreement for transfer of technology for India’s first lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery project in 2018. The Union Cabinet has also approved a National Mission on Transformative Mobility and Battery Storage to drive clean, connected, shared sustainable and holistic mobility initiatives.

Q. Who is present Head of CSIR?

Solution:
QUESTION: 61

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

Union Minister for Science & Technology has given information about imports of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in the country during the Budget session of 2020-21. India has quadrupled its imports of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. 175 million such batteries were imported in 2016, 313 million in 2017, 712 million in 2018 and 450 million in 2019. It has more than tripled its import bill on the products vital for powering a range of devices from cellphones to electric vehicles from 2016-2018. The cost of these imports rose from ₹2,600 crores in 2016 to ₹6,500 crores in 2019 Origin of Imports: India imports Li-ion batteries from China, Japan and South Korea and is among the largest importers in the world. China dominates the Li-ion battery market. Around three-quarters of battery cell manufacturing capacity is in China, and Chinese companies have unparalleled control of required domestic and foreign battery raw materials and processing facilities.

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) manufactures Li-ion batteries but volumes are limited and they are restricted for use in space applications. Need to Increase Manufacturing by India: The government has announced investments worth $1.4 billion to make India one of the largest manufacturing hubs for electric vehicles by 2040. Electric vehicles are expected to account for a significant share in the growth of the Li-ion battery demand in India till 2025. Steps taken by India: The Central Electro Chemical Research Institute (CECRI) of CSIR and RAASI Solar Power Pvt Ltd had signed a Memorandum of Agreement for transfer of technology for India’s first lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery project in 2018. The Union Cabinet has also approved a National Mission on Transformative Mobility and Battery Storage to drive clean, connected, shared sustainable and holistic mobility initiatives.

Q. Which of the following has not received Nobel prize for his innovative contribution in the development of Li-ion Batteries?

Solution:
QUESTION: 62

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

Union Minister for Science & Technology has given information about imports of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in the country during the Budget session of 2020-21. India has quadrupled its imports of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. 175 million such batteries were imported in 2016, 313 million in 2017, 712 million in 2018 and 450 million in 2019. It has more than tripled its import bill on the products vital for powering a range of devices from cellphones to electric vehicles from 2016-2018. The cost of these imports rose from ₹2,600 crores in 2016 to ₹6,500 crores in 2019 Origin of Imports: India imports Li-ion batteries from China, Japan and South Korea and is among the largest importers in the world. China dominates the Li-ion battery market. Around three-quarters of battery cell manufacturing capacity is in China, and Chinese companies have unparalleled control of required domestic and foreign battery raw materials and processing facilities.

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) manufactures Li-ion batteries but volumes are limited and they are restricted for use in space applications. Need to Increase Manufacturing by India: The government has announced investments worth $1.4 billion to make India one of the largest manufacturing hubs for electric vehicles by 2040. Electric vehicles are expected to account for a significant share in the growth of the Li-ion battery demand in India till 2025. Steps taken by India: The Central Electro Chemical Research Institute (CECRI) of CSIR and RAASI Solar Power Pvt Ltd had signed a Memorandum of Agreement for transfer of technology for India’s first lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery project in 2018. The Union Cabinet has also approved a National Mission on Transformative Mobility and Battery Storage to drive clean, connected, shared sustainable and holistic mobility initiatives.

Q. India had started NATIONAL MISSION ON TRANSFORMATIVE MOBILITY AND BATTERY STORAGE from

Solution:
QUESTION: 63

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

Rajya Sabha on December 12, 2019 passed a Constitution amendment bill to extend reservation to SCs and STs in Lok Sabha and state assemblies by another {X} years. Lok Sabha had passed the bill on December 10. All 163 members present voted to pass the amendment, after a heated exchange between the ruling party and the Opposition.
The Bill extended the reservation for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and State assemblies, which was due to end on January 26, 2020, for a period of {X} years, the seventh such extension given since the Constitution was enacted in 1950.
With approval of both the Houses, the bill would now be sent to states for ratification by 50 per cent of the assemblies before it comes into force.
Recently, the government had urged the Supreme Court to reconsider its stand that socially, educationally and economically advanced cream of Scheduled Castes/ Scheduled Tribes (SC/ST) communities should be excluded from the benefits of reservation in government services.
Lauding the efforts made for the welfare of deprived classes, Ravi Shankar Prasad (Law and Justice minister of India) took the name of BSP chief Mayawati and said she is working towards the welfare of these communities in her own way. He also remembered tribal freedom fighter and folk hero Birsa Munda.
There are 84 members from the Scheduled Caste and 47 from the Scheduled Tribe communities in Parliament. In state assemblies across India, there are 614 SC members and 554 ST members.
However, the Bill also ended the provision for nomination of {Y} to the Lok Sabha and Assemblies "seventy years from the commencement of this Constitution", that is January 2020.
While all members supported the Bill, they also asked the government to reconsider scrapping of the nomination of {Y} to legislatures. Derek O'Brien of the TMC cited the contribution of the {Y} community, saying that he was speaking as a member of the community for the first time in 15 years.

Q. In the above passage, with reference to the reservation, what time period has been redacted with {X}?

Solution:

Lok Sabha unanimously passed a Constitution amendment bill to extend reservation to SCs and STs in Lok Sabha and state assemblies by another 10 years. The opposition slammed the government for not giving the benefit to the Anglo-Indian community.

QUESTION: 64

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

Rajya Sabha on December 12, 2019 passed a Constitution amendment bill to extend reservation to SCs and STs in Lok Sabha and state assemblies by another {X} years. Lok Sabha had passed the bill on December 10. All 163 members present voted to pass the amendment, after a heated exchange between the ruling party and the Opposition.
The Bill extended the reservation for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and State assemblies, which was due to end on January 26, 2020, for a period of {X} years, the seventh such extension given since the Constitution was enacted in 1950.
With approval of both the Houses, the bill would now be sent to states for ratification by 50 per cent of the assemblies before it comes into force.
Recently, the government had urged the Supreme Court to reconsider its stand that socially, educationally and economically advanced cream of Scheduled Castes/ Scheduled Tribes (SC/ST) communities should be excluded from the benefits of reservation in government services.
Lauding the efforts made for the welfare of deprived classes, Ravi Shankar Prasad (Law and Justice minister of India) took the name of BSP chief Mayawati and said she is working towards the welfare of these communities in her own way. He also remembered tribal freedom fighter and folk hero Birsa Munda.
There are 84 members from the Scheduled Caste and 47 from the Scheduled Tribe communities in Parliament. In state assemblies across India, there are 614 SC members and 554 ST members.
However, the Bill also ended the provision for nomination of {Y} to the Lok Sabha and Assemblies "seventy years from the commencement of this Constitution", that is January 2020.
While all members supported the Bill, they also asked the government to reconsider scrapping of the nomination of {Y} to legislatures. Derek O'Brien of the TMC cited the contribution of the {Y} community, saying that he was speaking as a member of the community for the first time in 15 years.

Q. In the above passage, what has been redacted with {Y}?

Solution:

The Indian Constitution provides for reservation of seats for the SC and ST community and representation of the Anglo-Indian community in form of nomination in the Lok Sabha and the legislative assemblies of the states. The bill does not propose an extension of reservation quota for the Anglo-Indian community, which expired on January 26, 2020.
The government justified the same by saying that there are only 296 Anglo-Indians in the country.

QUESTION: 65

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

Rajya Sabha on December 12, 2019 passed a Constitution amendment bill to extend reservation to SCs and STs in Lok Sabha and state assemblies by another {X} years. Lok Sabha had passed the bill on December 10. All 163 members present voted to pass the amendment, after a heated exchange between the ruling party and the Opposition.
The Bill extended the reservation for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and State assemblies, which was due to end on January 26, 2020, for a period of {X} years, the seventh such extension given since the Constitution was enacted in 1950.
With approval of both the Houses, the bill would now be sent to states for ratification by 50 per cent of the assemblies before it comes into force.
Recently, the government had urged the Supreme Court to reconsider its stand that socially, educationally and economically advanced cream of Scheduled Castes/ Scheduled Tribes (SC/ST) communities should be excluded from the benefits of reservation in government services.
Lauding the efforts made for the welfare of deprived classes, Ravi Shankar Prasad (Law and Justice minister of India) took the name of BSP chief Mayawati and said she is working towards the welfare of these communities in her own way. He also remembered tribal freedom fighter and folk hero Birsa Munda.
There are 84 members from the Scheduled Caste and 47 from the Scheduled Tribe communities in Parliament. In state assemblies across India, there are 614 SC members and 554 ST members.
However, the Bill also ended the provision for nomination of {Y} to the Lok Sabha and Assemblies "seventy years from the commencement of this Constitution", that is January 2020.
While all members supported the Bill, they also asked the government to reconsider scrapping of the nomination of {Y} to legislatures. Derek O'Brien of the TMC cited the contribution of the {Y} community, saying that he was speaking as a member of the community for the first time in 15 years.

Q. Who are {Y}?

Solution:

The term Anglo-Indian can refer to at least two groups of people: those with mixed Indian and British (specifically English) ancestry and people of British/English descent born or living in India.
During the centuries that Britain was in India, the children born to unions between British men and Indian women (and vice versa) began to form a new community. These Anglo-Indians formed a small but significant portion of the population during the British Raj, and were well represented in certain administrative roles.

QUESTION: 66

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

Rajya Sabha on December 12, 2019 passed a Constitution amendment bill to extend reservation to SCs and STs in Lok Sabha and state assemblies by another {X} years. Lok Sabha had passed the bill on December 10. All 163 members present voted to pass the amendment, after a heated exchange between the ruling party and the Opposition.
The Bill extended the reservation for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and State assemblies, which was due to end on January 26, 2020, for a period of {X} years, the seventh such extension given since the Constitution was enacted in 1950.
With approval of both the Houses, the bill would now be sent to states for ratification by 50 per cent of the assemblies before it comes into force.
Recently, the government had urged the Supreme Court to reconsider its stand that socially, educationally and economically advanced cream of Scheduled Castes/ Scheduled Tribes (SC/ST) communities should be excluded from the benefits of reservation in government services.
Lauding the efforts made for the welfare of deprived classes, Ravi Shankar Prasad (Law and Justice minister of India) took the name of BSP chief Mayawati and said she is working towards the welfare of these communities in her own way. He also remembered tribal freedom fighter and folk hero Birsa Munda.
There are 84 members from the Scheduled Caste and 47 from the Scheduled Tribe communities in Parliament. In state assemblies across India, there are 614 SC members and 554 ST members.
However, the Bill also ended the provision for nomination of {Y} to the Lok Sabha and Assemblies "seventy years from the commencement of this Constitution", that is January 2020.
While all members supported the Bill, they also asked the government to reconsider scrapping of the nomination of {Y} to legislatures. Derek O'Brien of the TMC cited the contribution of the {Y} community, saying that he was speaking as a member of the community for the first time in 15 years.

Q. In 2020, which bill was introduced in Rajya Sabha that amends/extends the provision regarding the reservation of SC and ST?

Solution:

The reservation provided to the Anglo-Indian community, SC, ST ended on January 26, 2020 so a bill was introduced to continue the reservation of seats for another 10 years, that is till January, 26, 2030. The reservation has been included in Article 334 and therefore the bill seeks to amend this Article. Article 334 lays down that the provisions for reservation of seats and special representation of Anglo-indians, SC and ST will cease after 40 years. The clause was included in 1949. After 40 years, it is being amended with an extension of 10 years.

QUESTION: 67

Read the passage below and answer the question.

In many ways, the annual Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas is a hopeful way to start off the year. Tech companies show up in the desert with their latest and greatest inventions, innovations, and PowerPoint presentations in tow. Unfortunately, those promises don't always translate readily into real world products. It may be years before it makes into your actual life, if it ever gets there at all.
Lenovo's folding computer prototype was seen before CES 2020, but it officially became a consumer product at the show. The ThinkPad X1 will ship in the second half of 2020 for $2,500 if everything goes according to plan. That's good news if you're a fan of folding devices. As for the rest of the folding machines, however, they were still fully in prototype—or at least pre-production—mode.
Dell showed off a pair of folding computers, including the Ori, which has a folding display, and the Duet, which takes the XPS 13-inch 2-in-1 laptop design and replaces the keyboard with another full-sized screen. Neither of those are destined for the market, however—at least not yet.
And while Microsoft wasn't showing off its Surface Neo at CES, it is scheduled to arrive in Fall of 2020.

Q. Which of the following best represents the main point of the given passage?

Solution:

The context mentions "... those promises don't always translate readily into real world products. It may be years before it makes into your actual life, if it ever gets there at all." Thus the basic essence of the context is that various innovations take place in the technological environment; however, it takes a lot of time to be converted into physical products. This point is best captured by option 2.

QUESTION: 68

Read the passage below and answer the question.

In many ways, the annual Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas is a hopeful way to start off the year. Tech companies show up in the desert with their latest and greatest inventions, innovations, and PowerPoint presentations in tow. Unfortunately, those promises don't always translate readily into real world products. It may be years before it makes into your actual life, if it ever gets there at all.
Lenovo's folding computer prototype was seen before CES 2020, but it officially became a consumer product at the show. The ThinkPad X1 will ship in the second half of 2020 for $2,500 if everything goes according to plan. That's good news if you're a fan of folding devices. As for the rest of the folding machines, however, they were still fully in prototype—or at least pre-production—mode.
Dell showed off a pair of folding computers, including the Ori, which has a folding display, and the Duet, which takes the XPS 13-inch 2-in-1 laptop design and replaces the keyboard with another full-sized screen. Neither of those are destined for the market, however—at least not yet.
And while Microsoft wasn't showing off its Surface Neo at CES, it is scheduled to arrive in Fall of 2020.

Q. If the statements in the given passage are true, then which of the following would also be true?

Solution:

The context mentions: "Unfortunately, those promises don't always translate readily into real world products. It may be years before it makes into your actual life, if it ever gets there at all." This implies that people have to wait a lot in order to see the ideas shared turn into reality.

QUESTION: 69

Read the passage below and answer the question.

In many ways, the annual Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas is a hopeful way to start off the year. Tech companies show up in the desert with their latest and greatest inventions, innovations, and PowerPoint presentations in tow. Unfortunately, those promises don't always translate readily into real world products. It may be years before it makes into your actual life, if it ever gets there at all.
Lenovo's folding computer prototype was seen before CES 2020, but it officially became a consumer product at the show. The ThinkPad X1 will ship in the second half of 2020 for $2,500 if everything goes according to plan. That's good news if you're a fan of folding devices. As for the rest of the folding machines, however, they were still fully in prototype—or at least pre-production—mode.
Dell showed off a pair of folding computers, including the Ori, which has a folding display, and the Duet, which takes the XPS 13-inch 2-in-1 laptop design and replaces the keyboard with another full-sized screen. Neither of those are destined for the market, however—at least not yet.
And while Microsoft wasn't showing off its Surface Neo at CES, it is scheduled to arrive in Fall of 2020.

Q. Which of the following strategies does the author use to support his argument?

Solution:

The author states "Lenovo's folding computer ... Dell showed off a pair of folding computers ... Microsoft wasn't showing off its Surface Neo at CES ..." as real-life examples to present his argument.

QUESTION: 70

Read the passage below and answer the question.

In many ways, the annual Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas is a hopeful way to start off the year. Tech companies show up in the desert with their latest and greatest inventions, innovations, and PowerPoint presentations in tow. Unfortunately, those promises don't always translate readily into real world products. It may be years before it makes into your actual life, if it ever gets there at all.
Lenovo's folding computer prototype was seen before CES 2020, but it officially became a consumer product at the show. The ThinkPad X1 will ship in the second half of 2020 for $2,500 if everything goes according to plan. That's good news if you're a fan of folding devices. As for the rest of the folding machines, however, they were still fully in prototype—or at least pre-production—mode.
Dell showed off a pair of folding computers, including the Ori, which has a folding display, and the Duet, which takes the XPS 13-inch 2-in-1 laptop design and replaces the keyboard with another full-sized screen. Neither of those are destined for the market, however—at least not yet.
And while Microsoft wasn't showing off its Surface Neo at CES, it is scheduled to arrive in Fall of 2020.

Q. Which of the following, if true, most weakens the author's arguments in the given passage?

Solution:

The author's argument is that the technologies take a lot of time to hit the market. This can be clearly seen from his description of how technological ideas shared at summits and conferences never see the light of the day. Options 1 and 3 can be ruled out because they clearly support the author's argument by providing examples of technologies that took a lot of time to hit the market. Option 2 justifies why technologies take time to launch into the market. Only in option 4 we find a reason why companies try to launch sooner. As this goes against the basic claim of the passage by suggesting that technologies try their best to have the first mover advantage (the advantage gained by the initial significant occupant of a market segment), it comes close to weakening the argument as a whole.

QUESTION: 71

Read the passage below and answer the question.

In many ways, the annual Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas is a hopeful way to start off the year. Tech companies show up in the desert with their latest and greatest inventions, innovations, and PowerPoint presentations in tow. Unfortunately, those promises don't always translate readily into real world products. It may be years before it makes into your actual life, if it ever gets there at all.
Lenovo's folding computer prototype was seen before CES 2020, but it officially became a consumer product at the show. The ThinkPad X1 will ship in the second half of 2020 for $2,500 if everything goes according to plan. That's good news if you're a fan of folding devices. As for the rest of the folding machines, however, they were still fully in prototype—or at least pre-production—mode.
Dell showed off a pair of folding computers, including the Ori, which has a folding display, and the Duet, which takes the XPS 13-inch 2-in-1 laptop design and replaces the keyboard with another full-sized screen. Neither of those are destined for the market, however—at least not yet.
And while Microsoft wasn't showing off its Surface Neo at CES, it is scheduled to arrive in Fall of 2020.

Q. Which of the following roles are played by the second and the third paragraphs in the passage as a whole?

Solution:

Both the paragraphs provide examples to strengthen the author's claim. Thus, the role played by both the paragraphs in relation to the passage is same. Third paragraph provides further support to second paragraph which strengthens the initial claim made. Thus, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 72

Read the paragraph given below and answer the question given below.

Eight friends – Alia, Bhanu, Charu, Deena, Eshan, Fatima, Gaurav and Hira purchased bungalows on same date of different years viz. 1988, 1993, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2006 and 2009 but not necessarily in same order. They all have purchased their bungalows on 1st of June of their respective years.
(Note- For calculation of time period, please consider 1st June 2018 as cut-off date.)
Bhanu purchased his bungalow immediately before Deena.
Only one person purchased his bungalow between Deena and Eshan, who purchased in a leap year.
Two people purchased bungalow between Fatima and Gaurav who purchased it 12 years ago.
Alia was neither the first nor the last person to buy a bungalow.

Q. Who purchased the bungalow 18 years ago?

Solution:

QUESTION: 73

Read the paragraph given below and answer the question given below.

Eight friends – Alia, Bhanu, Charu, Deena, Eshan, Fatima, Gaurav and Hira purchased bungalows on same date of different years viz. 1988, 1993, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2006 and 2009 but not necessarily in same order. They all have purchased their bungalows on 1st of June of their respective years.
(Note- For calculation of time period, please consider 1st June 2018 as cut-off date.)
Bhanu purchased his bungalow immediately before Deena.
Only one person purchased his bungalow between Deena and Eshan, who purchased in a leap year.
Two people purchased bungalow between Fatima and Gaurav who purchased it 12 years ago.
Alia was neither the first nor the last person to buy a bungalow.

Q. If Hira was the first one to purchase the bungalow then how many persons bought bungalows between Hira and Alia?

Solution:

QUESTION: 74

Read the paragraph given below and answer the question given below.

Eight friends – Alia, Bhanu, Charu, Deena, Eshan, Fatima, Gaurav and Hira purchased bungalows on same date of different years viz. 1988, 1993, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2006 and 2009 but not necessarily in same order. They all have purchased their bungalows on 1st of June of their respective years.
(Note- For calculation of time period, please consider 1st June 2018 as cut-off date.)
Bhanu purchased his bungalow immediately before Deena.
Only one person purchased his bungalow between Deena and Eshan, who purchased in a leap year.
Two people purchased bungalow between Fatima and Gaurav who purchased it 12 years ago.
Alia was neither the first nor the last person to buy a bungalow.

Q. Eshan purchased his bungalow how many years after Deena?

Solution:

QUESTION: 75

Read the paragraph given below and answer the question given below.

Eight friends – Alia, Bhanu, Charu, Deena, Eshan, Fatima, Gaurav and Hira purchased bungalows on same date of different years viz. 1988, 1993, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2006 and 2009 but not necessarily in same order. They all have purchased their bungalows on 1st of June of their respective years.
(Note- For calculation of time period, please consider 1st June 2018 as cut-off date.)
Bhanu purchased his bungalow immediately before Deena.
Only one person purchased his bungalow between Deena and Eshan, who purchased in a leap year.
Two people purchased bungalow between Fatima and Gaurav who purchased it 12 years ago.
Alia was neither the first nor the last person to buy a bungalow.

Q. Who purchased bungalow in year 1993?

Solution:

QUESTION: 76

Read the paragraph given below and answer the question given below.

Eight friends – Alia, Bhanu, Charu, Deena, Eshan, Fatima, Gaurav and Hira purchased bungalows on same date of different years viz. 1988, 1993, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2006 and 2009 but not necessarily in same order. They all have purchased their bungalows on 1st of June of their respective years.
(Note- For calculation of time period, please consider 1st June 2018 as cut-off date.)
Bhanu purchased his bungalow immediately before Deena.
Only one person purchased his bungalow between Deena and Eshan, who purchased in a leap year.
Two people purchased bungalow between Fatima and Gaurav who purchased it 12 years ago.
Alia was neither the first nor the last person to buy a bungalow.

Q. How many persons purchased bungalow between Bhanu and Fatima?

Solution:

QUESTION: 77

Read the passage below and answer the question.

While reservation is an effective tool for social mobility, we cannot remain oblivious to the fact that it has strengthened and institutionalised a caste-based identity. Dr. Ambedkar had himself said that reservation cannot be for an unlimited time, but due to vested interests, no authority or organisation has been willing to judge the efficacy of reservation in terms of enabling its intended benefits and examining its percolation to the marginalised sections. The "monopolisation" of reservation has to be looked into. A reserved candidate can avail of concessions such as age relaxation, an increased number of attempts and even financial rebates. But when it comes to competing in an examination, he must be subject to only one cut-off level. By diluting cut-off marks, we are not only inducing complacency but also indirectly making India weak. To imply that people from the reserved category face discrimination is a bit far-fetched. There are many in the unreserved category who continue to face exploitation.

Q. Which of the following statements is consistent with the author's viewpoint?

Solution:

The author throughout the passage describes the reservation system as an unwarranted encumbrance on the Indian democracy. The only option that seems to go with this idea is option 4 which states that reservation is not an 'apt method' to ensure inclusion of the backward sections of the society. Option 3 is close but the author makes no mention about inclusion of unreserved categories under the reservation system as a reason for the reservation system to stay for long.

QUESTION: 78

Read the passage below and answer the question.

While reservation is an effective tool for social mobility, we cannot remain oblivious to the fact that it has strengthened and institutionalised a caste-based identity. Dr. Ambedkar had himself said that reservation cannot be for an unlimited time, but due to vested interests, no authority or organisation has been willing to judge the efficacy of reservation in terms of enabling its intended benefits and examining its percolation to the marginalised sections. The "monopolisation" of reservation has to be looked into. A reserved candidate can avail of concessions such as age relaxation, an increased number of attempts and even financial rebates. But when it comes to competing in an examination, he must be subject to only one cut-off level. By diluting cut-off marks, we are not only inducing complacency but also indirectly making India weak. To imply that people from the reserved category face discrimination is a bit far-fetched. There are many in the unreserved category who continue to face exploitation.

Q. The author's claim that by providing relaxation to the reserved category in competitive examinations we are heading towards mediocracy and making India weak plays which of the following roles in the argument that the Indian reservation system must be abolished?

Solution:

The correct option is 2. This is one of the premises in the passage, based on which the author draws the conclusion that reservation system must be done away with. Since this is a premise and not the conclusion of the author's argument, none of the other options can be the correct answer.

QUESTION: 79

Read the passage below and answer the question.

While reservation is an effective tool for social mobility, we cannot remain oblivious to the fact that it has strengthened and institutionalised a caste-based identity. Dr. Ambedkar had himself said that reservation cannot be for an unlimited time, but due to vested interests, no authority or organisation has been willing to judge the efficacy of reservation in terms of enabling its intended benefits and examining its percolation to the marginalised sections. The "monopolisation" of reservation has to be looked into. A reserved candidate can avail of concessions such as age relaxation, an increased number of attempts and even financial rebates. But when it comes to competing in an examination, he must be subject to only one cut-off level. By diluting cut-off marks, we are not only inducing complacency but also indirectly making India weak. To imply that people from the reserved category face discrimination is a bit far-fetched. There are many in the unreserved category who continue to face exploitation.

Q. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the context?

Solution:

Only option 1 can be inferred from the passage. The text states: "Dr. Ambedkar had himself said that reservation cannot be for an unlimited time..." which implies that the reservation system has been around for a lot of time. Option 2 is incorrect as it is contrary to what is stated in the passage. The passage states that those reserved under the reservation system derive a host of benefits while those who are unreserved suffer.

QUESTION: 80

Read the passage below and answer the question.

While reservation is an effective tool for social mobility, we cannot remain oblivious to the fact that it has strengthened and institutionalised a caste-based identity. Dr. Ambedkar had himself said that reservation cannot be for an unlimited time, but due to vested interests, no authority or organisation has been willing to judge the efficacy of reservation in terms of enabling its intended benefits and examining its percolation to the marginalised sections. The "monopolisation" of reservation has to be looked into. A reserved candidate can avail of concessions such as age relaxation, an increased number of attempts and even financial rebates. But when it comes to competing in an examination, he must be subject to only one cut-off level. By diluting cut-off marks, we are not only inducing complacency but also indirectly making India weak. To imply that people from the reserved category face discrimination is a bit far-fetched. There are many in the unreserved category who continue to face exploitation.

Q. Which of the following, if true, would weaken the argument of the reserved category getting relaxations in competitive examinations?

Solution:

The text states that by providing relaxations to the backward classes under the reservation system we are giving them an undue advantage. For a level-playing field, we must remove the reservation system as the so-called reserved class get advantage. In order to counter this, option 4 provides a convincing argument that there are enough checks and balances in the system to weed out the undeserving. Even if the undeserving get an opportunity they may not be successful. For instance, even if one gets a medical school seat with reservation, one should still work hard to become an established doctor.

QUESTION: 81

Read the passage below and answer the question.

While reservation is an effective tool for social mobility, we cannot remain oblivious to the fact that it has strengthened and institutionalised a caste-based identity. Dr. Ambedkar had himself said that reservation cannot be for an unlimited time, but due to vested interests, no authority or organisation has been willing to judge the efficacy of reservation in terms of enabling its intended benefits and examining its percolation to the marginalised sections. The "monopolisation" of reservation has to be looked into. A reserved candidate can avail of concessions such as age relaxation, an increased number of attempts and even financial rebates. But when it comes to competing in an examination, he must be subject to only one cut-off level. By diluting cut-off marks, we are not only inducing complacency but also indirectly making India weak. To imply that people from the reserved category face discrimination is a bit far-fetched. There are many in the unreserved category who continue to face exploitation.

Q. Which of the following is an assumption, on which the argument that lowering the cut-off marks in competitive examinations makes India weak, is based?

Solution:

By stating that India will become weak if the cut-off marks in competitive exams are lowered for reserved candidates, the argument assumes that many undeserving candidates who don't have the requisite knowledge get the seats. Another assumption in this argument is that several candidates who are deserving don't make the cut even when they score the same as those reserved candidates who get the seat. So both (1) and (2) are assumed in the argument. The correct option, therefore, is option 3.

QUESTION: 82

Read the following information given below and answer the question given below.

Five weekly trains – Rajdhani Express, Samta Express, Duranto Express, Shatabdi Express and Bhopal Shatabdi Express run on different days of a week starting from Monday and ending on Saturday such that one day of a week was holiday i.e. No train run on that particular day. No train runs between Rajdhani Express and Samta Express. Shatabdi Express runs after but not immediately after Duranto Express, which is not the first train to run. Bhopal Shatabdi runs before Rajdhani Express, which runs on third day of the week. Rajdhani Express runs before Samta Express. First day of the week is not a holiday. Neither Friday nor Saturday is a holiday.

Q. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way and thus form a group. Which of the following does not belong to the group?

Solution:

Thursday is the odd one out as on rest of the days trains run, only Thursday is a day on which no train runs.

QUESTION: 83

Read the following information given below and answer the question given below.

Five weekly trains – Rajdhani Express, Samta Express, Duranto Express, Shatabdi Express and Bhopal Shatabdi Express run on different days of a week starting from Monday and ending on Saturday such that one day of a week was holiday i.e. No train run on that particular day. No train runs between Rajdhani Express and Samta Express. Shatabdi Express runs after but not immediately after Duranto Express, which is not the first train to run. Bhopal Shatabdi runs before Rajdhani Express, which runs on third day of the week. Rajdhani Express runs before Samta Express. First day of the week is not a holiday. Neither Friday nor Saturday is a holiday.

Q. Shatabdi express runs on which of the following days?

Solution:

QUESTION: 84

Read the following information given below and answer the question given below.

Five weekly trains – Rajdhani Express, Samta Express, Duranto Express, Shatabdi Express and Bhopal Shatabdi Express run on different days of a week starting from Monday and ending on Saturday such that one day of a week was holiday i.e. No train run on that particular day. No train runs between Rajdhani Express and Samta Express. Shatabdi Express runs after but not immediately after Duranto Express, which is not the first train to run. Bhopal Shatabdi runs before Rajdhani Express, which runs on third day of the week. Rajdhani Express runs before Samta Express. First day of the week is not a holiday. Neither Friday nor Saturday is a holiday.

Q. Which of the following days is a Holiday?

Solution:

QUESTION: 85

Read the following information given below and answer the question given below.

Five weekly trains – Rajdhani Express, Samta Express, Duranto Express, Shatabdi Express and Bhopal Shatabdi Express run on different days of a week starting from Monday and ending on Saturday such that one day of a week was holiday i.e. No train run on that particular day. No train runs between Rajdhani Express and Samta Express. Shatabdi Express runs after but not immediately after Duranto Express, which is not the first train to run. Bhopal Shatabdi runs before Rajdhani Express, which runs on third day of the week. Rajdhani Express runs before Samta Express. First day of the week is not a holiday. Neither Friday nor Saturday is a holiday.

Q. How many trains run between Duranto Express and Shatabdi Express?

Solution:

QUESTION: 86

Read the following information given below and answer the question given below.

Five weekly trains – Rajdhani Express, Samta Express, Duranto Express, Shatabdi Express and Bhopal Shatabdi Express run on different days of a week starting from Monday and ending on Saturday such that one day of a week was holiday i.e. No train run on that particular day. No train runs between Rajdhani Express and Samta Express. Shatabdi Express runs after but not immediately after Duranto Express, which is not the first train to run. Bhopal Shatabdi runs before Rajdhani Express, which runs on third day of the week. Rajdhani Express runs before Samta Express. First day of the week is not a holiday. Neither Friday nor Saturday is a holiday.

Q. How many trains run after Samta Express?

Solution:

QUESTION: 87

Read the passage below and answer the question.

The NDA government's Swachh Survekshan, the ranking system for clean cities, was rolled out four years ago as the answer to a problem that municipal law failed to solve. Ahead of the launch of Swachh Survekshan 2020, the Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs is once again trying to stir up competition among cities, by pre-ranking them for their performance during 2019 and assigning points to be added this year. As an idea, unleashing the competitive spirit among States may seem appealing, but in reality, the problems confronting urban India require large-scale infrastructure creation, full adherence to legal requirements on waste management, and transparent technical audits. Many cities remain clueless on handling their waste, one shocking example being the rising mountain of garbage at the Ghazipur landfill in Delhi. Ironically, Bhopal, which figures among the top five cleanest cities under the just-released list, continues to live with the effects of the gas disaster of 1984. Ranks and prizes clearly cannot solve the national waste management crisis.

Q. Which of the following is similar to the nature of method used by the government to promote clean cities?

Solution:

The method used to promote clean cities is ranking system to induce the spirit of competition among the states. A similar case of competitiveness is seen among teenagers competing for being popular online. Therefore, the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 88

Read the passage below and answer the question.

The NDA government's Swachh Survekshan, the ranking system for clean cities, was rolled out four years ago as the answer to a problem that municipal law failed to solve. Ahead of the launch of Swachh Survekshan 2020, the Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs is once again trying to stir up competition among cities, by pre-ranking them for their performance during 2019 and assigning points to be added this year. As an idea, unleashing the competitive spirit among States may seem appealing, but in reality, the problems confronting urban India require large-scale infrastructure creation, full adherence to legal requirements on waste management, and transparent technical audits. Many cities remain clueless on handling their waste, one shocking example being the rising mountain of garbage at the Ghazipur landfill in Delhi. Ironically, Bhopal, which figures among the top five cleanest cities under the just-released list, continues to live with the effects of the gas disaster of 1984. Ranks and prizes clearly cannot solve the national waste management crisis.

Q. Which of the following, according to the author, is not a reason behind unclean cities in India?

Solution:

The text mentions "... the problems confronting urban India require large-scale infrastructure creation, full adherence to legal requirements on waste management, and transparent technical audits. Many cities remain clueless on handling their waste ..." The author does not mention the negligence on the part of public as one of the reasons for unclean cities in India. Therefore the answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 89

Read the passage below and answer the question.

The NDA government's Swachh Survekshan, the ranking system for clean cities, was rolled out four years ago as the answer to a problem that municipal law failed to solve. Ahead of the launch of Swachh Survekshan 2020, the Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs is once again trying to stir up competition among cities, by pre-ranking them for their performance during 2019 and assigning points to be added this year. As an idea, unleashing the competitive spirit among States may seem appealing, but in reality, the problems confronting urban India require large-scale infrastructure creation, full adherence to legal requirements on waste management, and transparent technical audits. Many cities remain clueless on handling their waste, one shocking example being the rising mountain of garbage at the Ghazipur landfill in Delhi. Ironically, Bhopal, which figures among the top five cleanest cities under the just-released list, continues to live with the effects of the gas disaster of 1984. Ranks and prizes clearly cannot solve the national waste management crisis.

Q. If the author's arguments in the given passage are true, which of the following must also be true?

Solution:

Based on the arguments presented in the text, only option 2 can follow. The government needs to move away from ranking cities and towns, and switch to alternatives to help make unclean cities clean. Option 1 can be eliminated as it is not relevant to the argument as a whole. Option 3 can also be ruled out because the contrary will be true. Option 4 is incorrect because such a system is already in place as described in the text.

QUESTION: 90

Read the passage below and answer the question.

The NDA government's Swachh Survekshan, the ranking system for clean cities, was rolled out four years ago as the answer to a problem that municipal law failed to solve. Ahead of the launch of Swachh Survekshan 2020, the Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs is once again trying to stir up competition among cities, by pre-ranking them for their performance during 2019 and assigning points to be added this year. As an idea, unleashing the competitive spirit among States may seem appealing, but in reality, the problems confronting urban India require large-scale infrastructure creation, full adherence to legal requirements on waste management, and transparent technical audits. Many cities remain clueless on handling their waste, one shocking example being the rising mountain of garbage at the Ghazipur landfill in Delhi. Ironically, Bhopal, which figures among the top five cleanest cities under the just-released list, continues to live with the effects of the gas disaster of 1984. Ranks and prizes clearly cannot solve the national waste management crisis.

Q. Which of the following best describes the author's reasoning?

Solution:

The author mentions "Ghazipur landfill ... Bhopal ... gas disaster ..." as examples to elaborate his claim that even after launching the Swachh Survekshan survey, many cities still remain clueless about their position on waste management. Thus, the most appropriate answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 91

Read the passage below and answer the question.

The NDA government's Swachh Survekshan, the ranking system for clean cities, was rolled out four years ago as the answer to a problem that municipal law failed to solve. Ahead of the launch of Swachh Survekshan 2020, the Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs is once again trying to stir up competition among cities, by pre-ranking them for their performance during 2019 and assigning points to be added this year. As an idea, unleashing the competitive spirit among States may seem appealing, but in reality, the problems confronting urban India require large-scale infrastructure creation, full adherence to legal requirements on waste management, and transparent technical audits. Many cities remain clueless on handling their waste, one shocking example being the rising mountain of garbage at the Ghazipur landfill in Delhi. Ironically, Bhopal, which figures among the top five cleanest cities under the just-released list, continues to live with the effects of the gas disaster of 1984. Ranks and prizes clearly cannot solve the national waste management crisis.

Q. Which of the following does not weaken the conclusions drawn by the author of the argument?

Solution:

The author in the argument puts forth two arguments - that people in many cities remain clueless about cleanliness and that there has been no direct benefit of such programmes. Data in option 1 weakens the first argument. Data in option 2 weakens the second argument.

QUESTION: 92

Direction: Bonuses at DSR Industries cannot he awarded unless profits exceed a ten percent return on stockholders investments in the company. Higher profits mean higher bonuses. Therefore, bonuses in a year of general economic recession will be considerably lower than bonuses in a year of peak profits at DSR.

Q. The conclusion above depends on the assumption that

Solution:

The conclusion is that percent profit margins (Rol) determines bonuses, which would be less in recessionary years. If there is a recession, profits would decrease, thereby decreasing bonuses. Hence option (a) is correct.

QUESTION: 93

Direction: Any tax relief received by the solar industry would not benefit the homeowner who installs a solar- energy system. Even though homeowners would pay a lower price for solar-energy system installations because of this tax relief, with the government paying the balance, government revenues come from the public.

Q. The argument above is based on which of the following assumptions?

Solution:

The tax relief would benefit if benefits outweigh costs. Option (a) says that this would not happen - hence homeowners would lose out, which is exactly the conclusion made by the argument.

QUESTION: 94

There are fundamentally two possible changes in an economy that will each cause inflation unless other compensating changes also occur. There changes are either reductions in the supply of goods and services or increases in demand. In a prebanking economy the quantity of money available, and hence the level of demand, is equivalent to the quantity of gold available.

Q. If the statements above are true, then it is also true that in a prebanking economy

Solution:

Conclusion is - if the amount of gold is constant, inflation is because of increased demand or reduced supply. The gold we talk of is equivalent to the currency of today. If more notes were around, inflation rate would increase. Hence option (b) is correct.

QUESTION: 95

F: We ought not to test the safety of new drugs on sentient animals, such as dogs and rabbits. Our benefit means their pain, and they are equal to us in the capacity to feel pain.
G: We must carry out such tests; otherwise, we would irresponsibly sacrifice the human lives that could have been saved by the drugs.

Q. Which of the following, if true, is the best objection that could be made from F's point of view to counter G's point?

Solution:

F is against animal testing. Her reason is that their pain and ours is equivalent. G talks of a larger pain being lessened by increasing one animal’s pain. By option (d), even that particular animal’s pain can be decreased as we assume an embryo is not sentient.

QUESTION: 96

Since 1975 there has been in the United States a dramatic decline in the incidence of traditional childhood diseases such as measles. This decline has been accompanied by an increased incidence of Peterson's disease, a hitherto rare viral infection, among children. Few adults, however, have been affected by the disease.

Q. Which of the following, if true, would best help to explain the increased incidence of Peterson's disease among children?

Solution:

Conclusion is that reduced incidence of measles is connected to the increased occurrence of Peterson’s disease. Also this problem is not seen in adults, who probably had measles in their childhood. Option (c) explains the difference in the susceptibility of adults from children, because children did not get the immunity.

QUESTION: 97

Read the information given below carefully and answer the following question.

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

Fraud implies and involves any of the following acts committed by a contracting party or his connivance or his agent with the intention of deceiving or inciting another party or his agent to enter into the agreement. Mere silence as to facts likely to affect the willingness of a person to enter into a contract is not fraud, unless the circumstance of the case is such that, regard being had to them, it is the duty of the person keeping silence to speak, or unless his silence, in itself, is equivalent to speech.
Section 17 of the Contract Act describes fraud and lists the acts that amount to fraud, which are a false claim, active concealment, promise without the intention of carrying it out, any other deceptive act, or any act declared fraudulent. To constitute fraud, the contracting party, or any other individual with his connivance, or his agent, or to induce him to enter into the agreement, should have performed such acts. The parties have no duty to speak about facts likely to affect the consent of the other party to the contract, and mere silence does not amount to fraud unless the circumstance of the case shows that there is a duty to speak or silence equivalent to speech.
To prove a case of fraud, it must be proved that representations made were false to the knowledge of the party making them. The statement must be false in substance and in fact. Positive knowledge of falsehood is not a criterion. In order to constitute fraud, it is necessary that the statement was made by the person concerned with knowledge of its falsehood, or without belief in its truth. Even mere ignorance as to the truth or falsehood of material assertion, which, however, turns out to be untrue, is deemed equivalent to the knowledge of its untruth, as also where the representor suspected that his statement might be inaccurate, or that he neglected to inquire into its accuracy.

Q. Pramod, a second hand car dealer, tells Shiv that he can get him a Ford Mustang at a throwaway price as he knows the showroom dealer of Mustang very well. Shiv agrees to that and pays the money to Pramod. As promised, Pramod delivers Mustang to Shiv. Later, Shiv realizes that the vehicle was stolen and he sues Pramod for fraud. Pramod takes the defence of 'buyer be aware' and tells that he was not obligated to inform Shiv about it. Decide whether fraud is committed.

Solution:

Pramod is liable because he knew well that Mustang being a very costly car cannot be sold at such throwaway price, as claimed by him. Also, the fact that he believes that Shiv should have been aware makes the fraud intent of Pramod much more clear.

QUESTION: 98

Read the information given below carefully and answer the following question.

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

Fraud implies and involves any of the following acts committed by a contracting party or his connivance or his agent with the intention of deceiving or inciting another party or his agent to enter into the agreement. Mere silence as to facts likely to affect the willingness of a person to enter into a contract is not fraud, unless the circumstance of the case is such that, regard being had to them, it is the duty of the person keeping silence to speak, or unless his silence, in itself, is equivalent to speech.
Section 17 of the Contract Act describes fraud and lists the acts that amount to fraud, which are a false claim, active concealment, promise without the intention of carrying it out, any other deceptive act, or any act declared fraudulent. To constitute fraud, the contracting party, or any other individual with his connivance, or his agent, or to induce him to enter into the agreement, should have performed such acts. The parties have no duty to speak about facts likely to affect the consent of the other party to the contract, and mere silence does not amount to fraud unless the circumstance of the case shows that there is a duty to speak or silence equivalent to speech.
To prove a case of fraud, it must be proved that representations made were false to the knowledge of the party making them. The statement must be false in substance and in fact. Positive knowledge of falsehood is not a criterion. In order to constitute fraud, it is necessary that the statement was made by the person concerned with knowledge of its falsehood, or without belief in its truth. Even mere ignorance as to the truth or falsehood of material assertion, which, however, turns out to be untrue, is deemed equivalent to the knowledge of its untruth, as also where the representor suspected that his statement might be inaccurate, or that he neglected to inquire into its accuracy.

Q. A tells B that he is willing to sell his house to B for Rs. 50 Lakhs. He further claims that the house is fully furnished. B who happened to be in the locality where the house was situated decides to inquire about the house. On enquiry he realized that the house was not furnished. But he remains silent, later sues A of fraud stating that there was active concealment of facts. Decide whether fraud is committed.

Solution:

A was duty bound to disclose all the material facts about the house. Although B had means to discover the truth it does not absolve A of his liability to disclose the truth. B had merely enquired and was not bound to what he had heard from others about the house.

QUESTION: 99

Read the information given below carefully and answer the following question.

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

Fraud implies and involves any of the following acts committed by a contracting party or his connivance or his agent with the intention of deceiving or inciting another party or his agent to enter into the agreement. Mere silence as to facts likely to affect the willingness of a person to enter into a contract is not fraud, unless the circumstance of the case is such that, regard being had to them, it is the duty of the person keeping silence to speak, or unless his silence, in itself, is equivalent to speech.
Section 17 of the Contract Act describes fraud and lists the acts that amount to fraud, which are a false claim, active concealment, promise without the intention of carrying it out, any other deceptive act, or any act declared fraudulent. To constitute fraud, the contracting party, or any other individual with his connivance, or his agent, or to induce him to enter into the agreement, should have performed such acts. The parties have no duty to speak about facts likely to affect the consent of the other party to the contract, and mere silence does not amount to fraud unless the circumstance of the case shows that there is a duty to speak or silence equivalent to speech.
To prove a case of fraud, it must be proved that representations made were false to the knowledge of the party making them. The statement must be false in substance and in fact. Positive knowledge of falsehood is not a criterion. In order to constitute fraud, it is necessary that the statement was made by the person concerned with knowledge of its falsehood, or without belief in its truth. Even mere ignorance as to the truth or falsehood of material assertion, which, however, turns out to be untrue, is deemed equivalent to the knowledge of its untruth, as also where the representor suspected that his statement might be inaccurate, or that he neglected to inquire into its accuracy.

Q. Nora sells a diamond necklace to Sana stating that it is an antique diamond which is very rare in the world. After selling the diamond necklace she realizes that the diamond necklace was not any rare one, but by then Sana had sold the necklace to Priya. Priya on realizing that the necklace was not a rare one sues both Nora and Sana. Decide.

Solution:

Neither Sana nor Nora were aware about the fact that the necklace was not a rare one and therefore cannot be held liable as there was no active concealment of fact by either Nora or Sana to deceive or to play fraud on anyone.

QUESTION: 100

Read the information given below carefully and answer the following question.

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

Fraud implies and involves any of the following acts committed by a contracting party or his connivance or his agent with the intention of deceiving or inciting another party or his agent to enter into the agreement. Mere silence as to facts likely to affect the willingness of a person to enter into a contract is not fraud, unless the circumstance of the case is such that, regard being had to them, it is the duty of the person keeping silence to speak, or unless his silence, in itself, is equivalent to speech.
Section 17 of the Contract Act describes fraud and lists the acts that amount to fraud, which are a false claim, active concealment, promise without the intention of carrying it out, any other deceptive act, or any act declared fraudulent. To constitute fraud, the contracting party, or any other individual with his connivance, or his agent, or to induce him to enter into the agreement, should have performed such acts. The parties have no duty to speak about facts likely to affect the consent of the other party to the contract, and mere silence does not amount to fraud unless the circumstance of the case shows that there is a duty to speak or silence equivalent to speech.
To prove a case of fraud, it must be proved that representations made were false to the knowledge of the party making them. The statement must be false in substance and in fact. Positive knowledge of falsehood is not a criterion. In order to constitute fraud, it is necessary that the statement was made by the person concerned with knowledge of its falsehood, or without belief in its truth. Even mere ignorance as to the truth or falsehood of material assertion, which, however, turns out to be untrue, is deemed equivalent to the knowledge of its untruth, as also where the representor suspected that his statement might be inaccurate, or that he neglected to inquire into its accuracy.

Q. Mr. Kaua and Mr. Tota were very good friends. They worked together, ate together, lived in the same locality. Mr. Kaua had a big mansion, a BMW Car, a Mercedes Car & a Ducati Bike while Mr. Tota had a Bungalow and an Audi Car. Mr. Kaua once made an offer to sell off his BMW to Mr. Tota who was willing to buy it as he was in need of another car and was looking for second hand luxury cars in the market. Mr. Tota in fact borrowed the car for a week so as to test drive the car. During this week, he also got the car for regular service from the authorised servicing agency of BMW from where he learnt that it was not an original BMW, but was assembled with BMW engine and chassis and the other parts fitted were either spare parts from other auto manufacturers or from local market and some of them were highly sub-standard. He agreed to buy this car despite knowing the reality even though Mr. Kaua did not disclose it, only because Mr. Kaua was a good friend of Mr. Tota and he got the car at 20% of the market price of a new original BMW car of same model. The car broke down in the 2nd week of the purchase & Mr. Tota started to regret his decision and asked for refund of his money claiming nullity of the contract.
Based on your understanding choose the most appropriate answer choice

Solution:

Since Mr. Tota knew about the originality, there arises no question as to any misrepresentation. However, the contract would have been voidable had he not known about the same. Although the general rule also has the exception that an agreement otherwise voidable shall not be voidable if the person whose consent was so caused had enough opportunity to discover the truth by exercising due diligence.

QUESTION: 101

Read the information given below carefully and answer the following question.

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

Fraud implies and involves any of the following acts committed by a contracting party or his connivance or his agent with the intention of deceiving or inciting another party or his agent to enter into the agreement. Mere silence as to facts likely to affect the willingness of a person to enter into a contract is not fraud, unless the circumstance of the case is such that, regard being had to them, it is the duty of the person keeping silence to speak, or unless his silence, in itself, is equivalent to speech.
Section 17 of the Contract Act describes fraud and lists the acts that amount to fraud, which are a false claim, active concealment, promise without the intention of carrying it out, any other deceptive act, or any act declared fraudulent. To constitute fraud, the contracting party, or any other individual with his connivance, or his agent, or to induce him to enter into the agreement, should have performed such acts. The parties have no duty to speak about facts likely to affect the consent of the other party to the contract, and mere silence does not amount to fraud unless the circumstance of the case shows that there is a duty to speak or silence equivalent to speech.
To prove a case of fraud, it must be proved that representations made were false to the knowledge of the party making them. The statement must be false in substance and in fact. Positive knowledge of falsehood is not a criterion. In order to constitute fraud, it is necessary that the statement was made by the person concerned with knowledge of its falsehood, or without belief in its truth. Even mere ignorance as to the truth or falsehood of material assertion, which, however, turns out to be untrue, is deemed equivalent to the knowledge of its untruth, as also where the representor suspected that his statement might be inaccurate, or that he neglected to inquire into its accuracy.

Q. A tells B that he will sell his newly built manor for 10 lakhs, while the actual price of the manor is no less than 40 lakhs. A knows well that the manor is destroyed in a fire but remains silent about the same in front of B.
Decide.

Solution:

The act of A of remaining silent amounts to fraud as he has wilfully concealed the fact from B to defraud him.

QUESTION: 102

Read the information given below carefully and answer the following question.

Black’s Law Dictionary describes ‘bail’ as procuring “the release of a person from legal custody, by undertaking that he shall appear at the time and place designated and submit himself to the jurisdiction and judgement of the court.”

In the 1973 case Supt. and Remembrancer of Legal Affairs v. Amiya Kumar Roy Choudhry, the Calcutta High Court explained the principle behind giving bail: “The law of bails… has to dovetail two conflicting demands, namely, on one hand, the requirements of the society for being shielded from the hazards of being exposed to the misadventures of a person alleged to have committed a crime; and on the other, the fundamental canon of criminal jurisprudence viz. the presumption of innocence of an accused till he is found guilty.”

As opposed to ordinary bail, which is granted to a person who is under arrest, in anticipatory bail, a person is directed to be released on bail even before arrest made.

Section 438 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, lays down the law on anticipatory bail. Sub-section (1) of the provision reads: “When any person has reason to believe that he may be arrested on an accusation of having committed a non-bailable offence, he may apply to the High Court or the Court of Session for a direction under this section; and that Court may, if it thinks fit, direct that in the event of such arrest, he shall be released on bail.”

The provision empowers only the Sessions Court and High Court to grant anticipatory bail.

Anticipatory bail became part of the new CrPC in 1973 (when the latter replaced the older Code of 1898), after the 41st Law Commission Report of 1969 recommended the inclusion of the provision.

The report said, “The necessity for granting anticipatory bail arises mainly because sometimes influential persons try to implicate their rivals in false cases for the purpose of disgracing them or for other purposes by getting them detained in jail for some days… Apart from false cases, where there are reasonable grounds for holding that a person accused of an offence is not likely to abscond, or otherwise misuse his liberty while on bail, there seems no justification to require him first to submit to custody, remain in prison for some days and then apply for bail.”

In the 1980 Gurbaksh Singh Sibbia vs State of Punjab case, a five-judge Supreme Court bench led by then Chief Justice Y V Chandrachud ruled that S. 438 (1) is to be interpreted in the light of Article 21 of the Constitution (protection of life and personal liberty).

It also observed, “It may perhaps be right to describe the power (of anticipatory bail) as of an extraordinary character… But this does not justify the conclusion that the power must be exercised in exceptional cases only, because it is of an extra-ordinary character. We will really be saying once too often that all discretion has to be exercised with care and circumspection depending on circumstances justifying its exercise.”

While granting anticipatory bail, the Sessions Court or High Court can impose the conditions laid down in sub-section (2).

Section 438(2) reads: “When the High Court or the Court of Session makes a direction under sub-section (1), it may include such conditions in such directions in the light of the facts of the particular case, as it may think fit, including —
(i) a condition that the person shall make himself available for interrogation by a police officer as and when required;
(ii) a condition that the person shall not, directly or indirectly, make any inducement, threat or promise to any person acquainted with the facts of the case so as to dissuade him from disclosing such facts to the Court or to any police officer;
(iii) a condition that the person shall not leave India without the previous permission of the Court”

Q. Based on the principles and information set out in the given passage:

Solution:

This is apparent from the first part of the passage. Options (a), (c), and (d) are not consistent with the passage, and so none of these can be the correct option.

QUESTION: 103

Read the information given below carefully and answer the following question.

Black’s Law Dictionary describes ‘bail’ as procuring “the release of a person from legal custody, by undertaking that he shall appear at the time and place designated and submit himself to the jurisdiction and judgement of the court.”

In the 1973 case Supt. and Remembrancer of Legal Affairs v. Amiya Kumar Roy Choudhry, the Calcutta High Court explained the principle behind giving bail: “The law of bails… has to dovetail two conflicting demands, namely, on one hand, the requirements of the society for being shielded from the hazards of being exposed to the misadventures of a person alleged to have committed a crime; and on the other, the fundamental canon of criminal jurisprudence viz. the presumption of innocence of an accused till he is found guilty.”

As opposed to ordinary bail, which is granted to a person who is under arrest, in anticipatory bail, a person is directed to be released on bail even before arrest made.

Section 438 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, lays down the law on anticipatory bail. Sub-section (1) of the provision reads: “When any person has reason to believe that he may be arrested on an accusation of having committed a non-bailable offence, he may apply to the High Court or the Court of Session for a direction under this section; and that Court may, if it thinks fit, direct that in the event of such arrest, he shall be released on bail.”

The provision empowers only the Sessions Court and High Court to grant anticipatory bail.

Anticipatory bail became part of the new CrPC in 1973 (when the latter replaced the older Code of 1898), after the 41st Law Commission Report of 1969 recommended the inclusion of the provision.

The report said, “The necessity for granting anticipatory bail arises mainly because sometimes influential persons try to implicate their rivals in false cases for the purpose of disgracing them or for other purposes by getting them detained in jail for some days… Apart from false cases, where there are reasonable grounds for holding that a person accused of an offence is not likely to abscond, or otherwise misuse his liberty while on bail, there seems no justification to require him first to submit to custody, remain in prison for some days and then apply for bail.”

In the 1980 Gurbaksh Singh Sibbia vs State of Punjab case, a five-judge Supreme Court bench led by then Chief Justice Y V Chandrachud ruled that S. 438 (1) is to be interpreted in the light of Article 21 of the Constitution (protection of life and personal liberty).

It also observed, “It may perhaps be right to describe the power (of anticipatory bail) as of an extraordinary character… But this does not justify the conclusion that the power must be exercised in exceptional cases only, because it is of an extra-ordinary character. We will really be saying once too often that all discretion has to be exercised with care and circumspection depending on circumstances justifying its exercise.”

While granting anticipatory bail, the Sessions Court or High Court can impose the conditions laid down in sub-section (2).

Section 438(2) reads: “When the High Court or the Court of Session makes a direction under sub-section (1), it may include such conditions in such directions in the light of the facts of the particular case, as it may think fit, including —
(i) a condition that the person shall make himself available for interrogation by a police officer as and when required;
(ii) a condition that the person shall not, directly or indirectly, make any inducement, threat or promise to any person acquainted with the facts of the case so as to dissuade him from disclosing such facts to the Court or to any police officer;
(iii) a condition that the person shall not leave India without the previous permission of the Court”

Q. Ursuala is charged with seriously injuring Aquaman( Half human half fish) . Injuring of a half human half fish is a very serious crime/nonbailable.  Ursuala applies for anticipatory bail. Based on the information in the given passage, which of the following, if correct, would most strengthen Ursuala’s case?

Solution:

As per last part of the passage. When the High Court or the Court of Session makes a direction under sub-section (1), it may include such conditions in such directions in the light of the facts of the particular case, as it may think fit, including — (i) a condition that the person shall make himself available for interrogation by a police officer as and when required.

QUESTION: 104

Read the information given below carefully and answer the following question.

Black’s Law Dictionary describes ‘bail’ as procuring “the release of a person from legal custody, by undertaking that he shall appear at the time and place designated and submit himself to the jurisdiction and judgement of the court.”

In the 1973 case Supt. and Remembrancer of Legal Affairs v. Amiya Kumar Roy Choudhry, the Calcutta High Court explained the principle behind giving bail: “The law of bails… has to dovetail two conflicting demands, namely, on one hand, the requirements of the society for being shielded from the hazards of being exposed to the misadventures of a person alleged to have committed a crime; and on the other, the fundamental canon of criminal jurisprudence viz. the presumption of innocence of an accused till he is found guilty.”

As opposed to ordinary bail, which is granted to a person who is under arrest, in anticipatory bail, a person is directed to be released on bail even before arrest made.

Section 438 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, lays down the law on anticipatory bail. Sub-section (1) of the provision reads: “When any person has reason to believe that he may be arrested on an accusation of having committed a non-bailable offence, he may apply to the High Court or the Court of Session for a direction under this section; and that Court may, if it thinks fit, direct that in the event of such arrest, he shall be released on bail.”

The provision empowers only the Sessions Court and High Court to grant anticipatory bail.

Anticipatory bail became part of the new CrPC in 1973 (when the latter replaced the older Code of 1898), after the 41st Law Commission Report of 1969 recommended the inclusion of the provision.

The report said, “The necessity for granting anticipatory bail arises mainly because sometimes influential persons try to implicate their rivals in false cases for the purpose of disgracing them or for other purposes by getting them detained in jail for some days… Apart from false cases, where there are reasonable grounds for holding that a person accused of an offence is not likely to abscond, or otherwise misuse his liberty while on bail, there seems no justification to require him first to submit to custody, remain in prison for some days and then apply for bail.”

In the 1980 Gurbaksh Singh Sibbia vs State of Punjab case, a five-judge Supreme Court bench led by then Chief Justice Y V Chandrachud ruled that S. 438 (1) is to be interpreted in the light of Article 21 of the Constitution (protection of life and personal liberty).

It also observed, “It may perhaps be right to describe the power (of anticipatory bail) as of an extraordinary character… But this does not justify the conclusion that the power must be exercised in exceptional cases only, because it is of an extra-ordinary character. We will really be saying once too often that all discretion has to be exercised with care and circumspection depending on circumstances justifying its exercise.”

While granting anticipatory bail, the Sessions Court or High Court can impose the conditions laid down in sub-section (2).

Section 438(2) reads: “When the High Court or the Court of Session makes a direction under sub-section (1), it may include such conditions in such directions in the light of the facts of the particular case, as it may think fit, including —
(i) a condition that the person shall make himself available for interrogation by a police officer as and when required;
(ii) a condition that the person shall not, directly or indirectly, make any inducement, threat or promise to any person acquainted with the facts of the case so as to dissuade him from disclosing such facts to the Court or to any police officer;
(iii) a condition that the person shall not leave India without the previous permission of the Court”

Q. Aquaman is opposing the demand of anticipatory bail by Ursuala. In the above fact based on the information in the given passage, which of the following, if correct, would most strengthen Aquaman’s case?

Solution:

When the court provides for anticipatory bail it is important that the person shall not leave India without the previous permission of the Court. So if Urusala did try leave without courts permission he has breached one of the condition of for anticipatory bail. Options (a), (b), and (d) are not consistent with the passage, and so none of these can be the correct option.

QUESTION: 105

Read the information given below carefully and answer the following question.

Black’s Law Dictionary describes ‘bail’ as procuring “the release of a person from legal custody, by undertaking that he shall appear at the time and place designated and submit himself to the jurisdiction and judgement of the court.”

In the 1973 case Supt. and Remembrancer of Legal Affairs v. Amiya Kumar Roy Choudhry, the Calcutta High Court explained the principle behind giving bail: “The law of bails… has to dovetail two conflicting demands, namely, on one hand, the requirements of the society for being shielded from the hazards of being exposed to the misadventures of a person alleged to have committed a crime; and on the other, the fundamental canon of criminal jurisprudence viz. the presumption of innocence of an accused till he is found guilty.”

As opposed to ordinary bail, which is granted to a person who is under arrest, in anticipatory bail, a person is directed to be released on bail even before arrest made.

Section 438 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, lays down the law on anticipatory bail. Sub-section (1) of the provision reads: “When any person has reason to believe that he may be arrested on an accusation of having committed a non-bailable offence, he may apply to the High Court or the Court of Session for a direction under this section; and that Court may, if it thinks fit, direct that in the event of such arrest, he shall be released on bail.”

The provision empowers only the Sessions Court and High Court to grant anticipatory bail.

Anticipatory bail became part of the new CrPC in 1973 (when the latter replaced the older Code of 1898), after the 41st Law Commission Report of 1969 recommended the inclusion of the provision.

The report said, “The necessity for granting anticipatory bail arises mainly because sometimes influential persons try to implicate their rivals in false cases for the purpose of disgracing them or for other purposes by getting them detained in jail for some days… Apart from false cases, where there are reasonable grounds for holding that a person accused of an offence is not likely to abscond, or otherwise misuse his liberty while on bail, there seems no justification to require him first to submit to custody, remain in prison for some days and then apply for bail.”

In the 1980 Gurbaksh Singh Sibbia vs State of Punjab case, a five-judge Supreme Court bench led by then Chief Justice Y V Chandrachud ruled that S. 438 (1) is to be interpreted in the light of Article 21 of the Constitution (protection of life and personal liberty).

It also observed, “It may perhaps be right to describe the power (of anticipatory bail) as of an extraordinary character… But this does not justify the conclusion that the power must be exercised in exceptional cases only, because it is of an extra-ordinary character. We will really be saying once too often that all discretion has to be exercised with care and circumspection depending on circumstances justifying its exercise.”

While granting anticipatory bail, the Sessions Court or High Court can impose the conditions laid down in sub-section (2).

Section 438(2) reads: “When the High Court or the Court of Session makes a direction under sub-section (1), it may include such conditions in such directions in the light of the facts of the particular case, as it may think fit, including —
(i) a condition that the person shall make himself available for interrogation by a police officer as and when required;
(ii) a condition that the person shall not, directly or indirectly, make any inducement, threat or promise to any person acquainted with the facts of the case so as to dissuade him from disclosing such facts to the Court or to any police officer;
(iii) a condition that the person shall not leave India without the previous permission of the Court”

Q. As per Gurbaksh Singh Sibbia vs State of Punjab case, which of the following is the court is most likely to agree with?

Solution:

The correct answer is (d) because in the given case court has clearly stated that discretion has to be exercised with care and circumspection depending on circumstances justifying its exercise. Options (b), (c), and (a) are not consistent with the passage, and so none of these can be the correct option.

QUESTION: 106

Read the information given below carefully and answer the following question.

Black’s Law Dictionary describes ‘bail’ as procuring “the release of a person from legal custody, by undertaking that he shall appear at the time and place designated and submit himself to the jurisdiction and judgement of the court.”

In the 1973 case Supt. and Remembrancer of Legal Affairs v. Amiya Kumar Roy Choudhry, the Calcutta High Court explained the principle behind giving bail: “The law of bails… has to dovetail two conflicting demands, namely, on one hand, the requirements of the society for being shielded from the hazards of being exposed to the misadventures of a person alleged to have committed a crime; and on the other, the fundamental canon of criminal jurisprudence viz. the presumption of innocence of an accused till he is found guilty.”

As opposed to ordinary bail, which is granted to a person who is under arrest, in anticipatory bail, a person is directed to be released on bail even before arrest made.

Section 438 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, lays down the law on anticipatory bail. Sub-section (1) of the provision reads: “When any person has reason to believe that he may be arrested on an accusation of having committed a non-bailable offence, he may apply to the High Court or the Court of Session for a direction under this section; and that Court may, if it thinks fit, direct that in the event of such arrest, he shall be released on bail.”

The provision empowers only the Sessions Court and High Court to grant anticipatory bail.

Anticipatory bail became part of the new CrPC in 1973 (when the latter replaced the older Code of 1898), after the 41st Law Commission Report of 1969 recommended the inclusion of the provision.

The report said, “The necessity for granting anticipatory bail arises mainly because sometimes influential persons try to implicate their rivals in false cases for the purpose of disgracing them or for other purposes by getting them detained in jail for some days… Apart from false cases, where there are reasonable grounds for holding that a person accused of an offence is not likely to abscond, or otherwise misuse his liberty while on bail, there seems no justification to require him first to submit to custody, remain in prison for some days and then apply for bail.”

In the 1980 Gurbaksh Singh Sibbia vs State of Punjab case, a five-judge Supreme Court bench led by then Chief Justice Y V Chandrachud ruled that S. 438 (1) is to be interpreted in the light of Article 21 of the Constitution (protection of life and personal liberty).

It also observed, “It may perhaps be right to describe the power (of anticipatory bail) as of an extraordinary character… But this does not justify the conclusion that the power must be exercised in exceptional cases only, because it is of an extra-ordinary character. We will really be saying once too often that all discretion has to be exercised with care and circumspection depending on circumstances justifying its exercise.”

While granting anticipatory bail, the Sessions Court or High Court can impose the conditions laid down in sub-section (2).

Section 438(2) reads: “When the High Court or the Court of Session makes a direction under sub-section (1), it may include such conditions in such directions in the light of the facts of the particular case, as it may think fit, including —
(i) a condition that the person shall make himself available for interrogation by a police officer as and when required;
(ii) a condition that the person shall not, directly or indirectly, make any inducement, threat or promise to any person acquainted with the facts of the case so as to dissuade him from disclosing such facts to the Court or to any police officer;
(iii) a condition that the person shall not leave India without the previous permission of the Court”

Q. Which of the following is the court is most likely to agree with regarding anticipatory bail?

Solution:

As it is mentioned in passage S. 438 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, lays down the law on anticipatory bail. Sub-section (1) of the provision reads: “When any person has reason to believe that he may be arrested on an accusation of having committed a non-bailable offence, he may apply to the High Court or the Court of Session for a direction under this section; and that Court may, if it thinks fit, direct that in the event of such arrest, he shall be released on bail.” Options (a), (b), and (c) are not consistent with the passage, and so none of these can be the correct option.

QUESTION: 107

Read the information given below carefully and answer the following question.

Black’s Law Dictionary describes ‘bail’ as procuring “the release of a person from legal custody, by undertaking that he shall appear at the time and place designated and submit himself to the jurisdiction and judgement of the court.”

In the 1973 case Supt. and Remembrancer of Legal Affairs v. Amiya Kumar Roy Choudhry, the Calcutta High Court explained the principle behind giving bail: “The law of bails… has to dovetail two conflicting demands, namely, on one hand, the requirements of the society for being shielded from the hazards of being exposed to the misadventures of a person alleged to have committed a crime; and on the other, the fundamental canon of criminal jurisprudence viz. the presumption of innocence of an accused till he is found guilty.”

As opposed to ordinary bail, which is granted to a person who is under arrest, in anticipatory bail, a person is directed to be released on bail even before arrest made.

Section 438 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, lays down the law on anticipatory bail. Sub-section (1) of the provision reads: “When any person has reason to believe that he may be arrested on an accusation of having committed a non-bailable offence, he may apply to the High Court or the Court of Session for a direction under this section; and that Court may, if it thinks fit, direct that in the event of such arrest, he shall be released on bail.”

The provision empowers only the Sessions Court and High Court to grant anticipatory bail.

Anticipatory bail became part of the new CrPC in 1973 (when the latter replaced the older Code of 1898), after the 41st Law Commission Report of 1969 recommended the inclusion of the provision.

The report said, “The necessity for granting anticipatory bail arises mainly because sometimes influential persons try to implicate their rivals in false cases for the purpose of disgracing them or for other purposes by getting them detained in jail for some days… Apart from false cases, where there are reasonable grounds for holding that a person accused of an offence is not likely to abscond, or otherwise misuse his liberty while on bail, there seems no justification to require him first to submit to custody, remain in prison for some days and then apply for bail.”

In the 1980 Gurbaksh Singh Sibbia vs State of Punjab case, a five-judge Supreme Court bench led by then Chief Justice Y V Chandrachud ruled that S. 438 (1) is to be interpreted in the light of Article 21 of the Constitution (protection of life and personal liberty).

It also observed, “It may perhaps be right to describe the power (of anticipatory bail) as of an extraordinary character… But this does not justify the conclusion that the power must be exercised in exceptional cases only, because it is of an extra-ordinary character. We will really be saying once too often that all discretion has to be exercised with care and circumspection depending on circumstances justifying its exercise.”

While granting anticipatory bail, the Sessions Court or High Court can impose the conditions laid down in sub-section (2).

Section 438(2) reads: “When the High Court or the Court of Session makes a direction under sub-section (1), it may include such conditions in such directions in the light of the facts of the particular case, as it may think fit, including —
(i) a condition that the person shall make himself available for interrogation by a police officer as and when required;
(ii) a condition that the person shall not, directly or indirectly, make any inducement, threat or promise to any person acquainted with the facts of the case so as to dissuade him from disclosing such facts to the Court or to any police officer;
(iii) a condition that the person shall not leave India without the previous permission of the Court”

Q. Which of the following is similar to rationale for allowing anticipatory bail in the 41st Law Commission Report of 1969?

Solution:

In the given law commission wanted to give benefit of anticipatory bail to someone because at times influential persons try to implicate their rivals in false cases for the purpose of disgracing them or for other purposes by getting them detained in jail for some days. Thus (c) has similar reasoning. In rest all option no one is sued in any other false pretext rather are clear cases of persons being caught while attempting the wrong.

QUESTION: 108

Read the information given below carefully and answer the following question.

Black’s Law Dictionary describes ‘bail’ as procuring “the release of a person from legal custody, by undertaking that he shall appear at the time and place designated and submit himself to the jurisdiction and judgement of the court.”

In the 1973 case Supt. and Remembrancer of Legal Affairs v. Amiya Kumar Roy Choudhry, the Calcutta High Court explained the principle behind giving bail: “The law of bails… has to dovetail two conflicting demands, namely, on one hand, the requirements of the society for being shielded from the hazards of being exposed to the misadventures of a person alleged to have committed a crime; and on the other, the fundamental canon of criminal jurisprudence viz. the presumption of innocence of an accused till he is found guilty.”

As opposed to ordinary bail, which is granted to a person who is under arrest, in anticipatory bail, a person is directed to be released on bail even before arrest made.

Section 438 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, lays down the law on anticipatory bail. Sub-section (1) of the provision reads: “When any person has reason to believe that he may be arrested on an accusation of having committed a non-bailable offence, he may apply to the High Court or the Court of Session for a direction under this section; and that Court may, if it thinks fit, direct that in the event of such arrest, he shall be released on bail.”

The provision empowers only the Sessions Court and High Court to grant anticipatory bail.

Anticipatory bail became part of the new CrPC in 1973 (when the latter replaced the older Code of 1898), after the 41st Law Commission Report of 1969 recommended the inclusion of the provision.

The report said, “The necessity for granting anticipatory bail arises mainly because sometimes influential persons try to implicate their rivals in false cases for the purpose of disgracing them or for other purposes by getting them detained in jail for some days… Apart from false cases, where there are reasonable grounds for holding that a person accused of an offence is not likely to abscond, or otherwise misuse his liberty while on bail, there seems no justification to require him first to submit to custody, remain in prison for some days and then apply for bail.”

In the 1980 Gurbaksh Singh Sibbia vs State of Punjab case, a five-judge Supreme Court bench led by then Chief Justice Y V Chandrachud ruled that S. 438 (1) is to be interpreted in the light of Article 21 of the Constitution (protection of life and personal liberty).

It also observed, “It may perhaps be right to describe the power (of anticipatory bail) as of an extraordinary character… But this does not justify the conclusion that the power must be exercised in exceptional cases only, because it is of an extra-ordinary character. We will really be saying once too often that all discretion has to be exercised with care and circumspection depending on circumstances justifying its exercise.”

While granting anticipatory bail, the Sessions Court or High Court can impose the conditions laid down in sub-section (2).

Section 438(2) reads: “When the High Court or the Court of Session makes a direction under sub-section (1), it may include such conditions in such directions in the light of the facts of the particular case, as it may think fit, including —
(i) a condition that the person shall make himself available for interrogation by a police officer as and when required;
(ii) a condition that the person shall not, directly or indirectly, make any inducement, threat or promise to any person acquainted with the facts of the case so as to dissuade him from disclosing such facts to the Court or to any police officer;
(iii) a condition that the person shall not leave India without the previous permission of the Court”

Q. As per the passage which of the following cases are possible cases of anticipatory bail?

Solution:

The correct answer is (a). (b) and (c) do not satisfy the required conditions of anticipatory bail.

QUESTION: 109

Read the information given below carefully and answer the following question.

Black’s Law Dictionary describes ‘bail’ as procuring “the release of a person from legal custody, by undertaking that he shall appear at the time and place designated and submit himself to the jurisdiction and judgement of the court.”

In the 1973 case Supt. and Remembrancer of Legal Affairs v. Amiya Kumar Roy Choudhry, the Calcutta High Court explained the principle behind giving bail: “The law of bails… has to dovetail two conflicting demands, namely, on one hand, the requirements of the society for being shielded from the hazards of being exposed to the misadventures of a person alleged to have committed a crime; and on the other, the fundamental canon of criminal jurisprudence viz. the presumption of innocence of an accused till he is found guilty.”

As opposed to ordinary bail, which is granted to a person who is under arrest, in anticipatory bail, a person is directed to be released on bail even before arrest made.

Section 438 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, lays down the law on anticipatory bail. Sub-section (1) of the provision reads: “When any person has reason to believe that he may be arrested on an accusation of having committed a non-bailable offence, he may apply to the High Court or the Court of Session for a direction under this section; and that Court may, if it thinks fit, direct that in the event of such arrest, he shall be released on bail.”

The provision empowers only the Sessions Court and High Court to grant anticipatory bail.

Anticipatory bail became part of the new CrPC in 1973 (when the latter replaced the older Code of 1898), after the 41st Law Commission Report of 1969 recommended the inclusion of the provision.

The report said, “The necessity for granting anticipatory bail arises mainly because sometimes influential persons try to implicate their rivals in false cases for the purpose of disgracing them or for other purposes by getting them detained in jail for some days… Apart from false cases, where there are reasonable grounds for holding that a person accused of an offence is not likely to abscond, or otherwise misuse his liberty while on bail, there seems no justification to require him first to submit to custody, remain in prison for some days and then apply for bail.”

In the 1980 Gurbaksh Singh Sibbia vs State of Punjab case, a five-judge Supreme Court bench led by then Chief Justice Y V Chandrachud ruled that S. 438 (1) is to be interpreted in the light of Article 21 of the Constitution (protection of life and personal liberty).

It also observed, “It may perhaps be right to describe the power (of anticipatory bail) as of an extraordinary character… But this does not justify the conclusion that the power must be exercised in exceptional cases only, because it is of an extra-ordinary character. We will really be saying once too often that all discretion has to be exercised with care and circumspection depending on circumstances justifying its exercise.”

While granting anticipatory bail, the Sessions Court or High Court can impose the conditions laid down in sub-section (2).

Section 438(2) reads: “When the High Court or the Court of Session makes a direction under sub-section (1), it may include such conditions in such directions in the light of the facts of the particular case, as it may think fit, including —
(i) a condition that the person shall make himself available for interrogation by a police officer as and when required;
(ii) a condition that the person shall not, directly or indirectly, make any inducement, threat or promise to any person acquainted with the facts of the case so as to dissuade him from disclosing such facts to the Court or to any police officer;
(iii) a condition that the person shall not leave India without the previous permission of the Court”

Q. Based on the principles and information set out in the given passage, which of the following can be a valid ground to denying of anticipatory bail to an accused?

Solution:

Option (d) is the correct answer as rest all options enable anticipatory bail.

QUESTION: 110

Read the information given below carefully and answer the following question.

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

Murder, this term traces its origin from the Germanic word 'morth' where it means secret killing. Murder means when one person is killed with an intent of another person with malice or forethought. Moreover, an offence will not amount to murder, unless it includes an offence which falls under the definition of culpable homicide. To broadly explain, we can say that murder is a species where culpable homicide is a genus. Murder consists of four main components which can also be known as essentials of murder, before going in-depth with essentials, here are the core concepts discussed: culpable homicide amounts to murder, except in some cases wherein the act, which caused murder, should be done with an intention to cause death or such intention of causing death should cause a bodily injury to that person or if such intention of causing death causes a bodily injury and that bodily injury must have caused the death of that person or he must have the knowledge that the act he has done is immediately dangerous in all probable sense to cause death or a bodily injury that is likely to cause death of a person. And it is a crime to commit an act, even after knowing that the act he does is a risk of causing death or such injury as discussed above.

In a case, Milmadhub Sirchar Vs. R (1885), the deceased was kicked and beaten several times by the offender, even after the victim falling senseless. Court held that the murderer would have known that beating and kicking several times would surely result in the death of such person. Thus, he was accused of murder. In other case, Sheik Choollye Vs. R (1865), a person got his head fractured after a man struck his head with a stick while he was asleep. Court held that the offender should have known the likelihood to causing death to that person. And thus, he was convicted for murder. Thirdly, if the act done by the offender is done with an intention to cause any bodily injury as it is sufficient in normal sense to result in death of that person - the subjective factor ends with the fact that in any ordinary course of action, if a person acts to kill or harm a person with full knowledge of causing a bodily injury which is sufficient to cause death of such person. There is no need of any further inquiry in this context. In the case of Visra Singh Vs. State of Punjab (1958), the SC ruled that when the offender fails to prove that the act was done accidentally or unintentionally, then Court might charge him with that offence and hence, the presumption is that he would have intended to act to cause a deadly injury to the victim of such crime.

Q. Mr. Mohan was returning from the local bazaar when all of a sudden his enemy, Billu Raja attacked him. Billu Raja hit him with a stick on his hip, due to which Mr. Mohan died on the spot. After seeing this, Billu Raja ran away. Mr. Mohan's post mortem report showed that his past hip surgery played an important role in his death. Can Billu Raja be charged with murder? Decide.

Solution:

Mr. Mohan died because of the hip surgery and not solely because of Billu Raja hitting him. Murder is also possible when the aggressor had the intent to cause death. Although option (2) can be a possible answer, option (4) directs the answer to proper reasoning.

QUESTION: 111

Read the information given below carefully and answer the following question.

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

Murder, this term traces its origin from the Germanic word 'morth' where it means secret killing. Murder means when one person is killed with an intent of another person with malice or forethought. Moreover, an offence will not amount to murder, unless it includes an offence which falls under the definition of culpable homicide. To broadly explain, we can say that murder is a species where culpable homicide is a genus. Murder consists of four main components which can also be known as essentials of murder, before going in-depth with essentials, here are the core concepts discussed: culpable homicide amounts to murder, except in some cases wherein the act, which caused murder, should be done with an intention to cause death or such intention of causing death should cause a bodily injury to that person or if such intention of causing death causes a bodily injury and that bodily injury must have caused the death of that person or he must have the knowledge that the act he has done is immediately dangerous in all probable sense to cause death or a bodily injury that is likely to cause death of a person. And it is a crime to commit an act, even after knowing that the act he does is a risk of causing death or such injury as discussed above.

In a case, Milmadhub Sirchar Vs. R (1885), the deceased was kicked and beaten several times by the offender, even after the victim falling senseless. Court held that the murderer would have known that beating and kicking several times would surely result in the death of such person. Thus, he was accused of murder. In other case, Sheik Choollye Vs. R (1865), a person got his head fractured after a man struck his head with a stick while he was asleep. Court held that the offender should have known the likelihood to causing death to that person. And thus, he was convicted for murder. Thirdly, if the act done by the offender is done with an intention to cause any bodily injury as it is sufficient in normal sense to result in death of that person - the subjective factor ends with the fact that in any ordinary course of action, if a person acts to kill or harm a person with full knowledge of causing a bodily injury which is sufficient to cause death of such person. There is no need of any further inquiry in this context. In the case of Visra Singh Vs. State of Punjab (1958), the SC ruled that when the offender fails to prove that the act was done accidentally or unintentionally, then Court might charge him with that offence and hence, the presumption is that he would have intended to act to cause a deadly injury to the victim of such crime.

Q. Bill, the don, was escaping from the police lock-up. As he was running, he came to a dead end. The inspector took out his gun and asked Bill to surrender. But, Bill refused and instead started shooting. The inspector had no way out, so he started shooting and eventually killed Bill. Now, Bill's relatives want to charge the inspector with murder. Decide.

Solution:

The passage is about murder. The situation completely fulfills all elements of murder as stated out in the passage and hence, the answer is option (4). It must be noted that nothing is to be assumed from outside the passage. Thus, option (1) and option (2) are wrong.

QUESTION: 112

Read the information given below carefu