CLAT Mock Test (New Pattern) - 3 (12-04-2020)


150 Questions MCQ Test Mock Test Series for CLAT 2020 | CLAT Mock Test (New Pattern) - 3 (12-04-2020)


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This mock test of CLAT Mock Test (New Pattern) - 3 (12-04-2020) for CLAT helps you for every CLAT entrance exam. This contains 150 Multiple Choice Questions for CLAT CLAT Mock Test (New Pattern) - 3 (12-04-2020) (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this CLAT Mock Test (New Pattern) - 3 (12-04-2020) quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. CLAT students definitely take this CLAT Mock Test (New Pattern) - 3 (12-04-2020) exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other CLAT Mock Test (New Pattern) - 3 (12-04-2020) extra questions, long questions & short questions for CLAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

Read the following passage and answer the question.

A decade and a half after Winston Churchill issued warnings, the British left India. A time of barbarism and privation did ensue, the blame for which remains a matter of much dispute. But then some sort of order was restored. No Germans were necessary to keep the peace. Hindu ascendancy, such as it was, was maintained not by force of arms but through regular elections based on universal adult franchise.
Yet, throughout the sixty years since India became independent, there has been speculation about how long it would stay united, or maintain the institutions and processes of democracy. With every death of a prime minister has been predicted the replacement of democracy by military rule; after every failure of the monsoon there has been anticipated countrywide famine; in every new secessionist movement has been seen the disappearance of India as a single entity.
Among these doomsayers there have been many Western writers who, after 1947, were as likely to be American as British. Notably, India's existence has been a puzzle not just to casual observers or commonsensical journalists; it has also been an anomaly for academic political science, according to whose axioms cultural heterogeneity and poverty do not make a nation, still less a democratic one. That India 'could sustain democratic institutions seems, on the face of it, highly improbable', wrote the distinguished political scientist Robert Dahl, adding: 'It lacks all the favourable conditions.' 'India has a well-established reputation for violating social scientific generalizations', wrote another American scholar, adding: 'Nonetheless, the findings of this article furnish grounds for skepticism regarding the viability of democracy in India.'
Here, let me quote only a prediction by a sympathetic visitor, the British journalist Don Taylor. Writing in 1969, by which time India had stayed united for two decades and gone through four general elections, Taylor yet thought that "the key question remains: can India remain in one piece – or will it fragment? . . . When one looks at this vast country and its 524 million people, the 15 major languages in use, the conflicting religions, the many races, it seems incredible that one nation could ever emerge."
The heart hoped that India would survive, but the head worried that it wouldn't. The place was too complicated, too confusing – a nation, one might say, that was unnatural.
In truth, ever since the country was formed there have also been many Indians who have seen the survival of India as being on the line, some speaking or writing in fear, others with anticipation. Like their foreign counterparts, they have come to believe that this place is far too diverse to persist as a nation, and much too poor to endure as a democracy.

Q. Which of the following expresses the author's main idea in the passage?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 3. Throughout the passage, the author's main theme is India's survival and existence and how it has continued to survive despite fears that it will not. Options 2 and 4 are mentioned in the passage, but neither are discussed in depth, so neither options can be correct. Option 1 is irrelevant to the passage.

QUESTION: 2

Read the following passage and answer the question.

A decade and a half after Winston Churchill issued warnings, the British left India. A time of barbarism and privation did ensue, the blame for which remains a matter of much dispute. But then some sort of order was restored. No Germans were necessary to keep the peace. Hindu ascendancy, such as it was, was maintained not by force of arms but through regular elections based on universal adult franchise.
Yet, throughout the sixty years since India became independent, there has been speculation about how long it would stay united, or maintain the institutions and processes of democracy. With every death of a prime minister has been predicted the replacement of democracy by military rule; after every failure of the monsoon there has been anticipated countrywide famine; in every new secessionist movement has been seen the disappearance of India as a single entity.
Among these doomsayers there have been many Western writers who, after 1947, were as likely to be American as British. Notably, India's existence has been a puzzle not just to casual observers or commonsensical journalists; it has also been an anomaly for academic political science, according to whose axioms cultural heterogeneity and poverty do not make a nation, still less a democratic one. That India 'could sustain democratic institutions seems, on the face of it, highly improbable', wrote the distinguished political scientist Robert Dahl, adding: 'It lacks all the favourable conditions.' 'India has a well-established reputation for violating social scientific generalizations', wrote another American scholar, adding: 'Nonetheless, the findings of this article furnish grounds for skepticism regarding the viability of democracy in India.'
Here, let me quote only a prediction by a sympathetic visitor, the British journalist Don Taylor. Writing in 1969, by which time India had stayed united for two decades and gone through four general elections, Taylor yet thought that "the key question remains: can India remain in one piece – or will it fragment? . . . When one looks at this vast country and its 524 million people, the 15 major languages in use, the conflicting religions, the many races, it seems incredible that one nation could ever emerge."
The heart hoped that India would survive, but the head worried that it wouldn't. The place was too complicated, too confusing – a nation, one might say, that was unnatural.
In truth, ever since the country was formed there have also been many Indians who have seen the survival of India as being on the line, some speaking or writing in fear, others with anticipation. Like their foreign counterparts, they have come to believe that this place is far too diverse to persist as a nation, and much too poor to endure as a democracy.

Q. According to the passage, which of the following is not provided as an example of the speculations surrounding the Indian democracy?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 3. All the other three options are stated in the passage: "With every death of a prime minister has been predicted the replacement of democracy by military rule; after every failure of the monsoon there has been anticipated countrywide famine; in every new secessionist movement has been seen the disappearance of India as a single entity."

QUESTION: 3

Read the following passage and answer the question.

A decade and a half after Winston Churchill issued warnings, the British left India. A time of barbarism and privation did ensue, the blame for which remains a matter of much dispute. But then some sort of order was restored. No Germans were necessary to keep the peace. Hindu ascendancy, such as it was, was maintained not by force of arms but through regular elections based on universal adult franchise.
Yet, throughout the sixty years since India became independent, there has been speculation about how long it would stay united, or maintain the institutions and processes of democracy. With every death of a prime minister has been predicted the replacement of democracy by military rule; after every failure of the monsoon there has been anticipated countrywide famine; in every new secessionist movement has been seen the disappearance of India as a single entity.
Among these doomsayers there have been many Western writers who, after 1947, were as likely to be American as British. Notably, India's existence has been a puzzle not just to casual observers or commonsensical journalists; it has also been an anomaly for academic political science, according to whose axioms cultural heterogeneity and poverty do not make a nation, still less a democratic one. That India 'could sustain democratic institutions seems, on the face of it, highly improbable', wrote the distinguished political scientist Robert Dahl, adding: 'It lacks all the favourable conditions.' 'India has a well-established reputation for violating social scientific generalizations', wrote another American scholar, adding: 'Nonetheless, the findings of this article furnish grounds for skepticism regarding the viability of democracy in India.'
Here, let me quote only a prediction by a sympathetic visitor, the British journalist Don Taylor. Writing in 1969, by which time India had stayed united for two decades and gone through four general elections, Taylor yet thought that "the key question remains: can India remain in one piece – or will it fragment? . . . When one looks at this vast country and its 524 million people, the 15 major languages in use, the conflicting religions, the many races, it seems incredible that one nation could ever emerge."
The heart hoped that India would survive, but the head worried that it wouldn't. The place was too complicated, too confusing – a nation, one might say, that was unnatural.
In truth, ever since the country was formed there have also been many Indians who have seen the survival of India as being on the line, some speaking or writing in fear, others with anticipation. Like their foreign counterparts, they have come to believe that this place is far too diverse to persist as a nation, and much too poor to endure as a democracy.

Q. What does the word 'anomaly' as used in the passage mean?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. 'Anomaly' in the passage means something that is far from what is expected. In the context, a lot of people didn't believe that India would exist, but it still exists.

QUESTION: 4

Read the following passage and answer the question.

A decade and a half after Winston Churchill issued warnings, the British left India. A time of barbarism and privation did ensue, the blame for which remains a matter of much dispute. But then some sort of order was restored. No Germans were necessary to keep the peace. Hindu ascendancy, such as it was, was maintained not by force of arms but through regular elections based on universal adult franchise.
Yet, throughout the sixty years since India became independent, there has been speculation about how long it would stay united, or maintain the institutions and processes of democracy. With every death of a prime minister has been predicted the replacement of democracy by military rule; after every failure of the monsoon there has been anticipated countrywide famine; in every new secessionist movement has been seen the disappearance of India as a single entity.
Among these doomsayers there have been many Western writers who, after 1947, were as likely to be American as British. Notably, India's existence has been a puzzle not just to casual observers or commonsensical journalists; it has also been an anomaly for academic political science, according to whose axioms cultural heterogeneity and poverty do not make a nation, still less a democratic one. That India 'could sustain democratic institutions seems, on the face of it, highly improbable', wrote the distinguished political scientist Robert Dahl, adding: 'It lacks all the favourable conditions.' 'India has a well-established reputation for violating social scientific generalizations', wrote another American scholar, adding: 'Nonetheless, the findings of this article furnish grounds for skepticism regarding the viability of democracy in India.'
Here, let me quote only a prediction by a sympathetic visitor, the British journalist Don Taylor. Writing in 1969, by which time India had stayed united for two decades and gone through four general elections, Taylor yet thought that "the key question remains: can India remain in one piece – or will it fragment? . . . When one looks at this vast country and its 524 million people, the 15 major languages in use, the conflicting religions, the many races, it seems incredible that one nation could ever emerge."
The heart hoped that India would survive, but the head worried that it wouldn't. The place was too complicated, too confusing – a nation, one might say, that was unnatural.
In truth, ever since the country was formed there have also been many Indians who have seen the survival of India as being on the line, some speaking or writing in fear, others with anticipation. Like their foreign counterparts, they have come to believe that this place is far too diverse to persist as a nation, and much too poor to endure as a democracy.

Q. According to the author, which of the following is consistent with Taylor's argument about the existence of a united India?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 4. This is derived from the fourth paragraph which states: 'When one looks at this vast country and its 524 million people, the 15 major languages in use, the conflicting religions, the many races, it seems incredible that one nation could ever emerge'. Option 2 is author's comment, not Taylor's.

QUESTION: 5

Read the following passage and answer the question.

A decade and a half after Winston Churchill issued warnings, the British left India. A time of barbarism and privation did ensue, the blame for which remains a matter of much dispute. But then some sort of order was restored. No Germans were necessary to keep the peace. Hindu ascendancy, such as it was, was maintained not by force of arms but through regular elections based on universal adult franchise.
Yet, throughout the sixty years since India became independent, there has been speculation about how long it would stay united, or maintain the institutions and processes of democracy. With every death of a prime minister has been predicted the replacement of democracy by military rule; after every failure of the monsoon there has been anticipated countrywide famine; in every new secessionist movement has been seen the disappearance of India as a single entity.
Among these doomsayers there have been many Western writers who, after 1947, were as likely to be American as British. Notably, India's existence has been a puzzle not just to casual observers or commonsensical journalists; it has also been an anomaly for academic political science, according to whose axioms cultural heterogeneity and poverty do not make a nation, still less a democratic one. That India 'could sustain democratic institutions seems, on the face of it, highly improbable', wrote the distinguished political scientist Robert Dahl, adding: 'It lacks all the favourable conditions.' 'India has a well-established reputation for violating social scientific generalizations', wrote another American scholar, adding: 'Nonetheless, the findings of this article furnish grounds for skepticism regarding the viability of democracy in India.'
Here, let me quote only a prediction by a sympathetic visitor, the British journalist Don Taylor. Writing in 1969, by which time India had stayed united for two decades and gone through four general elections, Taylor yet thought that "the key question remains: can India remain in one piece – or will it fragment? . . . When one looks at this vast country and its 524 million people, the 15 major languages in use, the conflicting religions, the many races, it seems incredible that one nation could ever emerge."
The heart hoped that India would survive, but the head worried that it wouldn't. The place was too complicated, too confusing – a nation, one might say, that was unnatural.
In truth, ever since the country was formed there have also been many Indians who have seen the survival of India as being on the line, some speaking or writing in fear, others with anticipation. Like their foreign counterparts, they have come to believe that this place is far too diverse to persist as a nation, and much too poor to endure as a democracy.

Q. Based on information from the passage, which of the following statements is the author likely to agree with?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 3. Based on information from the passage, which discusses India's diversity as a factor that should prevent it from staying unified, we can infer that India has been able to unite all of its different peoples together as a nation. The passage states that India lacks favourable conditions that support democratic institutions, so option 1 cannot be correct. Option 2 is not mentioned in the passage. There is nothing mentioned that India has taken a long time to develop conditions to support democracy, so option 4 is also incorrect.

QUESTION: 6

Read the following passage and answer the question.

A decade and a half after Winston Churchill issued warnings, the British left India. A time of barbarism and privation did ensue, the blame for which remains a matter of much dispute. But then some sort of order was restored. No Germans were necessary to keep the peace. Hindu ascendancy, such as it was, was maintained not by force of arms but through regular elections based on universal adult franchise.
Yet, throughout the sixty years since India became independent, there has been speculation about how long it would stay united, or maintain the institutions and processes of democracy. With every death of a prime minister has been predicted the replacement of democracy by military rule; after every failure of the monsoon there has been anticipated countrywide famine; in every new secessionist movement has been seen the disappearance of India as a single entity.
Among these doomsayers there have been many Western writers who, after 1947, were as likely to be American as British. Notably, India's existence has been a puzzle not just to casual observers or commonsensical journalists; it has also been an anomaly for academic political science, according to whose axioms cultural heterogeneity and poverty do not make a nation, still less a democratic one. That India 'could sustain democratic institutions seems, on the face of it, highly improbable', wrote the distinguished political scientist Robert Dahl, adding: 'It lacks all the favourable conditions.' 'India has a well-established reputation for violating social scientific generalizations', wrote another American scholar, adding: 'Nonetheless, the findings of this article furnish grounds for skepticism regarding the viability of democracy in India.'
Here, let me quote only a prediction by a sympathetic visitor, the British journalist Don Taylor. Writing in 1969, by which time India had stayed united for two decades and gone through four general elections, Taylor yet thought that "the key question remains: can India remain in one piece – or will it fragment? . . . When one looks at this vast country and its 524 million people, the 15 major languages in use, the conflicting religions, the many races, it seems incredible that one nation could ever emerge."
The heart hoped that India would survive, but the head worried that it wouldn't. The place was too complicated, too confusing – a nation, one might say, that was unnatural.
In truth, ever since the country was formed there have also been many Indians who have seen the survival of India as being on the line, some speaking or writing in fear, others with anticipation. Like their foreign counterparts, they have come to believe that this place is far too diverse to persist as a nation, and much too poor to endure as a democracy.

Q. Which of the following is not a correct inference from the given passage?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 3. Based on information from the passage, only option 3 cannot be inferred from the passage. However, the options 1, 2 and 4 contain points that may be correctly inferred from the passage.

QUESTION: 7

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Doctors need to deal constantly with changing situations, both related to medical knowledge and society. They have to keep abreast of the rapidly changing field of medicine, and also grapple with the changing expectations of patients.
Fortunately, today patients are on the whole better informed about illnesses and treatments than they used to be a generation ago; think of your overall awareness about health issues compared to, say, your parents. This positive change should be harnessed so that the doctor and patient/caregiver can work together as an informed team, in dialogue with each other, and choosing the best line of treatment that is appropriate to the patient. However, there is also a flip side to such increased awareness on medical issues. While Google has literally brought us a world of information, this information may not always be of high quality or appropriate to the patient's specific situation. In some situations, patients may access half-baked information off the internet and be convinced that they need to undergo a particular line of treatment.
One of my orthopaedic surgeon friends narrated another case, which exemplifies the changing expectations of patients and the emerging perils of 'internetosis'. He was acquainted with an elderly couple. The woman was in her 60s and had mild arthritis. One day she visited him along with her husband and asked him to talk with their engineer daughter, living in the USA, on the phone. The daughter was aggressive with the doctor, and complained that he was not doing his best to relieve her mother's suffering. She asked for his email ID, as she wanted to send him internet links related to knee replacement surgery. The surgeon calmly and firmly explained that the patient had mild arthritis, which painkillers were working well and if she were to take his advice seriously and start exercising as instructed, the painkillers could be stopped within two months. He refused to operate and asked them to see another doctor if they felt like. But the husband understood his logic, and two months later the old lady visited the him with a bright smile. She had recovered completely.
We need a doctor who would help us to interpret the complex mass of information around us, in the light of our internal values, to take an appropriate decision. We need a doctor who would deliberate with us and would help to bring out the best in ourselves, to choose the healthiest options in life, acting as a friend and guide, not just a detached expert.

Q. Which of the following is most similar to the problem or question the author discusses in the given passage?

Solution:

Only option 3 presents a situation which is described in the passage in detail. The passage describes how when we rely much on information available online and mistrust our own doctors, we could run into problems. Similar situation is described in option 3 where a student believes that he is getting the best information about the language she is pursuing online and therefore mistrusts her teacher's abilities.

QUESTION: 8

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Doctors need to deal constantly with changing situations, both related to medical knowledge and society. They have to keep abreast of the rapidly changing field of medicine, and also grapple with the changing expectations of patients.
Fortunately, today patients are on the whole better informed about illnesses and treatments than they used to be a generation ago; think of your overall awareness about health issues compared to, say, your parents. This positive change should be harnessed so that the doctor and patient/caregiver can work together as an informed team, in dialogue with each other, and choosing the best line of treatment that is appropriate to the patient. However, there is also a flip side to such increased awareness on medical issues. While Google has literally brought us a world of information, this information may not always be of high quality or appropriate to the patient's specific situation. In some situations, patients may access half-baked information off the internet and be convinced that they need to undergo a particular line of treatment.
One of my orthopaedic surgeon friends narrated another case, which exemplifies the changing expectations of patients and the emerging perils of 'internetosis'. He was acquainted with an elderly couple. The woman was in her 60s and had mild arthritis. One day she visited him along with her husband and asked him to talk with their engineer daughter, living in the USA, on the phone. The daughter was aggressive with the doctor, and complained that he was not doing his best to relieve her mother's suffering. She asked for his email ID, as she wanted to send him internet links related to knee replacement surgery. The surgeon calmly and firmly explained that the patient had mild arthritis, which painkillers were working well and if she were to take his advice seriously and start exercising as instructed, the painkillers could be stopped within two months. He refused to operate and asked them to see another doctor if they felt like. But the husband understood his logic, and two months later the old lady visited the him with a bright smile. She had recovered completely.
We need a doctor who would help us to interpret the complex mass of information around us, in the light of our internal values, to take an appropriate decision. We need a doctor who would deliberate with us and would help to bring out the best in ourselves, to choose the healthiest options in life, acting as a friend and guide, not just a detached expert.

Q. Why, according to the author, are people more informed and aware about health issues than their parents were?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 1. This is apparent in the second paragraph: 'While Google has literally brought us a world of information...' and is supported with the author's example in paragraph 3 in which the elderly woman's daughter requests the doctor's email address and presses to send him information regarding knee replacement surgery. Options 2, 3 and 4 are not supported in the passage and cannot be correct.

QUESTION: 9

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Doctors need to deal constantly with changing situations, both related to medical knowledge and society. They have to keep abreast of the rapidly changing field of medicine, and also grapple with the changing expectations of patients.
Fortunately, today patients are on the whole better informed about illnesses and treatments than they used to be a generation ago; think of your overall awareness about health issues compared to, say, your parents. This positive change should be harnessed so that the doctor and patient/caregiver can work together as an informed team, in dialogue with each other, and choosing the best line of treatment that is appropriate to the patient. However, there is also a flip side to such increased awareness on medical issues. While Google has literally brought us a world of information, this information may not always be of high quality or appropriate to the patient's specific situation. In some situations, patients may access half-baked information off the internet and be convinced that they need to undergo a particular line of treatment.
One of my orthopaedic surgeon friends narrated another case, which exemplifies the changing expectations of patients and the emerging perils of 'internetosis'. He was acquainted with an elderly couple. The woman was in her 60s and had mild arthritis. One day she visited him along with her husband and asked him to talk with their engineer daughter, living in the USA, on the phone. The daughter was aggressive with the doctor, and complained that he was not doing his best to relieve her mother's suffering. She asked for his email ID, as she wanted to send him internet links related to knee replacement surgery. The surgeon calmly and firmly explained that the patient had mild arthritis, which painkillers were working well and if she were to take his advice seriously and start exercising as instructed, the painkillers could be stopped within two months. He refused to operate and asked them to see another doctor if they felt like. But the husband understood his logic, and two months later the old lady visited the him with a bright smile. She had recovered completely.
We need a doctor who would help us to interpret the complex mass of information around us, in the light of our internal values, to take an appropriate decision. We need a doctor who would deliberate with us and would help to bring out the best in ourselves, to choose the healthiest options in life, acting as a friend and guide, not just a detached expert.

Q. What, according to the author, is the flipside to increased awareness on medical issues?

Solution:

Option 1 is apparent from the author's example of the elderly woman's daughter in the third paragraph. Option 2 is apparent in the second paragraph: 'In some situations, patients may access half-baked information off the internet and be convinced that they need to undergo a particular line of treatment.' Option 3 is not supported in the passage and so it cannot be correct.

QUESTION: 10

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Doctors need to deal constantly with changing situations, both related to medical knowledge and society. They have to keep abreast of the rapidly changing field of medicine, and also grapple with the changing expectations of patients.
Fortunately, today patients are on the whole better informed about illnesses and treatments than they used to be a generation ago; think of your overall awareness about health issues compared to, say, your parents. This positive change should be harnessed so that the doctor and patient/caregiver can work together as an informed team, in dialogue with each other, and choosing the best line of treatment that is appropriate to the patient. However, there is also a flip side to such increased awareness on medical issues. While Google has literally brought us a world of information, this information may not always be of high quality or appropriate to the patient's specific situation. In some situations, patients may access half-baked information off the internet and be convinced that they need to undergo a particular line of treatment.
One of my orthopaedic surgeon friends narrated another case, which exemplifies the changing expectations of patients and the emerging perils of 'internetosis'. He was acquainted with an elderly couple. The woman was in her 60s and had mild arthritis. One day she visited him along with her husband and asked him to talk with their engineer daughter, living in the USA, on the phone. The daughter was aggressive with the doctor, and complained that he was not doing his best to relieve her mother's suffering. She asked for his email ID, as she wanted to send him internet links related to knee replacement surgery. The surgeon calmly and firmly explained that the patient had mild arthritis, which painkillers were working well and if she were to take his advice seriously and start exercising as instructed, the painkillers could be stopped within two months. He refused to operate and asked them to see another doctor if they felt like. But the husband understood his logic, and two months later the old lady visited the him with a bright smile. She had recovered completely.
We need a doctor who would help us to interpret the complex mass of information around us, in the light of our internal values, to take an appropriate decision. We need a doctor who would deliberate with us and would help to bring out the best in ourselves, to choose the healthiest options in life, acting as a friend and guide, not just a detached expert.

Q. In the context of the given passage, which of the following would be the most appropriate meaning of the term 'internetosis'?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. This is apparent in the first paragraph in which the author discusses Google bringing us information and in the example given in paragraph 2, which is used to illustrate this term.

QUESTION: 11

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Doctors need to deal constantly with changing situations, both related to medical knowledge and society. They have to keep abreast of the rapidly changing field of medicine, and also grapple with the changing expectations of patients.
Fortunately, today patients are on the whole better informed about illnesses and treatments than they used to be a generation ago; think of your overall awareness about health issues compared to, say, your parents. This positive change should be harnessed so that the doctor and patient/caregiver can work together as an informed team, in dialogue with each other, and choosing the best line of treatment that is appropriate to the patient. However, there is also a flip side to such increased awareness on medical issues. While Google has literally brought us a world of information, this information may not always be of high quality or appropriate to the patient's specific situation. In some situations, patients may access half-baked information off the internet and be convinced that they need to undergo a particular line of treatment.
One of my orthopaedic surgeon friends narrated another case, which exemplifies the changing expectations of patients and the emerging perils of 'internetosis'. He was acquainted with an elderly couple. The woman was in her 60s and had mild arthritis. One day she visited him along with her husband and asked him to talk with their engineer daughter, living in the USA, on the phone. The daughter was aggressive with the doctor, and complained that he was not doing his best to relieve her mother's suffering. She asked for his email ID, as she wanted to send him internet links related to knee replacement surgery. The surgeon calmly and firmly explained that the patient had mild arthritis, which painkillers were working well and if she were to take his advice seriously and start exercising as instructed, the painkillers could be stopped within two months. He refused to operate and asked them to see another doctor if they felt like. But the husband understood his logic, and two months later the old lady visited the him with a bright smile. She had recovered completely.
We need a doctor who would help us to interpret the complex mass of information around us, in the light of our internal values, to take an appropriate decision. We need a doctor who would deliberate with us and would help to bring out the best in ourselves, to choose the healthiest options in life, acting as a friend and guide, not just a detached expert.

Q. Why, according to the author, do people need a doctor to interpret health-related information?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 4. This is apparent in the final paragraph: 'We need a doctor who would deliberate with us and would help to bring out the best in ourselves, to choose the healthiest options in life.'

QUESTION: 12

Read the following passage and answer the question.

When the East India Company started conquering and taking control of territories in India, England was not a secular country with a wall of separation between church and state. Instead, the Church of England was the established church in the realm. King Henry VIII established the Church of England, and broke away from the Pope. Since 1520, every ruler of Great Britain bore the official title 'Defender of the Faith'. The 'Act of Supremacy' enacted in 1534 declared that the British monarch was the 'Supreme Head of the Church of England'. The 'Act against the Pope's Authority' in 1536 dissolved the Pope's authority. The Archbishop of Canterbury, or the most senior bishop in the Church of England, and other high-level church officials were all appointed by the government. The incomes of members of the clergy were supported by compulsory tithes or taxes imposed on some agricultural products. New monarchs were crowned by a high-ranking member of the clergy, and senior bishops were represented in the House of Lords.
Similarly, pre-colonial rulers in India were intricately involved in the administration of religious institutions like temples and mosques. In 1790, for instance, Tipu Sultan, the Muslim ruler of Mysore, issued an order to his officials that Hindu temples were under their management, and that they were to ensure that 'the offerings to the gods and the temple illumination are duly regulated ... out of the government grants'. According to one scholar, Tipu Sultan was following 'a pattern imposed by centuries of history' in India.
When the East India Company took over, it continued administering religious institutions that had been managed by prior, pre-colonial governments, partly because it was a good source of revenue and partly because it lent legitimacy to the ruling dispensation.
For instance, in 1796, the British collector of Madras took over the administration of Hindu temples at Conjeevaram (Kanchipuram). The colonial government soon started enacting laws for administering temples and other religious institutions. In 1806, the government issued regulations for the 'superintendence and management' of the Jagannath Temple in modern-day Odisha.
Interestingly, the British referred to this temple as the 'Juggernaut' Temple. The English word 'juggernaut' is derived from this nomenclature, which can probably be attributed to an Anglican chaplain, Reverend Claudius Buchanan. In June 1806, Buchanan was horrified to see a Hindu pilgrim sacrificing himself to the idol at Jagannath. The pilgrim, said Buchanan, lay on the ground with his 'arms stretched forwards' and was 'was crushed to death by the wheels of the tower' carrying the idol. He wrote a book about his experiences at the 'Juggernaut' Temple, which became quite popular.

Q. Why did the author mention King Henry VIII and his acts of establishing the Church of England in the passage?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 3. The author states the development in England to show how its influence even passed to India however such a practice was still in use in the times of pre-colonial rulers. Other options are not why the author states the information given in the first paragraph.

QUESTION: 13

Read the following passage and answer the question.

When the East India Company started conquering and taking control of territories in India, England was not a secular country with a wall of separation between church and state. Instead, the Church of England was the established church in the realm. King Henry VIII established the Church of England, and broke away from the Pope. Since 1520, every ruler of Great Britain bore the official title 'Defender of the Faith'. The 'Act of Supremacy' enacted in 1534 declared that the British monarch was the 'Supreme Head of the Church of England'. The 'Act against the Pope's Authority' in 1536 dissolved the Pope's authority. The Archbishop of Canterbury, or the most senior bishop in the Church of England, and other high-level church officials were all appointed by the government. The incomes of members of the clergy were supported by compulsory tithes or taxes imposed on some agricultural products. New monarchs were crowned by a high-ranking member of the clergy, and senior bishops were represented in the House of Lords.
Similarly, pre-colonial rulers in India were intricately involved in the administration of religious institutions like temples and mosques. In 1790, for instance, Tipu Sultan, the Muslim ruler of Mysore, issued an order to his officials that Hindu temples were under their management, and that they were to ensure that 'the offerings to the gods and the temple illumination are duly regulated ... out of the government grants'. According to one scholar, Tipu Sultan was following 'a pattern imposed by centuries of history' in India.
When the East India Company took over, it continued administering religious institutions that had been managed by prior, pre-colonial governments, partly because it was a good source of revenue and partly because it lent legitimacy to the ruling dispensation.
For instance, in 1796, the British collector of Madras took over the administration of Hindu temples at Conjeevaram (Kanchipuram). The colonial government soon started enacting laws for administering temples and other religious institutions. In 1806, the government issued regulations for the 'superintendence and management' of the Jagannath Temple in modern-day Odisha.
Interestingly, the British referred to this temple as the 'Juggernaut' Temple. The English word 'juggernaut' is derived from this nomenclature, which can probably be attributed to an Anglican chaplain, Reverend Claudius Buchanan. In June 1806, Buchanan was horrified to see a Hindu pilgrim sacrificing himself to the idol at Jagannath. The pilgrim, said Buchanan, lay on the ground with his 'arms stretched forwards' and was 'was crushed to death by the wheels of the tower' carrying the idol. He wrote a book about his experiences at the 'Juggernaut' Temple, which became quite popular.

Q. What does the word 'legitimacy' mean as used in the passage?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. This is indicated by the phrase 'the ruling dispensation' which suggests that such administration will be in line with the prevailing laws that existed under pre-colonial governments.

QUESTION: 14

Read the following passage and answer the question.

When the East India Company started conquering and taking control of territories in India, England was not a secular country with a wall of separation between church and state. Instead, the Church of England was the established church in the realm. King Henry VIII established the Church of England, and broke away from the Pope. Since 1520, every ruler of Great Britain bore the official title 'Defender of the Faith'. The 'Act of Supremacy' enacted in 1534 declared that the British monarch was the 'Supreme Head of the Church of England'. The 'Act against the Pope's Authority' in 1536 dissolved the Pope's authority. The Archbishop of Canterbury, or the most senior bishop in the Church of England, and other high-level church officials were all appointed by the government. The incomes of members of the clergy were supported by compulsory tithes or taxes imposed on some agricultural products. New monarchs were crowned by a high-ranking member of the clergy, and senior bishops were represented in the House of Lords.
Similarly, pre-colonial rulers in India were intricately involved in the administration of religious institutions like temples and mosques. In 1790, for instance, Tipu Sultan, the Muslim ruler of Mysore, issued an order to his officials that Hindu temples were under their management, and that they were to ensure that 'the offerings to the gods and the temple illumination are duly regulated ... out of the government grants'. According to one scholar, Tipu Sultan was following 'a pattern imposed by centuries of history' in India.
When the East India Company took over, it continued administering religious institutions that had been managed by prior, pre-colonial governments, partly because it was a good source of revenue and partly because it lent legitimacy to the ruling dispensation.
For instance, in 1796, the British collector of Madras took over the administration of Hindu temples at Conjeevaram (Kanchipuram). The colonial government soon started enacting laws for administering temples and other religious institutions. In 1806, the government issued regulations for the 'superintendence and management' of the Jagannath Temple in modern-day Odisha.
Interestingly, the British referred to this temple as the 'Juggernaut' Temple. The English word 'juggernaut' is derived from this nomenclature, which can probably be attributed to an Anglican chaplain, Reverend Claudius Buchanan. In June 1806, Buchanan was horrified to see a Hindu pilgrim sacrificing himself to the idol at Jagannath. The pilgrim, said Buchanan, lay on the ground with his 'arms stretched forwards' and was 'was crushed to death by the wheels of the tower' carrying the idol. He wrote a book about his experiences at the 'Juggernaut' Temple, which became quite popular.

Q. According to the passage, which of the following would be considered a part of administration's role in the management of religious institutions?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. This is derived from the first paragraph which states; 'The incomes of members of the clergy were supported by compulsory tithes or taxes imposed on some agricultural products.' Forcibly converting someone of a different faith wouldn't come in administrative duties and is not supported in the passage, so option 1 cannot be correct.

QUESTION: 15

Read the following passage and answer the question.

When the East India Company started conquering and taking control of territories in India, England was not a secular country with a wall of separation between church and state. Instead, the Church of England was the established church in the realm. King Henry VIII established the Church of England, and broke away from the Pope. Since 1520, every ruler of Great Britain bore the official title 'Defender of the Faith'. The 'Act of Supremacy' enacted in 1534 declared that the British monarch was the 'Supreme Head of the Church of England'. The 'Act against the Pope's Authority' in 1536 dissolved the Pope's authority. The Archbishop of Canterbury, or the most senior bishop in the Church of England, and other high-level church officials were all appointed by the government. The incomes of members of the clergy were supported by compulsory tithes or taxes imposed on some agricultural products. New monarchs were crowned by a high-ranking member of the clergy, and senior bishops were represented in the House of Lords.
Similarly, pre-colonial rulers in India were intricately involved in the administration of religious institutions like temples and mosques. In 1790, for instance, Tipu Sultan, the Muslim ruler of Mysore, issued an order to his officials that Hindu temples were under their management, and that they were to ensure that 'the offerings to the gods and the temple illumination are duly regulated ... out of the government grants'. According to one scholar, Tipu Sultan was following 'a pattern imposed by centuries of history' in India.
When the East India Company took over, it continued administering religious institutions that had been managed by prior, pre-colonial governments, partly because it was a good source of revenue and partly because it lent legitimacy to the ruling dispensation.
For instance, in 1796, the British collector of Madras took over the administration of Hindu temples at Conjeevaram (Kanchipuram). The colonial government soon started enacting laws for administering temples and other religious institutions. In 1806, the government issued regulations for the 'superintendence and management' of the Jagannath Temple in modern-day Odisha.
Interestingly, the British referred to this temple as the 'Juggernaut' Temple. The English word 'juggernaut' is derived from this nomenclature, which can probably be attributed to an Anglican chaplain, Reverend Claudius Buchanan. In June 1806, Buchanan was horrified to see a Hindu pilgrim sacrificing himself to the idol at Jagannath. The pilgrim, said Buchanan, lay on the ground with his 'arms stretched forwards' and was 'was crushed to death by the wheels of the tower' carrying the idol. He wrote a book about his experiences at the 'Juggernaut' Temple, which became quite popular.

Q. From the given passage, which of the following can we infer about Claudius Buchanan?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. Because Buchanan was horrified by watching the death of the worshipper, we can infer that he was not expecting to see someone take his own life as part of worship. Other options cannot be derived from the passage and are hence incorrect.

QUESTION: 16

Read the following passage and answer the question.

When the East India Company started conquering and taking control of territories in India, England was not a secular country with a wall of separation between church and state. Instead, the Church of England was the established church in the realm. King Henry VIII established the Church of England, and broke away from the Pope. Since 1520, every ruler of Great Britain bore the official title 'Defender of the Faith'. The 'Act of Supremacy' enacted in 1534 declared that the British monarch was the 'Supreme Head of the Church of England'. The 'Act against the Pope's Authority' in 1536 dissolved the Pope's authority. The Archbishop of Canterbury, or the most senior bishop in the Church of England, and other high-level church officials were all appointed by the government. The incomes of members of the clergy were supported by compulsory tithes or taxes imposed on some agricultural products. New monarchs were crowned by a high-ranking member of the clergy, and senior bishops were represented in the House of Lords.
Similarly, pre-colonial rulers in India were intricately involved in the administration of religious institutions like temples and mosques. In 1790, for instance, Tipu Sultan, the Muslim ruler of Mysore, issued an order to his officials that Hindu temples were under their management, and that they were to ensure that 'the offerings to the gods and the temple illumination are duly regulated ... out of the government grants'. According to one scholar, Tipu Sultan was following 'a pattern imposed by centuries of history' in India.
When the East India Company took over, it continued administering religious institutions that had been managed by prior, pre-colonial governments, partly because it was a good source of revenue and partly because it lent legitimacy to the ruling dispensation.
For instance, in 1796, the British collector of Madras took over the administration of Hindu temples at Conjeevaram (Kanchipuram). The colonial government soon started enacting laws for administering temples and other religious institutions. In 1806, the government issued regulations for the 'superintendence and management' of the Jagannath Temple in modern-day Odisha.
Interestingly, the British referred to this temple as the 'Juggernaut' Temple. The English word 'juggernaut' is derived from this nomenclature, which can probably be attributed to an Anglican chaplain, Reverend Claudius Buchanan. In June 1806, Buchanan was horrified to see a Hindu pilgrim sacrificing himself to the idol at Jagannath. The pilgrim, said Buchanan, lay on the ground with his 'arms stretched forwards' and was 'was crushed to death by the wheels of the tower' carrying the idol. He wrote a book about his experiences at the 'Juggernaut' Temple, which became quite popular.

Q. Which of the following best sums up the author's main point in the passage?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 1. Much of the passage discusses how governments in India have administered religious institutions in India and gives examples of this during pre-colonial times and during British rule. The British importing government administration of religion is negated in the passage, so option 2 cannot be correct. There is nothing to support that the British were following Muslim rulers, so option 3 is also incorrect. Government administration of religious institutions as being wrong is not supported in the passage, so option 4 cannot be correct.

QUESTION: 17

Read the passage and answer the following question.

The key reason for the disagreement between India and China was that contrary to India's perception of matters, the Chinese saw themselves as leaders of the new world order. They therefore expected— indeed demanded—the prestige, respect and servitude that went along with it.
When China overran Tibet, partly as a way of securing its western flank, India did not react. Instead, elephant-like Delhi sat and waited patiently for the aggression to abate.
It did not. Instead, it grew in intensity.
During the 1950s, Chinese premier Zhou Enlai had been on two 'goodwill' visits to India. But Zhou Enlai's polite gestures at diplomatic meetings had not stopped him from laying claim to India's vulnerable northern flanks outside of these discussions: Ladakh and territories in the NEFA, now known as Arunachal Pradesh. Moreover, China was eyeing Barahoti in Uttar Pradesh, just south of Tibet. Indian troops were based there, and when Chinese soldiers tried to cross the southern border into India, the elephant finally protested. But the dragon did not blink.
In the late 1950s, China denounced the McMahon Line, challenging its international validity. At the end of that year, Zhou Enlai visited Nehru in India with soothing words, assuring him that the border issue with Tibet would be resolved peacefully. In that same meeting, China also recognized the Indian boundary with Burma.
By that time, Chinese soldiers were actually in Barahoti and had marched ten miles into Indian territory. The latter had taken too passive a role and now sat helpless as the dragon advanced, fired up. The following year, talks took place between the two countries. China was persuaded to withdraw its military but left its civilians in the territory.
In January 1959, Zhou Enlai formally claimed Ladakh and NEFA for his country, giving orders for his command to be reflected in Chinese maps.
Just four years earlier, India had formally handed over control of communication services in Tibet to China. When the Tibetan Buddhist leader, the Dalai Lama, asked Nehru for refuge in India because of increasing Chinese pressure on him and the Tibetan people, Nehru who was balanced precariously on a political tightrope, chose to side with Peking and refused the request.
By March 1959, the eyes of the world were on the highly charged power plays. Following a crackdown on the Tibetan capital of Lhasa by the People's Liberation Army (PLA), the Dalai Lama managed to escape possible capture and containment. He again sought refuge in India.

Q. What, according to the author, are India and China primarily at odds?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 4. This is apparent from the first paragraph: 'the Chinese saw themselves as leaders of the new world order. They therefore expected-indeed demanded-the prestige, respect and servitude that went along with it.'

QUESTION: 18

Read the passage and answer the following question.

The key reason for the disagreement between India and China was that contrary to India's perception of matters, the Chinese saw themselves as leaders of the new world order. They therefore expected— indeed demanded—the prestige, respect and servitude that went along with it.
When China overran Tibet, partly as a way of securing its western flank, India did not react. Instead, elephant-like Delhi sat and waited patiently for the aggression to abate.
It did not. Instead, it grew in intensity.
During the 1950s, Chinese premier Zhou Enlai had been on two 'goodwill' visits to India. But Zhou Enlai's polite gestures at diplomatic meetings had not stopped him from laying claim to India's vulnerable northern flanks outside of these discussions: Ladakh and territories in the NEFA, now known as Arunachal Pradesh. Moreover, China was eyeing Barahoti in Uttar Pradesh, just south of Tibet. Indian troops were based there, and when Chinese soldiers tried to cross the southern border into India, the elephant finally protested. But the dragon did not blink.
In the late 1950s, China denounced the McMahon Line, challenging its international validity. At the end of that year, Zhou Enlai visited Nehru in India with soothing words, assuring him that the border issue with Tibet would be resolved peacefully. In that same meeting, China also recognized the Indian boundary with Burma.
By that time, Chinese soldiers were actually in Barahoti and had marched ten miles into Indian territory. The latter had taken too passive a role and now sat helpless as the dragon advanced, fired up. The following year, talks took place between the two countries. China was persuaded to withdraw its military but left its civilians in the territory.
In January 1959, Zhou Enlai formally claimed Ladakh and NEFA for his country, giving orders for his command to be reflected in Chinese maps.
Just four years earlier, India had formally handed over control of communication services in Tibet to China. When the Tibetan Buddhist leader, the Dalai Lama, asked Nehru for refuge in India because of increasing Chinese pressure on him and the Tibetan people, Nehru who was balanced precariously on a political tightrope, chose to side with Peking and refused the request.
By March 1959, the eyes of the world were on the highly charged power plays. Following a crackdown on the Tibetan capital of Lhasa by the People's Liberation Army (PLA), the Dalai Lama managed to escape possible capture and containment. He again sought refuge in India.

Q. What does the word 'precariously' as used in the passage mean?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 3. 'Precariously' means to act in a way that is uncertain or dependent on chance. Here, Nehru's action of refusing Dalai Lama to take refuge and side with China are rightly considered to be so.

QUESTION: 19

Read the passage and answer the following question.

The key reason for the disagreement between India and China was that contrary to India's perception of matters, the Chinese saw themselves as leaders of the new world order. They therefore expected— indeed demanded—the prestige, respect and servitude that went along with it.
When China overran Tibet, partly as a way of securing its western flank, India did not react. Instead, elephant-like Delhi sat and waited patiently for the aggression to abate.
It did not. Instead, it grew in intensity.
During the 1950s, Chinese premier Zhou Enlai had been on two 'goodwill' visits to India. But Zhou Enlai's polite gestures at diplomatic meetings had not stopped him from laying claim to India's vulnerable northern flanks outside of these discussions: Ladakh and territories in the NEFA, now known as Arunachal Pradesh. Moreover, China was eyeing Barahoti in Uttar Pradesh, just south of Tibet. Indian troops were based there, and when Chinese soldiers tried to cross the southern border into India, the elephant finally protested. But the dragon did not blink.
In the late 1950s, China denounced the McMahon Line, challenging its international validity. At the end of that year, Zhou Enlai visited Nehru in India with soothing words, assuring him that the border issue with Tibet would be resolved peacefully. In that same meeting, China also recognized the Indian boundary with Burma.
By that time, Chinese soldiers were actually in Barahoti and had marched ten miles into Indian territory. The latter had taken too passive a role and now sat helpless as the dragon advanced, fired up. The following year, talks took place between the two countries. China was persuaded to withdraw its military but left its civilians in the territory.
In January 1959, Zhou Enlai formally claimed Ladakh and NEFA for his country, giving orders for his command to be reflected in Chinese maps.
Just four years earlier, India had formally handed over control of communication services in Tibet to China. When the Tibetan Buddhist leader, the Dalai Lama, asked Nehru for refuge in India because of increasing Chinese pressure on him and the Tibetan people, Nehru who was balanced precariously on a political tightrope, chose to side with Peking and refused the request.
By March 1959, the eyes of the world were on the highly charged power plays. Following a crackdown on the Tibetan capital of Lhasa by the People's Liberation Army (PLA), the Dalai Lama managed to escape possible capture and containment. He again sought refuge in India.

Q. What, according to the passage, is revealed about Enlai's 'goodwill' meetings with India?

Solution:

Option 3 is the correct answer. This is based on the second paragraph in which the author states that India waited patiently and from the fourth paragraph which sarcastically describes the visits as 'polite gestures'. Also in the fifth paragraph, it described Enlai reassuring Nehru about Tibet and the Burma Border, but in the sixth paragraph, it states that Chinese soldiers infiltrated Barahoti. All these mentions about the Chinese infiltration in India could only mean that the so-called 'goodwill' visits were perhaps not what they were deemed to be and hence were deceptive of the Chinese intentions.

QUESTION: 20

Read the passage and answer the following question.

The key reason for the disagreement between India and China was that contrary to India's perception of matters, the Chinese saw themselves as leaders of the new world order. They therefore expected— indeed demanded—the prestige, respect and servitude that went along with it.
When China overran Tibet, partly as a way of securing its western flank, India did not react. Instead, elephant-like Delhi sat and waited patiently for the aggression to abate.
It did not. Instead, it grew in intensity.
During the 1950s, Chinese premier Zhou Enlai had been on two 'goodwill' visits to India. But Zhou Enlai's polite gestures at diplomatic meetings had not stopped him from laying claim to India's vulnerable northern flanks outside of these discussions: Ladakh and territories in the NEFA, now known as Arunachal Pradesh. Moreover, China was eyeing Barahoti in Uttar Pradesh, just south of Tibet. Indian troops were based there, and when Chinese soldiers tried to cross the southern border into India, the elephant finally protested. But the dragon did not blink.
In the late 1950s, China denounced the McMahon Line, challenging its international validity. At the end of that year, Zhou Enlai visited Nehru in India with soothing words, assuring him that the border issue with Tibet would be resolved peacefully. In that same meeting, China also recognized the Indian boundary with Burma.
By that time, Chinese soldiers were actually in Barahoti and had marched ten miles into Indian territory. The latter had taken too passive a role and now sat helpless as the dragon advanced, fired up. The following year, talks took place between the two countries. China was persuaded to withdraw its military but left its civilians in the territory.
In January 1959, Zhou Enlai formally claimed Ladakh and NEFA for his country, giving orders for his command to be reflected in Chinese maps.
Just four years earlier, India had formally handed over control of communication services in Tibet to China. When the Tibetan Buddhist leader, the Dalai Lama, asked Nehru for refuge in India because of increasing Chinese pressure on him and the Tibetan people, Nehru who was balanced precariously on a political tightrope, chose to side with Peking and refused the request.
By March 1959, the eyes of the world were on the highly charged power plays. Following a crackdown on the Tibetan capital of Lhasa by the People's Liberation Army (PLA), the Dalai Lama managed to escape possible capture and containment. He again sought refuge in India.

Q. In the context of the given passage, which of the following could be inferred about India's reactions towards the Chinese attempts to take over Indian parts?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 4. This is mentioned in the following lines: "By that time, Chinese soldiers were actually in Barahoti and had marched ten miles into Indian territory. The latter had taken too passive a role and now sat helpless as the dragon advanced, fired up. The following year, talks took place between the two countries. China was persuaded to withdraw its military but left its civilians in the territory."

QUESTION: 21

Read the passage and answer the following question.

The key reason for the disagreement between India and China was that contrary to India's perception of matters, the Chinese saw themselves as leaders of the new world order. They therefore expected— indeed demanded—the prestige, respect and servitude that went along with it.
When China overran Tibet, partly as a way of securing its western flank, India did not react. Instead, elephant-like Delhi sat and waited patiently for the aggression to abate.
It did not. Instead, it grew in intensity.
During the 1950s, Chinese premier Zhou Enlai had been on two 'goodwill' visits to India. But Zhou Enlai's polite gestures at diplomatic meetings had not stopped him from laying claim to India's vulnerable northern flanks outside of these discussions: Ladakh and territories in the NEFA, now known as Arunachal Pradesh. Moreover, China was eyeing Barahoti in Uttar Pradesh, just south of Tibet. Indian troops were based there, and when Chinese soldiers tried to cross the southern border into India, the elephant finally protested. But the dragon did not blink.
In the late 1950s, China denounced the McMahon Line, challenging its international validity. At the end of that year, Zhou Enlai visited Nehru in India with soothing words, assuring him that the border issue with Tibet would be resolved peacefully. In that same meeting, China also recognized the Indian boundary with Burma.
By that time, Chinese soldiers were actually in Barahoti and had marched ten miles into Indian territory. The latter had taken too passive a role and now sat helpless as the dragon advanced, fired up. The following year, talks took place between the two countries. China was persuaded to withdraw its military but left its civilians in the territory.
In January 1959, Zhou Enlai formally claimed Ladakh and NEFA for his country, giving orders for his command to be reflected in Chinese maps.
Just four years earlier, India had formally handed over control of communication services in Tibet to China. When the Tibetan Buddhist leader, the Dalai Lama, asked Nehru for refuge in India because of increasing Chinese pressure on him and the Tibetan people, Nehru who was balanced precariously on a political tightrope, chose to side with Peking and refused the request.
By March 1959, the eyes of the world were on the highly charged power plays. Following a crackdown on the Tibetan capital of Lhasa by the People's Liberation Army (PLA), the Dalai Lama managed to escape possible capture and containment. He again sought refuge in India.

Q. Which of the following can be correctly inferred from the given passage?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. This is apparent in the description of the passage in which China claimed Ladakah and Arunachal Pradesh as well as Barahoti. This is further supported with the Chinese invasion of Barahoti and the Chinese denouncement of the McMahon Line. Options 1, 3 and 4 are not supported in the passage and cannot be correct.

QUESTION: 22

Read the following passage and answer the question.

If you're a girl in Heaven, you don't get out much. When we leave, it's to go to the post office to fill out the deposit forms for our mothers' government-scheme bank accounts, or to the market where we've been sent for onions or tomatoes.
Makes it hard to remember that there is a world out there that is not the same as ours.
Joy goes out even less than the rest of us. When she leaves the muddy paths of Heaven, she leaves more than just tin roofs and hospital sludge. She leaves a fortress, a kingdom she built herself. Subject by subject, brick by brick.
Last year, when the health worker put Joy on the scale and told her she was underweight (just like the rest of us), Selvi Aunty took her to the hospital to get the iron pills the government is distributing to adolescent girls.
When the nurse asked for Joy's paperwork, Selvi Aunty handed over her birth certificate.
"Beti, I think you brought the wrong one," the nurse said. Purple lab coat over a red-checkered sari. North Indian convent-school voice coated with the congratulations she must get for helping backward women, starving girls.
"This looks like it's for your son. Do you have a child named Anand?"
"That's right," Selvi Aunty said. Joy sat straight backed and stone-faced, a granite statuette.
"This is Anand. He's Joy now."
"This is Anand?" the nurse asked.
"Yes," Selvi Aunty said. "We were reborn. As Christians. Anand has become Joy."
"Really, you people will stop at nothing for government hand-outs," the nurse said.
"What do you mean?" Selvi Aunty asked. Joy, though, pressed the balls of her feet into the ground, readying herself to leave.
"Like you don't know," the nurse said. "This scheme is for girls! The lengths you'll go to for some extra rations. Really. Get a job."
"I have a job," Selvi Aunty said. "Four jobs at four different houses. And Joy is a girl. But anyway, what does it matter? She's underweight. The health worker said so. What's that word? Malnourished."
"I can't help you," the nurse said, waving her off. "Take your son elsewhere. And put some proper clothes on him."
Joy stood up then. Regally declared, "Come on, Amma. Don't bother with this woman."
But Selvi Aunty wasn't done yet. She leaned across the table and stared into the nurse's eyes like a cobra hypnotizing its prey.
"Not my son," she said quietly. "My daughter. Who is ten times the woman you will ever be."

Q. As mentioned in the passage, why does Aunty Selvi take Joy to the hospital?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. This is stated in this line: "Last year, when the health worker put Joy on the scale and told her she was underweight (just like the rest of us), Selvi Aunty took her to the hospital to get the iron pills the government is distributing to adolescent girls."

QUESTION: 23

Read the following passage and answer the question.

If you're a girl in Heaven, you don't get out much. When we leave, it's to go to the post office to fill out the deposit forms for our mothers' government-scheme bank accounts, or to the market where we've been sent for onions or tomatoes.
Makes it hard to remember that there is a world out there that is not the same as ours.
Joy goes out even less than the rest of us. When she leaves the muddy paths of Heaven, she leaves more than just tin roofs and hospital sludge. She leaves a fortress, a kingdom she built herself. Subject by subject, brick by brick.
Last year, when the health worker put Joy on the scale and told her she was underweight (just like the rest of us), Selvi Aunty took her to the hospital to get the iron pills the government is distributing to adolescent girls.
When the nurse asked for Joy's paperwork, Selvi Aunty handed over her birth certificate.
"Beti, I think you brought the wrong one," the nurse said. Purple lab coat over a red-checkered sari. North Indian convent-school voice coated with the congratulations she must get for helping backward women, starving girls.
"This looks like it's for your son. Do you have a child named Anand?"
"That's right," Selvi Aunty said. Joy sat straight backed and stone-faced, a granite statuette.
"This is Anand. He's Joy now."
"This is Anand?" the nurse asked.
"Yes," Selvi Aunty said. "We were reborn. As Christians. Anand has become Joy."
"Really, you people will stop at nothing for government hand-outs," the nurse said.
"What do you mean?" Selvi Aunty asked. Joy, though, pressed the balls of her feet into the ground, readying herself to leave.
"Like you don't know," the nurse said. "This scheme is for girls! The lengths you'll go to for some extra rations. Really. Get a job."
"I have a job," Selvi Aunty said. "Four jobs at four different houses. And Joy is a girl. But anyway, what does it matter? She's underweight. The health worker said so. What's that word? Malnourished."
"I can't help you," the nurse said, waving her off. "Take your son elsewhere. And put some proper clothes on him."
Joy stood up then. Regally declared, "Come on, Amma. Don't bother with this woman."
But Selvi Aunty wasn't done yet. She leaned across the table and stared into the nurse's eyes like a cobra hypnotizing its prey.
"Not my son," she said quietly. "My daughter. Who is ten times the woman you will ever be."

Q. Which of the following can be inferred as the reason why Joy used to go out less often than most of us?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 3. The author states the hospital incident as an example of the challenges that Joy has to face in her everyday life. When the author says that she goes out less often than most of us she implies that she is comfortable with her life at her home where nobody questions her. When she steps out, she faces experiences similar to the one she did at the hospital.

QUESTION: 24

Read the following passage and answer the question.

If you're a girl in Heaven, you don't get out much. When we leave, it's to go to the post office to fill out the deposit forms for our mothers' government-scheme bank accounts, or to the market where we've been sent for onions or tomatoes.
Makes it hard to remember that there is a world out there that is not the same as ours.
Joy goes out even less than the rest of us. When she leaves the muddy paths of Heaven, she leaves more than just tin roofs and hospital sludge. She leaves a fortress, a kingdom she built herself. Subject by subject, brick by brick.
Last year, when the health worker put Joy on the scale and told her she was underweight (just like the rest of us), Selvi Aunty took her to the hospital to get the iron pills the government is distributing to adolescent girls.
When the nurse asked for Joy's paperwork, Selvi Aunty handed over her birth certificate.
"Beti, I think you brought the wrong one," the nurse said. Purple lab coat over a red-checkered sari. North Indian convent-school voice coated with the congratulations she must get for helping backward women, starving girls.
"This looks like it's for your son. Do you have a child named Anand?"
"That's right," Selvi Aunty said. Joy sat straight backed and stone-faced, a granite statuette.
"This is Anand. He's Joy now."
"This is Anand?" the nurse asked.
"Yes," Selvi Aunty said. "We were reborn. As Christians. Anand has become Joy."
"Really, you people will stop at nothing for government hand-outs," the nurse said.
"What do you mean?" Selvi Aunty asked. Joy, though, pressed the balls of her feet into the ground, readying herself to leave.
"Like you don't know," the nurse said. "This scheme is for girls! The lengths you'll go to for some extra rations. Really. Get a job."
"I have a job," Selvi Aunty said. "Four jobs at four different houses. And Joy is a girl. But anyway, what does it matter? She's underweight. The health worker said so. What's that word? Malnourished."
"I can't help you," the nurse said, waving her off. "Take your son elsewhere. And put some proper clothes on him."
Joy stood up then. Regally declared, "Come on, Amma. Don't bother with this woman."
But Selvi Aunty wasn't done yet. She leaned across the table and stared into the nurse's eyes like a cobra hypnotizing its prey.
"Not my son," she said quietly. "My daughter. Who is ten times the woman you will ever be."

Q. Based on the information set out in the passage, which of the following is most accurate?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 4. As per the author's description in the passage, we can infer that Selvi Aunty is extremely protective of Joy. This comes from her concern of the child, her treating Joy as she believes herself to be (a girl), her fighting with the nurse when he passes comments on the child. Other options cannot be inferred from the passage.

QUESTION: 25

Read the following passage and answer the question.

If you're a girl in Heaven, you don't get out much. When we leave, it's to go to the post office to fill out the deposit forms for our mothers' government-scheme bank accounts, or to the market where we've been sent for onions or tomatoes.
Makes it hard to remember that there is a world out there that is not the same as ours.
Joy goes out even less than the rest of us. When she leaves the muddy paths of Heaven, she leaves more than just tin roofs and hospital sludge. She leaves a fortress, a kingdom she built herself. Subject by subject, brick by brick.
Last year, when the health worker put Joy on the scale and told her she was underweight (just like the rest of us), Selvi Aunty took her to the hospital to get the iron pills the government is distributing to adolescent girls.
When the nurse asked for Joy's paperwork, Selvi Aunty handed over her birth certificate.
"Beti, I think you brought the wrong one," the nurse said. Purple lab coat over a red-checkered sari. North Indian convent-school voice coated with the congratulations she must get for helping backward women, starving girls.
"This looks like it's for your son. Do you have a child named Anand?"
"That's right," Selvi Aunty said. Joy sat straight backed and stone-faced, a granite statuette.
"This is Anand. He's Joy now."
"This is Anand?" the nurse asked.
"Yes," Selvi Aunty said. "We were reborn. As Christians. Anand has become Joy."
"Really, you people will stop at nothing for government hand-outs," the nurse said.
"What do you mean?" Selvi Aunty asked. Joy, though, pressed the balls of her feet into the ground, readying herself to leave.
"Like you don't know," the nurse said. "This scheme is for girls! The lengths you'll go to for some extra rations. Really. Get a job."
"I have a job," Selvi Aunty said. "Four jobs at four different houses. And Joy is a girl. But anyway, what does it matter? She's underweight. The health worker said so. What's that word? Malnourished."
"I can't help you," the nurse said, waving her off. "Take your son elsewhere. And put some proper clothes on him."
Joy stood up then. Regally declared, "Come on, Amma. Don't bother with this woman."
But Selvi Aunty wasn't done yet. She leaned across the table and stared into the nurse's eyes like a cobra hypnotizing its prey.
"Not my son," she said quietly. "My daughter. Who is ten times the woman you will ever be."

Q. What does the word 'backward' as used in the passage mean?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 3. This is derived from the 3rd paragraph which states; 'tin roofs and hospital sludge' we get the sense that Joy and her family are poor. Moreover, this is reinforced by the fact that she went to get iron pills from a government programme and further supported by the nurse's statement of 'you people will stop at nothing for government hand-outs.' Given this meaning and context, all the options 1, 2 and 4 cannot be correct.

QUESTION: 26

Read the following passage and answer the question.

If you're a girl in Heaven, you don't get out much. When we leave, it's to go to the post office to fill out the deposit forms for our mothers' government-scheme bank accounts, or to the market where we've been sent for onions or tomatoes.
Makes it hard to remember that there is a world out there that is not the same as ours.
Joy goes out even less than the rest of us. When she leaves the muddy paths of Heaven, she leaves more than just tin roofs and hospital sludge. She leaves a fortress, a kingdom she built herself. Subject by subject, brick by brick.
Last year, when the health worker put Joy on the scale and told her she was underweight (just like the rest of us), Selvi Aunty took her to the hospital to get the iron pills the government is distributing to adolescent girls.
When the nurse asked for Joy's paperwork, Selvi Aunty handed over her birth certificate.
"Beti, I think you brought the wrong one," the nurse said. Purple lab coat over a red-checkered sari. North Indian convent-school voice coated with the congratulations she must get for helping backward women, starving girls.
"This looks like it's for your son. Do you have a child named Anand?"
"That's right," Selvi Aunty said. Joy sat straight backed and stone-faced, a granite statuette.
"This is Anand. He's Joy now."
"This is Anand?" the nurse asked.
"Yes," Selvi Aunty said. "We were reborn. As Christians. Anand has become Joy."
"Really, you people will stop at nothing for government hand-outs," the nurse said.
"What do you mean?" Selvi Aunty asked. Joy, though, pressed the balls of her feet into the ground, readying herself to leave.
"Like you don't know," the nurse said. "This scheme is for girls! The lengths you'll go to for some extra rations. Really. Get a job."
"I have a job," Selvi Aunty said. "Four jobs at four different houses. And Joy is a girl. But anyway, what does it matter? She's underweight. The health worker said so. What's that word? Malnourished."
"I can't help you," the nurse said, waving her off. "Take your son elsewhere. And put some proper clothes on him."
Joy stood up then. Regally declared, "Come on, Amma. Don't bother with this woman."
But Selvi Aunty wasn't done yet. She leaned across the table and stared into the nurse's eyes like a cobra hypnotizing its prey.
"Not my son," she said quietly. "My daughter. Who is ten times the woman you will ever be."

Q. From the given passage, which of the following can we infer about Selvi Aunty?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 1. This is based on the final paragraphs in which she stared hostilely into the nurse's eyes and then declared that Joy was a girl. From this, we can conclude that Selvi Aunty is convinced that Joy is a girl. This is further supported during the conversation with the nurse in which she continually asserts that Joy is a girl.

QUESTION: 27

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Let's start with me: I'm not sure how or if I'd still be a writer without the help of other people's money. I have zero undergrad debt. Of my three years of grad school, two of them were funded through a teaching fellowship; my parents helped pay for the first. The last two years my stipend barely covered the childcare I needed to travel uptown three days a week to teach and go to class and my husband's job is what kept us afloat.
I got connections from that program. I got my agent through the recommendation of a professor. Nearly every year since I graduated from that program, I have been employed by them. The thing I'm most sure I had though, that was a direct result of my extraordinary privilege, is the blindness with which I bounded toward this profession, the not knowing, because I had never felt, until I was a grownup, the very real and bone-deep fear of not knowing how you'll live from month to month.
Once, before a debut novelist panel geared specifically to aspiring writers, one of the novelists with whom I was set to speak mentioned to me that they'd hired a private publicist to promote their book. They told me it cost nearly their whole advance but was worth it, they said, because this private publicist got them on a widely watched talk-show. During this panel, this writer mentioned to the crowd at one point that they "wrote and taught exclusively", and I kept my eyes on my hands folded in my lap.
On Instagram and Twitter there are writers who "write full time" also. They post pictures of their desk or their pens and talk about "process". For my students, for all the people I see out there, trying to break in or through and watching, envious, I want to attach to these statements and these Instagram posts, a caveat that says the writing isn't what is keeping this person safe and clothed and fed.
According to a 2018 Author's Guild Study the median income of all published authors for all writing related activity was $6,080 in 2017, down from $10,500 in 2009; while the median income for all published authors based solely on book-related activities went from $3,900 to $3,100, down 21%. Roughly 25% of authors earned $0 in income in 2017.
When students ask me for advice with regard to how to "make it as a writer", I tell them to get a job that also gives them time and space somehow to write; I tell them find a job that, if they still have it 10 years from now, it wouldn't make them sad. I worry often that they think this means I don't think their work is worthy; that I don't believe they'll make it in the way that they imagine making it, but this advice is me trying help them sustain themselves enough to make the work I know they can.

Q. Which of the following can rightly be inferred about the author?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 3. This is apparent in the fifth paragraph in which the author describes how much full-time writers actually make out of their writing as well as in the final paragraph in which the author states that she tells her students to find a job that allows time for writing.

QUESTION: 28

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Let's start with me: I'm not sure how or if I'd still be a writer without the help of other people's money. I have zero undergrad debt. Of my three years of grad school, two of them were funded through a teaching fellowship; my parents helped pay for the first. The last two years my stipend barely covered the childcare I needed to travel uptown three days a week to teach and go to class and my husband's job is what kept us afloat.
I got connections from that program. I got my agent through the recommendation of a professor. Nearly every year since I graduated from that program, I have been employed by them. The thing I'm most sure I had though, that was a direct result of my extraordinary privilege, is the blindness with which I bounded toward this profession, the not knowing, because I had never felt, until I was a grownup, the very real and bone-deep fear of not knowing how you'll live from month to month.
Once, before a debut novelist panel geared specifically to aspiring writers, one of the novelists with whom I was set to speak mentioned to me that they'd hired a private publicist to promote their book. They told me it cost nearly their whole advance but was worth it, they said, because this private publicist got them on a widely watched talk-show. During this panel, this writer mentioned to the crowd at one point that they "wrote and taught exclusively", and I kept my eyes on my hands folded in my lap.
On Instagram and Twitter there are writers who "write full time" also. They post pictures of their desk or their pens and talk about "process". For my students, for all the people I see out there, trying to break in or through and watching, envious, I want to attach to these statements and these Instagram posts, a caveat that says the writing isn't what is keeping this person safe and clothed and fed.
According to a 2018 Author's Guild Study the median income of all published authors for all writing related activity was $6,080 in 2017, down from $10,500 in 2009; while the median income for all published authors based solely on book-related activities went from $3,900 to $3,100, down 21%. Roughly 25% of authors earned $0 in income in 2017.
When students ask me for advice with regard to how to "make it as a writer", I tell them to get a job that also gives them time and space somehow to write; I tell them find a job that, if they still have it 10 years from now, it wouldn't make them sad. I worry often that they think this means I don't think their work is worthy; that I don't believe they'll make it in the way that they imagine making it, but this advice is me trying help them sustain themselves enough to make the work I know they can.

Q. What is implied by the author about the blindness she had about becoming a writer?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. This is evident from the second paragraph which states: "because I had never felt, until I was a grownup, the very real and bone-deep fear of not knowing how you'll live from month to month", which suggests that writing is a profession which a person cannot earn much of a living.

QUESTION: 29

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Let's start with me: I'm not sure how or if I'd still be a writer without the help of other people's money. I have zero undergrad debt. Of my three years of grad school, two of them were funded through a teaching fellowship; my parents helped pay for the first. The last two years my stipend barely covered the childcare I needed to travel uptown three days a week to teach and go to class and my husband's job is what kept us afloat.
I got connections from that program. I got my agent through the recommendation of a professor. Nearly every year since I graduated from that program, I have been employed by them. The thing I'm most sure I had though, that was a direct result of my extraordinary privilege, is the blindness with which I bounded toward this profession, the not knowing, because I had never felt, until I was a grownup, the very real and bone-deep fear of not knowing how you'll live from month to month.
Once, before a debut novelist panel geared specifically to aspiring writers, one of the novelists with whom I was set to speak mentioned to me that they'd hired a private publicist to promote their book. They told me it cost nearly their whole advance but was worth it, they said, because this private publicist got them on a widely watched talk-show. During this panel, this writer mentioned to the crowd at one point that they "wrote and taught exclusively", and I kept my eyes on my hands folded in my lap.
On Instagram and Twitter there are writers who "write full time" also. They post pictures of their desk or their pens and talk about "process". For my students, for all the people I see out there, trying to break in or through and watching, envious, I want to attach to these statements and these Instagram posts, a caveat that says the writing isn't what is keeping this person safe and clothed and fed.
According to a 2018 Author's Guild Study the median income of all published authors for all writing related activity was $6,080 in 2017, down from $10,500 in 2009; while the median income for all published authors based solely on book-related activities went from $3,900 to $3,100, down 21%. Roughly 25% of authors earned $0 in income in 2017.
When students ask me for advice with regard to how to "make it as a writer", I tell them to get a job that also gives them time and space somehow to write; I tell them find a job that, if they still have it 10 years from now, it wouldn't make them sad. I worry often that they think this means I don't think their work is worthy; that I don't believe they'll make it in the way that they imagine making it, but this advice is me trying help them sustain themselves enough to make the work I know they can.

Q. What does the word 'caveat' as used in the passage mean?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 1. 'Caveat' is a warning or proviso of specific stipulations, conditions, or limitations. Here, the author tries to give advice to her students along with a warning.

QUESTION: 30

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Let's start with me: I'm not sure how or if I'd still be a writer without the help of other people's money. I have zero undergrad debt. Of my three years of grad school, two of them were funded through a teaching fellowship; my parents helped pay for the first. The last two years my stipend barely covered the childcare I needed to travel uptown three days a week to teach and go to class and my husband's job is what kept us afloat.
I got connections from that program. I got my agent through the recommendation of a professor. Nearly every year since I graduated from that program, I have been employed by them. The thing I'm most sure I had though, that was a direct result of my extraordinary privilege, is the blindness with which I bounded toward this profession, the not knowing, because I had never felt, until I was a grownup, the very real and bone-deep fear of not knowing how you'll live from month to month.
Once, before a debut novelist panel geared specifically to aspiring writers, one of the novelists with whom I was set to speak mentioned to me that they'd hired a private publicist to promote their book. They told me it cost nearly their whole advance but was worth it, they said, because this private publicist got them on a widely watched talk-show. During this panel, this writer mentioned to the crowd at one point that they "wrote and taught exclusively", and I kept my eyes on my hands folded in my lap.
On Instagram and Twitter there are writers who "write full time" also. They post pictures of their desk or their pens and talk about "process". For my students, for all the people I see out there, trying to break in or through and watching, envious, I want to attach to these statements and these Instagram posts, a caveat that says the writing isn't what is keeping this person safe and clothed and fed.
According to a 2018 Author's Guild Study the median income of all published authors for all writing related activity was $6,080 in 2017, down from $10,500 in 2009; while the median income for all published authors based solely on book-related activities went from $3,900 to $3,100, down 21%. Roughly 25% of authors earned $0 in income in 2017.
When students ask me for advice with regard to how to "make it as a writer", I tell them to get a job that also gives them time and space somehow to write; I tell them find a job that, if they still have it 10 years from now, it wouldn't make them sad. I worry often that they think this means I don't think their work is worthy; that I don't believe they'll make it in the way that they imagine making it, but this advice is me trying help them sustain themselves enough to make the work I know they can.

Q. Why does the writer mention about one of the writers on the panel who states that they 'wrote and taught exclusively'?

Solution:

The author throughout the passage describes how it is not possible to survive just by writing books and that one needs to have a stable job that would provide for one's needs. She describes this in line: "For my students, for all the people I see out there, trying to break in or through and watching, envious, I want to attach to these statements and these Instagram posts, a caveat that says the writing isn't what is keeping this person safe and clothed and fed." By stating the example of the authors in the panel, she is asking her readers to be wary of such authors who claim that they survive themselves by teaching and writing exclusively.

QUESTION: 31

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Let's start with me: I'm not sure how or if I'd still be a writer without the help of other people's money. I have zero undergrad debt. Of my three years of grad school, two of them were funded through a teaching fellowship; my parents helped pay for the first. The last two years my stipend barely covered the childcare I needed to travel uptown three days a week to teach and go to class and my husband's job is what kept us afloat.
I got connections from that program. I got my agent through the recommendation of a professor. Nearly every year since I graduated from that program, I have been employed by them. The thing I'm most sure I had though, that was a direct result of my extraordinary privilege, is the blindness with which I bounded toward this profession, the not knowing, because I had never felt, until I was a grownup, the very real and bone-deep fear of not knowing how you'll live from month to month.
Once, before a debut novelist panel geared specifically to aspiring writers, one of the novelists with whom I was set to speak mentioned to me that they'd hired a private publicist to promote their book. They told me it cost nearly their whole advance but was worth it, they said, because this private publicist got them on a widely watched talk-show. During this panel, this writer mentioned to the crowd at one point that they "wrote and taught exclusively", and I kept my eyes on my hands folded in my lap.
On Instagram and Twitter there are writers who "write full time" also. They post pictures of their desk or their pens and talk about "process". For my students, for all the people I see out there, trying to break in or through and watching, envious, I want to attach to these statements and these Instagram posts, a caveat that says the writing isn't what is keeping this person safe and clothed and fed.
According to a 2018 Author's Guild Study the median income of all published authors for all writing related activity was $6,080 in 2017, down from $10,500 in 2009; while the median income for all published authors based solely on book-related activities went from $3,900 to $3,100, down 21%. Roughly 25% of authors earned $0 in income in 2017.
When students ask me for advice with regard to how to "make it as a writer", I tell them to get a job that also gives them time and space somehow to write; I tell them find a job that, if they still have it 10 years from now, it wouldn't make them sad. I worry often that they think this means I don't think their work is worthy; that I don't believe they'll make it in the way that they imagine making it, but this advice is me trying help them sustain themselves enough to make the work I know they can.

Q. Which of the following best sums up the author's main point in the passage?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. This is supported the second paragraph of the passage as well as the description of how much writers have actually made and closes with the author's advice for students to get a job that will accommodate their writing.

QUESTION: 32

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

In September 2019, the Supreme Court described {X} as a "shining example" with a Uniform Civil Code, and observed that the founders of the Constitution had "hoped and expected" a Uniform Civil Code for India but there has been no attempt at framing one.
A Uniform Civil Code is one that would provide for one law for the entire country, applicable to all religious communities in their personal matters such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, adoption, etc. {Y} of the Constitution lays down that the state shall endeavour to secure a Uniform Civil Code for the citizens throughout the territory of India.
{Y} is one of the directive principles. These, as defined in Article 37, are not justifiable (not enforceable by any court) but the principles laid down therein are fundamental in governance. Fundamental rights are enforceable in a court of law. While {Y} uses the words "state shall endeavour", other Articles in the 'Directive Principles' chapter use words such as "in particular strive"; "shall in particular direct its policy"; "shall be obligation of the state", etc. Article 43 mentions "state shall endeavour by suitable legislation", while the phrase "by suitable legislation" is absent in {Y}. All this implies that the duty of the state is greater in other directive principles than in {Y}.
There is no doubt that fundamental rights are more important. The Supreme Court held in Minerva Mills (1980): "Indian Constitution is founded on the bed-rock of the balance between Parts III (Fundamental Rights) and IV (Directive Principles). To give absolute primacy to one over the other is to disturb the harmony of the Constitution". Article 31C inserted by the 42nd Amendment in 1976, however, lays down that if a law is made to implement any directive principle, it cannot be challenged on the ground of being violative of the fundamental rights under Articles 14{1} and 19.
Indian laws do follow a uniform code in most civil matters – however, they have made hundreds of amendments and therefore in certain matters, there is diversity even under these secular civil laws. Recently, several states refused to be governed by the uniform Motor Vehicles Act, 2019.
If the framers of the Constitution had intended to have a Uniform Civil Code, they would have given exclusive jurisdiction to Parliament in respect of personal laws, by including this subject in the Union List. But "personal laws" are mentioned in the Concurrent List. Last year, the Law Commission concluded that a Uniform Civil Code is neither feasible nor desirable.

Q. Which state/UT has been redacted with {X}?

Solution:

Goa is the only state in India that has a Uniform Civil Code regardless of religion, gender and caste. Goa has a common family law. In Goa, Hindu, Muslim and Christians all are bound with the same law related to marriage, divorce and succession.

QUESTION: 33

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

In September 2019, the Supreme Court described {X} as a "shining example" with a Uniform Civil Code, and observed that the founders of the Constitution had "hoped and expected" a Uniform Civil Code for India but there has been no attempt at framing one.
A Uniform Civil Code is one that would provide for one law for the entire country, applicable to all religious communities in their personal matters such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, adoption, etc. {Y} of the Constitution lays down that the state shall endeavour to secure a Uniform Civil Code for the citizens throughout the territory of India.
{Y} is one of the directive principles. These, as defined in Article 37, are not justifiable (not enforceable by any court) but the principles laid down therein are fundamental in governance. Fundamental rights are enforceable in a court of law. While {Y} uses the words "state shall endeavour", other Articles in the 'Directive Principles' chapter use words such as "in particular strive"; "shall in particular direct its policy"; "shall be obligation of the state", etc. Article 43 mentions "state shall endeavour by suitable legislation", while the phrase "by suitable legislation" is absent in {Y}. All this implies that the duty of the state is greater in other directive principles than in {Y}.
There is no doubt that fundamental rights are more important. The Supreme Court held in Minerva Mills (1980): "Indian Constitution is founded on the bed-rock of the balance between Parts III (Fundamental Rights) and IV (Directive Principles). To give absolute primacy to one over the other is to disturb the harmony of the Constitution". Article 31C inserted by the 42nd Amendment in 1976, however, lays down that if a law is made to implement any directive principle, it cannot be challenged on the ground of being violative of the fundamental rights under Articles 14{1} and 19.
Indian laws do follow a uniform code in most civil matters – however, they have made hundreds of amendments and therefore in certain matters, there is diversity even under these secular civil laws. Recently, several states refused to be governed by the uniform Motor Vehicles Act, 2019.
If the framers of the Constitution had intended to have a Uniform Civil Code, they would have given exclusive jurisdiction to Parliament in respect of personal laws, by including this subject in the Union List. But "personal laws" are mentioned in the Concurrent List. Last year, the Law Commission concluded that a Uniform Civil Code is neither feasible nor desirable.

Q. Which has been redacted with {Y}?

Solution:

Uniform Civil Code (UCC) is defined in our Constitution under Article 44 of Directive Principles of State Policy. It states that it is the duty of the state to secure for the citizens a Uniform Civil Code throughout the territory of India. In other words, we can say that it means "one country one rule".

QUESTION: 34

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

In September 2019, the Supreme Court described {X} as a "shining example" with a Uniform Civil Code, and observed that the founders of the Constitution had "hoped and expected" a Uniform Civil Code for India but there has been no attempt at framing one.
A Uniform Civil Code is one that would provide for one law for the entire country, applicable to all religious communities in their personal matters such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, adoption, etc. {Y} of the Constitution lays down that the state shall endeavour to secure a Uniform Civil Code for the citizens throughout the territory of India.
{Y} is one of the directive principles. These, as defined in Article 37, are not justifiable (not enforceable by any court) but the principles laid down therein are fundamental in governance. Fundamental rights are enforceable in a court of law. While {Y} uses the words "state shall endeavour", other Articles in the 'Directive Principles' chapter use words such as "in particular strive"; "shall in particular direct its policy"; "shall be obligation of the state", etc. Article 43 mentions "state shall endeavour by suitable legislation", while the phrase "by suitable legislation" is absent in {Y}. All this implies that the duty of the state is greater in other directive principles than in {Y}.
There is no doubt that fundamental rights are more important. The Supreme Court held in Minerva Mills (1980): "Indian Constitution is founded on the bed-rock of the balance between Parts III (Fundamental Rights) and IV (Directive Principles). To give absolute primacy to one over the other is to disturb the harmony of the Constitution". Article 31C inserted by the 42nd Amendment in 1976, however, lays down that if a law is made to implement any directive principle, it cannot be challenged on the ground of being violative of the fundamental rights under Articles 14{1} and 19.
Indian laws do follow a uniform code in most civil matters – however, they have made hundreds of amendments and therefore in certain matters, there is diversity even under these secular civil laws. Recently, several states refused to be governed by the uniform Motor Vehicles Act, 2019.
If the framers of the Constitution had intended to have a Uniform Civil Code, they would have given exclusive jurisdiction to Parliament in respect of personal laws, by including this subject in the Union List. But "personal laws" are mentioned in the Concurrent List. Last year, the Law Commission concluded that a Uniform Civil Code is neither feasible nor desirable.

Q. What does the Article mentioned against {1} of the Indian Constitution state/govern?

Solution:

Article 14 guarantees to all persons equality before the law and equal protection of the laws. Articles 19, 20, 21 and 22 are grouped under the broad heading 'Right to Freedom'.

QUESTION: 35

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

In September 2019, the Supreme Court described {X} as a "shining example" with a Uniform Civil Code, and observed that the founders of the Constitution had "hoped and expected" a Uniform Civil Code for India but there has been no attempt at framing one.
A Uniform Civil Code is one that would provide for one law for the entire country, applicable to all religious communities in their personal matters such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, adoption, etc. {Y} of the Constitution lays down that the state shall endeavour to secure a Uniform Civil Code for the citizens throughout the territory of India.
{Y} is one of the directive principles. These, as defined in Article 37, are not justifiable (not enforceable by any court) but the principles laid down therein are fundamental in governance. Fundamental rights are enforceable in a court of law. While {Y} uses the words "state shall endeavour", other Articles in the 'Directive Principles' chapter use words such as "in particular strive"; "shall in particular direct its policy"; "shall be obligation of the state", etc. Article 43 mentions "state shall endeavour by suitable legislation", while the phrase "by suitable legislation" is absent in {Y}. All this implies that the duty of the state is greater in other directive principles than in {Y}.
There is no doubt that fundamental rights are more important. The Supreme Court held in Minerva Mills (1980): "Indian Constitution is founded on the bed-rock of the balance between Parts III (Fundamental Rights) and IV (Directive Principles). To give absolute primacy to one over the other is to disturb the harmony of the Constitution". Article 31C inserted by the 42nd Amendment in 1976, however, lays down that if a law is made to implement any directive principle, it cannot be challenged on the ground of being violative of the fundamental rights under Articles 14{1} and 19.
Indian laws do follow a uniform code in most civil matters – however, they have made hundreds of amendments and therefore in certain matters, there is diversity even under these secular civil laws. Recently, several states refused to be governed by the uniform Motor Vehicles Act, 2019.
If the framers of the Constitution had intended to have a Uniform Civil Code, they would have given exclusive jurisdiction to Parliament in respect of personal laws, by including this subject in the Union List. But "personal laws" are mentioned in the Concurrent List. Last year, the Law Commission concluded that a Uniform Civil Code is neither feasible nor desirable.

Q. Which of the following is not a correct match in respect to parts of the Constitution?

Solution:

The conferment of a person as a citizen of India is governed by Part II of the Constitution of India (Articles 5 to 11). According to Article 5, all the people that were resident in India at the commencement of the Constitution were citizens of India as well as people born in India. The President of India is termed the First Citizen of India.

QUESTION: 36

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

In September 2019, the Supreme Court described {X} as a "shining example" with a Uniform Civil Code, and observed that the founders of the Constitution had "hoped and expected" a Uniform Civil Code for India but there has been no attempt at framing one.
A Uniform Civil Code is one that would provide for one law for the entire country, applicable to all religious communities in their personal matters such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, adoption, etc. {Y} of the Constitution lays down that the state shall endeavour to secure a Uniform Civil Code for the citizens throughout the territory of India.
{Y} is one of the directive principles. These, as defined in Article 37, are not justifiable (not enforceable by any court) but the principles laid down therein are fundamental in governance. Fundamental rights are enforceable in a court of law. While {Y} uses the words "state shall endeavour", other Articles in the 'Directive Principles' chapter use words such as "in particular strive"; "shall in particular direct its policy"; "shall be obligation of the state", etc. Article 43 mentions "state shall endeavour by suitable legislation", while the phrase "by suitable legislation" is absent in {Y}. All this implies that the duty of the state is greater in other directive principles than in {Y}.
There is no doubt that fundamental rights are more important. The Supreme Court held in Minerva Mills (1980): "Indian Constitution is founded on the bed-rock of the balance between Parts III (Fundamental Rights) and IV (Directive Principles). To give absolute primacy to one over the other is to disturb the harmony of the Constitution". Article 31C inserted by the 42nd Amendment in 1976, however, lays down that if a law is made to implement any directive principle, it cannot be challenged on the ground of being violative of the fundamental rights under Articles 14{1} and 19.
Indian laws do follow a uniform code in most civil matters – however, they have made hundreds of amendments and therefore in certain matters, there is diversity even under these secular civil laws. Recently, several states refused to be governed by the uniform Motor Vehicles Act, 2019.
If the framers of the Constitution had intended to have a Uniform Civil Code, they would have given exclusive jurisdiction to Parliament in respect of personal laws, by including this subject in the Union List. But "personal laws" are mentioned in the Concurrent List. Last year, the Law Commission concluded that a Uniform Civil Code is neither feasible nor desirable.

Q. "Directive Principles of State Policy" is a borrowed feature of which country's Constitution?

Solution:

The concept of Directive Principles of State Policy was borrowed from the Irish Constitution. The makers of the Constitution of India were influenced by the Irish nationalist movement, particularly the Irish Home Rule Movement. The principles have been inspired by the Directive Principles given in the Constitution of Ireland which are related to social justice, economic welfare, foreign policy, and legal and administrative matters.

QUESTION: 37

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

In September 2019, the Supreme Court described {X} as a "shining example" with a Uniform Civil Code, and observed that the founders of the Constitution had "hoped and expected" a Uniform Civil Code for India but there has been no attempt at framing one.
A Uniform Civil Code is one that would provide for one law for the entire country, applicable to all religious communities in their personal matters such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, adoption, etc. {Y} of the Constitution lays down that the state shall endeavour to secure a Uniform Civil Code for the citizens throughout the territory of India.
{Y} is one of the directive principles. These, as defined in Article 37, are not justifiable (not enforceable by any court) but the principles laid down therein are fundamental in governance. Fundamental rights are enforceable in a court of law. While {Y} uses the words "state shall endeavour", other Articles in the 'Directive Principles' chapter use words such as "in particular strive"; "shall in particular direct its policy"; "shall be obligation of the state", etc. Article 43 mentions "state shall endeavour by suitable legislation", while the phrase "by suitable legislation" is absent in {Y}. All this implies that the duty of the state is greater in other directive principles than in {Y}.
There is no doubt that fundamental rights are more important. The Supreme Court held in Minerva Mills (1980): "Indian Constitution is founded on the bed-rock of the balance between Parts III (Fundamental Rights) and IV (Directive Principles). To give absolute primacy to one over the other is to disturb the harmony of the Constitution". Article 31C inserted by the 42nd Amendment in 1976, however, lays down that if a law is made to implement any directive principle, it cannot be challenged on the ground of being violative of the fundamental rights under Articles 14{1} and 19.
Indian laws do follow a uniform code in most civil matters – however, they have made hundreds of amendments and therefore in certain matters, there is diversity even under these secular civil laws. Recently, several states refused to be governed by the uniform Motor Vehicles Act, 2019.
If the framers of the Constitution had intended to have a Uniform Civil Code, they would have given exclusive jurisdiction to Parliament in respect of personal laws, by including this subject in the Union List. But "personal laws" are mentioned in the Concurrent List. Last year, the Law Commission concluded that a Uniform Civil Code is neither feasible nor desirable.

Q. How many schedules are contained in the Constitution of India as in 2020?

Solution:

World's lengthiest written constitution, Indian Constitution, had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules at the time of commencement. Now the Constitution of India has 448 articles in 25 parts and 12 schedules.

QUESTION: 38

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

The Rajya Sabha on 12th December, 2019 passed the {X} Authority Bill, 2019 towards setting up a unified authority to regulate all financial services in {X} in the country.
The {X} cater to customers outside the jurisdiction of the domestic economy. Such centres deal with flows of finance, financial products and services across borders. London, New York and Singapore can be counted as global financial centres. The first such centre in India has been set up at GIFT City in Gujarat's Gandhinagar. {X} can be set up in an SEZ or as an SEZ after approval from the Centre.
{X} would also provide Indian companies easier access to global financial markets and also enable the development of financial markets in India.
"In a path breaking reform, both Houses pass {X} Authority Bill, 2019. It will set up world class unified regulator for international financial services combining powers and functions of RBI, {Y}, IRDAI And PFRDA", economic affairs secretary Atanu Chakraborty said in a tweet.
According to the Bill, the authority comprise a chairperson, and one member each nominated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), {Y}, the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) and the Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA). There will also be two members from the central government and full-time or part-time members.
Apart from regulating all financial services and products, the authority can also recommend any other financial products to the central government.
Currently, the banking, capital markets and insurance sectors in {X} are regulated by multiple regulators such as RBI, {Y} and IRDAI.
"The dynamic nature of business in the {X} necessitates a high degree of inter-regulatory coordination. It also requires regular clarifications and frequent amendments in the existing regulations governing financial activities in {X}. The development of financial services and products in {X} would require focused and dedicated regulatory interventions. Hence, a need is felt for having a unified financial regulator for {X} in India to provide world class regulatory environment to financial market participants," the government said earlier.

Q. What has been redacted with {X}?

Solution:

International Financial Services Centres has been redacted with {X}. The Rajya Sabha on 12th December, 2019 passed the International Financial Services Centres (IFSCs) Authority Bill, 2019 towards setting up a unified authority to regulate all financial services in IFSCs in the cpuntry.
An IFSC caters to customers outside the jurisdiction of the domestic economy. Such centres deal with flows of finance, financial products and services across borders. The Bill will apply to all International Financial Services Centres (IFSCs) set up under the Special Economic Zones Act, 2005.

QUESTION: 39

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

The Rajya Sabha on 12th December, 2019 passed the {X} Authority Bill, 2019 towards setting up a unified authority to regulate all financial services in {X} in the country.
The {X} cater to customers outside the jurisdiction of the domestic economy. Such centres deal with flows of finance, financial products and services across borders. London, New York and Singapore can be counted as global financial centres. The first such centre in India has been set up at GIFT City in Gujarat's Gandhinagar. {X} can be set up in an SEZ or as an SEZ after approval from the Centre.
{X} would also provide Indian companies easier access to global financial markets and also enable the development of financial markets in India.
"In a path breaking reform, both Houses pass {X} Authority Bill, 2019. It will set up world class unified regulator for international financial services combining powers and functions of RBI, {Y}, IRDAI And PFRDA", economic affairs secretary Atanu Chakraborty said in a tweet.
According to the Bill, the authority comprise a chairperson, and one member each nominated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), {Y}, the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) and the Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA). There will also be two members from the central government and full-time or part-time members.
Apart from regulating all financial services and products, the authority can also recommend any other financial products to the central government.
Currently, the banking, capital markets and insurance sectors in {X} are regulated by multiple regulators such as RBI, {Y} and IRDAI.
"The dynamic nature of business in the {X} necessitates a high degree of inter-regulatory coordination. It also requires regular clarifications and frequent amendments in the existing regulations governing financial activities in {X}. The development of financial services and products in {X} would require focused and dedicated regulatory interventions. Hence, a need is felt for having a unified financial regulator for {X} in India to provide world class regulatory environment to financial market participants," the government said earlier.

Q. Consider the following statements and choose the correct option.
Statement I: The Bill, stated in the above passage, will apply to all {X} set up under the Special Economic Zones Act, 2005.
Statement II: The Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India is headquartered at Mumbai, India.

Solution:

Statement I is correct and Statement II is incorrect.
Statement I: The International Financial Services Centres Authority Bill, 2019 was introduced in Lok Sabha by the Minister of Finance Ms. Nirmala Sitharaman on November 25, 2019. The Bill provides for the establishment of an Authority to develop and regulate the financial services market in the International Financial Services Centres in India. The Bill will apply to all International Financial Services Centres (IFSCs) set up under the Special Economic Zones Act, 2005.
Statement II: The Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India is headquartered at Hyderabad, India not in Mumbai, India. It is an autonomous, statutory body tasked with regulating and promoting the insurance and re-insurance industries in India.

QUESTION: 40

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

The Rajya Sabha on 12th December, 2019 passed the {X} Authority Bill, 2019 towards setting up a unified authority to regulate all financial services in {X} in the country.
The {X} cater to customers outside the jurisdiction of the domestic economy. Such centres deal with flows of finance, financial products and services across borders. London, New York and Singapore can be counted as global financial centres. The first such centre in India has been set up at GIFT City in Gujarat's Gandhinagar. {X} can be set up in an SEZ or as an SEZ after approval from the Centre.
{X} would also provide Indian companies easier access to global financial markets and also enable the development of financial markets in India.
"In a path breaking reform, both Houses pass {X} Authority Bill, 2019. It will set up world class unified regulator for international financial services combining powers and functions of RBI, {Y}, IRDAI And PFRDA", economic affairs secretary Atanu Chakraborty said in a tweet.
According to the Bill, the authority comprise a chairperson, and one member each nominated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), {Y}, the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) and the Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA). There will also be two members from the central government and full-time or part-time members.
Apart from regulating all financial services and products, the authority can also recommend any other financial products to the central government.
Currently, the banking, capital markets and insurance sectors in {X} are regulated by multiple regulators such as RBI, {Y} and IRDAI.
"The dynamic nature of business in the {X} necessitates a high degree of inter-regulatory coordination. It also requires regular clarifications and frequent amendments in the existing regulations governing financial activities in {X}. The development of financial services and products in {X} would require focused and dedicated regulatory interventions. Hence, a need is felt for having a unified financial regulator for {X} in India to provide world class regulatory environment to financial market participants," the government said earlier.

Q. Which of the following has been redacted with {Y}?

Solution:

{Y} has been redacted with The Securities and Exchange Board of India. It is the regulator for the securities market in India owned by the Government of India. It was established in 1988 and given Statutory Powers on 30th January, 1992 through the SEBI Act, 1992. According to the Bill, the authority comprise a chairperson, and one member each nominated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI), the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) and the Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA).

QUESTION: 41

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

The Rajya Sabha on 12th December, 2019 passed the {X} Authority Bill, 2019 towards setting up a unified authority to regulate all financial services in {X} in the country.
The {X} cater to customers outside the jurisdiction of the domestic economy. Such centres deal with flows of finance, financial products and services across borders. London, New York and Singapore can be counted as global financial centres. The first such centre in India has been set up at GIFT City in Gujarat's Gandhinagar. {X} can be set up in an SEZ or as an SEZ after approval from the Centre.
{X} would also provide Indian companies easier access to global financial markets and also enable the development of financial markets in India.
"In a path breaking reform, both Houses pass {X} Authority Bill, 2019. It will set up world class unified regulator for international financial services combining powers and functions of RBI, {Y}, IRDAI And PFRDA", economic affairs secretary Atanu Chakraborty said in a tweet.
According to the Bill, the authority comprise a chairperson, and one member each nominated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), {Y}, the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) and the Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA). There will also be two members from the central government and full-time or part-time members.
Apart from regulating all financial services and products, the authority can also recommend any other financial products to the central government.
Currently, the banking, capital markets and insurance sectors in {X} are regulated by multiple regulators such as RBI, {Y} and IRDAI.
"The dynamic nature of business in the {X} necessitates a high degree of inter-regulatory coordination. It also requires regular clarifications and frequent amendments in the existing regulations governing financial activities in {X}. The development of financial services and products in {X} would require focused and dedicated regulatory interventions. Hence, a need is felt for having a unified financial regulator for {X} in India to provide world class regulatory environment to financial market participants," the government said earlier.

Q. NABARD, an Apex Development Financial Institution in India, is governed by which Act?

Solution:

NABARD is an Apex Development Financial Institution in India and it is governed under National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Act, 1981.
This Act aims to establish a development bank to be known as the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development for providing and regulating credit and other facilities for the promotion and development of agriculture, small-scale industries, cottage and village industries, handicrafts and other rural crafts, and other allied economic activities in rural areas with a view to promoting integrated rural development and securing prosperity of rural areas.

QUESTION: 42

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

The Rajya Sabha on 12th December, 2019 passed the {X} Authority Bill, 2019 towards setting up a unified authority to regulate all financial services in {X} in the country.
The {X} cater to customers outside the jurisdiction of the domestic economy. Such centres deal with flows of finance, financial products and services across borders. London, New York and Singapore can be counted as global financial centres. The first such centre in India has been set up at GIFT City in Gujarat's Gandhinagar. {X} can be set up in an SEZ or as an SEZ after approval from the Centre.
{X} would also provide Indian companies easier access to global financial markets and also enable the development of financial markets in India.
"In a path breaking reform, both Houses pass {X} Authority Bill, 2019. It will set up world class unified regulator for international financial services combining powers and functions of RBI, {Y}, IRDAI And PFRDA", economic affairs secretary Atanu Chakraborty said in a tweet.
According to the Bill, the authority comprise a chairperson, and one member each nominated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), {Y}, the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) and the Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA). There will also be two members from the central government and full-time or part-time members.
Apart from regulating all financial services and products, the authority can also recommend any other financial products to the central government.
Currently, the banking, capital markets and insurance sectors in {X} are regulated by multiple regulators such as RBI, {Y} and IRDAI.
"The dynamic nature of business in the {X} necessitates a high degree of inter-regulatory coordination. It also requires regular clarifications and frequent amendments in the existing regulations governing financial activities in {X}. The development of financial services and products in {X} would require focused and dedicated regulatory interventions. Hence, a need is felt for having a unified financial regulator for {X} in India to provide world class regulatory environment to financial market participants," the government said earlier.

Q. The Ministry of Finance is an important ministry within the Government of India concerned with the economy of India. Who among the following is the Union Minister of Finance of India as in 2020?

Solution:

Nirmala Sitharaman is the Union Minister of Finance as in 2020. She is an Indian politician serving as the current Minister of Finance and Corporate Affairs of India. She is a member of the Rajya Sabha, upper house of the Indian Parliament, since 2014. The Ministry of Finance is an important ministry within the Government of India concerned with the economy of India, serving as the Indian Treasury Department.

QUESTION: 43

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

The Rajya Sabha on 12th December, 2019 passed the {X} Authority Bill, 2019 towards setting up a unified authority to regulate all financial services in {X} in the country.
The {X} cater to customers outside the jurisdiction of the domestic economy. Such centres deal with flows of finance, financial products and services across borders. London, New York and Singapore can be counted as global financial centres. The first such centre in India has been set up at GIFT City in Gujarat's Gandhinagar. {X} can be set up in an SEZ or as an SEZ after approval from the Centre.
{X} would also provide Indian companies easier access to global financial markets and also enable the development of financial markets in India.
"In a path breaking reform, both Houses pass {X} Authority Bill, 2019. It will set up world class unified regulator for international financial services combining powers and functions of RBI, {Y}, IRDAI And PFRDA", economic affairs secretary Atanu Chakraborty said in a tweet.
According to the Bill, the authority comprise a chairperson, and one member each nominated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), {Y}, the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) and the Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA). There will also be two members from the central government and full-time or part-time members.
Apart from regulating all financial services and products, the authority can also recommend any other financial products to the central government.
Currently, the banking, capital markets and insurance sectors in {X} are regulated by multiple regulators such as RBI, {Y} and IRDAI.
"The dynamic nature of business in the {X} necessitates a high degree of inter-regulatory coordination. It also requires regular clarifications and frequent amendments in the existing regulations governing financial activities in {X}. The development of financial services and products in {X} would require focused and dedicated regulatory interventions. Hence, a need is felt for having a unified financial regulator for {X} in India to provide world class regulatory environment to financial market participants," the government said earlier.

Q. In India, the Parliament conducts three sessions each year. Which of the following is not one of them?

Solution:

Three sessions of Lok Sabha take place in a year, i.e Budget session, Monsoon session and Winter Session.
Budget session: February to May
Monsoon session: July to September
Winter session: November to mid-December
There is no session known as the Summer session.
The Lok Sabha or House of the People is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies, and they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advise of the council of ministers.

QUESTION: 44

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

Scottish team signed {X} from Manipur Police on an 18-month-deal after a successful spell on trial in November 2019.
She became the first Indian woman to become a professional footballer anywhere in the world.
{Y} confirmed the news in a statement, adding that the move is subject to 'international clearance'.
The 29-year-old is currently (as in 2020) the leading goal scorer for the Indian national women's team, netting 52 in 58 outings since 2010, which also makes her the top international goal scorer in the South Asian region.
She had finished the top-scorer in the last edition of the Indian Women's League, scoring 25 in 7 games, and was also the top-scorer in the women's nationals last year with 21 goals. She has also served as her national team captain in a distinguished international career, which began when she was called up aged just 15.
{X} has a prolific scoring record with over 100 goals in 120 games in domestic football. She has been the top scorer in the Indian Women's League for the past two seasons and has also been named as All India Football Federation (AIFF) Women's Player of the Year twice, in 2015 and 2016.
"{X} is already a role model for girls across India and they will now be able to see her travel across the world to become a professional footballer."
"Her move can be inspirational for players everywhere to show them where football can take them and what it can help them achieve."
"I would like to warmly welcome {X} to both {Y} and to Glasgow. We believe this is a huge step for the women's game both in Scotland and in general," said Craig Mulholland, {Y} Head of Academy.
"{Y} are committed to building a successful women's team for years to come and the acquisition of a talent like {X} is another step towards our goal of domestic and European success."
"{X}'s signing with {Y} sets a very encouraging precedent for women footballers from India and we are glad that Bengaluru FC's partnership with {Y} is creating the right kind of impact in such a short period of time."

Q. In the passage, which woman football player has been redacted with {X}?

Solution:

Ngangom Bala Devi is an Indian women's footballer who plays as a forward for Scottish Women's Premier League club Rangers.

QUESTION: 45

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

Scottish team signed {X} from Manipur Police on an 18-month-deal after a successful spell on trial in November 2019.
She became the first Indian woman to become a professional footballer anywhere in the world.
{Y} confirmed the news in a statement, adding that the move is subject to 'international clearance'.
The 29-year-old is currently (as in 2020) the leading goal scorer for the Indian national women's team, netting 52 in 58 outings since 2010, which also makes her the top international goal scorer in the South Asian region.
She had finished the top-scorer in the last edition of the Indian Women's League, scoring 25 in 7 games, and was also the top-scorer in the women's nationals last year with 21 goals. She has also served as her national team captain in a distinguished international career, which began when she was called up aged just 15.
{X} has a prolific scoring record with over 100 goals in 120 games in domestic football. She has been the top scorer in the Indian Women's League for the past two seasons and has also been named as All India Football Federation (AIFF) Women's Player of the Year twice, in 2015 and 2016.
"{X} is already a role model for girls across India and they will now be able to see her travel across the world to become a professional footballer."
"Her move can be inspirational for players everywhere to show them where football can take them and what it can help them achieve."
"I would like to warmly welcome {X} to both {Y} and to Glasgow. We believe this is a huge step for the women's game both in Scotland and in general," said Craig Mulholland, {Y} Head of Academy.
"{Y} are committed to building a successful women's team for years to come and the acquisition of a talent like {X} is another step towards our goal of domestic and European success."
"{X}'s signing with {Y} sets a very encouraging precedent for women footballers from India and we are glad that Bengaluru FC's partnership with {Y} is creating the right kind of impact in such a short period of time."

Q. In the passage, name the football club that has been redacted with {Y}.

Solution:

Rangers Football Club is a Scottish professional football club based in the Govan district of Glasgow. It has played in the Scottish Premiership, the first tier of the Scottish Professional Football League. Rangers is the second most successful club in world football in terms of trophies won, behind only Egyptian club Al Ahly.

QUESTION: 46

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

Scottish team signed {X} from Manipur Police on an 18-month-deal after a successful spell on trial in November 2019.
She became the first Indian woman to become a professional footballer anywhere in the world.
{Y} confirmed the news in a statement, adding that the move is subject to 'international clearance'.
The 29-year-old is currently (as in 2020) the leading goal scorer for the Indian national women's team, netting 52 in 58 outings since 2010, which also makes her the top international goal scorer in the South Asian region.
She had finished the top-scorer in the last edition of the Indian Women's League, scoring 25 in 7 games, and was also the top-scorer in the women's nationals last year with 21 goals. She has also served as her national team captain in a distinguished international career, which began when she was called up aged just 15.
{X} has a prolific scoring record with over 100 goals in 120 games in domestic football. She has been the top scorer in the Indian Women's League for the past two seasons and has also been named as All India Football Federation (AIFF) Women's Player of the Year twice, in 2015 and 2016.
"{X} is already a role model for girls across India and they will now be able to see her travel across the world to become a professional footballer."
"Her move can be inspirational for players everywhere to show them where football can take them and what it can help them achieve."
"I would like to warmly welcome {X} to both {Y} and to Glasgow. We believe this is a huge step for the women's game both in Scotland and in general," said Craig Mulholland, {Y} Head of Academy.
"{Y} are committed to building a successful women's team for years to come and the acquisition of a talent like {X} is another step towards our goal of domestic and European success."
"{X}'s signing with {Y} sets a very encouraging precedent for women footballers from India and we are glad that Bengaluru FC's partnership with {Y} is creating the right kind of impact in such a short period of time."

Q. Who won the FIFA Women's World Cup 2019?

Solution:

The FIFA Women's World Cup is an international football competition contested by the senior women's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's international governing body. The competition has been held every four years since 1991. The United States has won four times, and was champion at the 2019 tournament in France.

QUESTION: 47

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

Scottish team signed {X} from Manipur Police on an 18-month-deal after a successful spell on trial in November 2019.
She became the first Indian woman to become a professional footballer anywhere in the world.
{Y} confirmed the news in a statement, adding that the move is subject to 'international clearance'.
The 29-year-old is currently (as in 2020) the leading goal scorer for the Indian national women's team, netting 52 in 58 outings since 2010, which also makes her the top international goal scorer in the South Asian region.
She had finished the top-scorer in the last edition of the Indian Women's League, scoring 25 in 7 games, and was also the top-scorer in the women's nationals last year with 21 goals. She has also served as her national team captain in a distinguished international career, which began when she was called up aged just 15.
{X} has a prolific scoring record with over 100 goals in 120 games in domestic football. She has been the top scorer in the Indian Women's League for the past two seasons and has also been named as All India Football Federation (AIFF) Women's Player of the Year twice, in 2015 and 2016.
"{X} is already a role model for girls across India and they will now be able to see her travel across the world to become a professional footballer."
"Her move can be inspirational for players everywhere to show them where football can take them and what it can help them achieve."
"I would like to warmly welcome {X} to both {Y} and to Glasgow. We believe this is a huge step for the women's game both in Scotland and in general," said Craig Mulholland, {Y} Head of Academy.
"{Y} are committed to building a successful women's team for years to come and the acquisition of a talent like {X} is another step towards our goal of domestic and European success."
"{X}'s signing with {Y} sets a very encouraging precedent for women footballers from India and we are glad that Bengaluru FC's partnership with {Y} is creating the right kind of impact in such a short period of time."

Q. Which country will host FIFA World Cup 2022?

Solution:

The 2022 FIFA World Cup is scheduled to be the 22nd edition of the FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international men's association football championship contested by the national teams of the member associations of FIFA. It is scheduled to take place in Qatar in 2022.

QUESTION: 48

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

Scottish team signed {X} from Manipur Police on an 18-month-deal after a successful spell on trial in November 2019.
She became the first Indian woman to become a professional footballer anywhere in the world.
{Y} confirmed the news in a statement, adding that the move is subject to 'international clearance'.
The 29-year-old is currently (as in 2020) the leading goal scorer for the Indian national women's team, netting 52 in 58 outings since 2010, which also makes her the top international goal scorer in the South Asian region.
She had finished the top-scorer in the last edition of the Indian Women's League, scoring 25 in 7 games, and was also the top-scorer in the women's nationals last year with 21 goals. She has also served as her national team captain in a distinguished international career, which began when she was called up aged just 15.
{X} has a prolific scoring record with over 100 goals in 120 games in domestic football. She has been the top scorer in the Indian Women's League for the past two seasons and has also been named as All India Football Federation (AIFF) Women's Player of the Year twice, in 2015 and 2016.
"{X} is already a role model for girls across India and they will now be able to see her travel across the world to become a professional footballer."
"Her move can be inspirational for players everywhere to show them where football can take them and what it can help them achieve."
"I would like to warmly welcome {X} to both {Y} and to Glasgow. We believe this is a huge step for the women's game both in Scotland and in general," said Craig Mulholland, {Y} Head of Academy.
"{Y} are committed to building a successful women's team for years to come and the acquisition of a talent like {X} is another step towards our goal of domestic and European success."
"{X}'s signing with {Y} sets a very encouraging precedent for women footballers from India and we are glad that Bengaluru FC's partnership with {Y} is creating the right kind of impact in such a short period of time."

Q. Who is the captain of Indian women's national football team as in 2020?

Solution:

Ashalata Devi is the captain of Indian women's national football team as in 2020.
Loitongbam Ashalata Devi is an Indian professional footballer who plays for the Indian national team and Indian Women's League club Sethu FC. Formerly, she also played for Rising Student Club and Kryphsa FC. She has also played for New Radiant of the Dhivehi Premier League of Maldives. She plays as a central defender.

QUESTION: 49

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

The Union Cabinet on 26th February, 2020 approved the Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2020, which allows any 'willing' woman to be a surrogate mother and proposes that widows and divorced women can also benefit from its provisions, besides infertile Indian couples.
The bill incorporates all recommendations made by a Rajya Sabha select committee, which studied an earlier version of the draft legislation, and is aimed at banning commercial surrogacy and allowing altruistic surrogacy, Union minister of Environment, Forest and Climate Change {Y} told the reporters.
His Cabinet colleague Smriti Irani said the bill proposes that only Indian couples, with both partners being of Indian origins, can opt for surrogacy in the country.
She asserted that Prime Minister Narendra Modi has led from the front with a liberal view on the issues of reproductive rights of women, be it medical termination of pregnancy, the {X} or the surrogacy bill.
The amended bill is reformed version of the draft legislation which was passed by Lok Sabha in 2019 but its provisions, including that only a close relative of a couple can be a surrogate mother, had invited criticism.
The government then agreed to send the bill to the Rajya Sabha select committee, which is headed by BJP MP Bhupender Yadav, for holding wide consultations with various stakeholders and making recommendations.
The bill also proposes to regulate surrogacy by establishing National Surrogacy Board at the central level and, State Surrogacy Board and appropriate authorities in states and Union Territories, respectively.
The proposed insurance cover for surrogate mother has now been increased to 36 months from 16 months provided in the earlier version.
While commercial surrogacy will be prohibited including sale and purchase of human embryo and gametes, ethical surrogacy to Indian married couples, Indian-origin married couples and Indian single woman (only widow or divorcee between the age of 35 and 45 years) will be allowed on fulfillment of certain conditions, official sources said.

Q. What has been redacted with {X}?

Solution:

The Assisted Reproductive Technology Regulation Bill, 2020 has been redacted with {X}. In a series of legislations approved by the Union Cabinet to protect and safeguard the reproductive rights of women. The bill makes provisions for safe and ethical practice of assisted reproductive technology services in the country.

QUESTION: 50

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

The Union Cabinet on 26th February, 2020 approved the Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2020, which allows any 'willing' woman to be a surrogate mother and proposes that widows and divorced women can also benefit from its provisions, besides infertile Indian couples.
The bill incorporates all recommendations made by a Rajya Sabha select committee, which studied an earlier version of the draft legislation, and is aimed at banning commercial surrogacy and allowing altruistic surrogacy, Union minister of Environment, Forest and Climate Change {Y} told the reporters.
His Cabinet colleague Smriti Irani said the bill proposes that only Indian couples, with both partners being of Indian origins, can opt for surrogacy in the country.
She asserted that Prime Minister Narendra Modi has led from the front with a liberal view on the issues of reproductive rights of women, be it medical termination of pregnancy, the {X} or the surrogacy bill.
The amended bill is reformed version of the draft legislation which was passed by Lok Sabha in 2019 but its provisions, including that only a close relative of a couple can be a surrogate mother, had invited criticism.
The government then agreed to send the bill to the Rajya Sabha select committee, which is headed by BJP MP Bhupender Yadav, for holding wide consultations with various stakeholders and making recommendations.
The bill also proposes to regulate surrogacy by establishing National Surrogacy Board at the central level and, State Surrogacy Board and appropriate authorities in states and Union Territories, respectively.
The proposed insurance cover for surrogate mother has now been increased to 36 months from 16 months provided in the earlier version.
While commercial surrogacy will be prohibited including sale and purchase of human embryo and gametes, ethical surrogacy to Indian married couples, Indian-origin married couples and Indian single woman (only widow or divorcee between the age of 35 and 45 years) will be allowed on fulfillment of certain conditions, official sources said.

Q. Who among the following has been redacted with {Y}?

Solution:

Prakash Keshav Javadekar is an Indian politician. He is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party and is currently serving as the Minister of Environment, Forest and Climate Change and Minister of Information and Broadcasting.
In the above passage, "The bill incorporates all recommendations made by a Rajya Sabha select committee, which studied an earlier version of the draft legislation, and is aimed at banning commercial surrogacy and allowing altruistic surrogacy", Union minister Prakash Javadekar told the reporters.

QUESTION: 51

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

The Union Cabinet on 26th February, 2020 approved the Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2020, which allows any 'willing' woman to be a surrogate mother and proposes that widows and divorced women can also benefit from its provisions, besides infertile Indian couples.
The bill incorporates all recommendations made by a Rajya Sabha select committee, which studied an earlier version of the draft legislation, and is aimed at banning commercial surrogacy and allowing altruistic surrogacy, Union minister of Environment, Forest and Climate Change {Y} told the reporters.
His Cabinet colleague Smriti Irani said the bill proposes that only Indian couples, with both partners being of Indian origins, can opt for surrogacy in the country.
She asserted that Prime Minister Narendra Modi has led from the front with a liberal view on the issues of reproductive rights of women, be it medical termination of pregnancy, the {X} or the surrogacy bill.
The amended bill is reformed version of the draft legislation which was passed by Lok Sabha in 2019 but its provisions, including that only a close relative of a couple can be a surrogate mother, had invited criticism.
The government then agreed to send the bill to the Rajya Sabha select committee, which is headed by BJP MP Bhupender Yadav, for holding wide consultations with various stakeholders and making recommendations.
The bill also proposes to regulate surrogacy by establishing National Surrogacy Board at the central level and, State Surrogacy Board and appropriate authorities in states and Union Territories, respectively.
The proposed insurance cover for surrogate mother has now been increased to 36 months from 16 months provided in the earlier version.
While commercial surrogacy will be prohibited including sale and purchase of human embryo and gametes, ethical surrogacy to Indian married couples, Indian-origin married couples and Indian single woman (only widow or divorcee between the age of 35 and 45 years) will be allowed on fulfillment of certain conditions, official sources said.

Q. Consider the following statements and choose the correct option.
Statement I: Article 15 of Indian Constitution deals with protection of life and personal liberty.
Statement II: Women have a right to Zero FIR in India.

Solution:

Statement I is incorrect, Statement II is correct.
Statement I: Article 21 of Indian constitution deals with Protection of life and personal liberty not article 15.
Article 15 deals with Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.
Statement II: Women have a right to Zero FIR in India. An FIR that can be filed at any police station irrespective of the location where the incident occurred or a specific jurisdiction, it comes under the Zero FIR and can later be moved to the Police Station in whose jurisdiction the case falls under.

QUESTION: 52

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

The Union Cabinet on 26th February, 2020 approved the Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2020, which allows any 'willing' woman to be a surrogate mother and proposes that widows and divorced women can also benefit from its provisions, besides infertile Indian couples.
The bill incorporates all recommendations made by a Rajya Sabha select committee, which studied an earlier version of the draft legislation, and is aimed at banning commercial surrogacy and allowing altruistic surrogacy, Union minister of Environment, Forest and Climate Change {Y} told the reporters.
His Cabinet colleague Smriti Irani said the bill proposes that only Indian couples, with both partners being of Indian origins, can opt for surrogacy in the country.
She asserted that Prime Minister Narendra Modi has led from the front with a liberal view on the issues of reproductive rights of women, be it medical termination of pregnancy, the {X} or the surrogacy bill.
The amended bill is reformed version of the draft legislation which was passed by Lok Sabha in 2019 but its provisions, including that only a close relative of a couple can be a surrogate mother, had invited criticism.
The government then agreed to send the bill to the Rajya Sabha select committee, which is headed by BJP MP Bhupender Yadav, for holding wide consultations with various stakeholders and making recommendations.
The bill also proposes to regulate surrogacy by establishing National Surrogacy Board at the central level and, State Surrogacy Board and appropriate authorities in states and Union Territories, respectively.
The proposed insurance cover for surrogate mother has now been increased to 36 months from 16 months provided in the earlier version.
While commercial surrogacy will be prohibited including sale and purchase of human embryo and gametes, ethical surrogacy to Indian married couples, Indian-origin married couples and Indian single woman (only widow or divorcee between the age of 35 and 45 years) will be allowed on fulfillment of certain conditions, official sources said.

Q. Name the bill which cannot be introduced in Rajya Sabha first and can only be introduced by Lok Sabha.

Solution:

A money bill can not be introduced in Rajya Sabha. Such bill can originate only in Lok Sabha. Money Bills can be introduced only in Lok Sabha (the directly elected 'people's house' of the Indian Parliament). Money bills passed by the Lok Sabha are sent to the Rajya Sabha (the upper house of parliament, elected by the state and territorial legislatures or appointed by the president).
There are four types of bills- ordinary bill, money bill, finance bill and constitutional amendment bills. After a Bill has been introduced, it is published in the Official Gazette.

QUESTION: 53

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

The Union Cabinet on 26th February, 2020 approved the Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2020, which allows any 'willing' woman to be a surrogate mother and proposes that widows and divorced women can also benefit from its provisions, besides infertile Indian couples.
The bill incorporates all recommendations made by a Rajya Sabha select committee, which studied an earlier version of the draft legislation, and is aimed at banning commercial surrogacy and allowing altruistic surrogacy, Union minister of Environment, Forest and Climate Change {Y} told the reporters.
His Cabinet colleague Smriti Irani said the bill proposes that only Indian couples, with both partners being of Indian origins, can opt for surrogacy in the country.
She asserted that Prime Minister Narendra Modi has led from the front with a liberal view on the issues of reproductive rights of women, be it medical termination of pregnancy, the {X} or the surrogacy bill.
The amended bill is reformed version of the draft legislation which was passed by Lok Sabha in 2019 but its provisions, including that only a close relative of a couple can be a surrogate mother, had invited criticism.
The government then agreed to send the bill to the Rajya Sabha select committee, which is headed by BJP MP Bhupender Yadav, for holding wide consultations with various stakeholders and making recommendations.
The bill also proposes to regulate surrogacy by establishing National Surrogacy Board at the central level and, State Surrogacy Board and appropriate authorities in states and Union Territories, respectively.
The proposed insurance cover for surrogate mother has now been increased to 36 months from 16 months provided in the earlier version.
While commercial surrogacy will be prohibited including sale and purchase of human embryo and gametes, ethical surrogacy to Indian married couples, Indian-origin married couples and Indian single woman (only widow or divorcee between the age of 35 and 45 years) will be allowed on fulfillment of certain conditions, official sources said.

Q. Who hold the post of the Director General, Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) along with the post of Secretary of Department of Health Research (Ministry of Health & Family Welfare), Government of India as in 2020?

Solution:

Professor Balram Bhargava is the Secretary, Department of Health Research (Ministry of Health & Family Welfare), Government of India and Director General, Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) as in 2020. Prof. Bhargava is professor of Cardiology at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi and also serves as the Executive Director for Stanford India Biodesign Centre, School of International Biodesign (SiB). Professor (Dr) Balram Bhargava is an outstanding cardiologist, one of the foremost leaders in biomedical innovation, public health, medical education and medical research.

QUESTION: 54

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

External Affairs Minister {X} and Nigerien President Mahamadou Issoufou on January 21, 2020 jointly inaugurated the first convention centre established in {Y} by India to honour the memory of Mahatma Gandhi.
The establishment of the Mahatma Gandhi International Convention Centre (MGICC) is a landmark for India-Niger friendship, as also a symbol of India's firm commitment towards Africa, the External Affairs Ministry said in a statement.
It is the first centre to be established in Africa by India to honour the memory of Mahatma Gandhi whose 150th birth anniversary was observed in 2019.
The convention centre has been designed as a spacious, modern and eco-friendly facility, including a 2,000 capacity Plenary Hall, to witness high-level and wide-ranging participation from African Union (AU) member states and other high level conventions.
{X} reached on January 21, 2020 on the first leg of his three-day two-nation trip to Niger and Tunisia. The tour was his first outreach to the African continent after becoming Foreign Minister last year. {X} met Prime Minister and the two leaders discussed bilateral ties.
India and Niger enjoy close relations. Bilateral relations have expanded significantly in the recent years.
India has provided Lines of Credit to Niger for projects in transport, electrification, solar energy and potable drinking water.
India also extended assistance to Niger in support of organising the AU summit held in {Y} in July 2019, for the first time hosted by Niger.

Q. Which minister's name has been redacted with {X}?

Solution:

External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar and Nigerien President Mahamadou Issoufou on January 21, 2020 jointly inaugurated the first convention centre established in Africa by India to honour the memory of Mahatma Gandhi. Subrahmanyam Jaishankar is an Indian diplomat turned politician. He is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party and has been a member of Indian Parliament in the Rajya Sabha since July 5, 2019, representing Gujarat.

QUESTION: 55

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

External Affairs Minister {X} and Nigerien President Mahamadou Issoufou on January 21, 2020 jointly inaugurated the first convention centre established in {Y} by India to honour the memory of Mahatma Gandhi.
The establishment of the Mahatma Gandhi International Convention Centre (MGICC) is a landmark for India-Niger friendship, as also a symbol of India's firm commitment towards Africa, the External Affairs Ministry said in a statement.
It is the first centre to be established in Africa by India to honour the memory of Mahatma Gandhi whose 150th birth anniversary was observed in 2019.
The convention centre has been designed as a spacious, modern and eco-friendly facility, including a 2,000 capacity Plenary Hall, to witness high-level and wide-ranging participation from African Union (AU) member states and other high level conventions.
{X} reached on January 21, 2020 on the first leg of his three-day two-nation trip to Niger and Tunisia. The tour was his first outreach to the African continent after becoming Foreign Minister last year. {X} met Prime Minister and the two leaders discussed bilateral ties.
India and Niger enjoy close relations. Bilateral relations have expanded significantly in the recent years.
India has provided Lines of Credit to Niger for projects in transport, electrification, solar energy and potable drinking water.
India also extended assistance to Niger in support of organising the AU summit held in {Y} in July 2019, for the first time hosted by Niger.

Q. Which city has been redacted with {Y}?

Solution:

India extended $15 million grant assistance to Niger in support of organising of the African Union (AU) summit scheduled from July 7 to 8, 2019 in Niamey, the capital of Niger.
Niamey lies on the Niger River, primarily situated on the east bank.

QUESTION: 56

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

External Affairs Minister {X} and Nigerien President Mahamadou Issoufou on January 21, 2020 jointly inaugurated the first convention centre established in {Y} by India to honour the memory of Mahatma Gandhi.
The establishment of the Mahatma Gandhi International Convention Centre (MGICC) is a landmark for India-Niger friendship, as also a symbol of India's firm commitment towards Africa, the External Affairs Ministry said in a statement.
It is the first centre to be established in Africa by India to honour the memory of Mahatma Gandhi whose 150th birth anniversary was observed in 2019.
The convention centre has been designed as a spacious, modern and eco-friendly facility, including a 2,000 capacity Plenary Hall, to witness high-level and wide-ranging participation from African Union (AU) member states and other high level conventions.
{X} reached on January 21, 2020 on the first leg of his three-day two-nation trip to Niger and Tunisia. The tour was his first outreach to the African continent after becoming Foreign Minister last year. {X} met Prime Minister and the two leaders discussed bilateral ties.
India and Niger enjoy close relations. Bilateral relations have expanded significantly in the recent years.
India has provided Lines of Credit to Niger for projects in transport, electrification, solar energy and potable drinking water.
India also extended assistance to Niger in support of organising the AU summit held in {Y} in July 2019, for the first time hosted by Niger.

Q. Who is the Prime minister of Niger as in 2020?

Solution:

Brigi Rafini is a Nigerien politician who has been Prime Minister of Niger since 2011. A native of Iférouane in Agadez Region and an ethnic Tuareg, Rafini was Minister of Agriculture in the late 1980s and fourth Vice-President of the National Assembly of Niger from 2004 to 2009.

QUESTION: 57

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

External Affairs Minister {X} and Nigerien President Mahamadou Issoufou on January 21, 2020 jointly inaugurated the first convention centre established in {Y} by India to honour the memory of Mahatma Gandhi.
The establishment of the Mahatma Gandhi International Convention Centre (MGICC) is a landmark for India-Niger friendship, as also a symbol of India's firm commitment towards Africa, the External Affairs Ministry said in a statement.
It is the first centre to be established in Africa by India to honour the memory of Mahatma Gandhi whose 150th birth anniversary was observed in 2019.
The convention centre has been designed as a spacious, modern and eco-friendly facility, including a 2,000 capacity Plenary Hall, to witness high-level and wide-ranging participation from African Union (AU) member states and other high level conventions.
{X} reached on January 21, 2020 on the first leg of his three-day two-nation trip to Niger and Tunisia. The tour was his first outreach to the African continent after becoming Foreign Minister last year. {X} met Prime Minister and the two leaders discussed bilateral ties.
India and Niger enjoy close relations. Bilateral relations have expanded significantly in the recent years.
India has provided Lines of Credit to Niger for projects in transport, electrification, solar energy and potable drinking water.
India also extended assistance to Niger in support of organising the AU summit held in {Y} in July 2019, for the first time hosted by Niger.

Q. Choose the correct option for the following statements:
Statement I: India for the first time extended $15 million financial support to Niger as a support for organising African Union (AU) summit on July 2019.
Statement II: In 2017, for the first time, Niger hosted an AU summit.

Solution:

Statement II is incorrect as Niger hosted the AU summit for the first time in July 2019. The AU is made up of 55 member states which represent all the countries on the African continent. AU member states are divided into five geographic regions.

QUESTION: 58

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

External Affairs Minister {X} and Nigerien President Mahamadou Issoufou on January 21, 2020 jointly inaugurated the first convention centre established in {Y} by India to honour the memory of Mahatma Gandhi.
The establishment of the Mahatma Gandhi International Convention Centre (MGICC) is a landmark for India-Niger friendship, as also a symbol of India's firm commitment towards Africa, the External Affairs Ministry said in a statement.
It is the first centre to be established in Africa by India to honour the memory of Mahatma Gandhi whose 150th birth anniversary was observed in 2019.
The convention centre has been designed as a spacious, modern and eco-friendly facility, including a 2,000 capacity Plenary Hall, to witness high-level and wide-ranging participation from African Union (AU) member states and other high level conventions.
{X} reached on January 21, 2020 on the first leg of his three-day two-nation trip to Niger and Tunisia. The tour was his first outreach to the African continent after becoming Foreign Minister last year. {X} met Prime Minister and the two leaders discussed bilateral ties.
India and Niger enjoy close relations. Bilateral relations have expanded significantly in the recent years.
India has provided Lines of Credit to Niger for projects in transport, electrification, solar energy and potable drinking water.
India also extended assistance to Niger in support of organising the AU summit held in {Y} in July 2019, for the first time hosted by Niger.

Q. Which of the following is the official currency of Niger?

Solution:

The official currency of Niger is the West African CFA franc. Its ISO Code is XOF and the currency is also used in 7 other West African states like Togo and Senegal.

QUESTION: 59

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

{X} hailed a "very productive visit" in his visit in February 2020 to India but said he would keep working with Indian PM Narendra Modi for "a comprehensive trade deal".
The US is one of India's biggest trade partners. The two leaders hope the visit will mend a rift over tariffs.
Mr {X}'s visit to Delhi has been marred by the deadliest religious unrest in the capital for decades.
Asked about the violence, he told reporters that the incident was "up to India" to handle.
However, he said he had brought up the issue of religious freedom in the country and was impressed by Mr Modi's response.
"He [Modi] was incredible, he told me - 'In India we have worked very hard to have religious freedoms," Mr {X} said.
Ten people, including a policeman, have been killed and about 150 injured in protests against a controversial new citizenship law, which critics say discriminates against Muslims.
Mr Modi's Hindu nationalist government denies this, saying the law only seeks to give amnesty to persecuted minorities.
Correspondents say the timing of the unrest is an embarrassment to Mr Modi and the violence has taken the spotlight away from Mr {X}'s visit.
"We also agreed to open negotiations on a big trade deal. At the global level, our relationship is depended on the similar democratic values we share," Mr Modi said.
But deals in other areas were announced.
India is to buy attack helicopters and other US military equipment worth $3 bn, Mr {X} said.
They also announced co-operation in fighting radical Islamist terrorism and deepening energy ties, as well as pledging to work together to make 5G technology safer. As part of the deals announced, US firm Exxon Mobil Corporation and {Z} have signed an agreement to help India import more {Y}.
Bilateral trade between the two countries totalled $142.6 bn (£110.3 bn) in 2018. But in June 2019, the US ended preferential trade status for India.
India imposed retaliatory tariffs on 28 US products, causing a diplomatic rift between the two countries.

Q. Who has been redacted with {X}?

Solution:

U.S. President Donald Trump has been redacted with {X}. He visited India on February 24-25, his first such visit to the country. This trip was one of the few times that Mr. Trump had travelled officially with so many members of his family. He touched down at Ahmedabad, Gujarat, where he addressed a joint rally with Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

QUESTION: 60

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

{X} hailed a "very productive visit" in his visit in February 2020 to India but said he would keep working with Indian PM Narendra Modi for "a comprehensive trade deal".
The US is one of India's biggest trade partners. The two leaders hope the visit will mend a rift over tariffs.
Mr {X}'s visit to Delhi has been marred by the deadliest religious unrest in the capital for decades.
Asked about the violence, he told reporters that the incident was "up to India" to handle.
However, he said he had brought up the issue of religious freedom in the country and was impressed by Mr Modi's response.
"He [Modi] was incredible, he told me - 'In India we have worked very hard to have religious freedoms," Mr {X} said.
Ten people, including a policeman, have been killed and about 150 injured in protests against a controversial new citizenship law, which critics say discriminates against Muslims.
Mr Modi's Hindu nationalist government denies this, saying the law only seeks to give amnesty to persecuted minorities.
Correspondents say the timing of the unrest is an embarrassment to Mr Modi and the violence has taken the spotlight away from Mr {X}'s visit.
"We also agreed to open negotiations on a big trade deal. At the global level, our relationship is depended on the similar democratic values we share," Mr Modi said.
But deals in other areas were announced.
India is to buy attack helicopters and other US military equipment worth $3 bn, Mr {X} said.
They also announced co-operation in fighting radical Islamist terrorism and deepening energy ties, as well as pledging to work together to make 5G technology safer. As part of the deals announced, US firm Exxon Mobil Corporation and {Z} have signed an agreement to help India import more {Y}.
Bilateral trade between the two countries totalled $142.6 bn (£110.3 bn) in 2018. But in June 2019, the US ended preferential trade status for India.
India imposed retaliatory tariffs on 28 US products, causing a diplomatic rift between the two countries.

Q. What has been redacted with {Y}?

Solution:

Liquefied Natural Gas has been redacted with {Y}.
As part of the deals announced in February 2020 during the US president visit, US firm Exxon Mobil and Indian Oil signed an agreement to help India import more Liquefied Natural Gas.

QUESTION: 61

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

{X} hailed a "very productive visit" in his visit in February 2020 to India but said he would keep working with Indian PM Narendra Modi for "a comprehensive trade deal".
The US is one of India's biggest trade partners. The two leaders hope the visit will mend a rift over tariffs.
Mr {X}'s visit to Delhi has been marred by the deadliest religious unrest in the capital for decades.
Asked about the violence, he told reporters that the incident was "up to India" to handle.
However, he said he had brought up the issue of religious freedom in the country and was impressed by Mr Modi's response.
"He [Modi] was incredible, he told me - 'In India we have worked very hard to have religious freedoms," Mr {X} said.
Ten people, including a policeman, have been killed and about 150 injured in protests against a controversial new citizenship law, which critics say discriminates against Muslims.
Mr Modi's Hindu nationalist government denies this, saying the law only seeks to give amnesty to persecuted minorities.
Correspondents say the timing of the unrest is an embarrassment to Mr Modi and the violence has taken the spotlight away from Mr {X}'s visit.
"We also agreed to open negotiations on a big trade deal. At the global level, our relationship is depended on the similar democratic values we share," Mr Modi said.
But deals in other areas were announced.
India is to buy attack helicopters and other US military equipment worth $3 bn, Mr {X} said.
They also announced co-operation in fighting radical Islamist terrorism and deepening energy ties, as well as pledging to work together to make 5G technology safer. As part of the deals announced, US firm Exxon Mobil Corporation and {Z} have signed an agreement to help India import more {Y}.
Bilateral trade between the two countries totalled $142.6 bn (£110.3 bn) in 2018. But in June 2019, the US ended preferential trade status for India.
India imposed retaliatory tariffs on 28 US products, causing a diplomatic rift between the two countries.

Q. Which of the following Indian companies has been redacted with {Z}?

Solution:

'Indian Oil' has been redacted with {Z}. As part of the deals announced between US and India during the visit in February 2020, US firm Exxon Mobil and Indian Oil signed an agreement to help India import more Liquefied Natural Gas.
Indian Oil Corporation Limited, commonly known as Indian Oil, is an Indian government owned oil and gas company headquartered in New Delhi. It is the largest commercial oil company in the country, with a net profit of INR 19,106 crore.

QUESTION: 62

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

{X} hailed a "very productive visit" in his visit in February 2020 to India but said he would keep working with Indian PM Narendra Modi for "a comprehensive trade deal".
The US is one of India's biggest trade partners. The two leaders hope the visit will mend a rift over tariffs.
Mr {X}'s visit to Delhi has been marred by the deadliest religious unrest in the capital for decades.
Asked about the violence, he told reporters that the incident was "up to India" to handle.
However, he said he had brought up the issue of religious freedom in the country and was impressed by Mr Modi's response.
"He [Modi] was incredible, he told me - 'In India we have worked very hard to have religious freedoms," Mr {X} said.
Ten people, including a policeman, have been killed and about 150 injured in protests against a controversial new citizenship law, which critics say discriminates against Muslims.
Mr Modi's Hindu nationalist government denies this, saying the law only seeks to give amnesty to persecuted minorities.
Correspondents say the timing of the unrest is an embarrassment to Mr Modi and the violence has taken the spotlight away from Mr {X}'s visit.
"We also agreed to open negotiations on a big trade deal. At the global level, our relationship is depended on the similar democratic values we share," Mr Modi said.
But deals in other areas were announced.
India is to buy attack helicopters and other US military equipment worth $3 bn, Mr {X} said.
They also announced co-operation in fighting radical Islamist terrorism and deepening energy ties, as well as pledging to work together to make 5G technology safer. As part of the deals announced, US firm Exxon Mobil Corporation and {Z} have signed an agreement to help India import more {Y}.
Bilateral trade between the two countries totalled $142.6 bn (£110.3 bn) in 2018. But in June 2019, the US ended preferential trade status for India.
India imposed retaliatory tariffs on 28 US products, causing a diplomatic rift between the two countries.

Q. Who is the largest natural gas producer in the world?

Solution:

The United States of America with a production of 734.5 billion cubic metres is the top natural gas-producing country in the world.
Home to some of the world's biggest natural gas fields, Russia stands at second spot in the list of top natural gas-producing countries.

QUESTION: 63

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

{X} hailed a "very productive visit" in his visit in February 2020 to India but said he would keep working with Indian PM Narendra Modi for "a comprehensive trade deal".
The US is one of India's biggest trade partners. The two leaders hope the visit will mend a rift over tariffs.
Mr {X}'s visit to Delhi has been marred by the deadliest religious unrest in the capital for decades.
Asked about the violence, he told reporters that the incident was "up to India" to handle.
However, he said he had brought up the issue of religious freedom in the country and was impressed by Mr Modi's response.
"He [Modi] was incredible, he told me - 'In India we have worked very hard to have religious freedoms," Mr {X} said.
Ten people, including a policeman, have been killed and about 150 injured in protests against a controversial new citizenship law, which critics say discriminates against Muslims.
Mr Modi's Hindu nationalist government denies this, saying the law only seeks to give amnesty to persecuted minorities.
Correspondents say the timing of the unrest is an embarrassment to Mr Modi and the violence has taken the spotlight away from Mr {X}'s visit.
"We also agreed to open negotiations on a big trade deal. At the global level, our relationship is depended on the similar democratic values we share," Mr Modi said.
But deals in other areas were announced.
India is to buy attack helicopters and other US military equipment worth $3 bn, Mr {X} said.
They also announced co-operation in fighting radical Islamist terrorism and deepening energy ties, as well as pledging to work together to make 5G technology safer. As part of the deals announced, US firm Exxon Mobil Corporation and {Z} have signed an agreement to help India import more {Y}.
Bilateral trade between the two countries totalled $142.6 bn (£110.3 bn) in 2018. But in June 2019, the US ended preferential trade status for India.
India imposed retaliatory tariffs on 28 US products, causing a diplomatic rift between the two countries.

Q. Who is the Union Minister of Commerce and Industry of India as in 2020?

Solution:

Piyush Goel of the Bharatiya Janata Party is the Union Minister of Commerce and Industry of India as in 2020. Goel took over from Suresh Prabhu on 31st May, 2019.
He is also the Minister of Railways in the Government of India as in 2020. He was elevated to the Cabinet Minister position on 3rd September, 2017.
He is a Member of Parliament for Rajya Sabha from the state of Maharashtra, and the Deputy Leader of Rajya Sabha (as in 2020).

QUESTION: 64

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

The {X} Assembly in January, 2020 passed a resolution to pave way for abolition of the Legislative Council.
Chief Minister of {X} moved a statutory resolution in the Assembly earlier in the day, seeking the abolition of the Legislative Council, which was approved by the members.
Earlier, the State Cabinet chaired by the Chief Minister passed a resolution to abolish the council. The resolution was later moved in the Assembly and after a debate was approved with 133 members present in the 175-member House.
The Chief Minister said that there was no need to have a council which was creating hurdles in making laws by elected representatives. Justifying the move, he said that the Council Chairman's decision to refer important bills passed by the Legislative Assembly to the Select Committee had caused concern among members of the Assembly and was against the interest of the people.
The {X} Legislative Council with 58 members is dominated by the opposition Telugu Desam Party with 32 members and the ruling YSR Congress Party has 9 members. With the numbers not expected to change for at least two more years, the Jagan Government expects a tough task in carrying out legislative business. Government is facing the heat with the Legislative Council trying to block the proposed three capitals, as opposed to Amaravati as a capital city which was being developed by the N. Chandrababu Naidu regime. Government sees this as a move to provide a decentralised development model for the State.
While the Legislative Assembly passed the bills seeking the three capitals and repeal of the {X} Capital Area Development Authority, the TDP-dominated Council has been insisting on referring them to a select committee.
During the NT Rama Rao-led Telugu Desam regime, the Council was abolished in the united {X} in 1985, which was later revived by the Congress regime.

Q. Which state has been redacted with {X}?

Solution:

The Andhra Pradesh Assembly in January 2020 passed a resolution to pave way for abolition of the Legislative Council. The Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly (APLA) is the lower house of the Andhra Pradesh Legislature. The Legislative Assembly consists of 175 members which are elected by adult universal suffrage under the first-past-the-post system.

QUESTION: 65

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

The {X} Assembly in January, 2020 passed a resolution to pave way for abolition of the Legislative Council.
Chief Minister of {X} moved a statutory resolution in the Assembly earlier in the day, seeking the abolition of the Legislative Council, which was approved by the members.
Earlier, the State Cabinet chaired by the Chief Minister passed a resolution to abolish the council. The resolution was later moved in the Assembly and after a debate was approved with 133 members present in the 175-member House.
The Chief Minister said that there was no need to have a council which was creating hurdles in making laws by elected representatives. Justifying the move, he said that the Council Chairman's decision to refer important bills passed by the Legislative Assembly to the Select Committee had caused concern among members of the Assembly and was against the interest of the people.
The {X} Legislative Council with 58 members is dominated by the opposition Telugu Desam Party with 32 members and the ruling YSR Congress Party has 9 members. With the numbers not expected to change for at least two more years, the Jagan Government expects a tough task in carrying out legislative business. Government is facing the heat with the Legislative Council trying to block the proposed three capitals, as opposed to Amaravati as a capital city which was being developed by the N. Chandrababu Naidu regime. Government sees this as a move to provide a decentralised development model for the State.
While the Legislative Assembly passed the bills seeking the three capitals and repeal of the {X} Capital Area Development Authority, the TDP-dominated Council has been insisting on referring them to a select committee.
During the NT Rama Rao-led Telugu Desam regime, the Council was abolished in the united {X} in 1985, which was later revived by the Congress regime.

Q. Which Article of the Constitution governs the abolition or creation of the Legislative Council of the State?

Solution:

Article 169(1) provides for the abolition of the Legislative Council of a State, or for the creation of such a council, if the Legislative Assembly of the State passes a resolution to that effect by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting.

QUESTION: 66

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

The {X} Assembly in January, 2020 passed a resolution to pave way for abolition of the Legislative Council.
Chief Minister of {X} moved a statutory resolution in the Assembly earlier in the day, seeking the abolition of the Legislative Council, which was approved by the members.
Earlier, the State Cabinet chaired by the Chief Minister passed a resolution to abolish the council. The resolution was later moved in the Assembly and after a debate was approved with 133 members present in the 175-member House.
The Chief Minister said that there was no need to have a council which was creating hurdles in making laws by elected representatives. Justifying the move, he said that the Council Chairman's decision to refer important bills passed by the Legislative Assembly to the Select Committee had caused concern among members of the Assembly and was against the interest of the people.
The {X} Legislative Council with 58 members is dominated by the opposition Telugu Desam Party with 32 members and the ruling YSR Congress Party has 9 members. With the numbers not expected to change for at least two more years, the Jagan Government expects a tough task in carrying out legislative business. Government is facing the heat with the Legislative Council trying to block the proposed three capitals, as opposed to Amaravati as a capital city which was being developed by the N. Chandrababu Naidu regime. Government sees this as a move to provide a decentralised development model for the State.
While the Legislative Assembly passed the bills seeking the three capitals and repeal of the {X} Capital Area Development Authority, the TDP-dominated Council has been insisting on referring them to a select committee.
During the NT Rama Rao-led Telugu Desam regime, the Council was abolished in the united {X} in 1985, which was later revived by the Congress regime.

Q. Which of the following statements do not qualify for the eligibility to become a Member of Legislative Council (MLC)?
(i) It is necessary that a person who is elected to the Legislative Council should also be eligible to be chosen for the Legislative Assembly.
(ii) The member must be of minimum 40 years of age.
(iii) The member should hold the office of profit.
(iv) The member shouldn't be an undischarged insolvent.

Solution:

(i) The member must be a citizen of India.
(ii) The member must have completed 30 years of age.
(iii) The member should not hold the office of profit.
(iv) The member should not be an undischarged insolvent.
(v) It is necessary that a person who is elected to the Legislative Council should also be eligible to be chosen for the Legislative Assembly.

QUESTION: 67

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

The {X} Assembly in January, 2020 passed a resolution to pave way for abolition of the Legislative Council.
Chief Minister of {X} moved a statutory resolution in the Assembly earlier in the day, seeking the abolition of the Legislative Council, which was approved by the members.
Earlier, the State Cabinet chaired by the Chief Minister passed a resolution to abolish the council. The resolution was later moved in the Assembly and after a debate was approved with 133 members present in the 175-member House.
The Chief Minister said that there was no need to have a council which was creating hurdles in making laws by elected representatives. Justifying the move, he said that the Council Chairman's decision to refer important bills passed by the Legislative Assembly to the Select Committee had caused concern among members of the Assembly and was against the interest of the people.
The {X} Legislative Council with 58 members is dominated by the opposition Telugu Desam Party with 32 members and the ruling YSR Congress Party has 9 members. With the numbers not expected to change for at least two more years, the Jagan Government expects a tough task in carrying out legislative business. Government is facing the heat with the Legislative Council trying to block the proposed three capitals, as opposed to Amaravati as a capital city which was being developed by the N. Chandrababu Naidu regime. Government sees this as a move to provide a decentralised development model for the State.
While the Legislative Assembly passed the bills seeking the three capitals and repeal of the {X} Capital Area Development Authority, the TDP-dominated Council has been insisting on referring them to a select committee.
During the NT Rama Rao-led Telugu Desam regime, the Council was abolished in the united {X} in 1985, which was later revived by the Congress regime.

Q. Which among the following states doesn't constitute a Legislative Council?

Solution:

The two Houses in State legislature are called Legislative Assembly and Legislative Council. There are only six States which have two-tier of legislature - Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana.

QUESTION: 68

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

The {X} Assembly in January, 2020 passed a resolution to pave way for abolition of the Legislative Council.
Chief Minister of {X} moved a statutory resolution in the Assembly earlier in the day, seeking the abolition of the Legislative Council, which was approved by the members.
Earlier, the State Cabinet chaired by the Chief Minister passed a resolution to abolish the council. The resolution was later moved in the Assembly and after a debate was approved with 133 members present in the 175-member House.
The Chief Minister said that there was no need to have a council which was creating hurdles in making laws by elected representatives. Justifying the move, he said that the Council Chairman's decision to refer important bills passed by the Legislative Assembly to the Select Committee had caused concern among members of the Assembly and was against the interest of the people.
The {X} Legislative Council with 58 members is dominated by the opposition Telugu Desam Party with 32 members and the ruling YSR Congress Party has 9 members. With the numbers not expected to change for at least two more years, the Jagan Government expects a tough task in carrying out legislative business. Government is facing the heat with the Legislative Council trying to block the proposed three capitals, as opposed to Amaravati as a capital city which was being developed by the N. Chandrababu Naidu regime. Government sees this as a move to provide a decentralised development model for the State.
While the Legislative Assembly passed the bills seeking the three capitals and repeal of the {X} Capital Area Development Authority, the TDP-dominated Council has been insisting on referring them to a select committee.
During the NT Rama Rao-led Telugu Desam regime, the Council was abolished in the united {X} in 1985, which was later revived by the Congress regime.

Q. Which of the following decides whether a state should have a Legislative Council or not?

Solution:

India has a bicameral system i.e. two Houses of Parliament. At the state level, the equivalent of the Lok Sabha is the Vidhan Sabha or Legislative Assembly and that of the Rajya Sabha is the Vidhan Parishad or Legislative Council. The Indian Constitution does not force a bicameral legislature on states and gives the Legislative Assembly of the states the option of having a second House.

QUESTION: 69

Read the text and answer the following question.

As every shivering Indian knows, this has been an unusually cold winter, more so in the North. Even as temperatures have plunged, there is no hope of respite in the next few days, as the Meteorological Department predicts that the cold wave will persist. The weather conditions have made life difficult for people, and many activities have been curtailed. Both air and surface travel have been affected. Schools have been closed for a few days in some places. The number of casualties from accidents has, mercifully, been relatively low.
Extreme swings have had a detrimental effect on the economy as well as daily life. Farmers, particularly, suffered the most from the vagaries of weather, as they depend on it the most. Unseasonably high rains a few months ago played havoc with crops, and exposed the underlying weakness in our infrastructure, as towns flooded and buildings collapsed.
Global warming is taking its toll, and India is aware of this problem. However, not enough is being done. Fossil fuels, a significant pollutant, are still not being discouraged. Indeed, under the plea of 'development,' green areas are being leveled. Coal-burning thermal plants have not been phased out; rather, they are being encouraged. There is talk of shifting the deadline for Bharat VI emission controls, which would significantly cut down pollution in new vehicles. Industrial pollution is going through the roof, poisoning air, water and soil. Even as we shiver in the cold winds, it is time to remember our duty towards the environment and do what we can to make life on the planet sustainable.

Q. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the text?

Solution:

The text mentions 'Global warming is taking its toll, and India is aware of this problem. However, not enough is being done.' Thus, it could be inferred that India needs to reconsider the decisions that it has taken especially with regard to fossil fuels in order to deal with the climate change. Hence, option 2 is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 70

Read the text and answer the following question.

As every shivering Indian knows, this has been an unusually cold winter, more so in the North. Even as temperatures have plunged, there is no hope of respite in the next few days, as the Meteorological Department predicts that the cold wave will persist. The weather conditions have made life difficult for people, and many activities have been curtailed. Both air and surface travel have been affected. Schools have been closed for a few days in some places. The number of casualties from accidents has, mercifully, been relatively low.
Extreme swings have had a detrimental effect on the economy as well as daily life. Farmers, particularly, suffered the most from the vagaries of weather, as they depend on it the most. Unseasonably high rains a few months ago played havoc with crops, and exposed the underlying weakness in our infrastructure, as towns flooded and buildings collapsed.
Global warming is taking its toll, and India is aware of this problem. However, not enough is being done. Fossil fuels, a significant pollutant, are still not being discouraged. Indeed, under the plea of 'development,' green areas are being leveled. Coal-burning thermal plants have not been phased out; rather, they are being encouraged. There is talk of shifting the deadline for Bharat VI emission controls, which would significantly cut down pollution in new vehicles. Industrial pollution is going through the roof, poisoning air, water and soil. Even as we shiver in the cold winds, it is time to remember our duty towards the environment and do what we can to make life on the planet sustainable.

Q. Which of the following is not similar to the response of authorities that the author says is underway to tackle global warming?

Solution:

In all the options except 4, the reasoning is similar to the one presented in the argument as the reaction of the Indian government towards global warming. In options 1, 2, and 3 the different persons in-charge take decisions to ignore the problems for their own benefit much like the government's response: knowing that fossil fuels pose an environmental problem and still supporting or encouraging them.

QUESTION: 71

Read the text and answer the following question.

As every shivering Indian knows, this has been an unusually cold winter, more so in the North. Even as temperatures have plunged, there is no hope of respite in the next few days, as the Meteorological Department predicts that the cold wave will persist. The weather conditions have made life difficult for people, and many activities have been curtailed. Both air and surface travel have been affected. Schools have been closed for a few days in some places. The number of casualties from accidents has, mercifully, been relatively low.
Extreme swings have had a detrimental effect on the economy as well as daily life. Farmers, particularly, suffered the most from the vagaries of weather, as they depend on it the most. Unseasonably high rains a few months ago played havoc with crops, and exposed the underlying weakness in our infrastructure, as towns flooded and buildings collapsed.
Global warming is taking its toll, and India is aware of this problem. However, not enough is being done. Fossil fuels, a significant pollutant, are still not being discouraged. Indeed, under the plea of 'development,' green areas are being leveled. Coal-burning thermal plants have not been phased out; rather, they are being encouraged. There is talk of shifting the deadline for Bharat VI emission controls, which would significantly cut down pollution in new vehicles. Industrial pollution is going through the roof, poisoning air, water and soil. Even as we shiver in the cold winds, it is time to remember our duty towards the environment and do what we can to make life on the planet sustainable.

Q. Which of the following could be a possible reason for number of casualties from accidents being relatively low?

Solution:

The only appropriate option that can be derived from the context is option 2. The author states in the passage that " The weather conditions have made life difficult for people, and many activities have been curtailed. Both air and surface travel have been affected. Schools have been closed for a few days in some places." This implies that because there are less chances of people being outdoors, the number of accidents are relatively low.

QUESTION: 72

Read the text and answer the following question.

As every shivering Indian knows, this has been an unusually cold winter, more so in the North. Even as temperatures have plunged, there is no hope of respite in the next few days, as the Meteorological Department predicts that the cold wave will persist. The weather conditions have made life difficult for people, and many activities have been curtailed. Both air and surface travel have been affected. Schools have been closed for a few days in some places. The number of casualties from accidents has, mercifully, been relatively low.
Extreme swings have had a detrimental effect on the economy as well as daily life. Farmers, particularly, suffered the most from the vagaries of weather, as they depend on it the most. Unseasonably high rains a few months ago played havoc with crops, and exposed the underlying weakness in our infrastructure, as towns flooded and buildings collapsed.
Global warming is taking its toll, and India is aware of this problem. However, not enough is being done. Fossil fuels, a significant pollutant, are still not being discouraged. Indeed, under the plea of 'development,' green areas are being leveled. Coal-burning thermal plants have not been phased out; rather, they are being encouraged. There is talk of shifting the deadline for Bharat VI emission controls, which would significantly cut down pollution in new vehicles. Industrial pollution is going through the roof, poisoning air, water and soil. Even as we shiver in the cold winds, it is time to remember our duty towards the environment and do what we can to make life on the planet sustainable.

Q. Based on the author's arguments in the given passage, what would be the best way for the government to reduce the onset of extreme weather events in the future?

Solution:

According to the passage, the government should take steps in order to reduce the effects of global warming that is responsible for this extreme weather event. The author describes how the government is not doing enough to mitigate the effects of global warming. So the correct option is 3.

QUESTION: 73

Read the text and answer the following question.

As every shivering Indian knows, this has been an unusually cold winter, more so in the North. Even as temperatures have plunged, there is no hope of respite in the next few days, as the Meteorological Department predicts that the cold wave will persist. The weather conditions have made life difficult for people, and many activities have been curtailed. Both air and surface travel have been affected. Schools have been closed for a few days in some places. The number of casualties from accidents has, mercifully, been relatively low.
Extreme swings have had a detrimental effect on the economy as well as daily life. Farmers, particularly, suffered the most from the vagaries of weather, as they depend on it the most. Unseasonably high rains a few months ago played havoc with crops, and exposed the underlying weakness in our infrastructure, as towns flooded and buildings collapsed.
Global warming is taking its toll, and India is aware of this problem. However, not enough is being done. Fossil fuels, a significant pollutant, are still not being discouraged. Indeed, under the plea of 'development,' green areas are being leveled. Coal-burning thermal plants have not been phased out; rather, they are being encouraged. There is talk of shifting the deadline for Bharat VI emission controls, which would significantly cut down pollution in new vehicles. Industrial pollution is going through the roof, poisoning air, water and soil. Even as we shiver in the cold winds, it is time to remember our duty towards the environment and do what we can to make life on the planet sustainable.

Q. How do the vagaries of weather have a detrimental effect on the economy?

Solution:

From the lines 'Extreme swings have had a detrimental effect on the economy as well as daily life. Farmers, particularly, suffered the most from the vagaries of weather, as they depend on it the most ...' option 1 seems to be the most appropriate answer.

QUESTION: 74

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Today, freelancers represent 35% of the United States workforce. In the European Union, the rate is 16.1%. Both figures demonstrate the same global trend: from creative entrepreneurs to those paid by the task, freelancing is on the rise worldwide. Freelancing is often portrayed as liberating, empowering, and even glamorous.
In OECD countries, studies show that these individuals work chiefly in the service sector (50% of men and 70% of women). The remainder are everything from online assistants to architects, designers and photographers. Finding work now is easier for these professionals. Many freelancers, whatever their job, may have originally opted for this employment model because it offers freedom – the freedom to work anytime and, in some cases, anywhere.
A 2017 study found that the majority of freelancers in OECD countries are "slashers", meaning that their contract work supplements another part-time or full-time position. These additional earnings can vary considerably. Those who spend a few hours a month editing instruction manuals from home may earn a few hundred Euros a month. Freelance occupational therapists working part time may pull in ten times that those working full-time earn in this growing industry.
It is not the end of the salariat. Full-time, company-based work is still the standard for employment in most Western countries. Nevertheless, with the rise of telecommuting and automation and the unlimited potential of crowdsourcing, it stands to reason that more and more firms will begin running, and even growing, their businesses with considerably fewer employees. This does not necessarily mean an increase in unemployment. Instead, it likely means more freelancers, who will form and reform around various projects in constant and evolving networks.
The rise of freelancing may be a key visible indicator of the future of work, notably in terms of collaboration practices.

Q. Which of the following can be correctly inferred from the author's views mentioned in the passage?

Solution:

The correct option is 1. This statement can be inferred from the author's lines that many freelancers have chosen this type of employment because it offers them freedom to work anytime and anywhere. Option 2 is incorrect as there is no mention of job security in the passage. Option 3 cannot be inferred as no such claim had been made in the passage. Option 4 cannot be inferred as the passage does not talk about domination of women in the field.

QUESTION: 75

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Today, freelancers represent 35% of the United States workforce. In the European Union, the rate is 16.1%. Both figures demonstrate the same global trend: from creative entrepreneurs to those paid by the task, freelancing is on the rise worldwide. Freelancing is often portrayed as liberating, empowering, and even glamorous.
In OECD countries, studies show that these individuals work chiefly in the service sector (50% of men and 70% of women). The remainder are everything from online assistants to architects, designers and photographers. Finding work now is easier for these professionals. Many freelancers, whatever their job, may have originally opted for this employment model because it offers freedom – the freedom to work anytime and, in some cases, anywhere.
A 2017 study found that the majority of freelancers in OECD countries are "slashers", meaning that their contract work supplements another part-time or full-time position. These additional earnings can vary considerably. Those who spend a few hours a month editing instruction manuals from home may earn a few hundred Euros a month. Freelance occupational therapists working part time may pull in ten times that those working full-time earn in this growing industry.
It is not the end of the salariat. Full-time, company-based work is still the standard for employment in most Western countries. Nevertheless, with the rise of telecommuting and automation and the unlimited potential of crowdsourcing, it stands to reason that more and more firms will begin running, and even growing, their businesses with considerably fewer employees. This does not necessarily mean an increase in unemployment. Instead, it likely means more freelancers, who will form and reform around various projects in constant and evolving networks.
The rise of freelancing may be a key visible indicator of the future of work, notably in terms of collaboration practices.

Q. Based on the information in the passage, which of the following is not consistent with the author's views?

Solution:

The correct option is 4. This statement is contradictory with the author's view that this rise of freelancing is not the end of salaried professionals and full time, company based work is still the standard for employment in most countries. This is stated in lines: "It is not the end of the salariat. Full-time, company-based work is still the standard for employment in most Western countries."

QUESTION: 76

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Today, freelancers represent 35% of the United States workforce. In the European Union, the rate is 16.1%. Both figures demonstrate the same global trend: from creative entrepreneurs to those paid by the task, freelancing is on the rise worldwide. Freelancing is often portrayed as liberating, empowering, and even glamorous.
In OECD countries, studies show that these individuals work chiefly in the service sector (50% of men and 70% of women). The remainder are everything from online assistants to architects, designers and photographers. Finding work now is easier for these professionals. Many freelancers, whatever their job, may have originally opted for this employment model because it offers freedom – the freedom to work anytime and, in some cases, anywhere.
A 2017 study found that the majority of freelancers in OECD countries are "slashers", meaning that their contract work supplements another part-time or full-time position. These additional earnings can vary considerably. Those who spend a few hours a month editing instruction manuals from home may earn a few hundred Euros a month. Freelance occupational therapists working part time may pull in ten times that those working full-time earn in this growing industry.
It is not the end of the salariat. Full-time, company-based work is still the standard for employment in most Western countries. Nevertheless, with the rise of telecommuting and automation and the unlimited potential of crowdsourcing, it stands to reason that more and more firms will begin running, and even growing, their businesses with considerably fewer employees. This does not necessarily mean an increase in unemployment. Instead, it likely means more freelancers, who will form and reform around various projects in constant and evolving networks.
The rise of freelancing may be a key visible indicator of the future of work, notably in terms of collaboration practices.

Q. What role does the author's mention of automation and rise in communication technology play in the author's argument?

Solution:

The correct option is 1. Basing his argument on the premise that there is rise of telecommuting and automation in recent times and that there is increasing potential of crowd sourcing, the author puts forth his argument that more and more companies will be open to hire freelancers and freelance will be the future of work. Option 4 is contradictory to the author's argument.

QUESTION: 77

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Today, freelancers represent 35% of the United States workforce. In the European Union, the rate is 16.1%. Both figures demonstrate the same global trend: from creative entrepreneurs to those paid by the task, freelancing is on the rise worldwide. Freelancing is often portrayed as liberating, empowering, and even glamorous.
In OECD countries, studies show that these individuals work chiefly in the service sector (50% of men and 70% of women). The remainder are everything from online assistants to architects, designers and photographers. Finding work now is easier for these professionals. Many freelancers, whatever their job, may have originally opted for this employment model because it offers freedom – the freedom to work anytime and, in some cases, anywhere.
A 2017 study found that the majority of freelancers in OECD countries are "slashers", meaning that their contract work supplements another part-time or full-time position. These additional earnings can vary considerably. Those who spend a few hours a month editing instruction manuals from home may earn a few hundred Euros a month. Freelance occupational therapists working part time may pull in ten times that those working full-time earn in this growing industry.
It is not the end of the salariat. Full-time, company-based work is still the standard for employment in most Western countries. Nevertheless, with the rise of telecommuting and automation and the unlimited potential of crowdsourcing, it stands to reason that more and more firms will begin running, and even growing, their businesses with considerably fewer employees. This does not necessarily mean an increase in unemployment. Instead, it likely means more freelancers, who will form and reform around various projects in constant and evolving networks.
The rise of freelancing may be a key visible indicator of the future of work, notably in terms of collaboration practices.

Q. Which of the following, if true, most weakens the author's argument?

Solution:

The correct option is 3. If it is found true that a majority of people working as freelancer are unemployed then it weakens the author's argument that rise in freelancing has made it easier for people to find work. All other options can be negated. Option 2 is irrelevant to the author's argument. If option 4 is found to be true, then it would strengthen the author's argument. Option 1 is irrelevant to the author's argument as he doesn't compare salaries in the passage.

QUESTION: 78

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Today, freelancers represent 35% of the United States workforce. In the European Union, the rate is 16.1%. Both figures demonstrate the same global trend: from creative entrepreneurs to those paid by the task, freelancing is on the rise worldwide. Freelancing is often portrayed as liberating, empowering, and even glamorous.
In OECD countries, studies show that these individuals work chiefly in the service sector (50% of men and 70% of women). The remainder are everything from online assistants to architects, designers and photographers. Finding work now is easier for these professionals. Many freelancers, whatever their job, may have originally opted for this employment model because it offers freedom – the freedom to work anytime and, in some cases, anywhere.
A 2017 study found that the majority of freelancers in OECD countries are "slashers", meaning that their contract work supplements another part-time or full-time position. These additional earnings can vary considerably. Those who spend a few hours a month editing instruction manuals from home may earn a few hundred Euros a month. Freelance occupational therapists working part time may pull in ten times that those working full-time earn in this growing industry.
It is not the end of the salariat. Full-time, company-based work is still the standard for employment in most Western countries. Nevertheless, with the rise of telecommuting and automation and the unlimited potential of crowdsourcing, it stands to reason that more and more firms will begin running, and even growing, their businesses with considerably fewer employees. This does not necessarily mean an increase in unemployment. Instead, it likely means more freelancers, who will form and reform around various projects in constant and evolving networks.
The rise of freelancing may be a key visible indicator of the future of work, notably in terms of collaboration practices.

Q. In support of which of the following does the author state that freelance occupational therapists may pull in ten times that of working full-time?

Solution:

The correct option is 3. The author mentions the example of therapist in paragraph 3, where he mentions that for many people freelance work is supplement to their full time jobs and it helps them earn some extra cash.

QUESTION: 79

Read the text and answer the following question.

Good, bad, sign of hope or hopelessness — making generalisations about the large-scale exodus of Punjabi youths abroad, particularly to Canada, serves little purpose because first, it can't be controlled and second, no one actually wants to. The demand is at an all-time high, and those with an entrepreneurial spirit are employing all means to cater to it. Since the study visa ensures the easiest way through the immigration counter, the business opportunity it provides is exponential. Packed English-learning centres, foreign university seminars, institutions with dubious credentials, and the reality that escapes no one: students desperate for admission, but with little intention of studying.
Research by Punjabi University scholars on the socio-economic profile of those seeking study visa gives new insight. Around 70 per cent of aspirants in the Malwa region, it claims, are from the farming community. That too from the marginal category, a fallout of a sustained agrarian crisis and poor quality of job prospects. So, if moving out of agriculture is what will sustain the family in the long run, why not move out of the country? Family resources may be limited, but if migration for education is the answer, why question the odds? Female students outnumber males in IELTS centres, a sign of new-found confidence and a generation tired of waiting for things to happen. Another key finding is the almost negligible study visa presence of those from the SC community, attributed to the lack of funds, not dreams.

Q. Which of the following can be inferred from the above context?

Solution:

Option 3 can be inferred from the line: 'So, if moving out of agriculture is what will sustain the family in the long run, why not move out of the country ...'

QUESTION: 80

Read the text and answer the following question.

Good, bad, sign of hope or hopelessness — making generalisations about the large-scale exodus of Punjabi youths abroad, particularly to Canada, serves little purpose because first, it can't be controlled and second, no one actually wants to. The demand is at an all-time high, and those with an entrepreneurial spirit are employing all means to cater to it. Since the study visa ensures the easiest way through the immigration counter, the business opportunity it provides is exponential. Packed English-learning centres, foreign university seminars, institutions with dubious credentials, and the reality that escapes no one: students desperate for admission, but with little intention of studying.
Research by Punjabi University scholars on the socio-economic profile of those seeking study visa gives new insight. Around 70 per cent of aspirants in the Malwa region, it claims, are from the farming community. That too from the marginal category, a fallout of a sustained agrarian crisis and poor quality of job prospects. So, if moving out of agriculture is what will sustain the family in the long run, why not move out of the country? Family resources may be limited, but if migration for education is the answer, why question the odds? Female students outnumber males in IELTS centres, a sign of new-found confidence and a generation tired of waiting for things to happen. Another key finding is the almost negligible study visa presence of those from the SC community, attributed to the lack of funds, not dreams.

Q. Which of the following best explains why the conclusion need not be the best explanation for statistics presented in the argument?

Solution:

The research employed the use of first-hand data to interpret the conclusion.

QUESTION: 81

Read the text and answer the following question.

Good, bad, sign of hope or hopelessness — making generalisations about the large-scale exodus of Punjabi youths abroad, particularly to Canada, serves little purpose because first, it can't be controlled and second, no one actually wants to. The demand is at an all-time high, and those with an entrepreneurial spirit are employing all means to cater to it. Since the study visa ensures the easiest way through the immigration counter, the business opportunity it provides is exponential. Packed English-learning centres, foreign university seminars, institutions with dubious credentials, and the reality that escapes no one: students desperate for admission, but with little intention of studying.
Research by Punjabi University scholars on the socio-economic profile of those seeking study visa gives new insight. Around 70 per cent of aspirants in the Malwa region, it claims, are from the farming community. That too from the marginal category, a fallout of a sustained agrarian crisis and poor quality of job prospects. So, if moving out of agriculture is what will sustain the family in the long run, why not move out of the country? Family resources may be limited, but if migration for education is the answer, why question the odds? Female students outnumber males in IELTS centres, a sign of new-found confidence and a generation tired of waiting for things to happen. Another key finding is the almost negligible study visa presence of those from the SC community, attributed to the lack of funds, not dreams.

Q. What is the role played by the second paragraph in relation to the first paragraph?

Solution:

The first paragraph describes the trend of migration in Punjab. It is further supported by including a research study about the observed trend in the second paragraph. Thus, option 4 is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 82

Read the text and answer the following question.

Good, bad, sign of hope or hopelessness — making generalisations about the large-scale exodus of Punjabi youths abroad, particularly to Canada, serves little purpose because first, it can't be controlled and second, no one actually wants to. The demand is at an all-time high, and those with an entrepreneurial spirit are employing all means to cater to it. Since the study visa ensures the easiest way through the immigration counter, the business opportunity it provides is exponential. Packed English-learning centres, foreign university seminars, institutions with dubious credentials, and the reality that escapes no one: students desperate for admission, but with little intention of studying.
Research by Punjabi University scholars on the socio-economic profile of those seeking study visa gives new insight. Around 70 per cent of aspirants in the Malwa region, it claims, are from the farming community. That too from the marginal category, a fallout of a sustained agrarian crisis and poor quality of job prospects. So, if moving out of agriculture is what will sustain the family in the long run, why not move out of the country? Family resources may be limited, but if migration for education is the answer, why question the odds? Female students outnumber males in IELTS centres, a sign of new-found confidence and a generation tired of waiting for things to happen. Another key finding is the almost negligible study visa presence of those from the SC community, attributed to the lack of funds, not dreams.

Q. Which of the following is a situation similar to that of those who wish to go abroad by applying for study visas?

Solution:

The situation of students willing to move abroad is that they take admissions into educational institutions but do not have any intention of studying. This can be inferred from the line: 'students desperate for admission, but with little intention of studying.' A similar situation is described in option 2 where a person takes the initiative to go for a job interview in the hopes of getting a job, but he has no intention to work as an employee. Other options don't capture the same relationship as described in the text about students moving abroad.

QUESTION: 83

Read the text and answer the following question.

Good, bad, sign of hope or hopelessness — making generalisations about the large-scale exodus of Punjabi youths abroad, particularly to Canada, serves little purpose because first, it can't be controlled and second, no one actually wants to. The demand is at an all-time high, and those with an entrepreneurial spirit are employing all means to cater to it. Since the study visa ensures the easiest way through the immigration counter, the business opportunity it provides is exponential. Packed English-learning centres, foreign university seminars, institutions with dubious credentials, and the reality that escapes no one: students desperate for admission, but with little intention of studying.
Research by Punjabi University scholars on the socio-economic profile of those seeking study visa gives new insight. Around 70 per cent of aspirants in the Malwa region, it claims, are from the farming community. That too from the marginal category, a fallout of a sustained agrarian crisis and poor quality of job prospects. So, if moving out of agriculture is what will sustain the family in the long run, why not move out of the country? Family resources may be limited, but if migration for education is the answer, why question the odds? Female students outnumber males in IELTS centres, a sign of new-found confidence and a generation tired of waiting for things to happen. Another key finding is the almost negligible study visa presence of those from the SC community, attributed to the lack of funds, not dreams.

Q. Which of the following, if true, could possibly be the reason behind a greater number of females in IELTS centers than males?

Solution:

It can be inferred from the passage that IELTS is one of the requirements to enter the foreign land. Thus, if option 1 is considered true, it would provide the explanation for greater number of females in IELTS centers than males.

QUESTION: 84

Read the passage and answer the following question.

The ICC wants to change the 143-year old five-day format to four days with more emphasis on limited-overs cricket for the next cycle but it has met with stiff resistance across the globe from leading stars including Virat Kohli, Ricky Ponting, Justin Langer and Nathan Lyon to name a few.
"From a purist's point of view and being an admirer of Test cricket, I don't think it should be tinkered with. The format has to be played in the way it has been played for so many years," Tendulkar says.
A day less, according to the world's highest run-getter across two formats, will lead to batsmen thinking of Tests as an extended version of limited-overs cricket. "The batsmen will start thinking that it is a longer version of limited overs match because the moment you bat till the second day lunch, you know that there's only two and half days to go. That changes the thinking and dynamics of the game," he believes. Tendulkar fully understands that there's a commercial aspect and audience interest attached to the game but he wants one format to remain the true Test of batsmanship.

Q. Which of the following inferences can be drawn from the passage given above?

Solution:

Only option (2) is correct. The senior and more experienced cricketers are against changing the format of cricket. Nowhere is there an indication that ICC took this decision to favour the rising star in the field of cricket.

QUESTION: 85

Read the passage and answer the following question.

The ICC wants to change the 143-year old five-day format to four days with more emphasis on limited-overs cricket for the next cycle but it has met with stiff resistance across the globe from leading stars including Virat Kohli, Ricky Ponting, Justin Langer and Nathan Lyon to name a few.
"From a purist's point of view and being an admirer of Test cricket, I don't think it should be tinkered with. The format has to be played in the way it has been played for so many years," Tendulkar says.
A day less, according to the world's highest run-getter across two formats, will lead to batsmen thinking of Tests as an extended version of limited-overs cricket. "The batsmen will start thinking that it is a longer version of limited overs match because the moment you bat till the second day lunch, you know that there's only two and half days to go. That changes the thinking and dynamics of the game," he believes. Tendulkar fully understands that there's a commercial aspect and audience interest attached to the game but he wants one format to remain the true Test of batsmanship.

Q. Based on the given passage, which of the following do you infer as not being an example of an action that has a commercial aspect?

Solution:

Only option (4) is correct. The passage details how 'purists' consider old format Test Cricket as traditional. The commercial aspect mentioned in the passage alludes to the new formats which have increased the earnings of the game. Other similar examples of commercial activities which surround the cricket tournaments are mentioned in options 1, 2 and 3 so they cannot be the answers.

QUESTION: 86

Read the passage and answer the following question.

The ICC wants to change the 143-year old five-day format to four days with more emphasis on limited-overs cricket for the next cycle but it has met with stiff resistance across the globe from leading stars including Virat Kohli, Ricky Ponting, Justin Langer and Nathan Lyon to name a few.
"From a purist's point of view and being an admirer of Test cricket, I don't think it should be tinkered with. The format has to be played in the way it has been played for so many years," Tendulkar says.
A day less, according to the world's highest run-getter across two formats, will lead to batsmen thinking of Tests as an extended version of limited-overs cricket. "The batsmen will start thinking that it is a longer version of limited overs match because the moment you bat till the second day lunch, you know that there's only two and half days to go. That changes the thinking and dynamics of the game," he believes. Tendulkar fully understands that there's a commercial aspect and audience interest attached to the game but he wants one format to remain the true Test of batsmanship.

Q. Which of the following situations is similar in nature to the problem mentioned in the given context?

Solution:

Only option (1) is correct. The changes mentioned in options (3) and (4) are not for the worse. They are for the better. The situation in option 2 might just be a temporary one. However, the situation mentioned in option 1 is unfair from both ends - getting an off and not being paid for it. It is similar to the problem that is mentioned in the text - "The batsmen will start thinking that it is a longer version of limited overs match because the moment you bat till the second day lunch, you know that there's only two and half days to go. That changes the thinking and dynamics of the game."

QUESTION: 87

Read the passage and answer the following question.

The ICC wants to change the 143-year old five-day format to four days with more emphasis on limited-overs cricket for the next cycle but it has met with stiff resistance across the globe from leading stars including Virat Kohli, Ricky Ponting, Justin Langer and Nathan Lyon to name a few.
"From a purist's point of view and being an admirer of Test cricket, I don't think it should be tinkered with. The format has to be played in the way it has been played for so many years," Tendulkar says.
A day less, according to the world's highest run-getter across two formats, will lead to batsmen thinking of Tests as an extended version of limited-overs cricket. "The batsmen will start thinking that it is a longer version of limited overs match because the moment you bat till the second day lunch, you know that there's only two and half days to go. That changes the thinking and dynamics of the game," he believes. Tendulkar fully understands that there's a commercial aspect and audience interest attached to the game but he wants one format to remain the true Test of batsmanship.

Q. Which of the following best represents the main point of the given passage?

Solution:

Option 4 is correct. It is the main point of the passage as can be supported by the descriptions of Tendulkar's viewpoints in the passage. Other options don't represent the key theme of the passage and hence are incorrect.

QUESTION: 88

Read the passage and answer the following question.

The ICC wants to change the 143-year old five-day format to four days with more emphasis on limited-overs cricket for the next cycle but it has met with stiff resistance across the globe from leading stars including Virat Kohli, Ricky Ponting, Justin Langer and Nathan Lyon to name a few.
"From a purist's point of view and being an admirer of Test cricket, I don't think it should be tinkered with. The format has to be played in the way it has been played for so many years," Tendulkar says.
A day less, according to the world's highest run-getter across two formats, will lead to batsmen thinking of Tests as an extended version of limited-overs cricket. "The batsmen will start thinking that it is a longer version of limited overs match because the moment you bat till the second day lunch, you know that there's only two and half days to go. That changes the thinking and dynamics of the game," he believes. Tendulkar fully understands that there's a commercial aspect and audience interest attached to the game but he wants one format to remain the true Test of batsmanship.

Q. The statement that any modification in the test format changes the thinking and dynamics of the game plays which of the following roles in the argument that the traditional format for Test Cricket should not be tampered with?

Solution:

The given statement is both the premise and the conclusion of the argument in the passage. It forms the bedrock of the resistance against change in the traditional format. It also states what would happen as a result of the change. Tendulkar's arguments here are a form of circular reasoning in which he begins with what they are trying to end with. It is a logically valid statement because if the premise is true, the conclusion must also be true.

QUESTION: 89

Read the text and answer the following question.

E-commerce in India has seen phenomenal growth over the years — from $39 billion in 2017, it is projected to rise to $200 billion by 2026. This comes in the wake of deepening penetration of the Internet and mobile phones. There has been a steady expansion of online offerings — electronics, apparel, travel, movies, medicine, hotel reservations, books, matrimonial services, cosmetics, footwear, fashion accessories and groceries. The liberal Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) policy, where 100% business-to-business transactions are allowed, is also fuelling the growth of this market.
This growth, however, comes with challenges. Counterfeiting and pirated goods continue to distort the virtual marketplace. E-commerce sites are regularly being used as common platforms for the sale of counterfeit goods. Whether it is online or offline, the dangers are legitimate market loss and the occupation of economic space by unauthorised and grey market operators, causing loss of revenue to the government, loss of jobs, threat to consumer safety, and growth of organised crime.
While technology offers several solutions to authenticate the original product, the same technological tools, particularly artificial intelligence, help create clones. This makes it more difficult to distinguish between the original and the fake. Moreover, when e-commerce players and brand owners get embroiled in disputes, it is the counterfeiters who reap the benefits. What is needed is constant upgradation and innovation to stay ahead of the counterfeiters. Therefore, it is important that we have regulations for e-commerce.

Q. If the author's arguments in the given passage are true, which of the following must also be true?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. The author describes the problem that e-commerce companies face in these lines: "Counterfeiting and pirated goods continue to distort the virtual marketplace. E-commerce sites are regularly being used as common platforms for the sale of counterfeit goods." Option 4 is incorrect because the author does not state anything regarding e-commerce websites being a threat to the local markets in the passage.

QUESTION: 90

Read the text and answer the following question.

E-commerce in India has seen phenomenal growth over the years — from $39 billion in 2017, it is projected to rise to $200 billion by 2026. This comes in the wake of deepening penetration of the Internet and mobile phones. There has been a steady expansion of online offerings — electronics, apparel, travel, movies, medicine, hotel reservations, books, matrimonial services, cosmetics, footwear, fashion accessories and groceries. The liberal Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) policy, where 100% business-to-business transactions are allowed, is also fuelling the growth of this market.
This growth, however, comes with challenges. Counterfeiting and pirated goods continue to distort the virtual marketplace. E-commerce sites are regularly being used as common platforms for the sale of counterfeit goods. Whether it is online or offline, the dangers are legitimate market loss and the occupation of economic space by unauthorised and grey market operators, causing loss of revenue to the government, loss of jobs, threat to consumer safety, and growth of organised crime.
While technology offers several solutions to authenticate the original product, the same technological tools, particularly artificial intelligence, help create clones. This makes it more difficult to distinguish between the original and the fake. Moreover, when e-commerce players and brand owners get embroiled in disputes, it is the counterfeiters who reap the benefits. What is needed is constant upgradation and innovation to stay ahead of the counterfeiters. Therefore, it is important that we have regulations for e-commerce.

Q. What role does the author's claim that despite the technological solutions there is still a gap in authenticating products play in the argument in the passage?

Solution:

The correct option is 3. The author states the failure of technology to help in detecting counterfeits supports the author's conclusion for the need of governmental regulations in place to prevent counterfeiting and piracy. Other options don't indicate the role that the given statement in the question plays in the passage.

QUESTION: 91

Read the text and answer the following question.

E-commerce in India has seen phenomenal growth over the years — from $39 billion in 2017, it is projected to rise to $200 billion by 2026. This comes in the wake of deepening penetration of the Internet and mobile phones. There has been a steady expansion of online offerings — electronics, apparel, travel, movies, medicine, hotel reservations, books, matrimonial services, cosmetics, footwear, fashion accessories and groceries. The liberal Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) policy, where 100% business-to-business transactions are allowed, is also fuelling the growth of this market.
This growth, however, comes with challenges. Counterfeiting and pirated goods continue to distort the virtual marketplace. E-commerce sites are regularly being used as common platforms for the sale of counterfeit goods. Whether it is online or offline, the dangers are legitimate market loss and the occupation of economic space by unauthorised and grey market operators, causing loss of revenue to the government, loss of jobs, threat to consumer safety, and growth of organised crime.
While technology offers several solutions to authenticate the original product, the same technological tools, particularly artificial intelligence, help create clones. This makes it more difficult to distinguish between the original and the fake. Moreover, when e-commerce players and brand owners get embroiled in disputes, it is the counterfeiters who reap the benefits. What is needed is constant upgradation and innovation to stay ahead of the counterfeiters. Therefore, it is important that we have regulations for e-commerce.

Q. Based on the author's argument in the given passage, what would be the best approach to tackle the problem of piracy and counterfeit products?

Solution:

The correct option is 1. The author specifically states this in the conclusion of the passage: "Therefore, it is important that we have regulations for e-commerce." Other options are not suggested from the author's description in the passage.

QUESTION: 92

Read the text and answer the following question.

E-commerce in India has seen phenomenal growth over the years — from $39 billion in 2017, it is projected to rise to $200 billion by 2026. This comes in the wake of deepening penetration of the Internet and mobile phones. There has been a steady expansion of online offerings — electronics, apparel, travel, movies, medicine, hotel reservations, books, matrimonial services, cosmetics, footwear, fashion accessories and groceries. The liberal Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) policy, where 100% business-to-business transactions are allowed, is also fuelling the growth of this market.
This growth, however, comes with challenges. Counterfeiting and pirated goods continue to distort the virtual marketplace. E-commerce sites are regularly being used as common platforms for the sale of counterfeit goods. Whether it is online or offline, the dangers are legitimate market loss and the occupation of economic space by unauthorised and grey market operators, causing loss of revenue to the government, loss of jobs, threat to consumer safety, and growth of organised crime.
While technology offers several solutions to authenticate the original product, the same technological tools, particularly artificial intelligence, help create clones. This makes it more difficult to distinguish between the original and the fake. Moreover, when e-commerce players and brand owners get embroiled in disputes, it is the counterfeiters who reap the benefits. What is needed is constant upgradation and innovation to stay ahead of the counterfeiters. Therefore, it is important that we have regulations for e-commerce.

Q. Based on the information set out in the text, which of the following is most accurate?

Solution:

The correct option is 2. The author says, 'Counterfeiting and pirated goods continue to distort the virtual marketplace. E-commerce sites are regularly being used as common platforms for the sale of counterfeit goods.' It can be correctly inferred from these lines that sale of counterfeited products has been facilitated by e-commerce websites and their sale might have increased due to growth of these websites.

QUESTION: 93

Read the text and answer the following question.

E-commerce in India has seen phenomenal growth over the years — from $39 billion in 2017, it is projected to rise to $200 billion by 2026. This comes in the wake of deepening penetration of the Internet and mobile phones. There has been a steady expansion of online offerings — electronics, apparel, travel, movies, medicine, hotel reservations, books, matrimonial services, cosmetics, footwear, fashion accessories and groceries. The liberal Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) policy, where 100% business-to-business transactions are allowed, is also fuelling the growth of this market.
This growth, however, comes with challenges. Counterfeiting and pirated goods continue to distort the virtual marketplace. E-commerce sites are regularly being used as common platforms for the sale of counterfeit goods. Whether it is online or offline, the dangers are legitimate market loss and the occupation of economic space by unauthorised and grey market operators, causing loss of revenue to the government, loss of jobs, threat to consumer safety, and growth of organised crime.
While technology offers several solutions to authenticate the original product, the same technological tools, particularly artificial intelligence, help create clones. This makes it more difficult to distinguish between the original and the fake. Moreover, when e-commerce players and brand owners get embroiled in disputes, it is the counterfeiters who reap the benefits. What is needed is constant upgradation and innovation to stay ahead of the counterfeiters. Therefore, it is important that we have regulations for e-commerce.

Q. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

Solution:

The correct option is 3. It can be inferred from this line: "Moreover, when e-commerce players and brand owners get embroiled in disputes, it is the counterfeiters who reap the benefits."

QUESTION: 94

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Success in an infant industry is the story of Flipkart. A start up launched in 2007 with an investment of just Rs 4 Lakhs has come to grow into the first billion dollar company in Indian e-commerce. Flipkart exploited vast consumers segment waiting to enjoy the comfort of shopping online. The company's core value lies in the operating mantra: "Don't count your customers before they smile"! Flipkart succeeded in adding the 'surprise and delight' factor for customers. They are treated to offers that are most suited and relevant to their preferences. The company's Big Billion Sale was an aggressive step towards the same direction. Many criticized the retailer for jumping way too ahead without much preparation for the challenge. Though Flipkart fumbled in managing site traffic and product demand-supply gap, it maintained its goodwill by sending an apology with explanation letter to all its customers. It made adequate amends and managed to win back its loyalists.

Q. Which of the following can be inferred from the author's description of Flipkart's success story?

Solution:

The author is all in praises about Flipkart's story. Key words such as 'success in an infant industry', 'just 4 lakhs to first billion dollar company', 'though Flipkart fumbled, but managed' etc. demonstrate that the author thinks highly of the manner in which Flipkart has grown. Also, the key phrase 'aggressive step' demonstrates that the author thinks that the Big Billion Sale was one of its risky chances and its work ethic is demonstrated by the 'operating mantra' and 'made amends'. Thus, we can infer that the author's description indicates both (1) and (2).

QUESTION: 95

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Success in an infant industry is the story of Flipkart. A start up launched in 2007 with an investment of just Rs 4 Lakhs has come to grow into the first billion dollar company in Indian e-commerce. Flipkart exploited vast consumers segment waiting to enjoy the comfort of shopping online. The company's core value lies in the operating mantra: "Don't count your customers before they smile"! Flipkart succeeded in adding the 'surprise and delight' factor for customers. They are treated to offers that are most suited and relevant to their preferences. The company's Big Billion Sale was an aggressive step towards the same direction. Many criticized the retailer for jumping way too ahead without much preparation for the challenge. Though Flipkart fumbled in managing site traffic and product demand-supply gap, it maintained its goodwill by sending an apology with explanation letter to all its customers. It made adequate amends and managed to win back its loyalists.

Q. Which of the following cannot be considered an example of maintaining goodwill as evidenced in the author's description of Flipkart's example?

Solution:

Option (4) cannot be considered a gesture of goodwill as it was a manufacturing defect and in case of an accident, the car company could have been sued. Also, they repaired a manufacturing defect by taking payment from the insurance, which caused the loss of no claim bonus to the customer. The defects should have been repaired free of cost. Goodwill gestures involve rectifying mistakes pointed out by customers and giving them freebies to make up for their bad experience. We can see that from Flipkart's example of sending a letter of apology and explanation.

QUESTION: 96

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Success in an infant industry is the story of Flipkart. A start up launched in 2007 with an investment of just Rs 4 Lakhs has come to grow into the first billion dollar company in Indian e-commerce. Flipkart exploited vast consumers segment waiting to enjoy the comfort of shopping online. The company's core value lies in the operating mantra: "Don't count your customers before they smile"! Flipkart succeeded in adding the 'surprise and delight' factor for customers. They are treated to offers that are most suited and relevant to their preferences. The company's Big Billion Sale was an aggressive step towards the same direction. Many criticized the retailer for jumping way too ahead without much preparation for the challenge. Though Flipkart fumbled in managing site traffic and product demand-supply gap, it maintained its goodwill by sending an apology with explanation letter to all its customers. It made adequate amends and managed to win back its loyalists.

Q. Which of the following demonstrates 'for jumping way too ahead without much preparation for the challenge' as indicated by the author in Flipkart's case?

Solution:

A business cannot exist in vacuum and thus, a business owner must keep in loop with his mentors, customers and even competitors as this will keep him prepared. Thus, option (1) is not an example of jumping way too ahead without preparation for challenge. Similarly options (2) and (4) also involve planning ahead and being in touch with the target customer. Only option (3) is an example of jumping in way too ahead without preparation as many opportunities will seem interesting to an entrepreneur, but not all will be doable. Thus, learning to be clear about one's strengths and leveraging those strengths to pursue an opportunity is a sensible manner of proceeding. Putting your fingers in too many pies is jumping ahead without planning.

QUESTION: 97

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Success in an infant industry is the story of Flipkart. A start up launched in 2007 with an investment of just Rs 4 Lakhs has come to grow into the first billion dollar company in Indian e-commerce. Flipkart exploited vast consumers segment waiting to enjoy the comfort of shopping online. The company's core value lies in the operating mantra: "Don't count your customers before they smile"! Flipkart succeeded in adding the 'surprise and delight' factor for customers. They are treated to offers that are most suited and relevant to their preferences. The company's Big Billion Sale was an aggressive step towards the same direction. Many criticized the retailer for jumping way too ahead without much preparation for the challenge. Though Flipkart fumbled in managing site traffic and product demand-supply gap, it maintained its goodwill by sending an apology with explanation letter to all its customers. It made adequate amends and managed to win back its loyalists.

Q. Which of the following depicts an accurate response to a customer, who got a different item from what he ordered, by Flipkart according to its core values?

Solution:

Refer to the context, 'The company's core value lies in the operating mantra: Don't count your customers before they smile!' So, an accurate customer response would focus on getting the customer satisfied. Option (3) would be a good option by listening and acting according to the customer's choice. Option (4) is close but the customer might actually want the product. So, an exchange could also be offered. Option (3) covers up for option (4). So, option (3) is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 98

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Success in an infant industry is the story of Flipkart. A start up launched in 2007 with an investment of just Rs 4 Lakhs has come to grow into the first billion dollar company in Indian e-commerce. Flipkart exploited vast consumers segment waiting to enjoy the comfort of shopping online. The company's core value lies in the operating mantra: "Don't count your customers before they smile"! Flipkart succeeded in adding the 'surprise and delight' factor for customers. They are treated to offers that are most suited and relevant to their preferences. The company's Big Billion Sale was an aggressive step towards the same direction. Many criticized the retailer for jumping way too ahead without much preparation for the challenge. Though Flipkart fumbled in managing site traffic and product demand-supply gap, it maintained its goodwill by sending an apology with explanation letter to all its customers. It made adequate amends and managed to win back its loyalists.

Q. 'Success in an infant industry is the story of Flipkart' is a conclusion drawn by the passage above. Which among the following is a premise to this conclusion?

Solution:

A premise forms the basis of a theory, plot or conclusion. The conclusion above talks about the success attained by Flipkart. Out of the options mentioned, option (3) by quantifying the success of Flipkart in terms of a small investment growing into a billion dollars provides the best basis of the conclusion specifying Flipkart's success.

QUESTION: 99

Read the text and answer the following question.

What's life-sustaining becomes life-threatening when it gets contaminated and is transfused into an unsuspecting patient. Safe blood transfusion continues to be a major challenge for the healthcare sector in India. Back in 1996, the Supreme Court had told the Union Government to 'consider the advisability' of enacting a separate legislation for regulating the collection, processing, storage, distribution and transportation of blood and the operation of blood banks in the country. Consequently, the National Blood Transfusion Council was established, followed by the framing of the National Blood Policy.
The petitioners have red-flagged the mushrooming of stand-alone private blood banks which not only provide products of inconsistent quality but also fleece patients with impunity. Several blood banks in Punjab's Doaba region have been under scrutiny in recent years over quality control and pricing issues.
The petition has claimed that the number of registered and licensed blood banks in India is abysmally low — less than three per 10 lakh population. Ideally, every district hospital should have a blood bank. However, merely expanding the network of such storage centres is not enough to improve the state of affairs. It's imperative that each blood bank should have adequate infrastructure and trained manpower. The authorities ought to address the shortage of trained healthcare professionals in the field of transfusion medicine. Strict enforcement of the licensing norms can help to stem the rot. With precious lives at stake, unscrupulous elements cannot be allowed to bleed people dry.

Q. Which of the following can be considered an example of the situation highlighted in the passage where 'private blood banks fleece patients'?

Solution:

Option 2 mentions the case of a private blood bank in Phagwara which deceived a patient by selling blood laced with a contaminant. This can be considered an example of the situation in which illegal blood banks deceive the patients. Options 1 and 3 are unrelated. Option 4 presents a problem and does not represent the situation given in the question.

QUESTION: 100

Read the text and answer the following question.

What's life-sustaining becomes life-threatening when it gets contaminated and is transfused into an unsuspecting patient. Safe blood transfusion continues to be a major challenge for the healthcare sector in India. Back in 1996, the Supreme Court had told the Union Government to 'consider the advisability' of enacting a separate legislation for regulating the collection, processing, storage, distribution and transportation of blood and the operation of blood banks in the country. Consequently, the National Blood Transfusion Council was established, followed by the framing of the National Blood Policy.
The petitioners have red-flagged the mushrooming of stand-alone private blood banks which not only provide products of inconsistent quality but also fleece patients with impunity. Several blood banks in Punjab's Doaba region have been under scrutiny in recent years over quality control and pricing issues.
The petition has claimed that the number of registered and licensed blood banks in India is abysmally low — less than three per 10 lakh population. Ideally, every district hospital should have a blood bank. However, merely expanding the network of such storage centres is not enough to improve the state of affairs. It's imperative that each blood bank should have adequate infrastructure and trained manpower. The authorities ought to address the shortage of trained healthcare professionals in the field of transfusion medicine. Strict enforcement of the licensing norms can help to stem the rot. With precious lives at stake, unscrupulous elements cannot be allowed to bleed people dry.

Q. Which of the following is consistent with the author's claim that safe and uncontaminated blood should be made available to the ailing patient?

Solution:

The passage states 'It's imperative that each blood bank should have adequate infrastructure and trained manpower. The authorities ought to address the shortage of trained healthcare professionals ...' This means that if the authorities makes adequate manpower and infrastructure then the problem will be resolved to a large extent. Setting up an entirely new ministry would not necessarily address the issue as if it does not take steps like the current one, then it won't bring about any effect.

QUESTION: 101

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

The shutting down of the Internet in Delhi and several States as a response to growing protests against the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA), 2019, is unsophisticated and deeply damaging to social life and the economy. Meghalaya, Tripura and Arunachal Pradesh were entirely cut off, and parts of Assam, West Bengal, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh were deprived of Internet access, in clumsy attempts to quell demonstrations. Such ham-handed interventions have won for India a place at the head of the table among intolerant countries that routinely shut down the Internet to block criticism of the government. Jammu and Kashmir is now acknowledged globally as a dark spot on the Internet, with service there blocked since August 4, 2019. After protests against the CAA began, other States are also experiencing shutdowns, and the fate of connectivity is being decided by officers empowered by the Temporary Suspension of Telecom Services (Public Emergency or Public Safety) Rules, 2017 under the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885, or Section 144 of the CrPC.
A disruption is an extreme measure, and should be countenanced only for a specific threat, and as an interim measure as official communications fill the information vacuum. A case in point is the spreading of rumours on child lifters on social media, which resulted in several lynchings. The net blackout of the kind being witnessed now, however, has little to do with rumors, and is clearly aimed at muzzling the protests.
The Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, who has fashioned himself as a digital first leader, issued a Twitter appeal to people in Assam on the CAA, but they did not get it as they had no net. The NDA government should also be aware that the connectivity chokehold applied on J&K is proving lethal to entrepreneurship, crippling a new generation running start-ups and promoting women's employment. A disrupted Internet is dealing a blow to digital financial transactions across several States, to e-governance initiatives, and economic productivity. It affects education and skill-building, as the Kerala High Court affirmed in an order holding access to the net a fundamental right that could not be denied arbitrarily. The court pointed out that the apprehension of a gadget being misused is not a legitimate ground for denial of service, and the government should act on specific complaints.
Yet, since 2015, shutdowns have been rising - 134 in 2018 - and the NDA seems unwilling to change course. It seems to matter little that blunt interventions make the ambitious goal of growing into a $5-trillion economy even more unrealistic, or that India is losing face as a democracy because it chooses to sit with authoritarian regimes. That is the wrong road to take. Reform and progress vitally need the net.

Q. Which of the following can be accurately said to be the view of the author of the aforementioned passage?

Solution:

The correct answer is (2). The shutting down of the Internet is a damaging action deeply affecting the social and economic life in places where the internet has been cut off. The general tone of the essay is evidence to the fact that according the author, if done indiscriminately without much thought, the shutting down of the internet in part of the country has a strong negative impact of various facets of life in the country.

QUESTION: 102

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

The shutting down of the Internet in Delhi and several States as a response to growing protests against the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA), 2019, is unsophisticated and deeply damaging to social life and the economy. Meghalaya, Tripura and Arunachal Pradesh were entirely cut off, and parts of Assam, West Bengal, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh were deprived of Internet access, in clumsy attempts to quell demonstrations. Such ham-handed interventions have won for India a place at the head of the table among intolerant countries that routinely shut down the Internet to block criticism of the government. Jammu and Kashmir is now acknowledged globally as a dark spot on the Internet, with service there blocked since August 4, 2019. After protests against the CAA began, other States are also experiencing shutdowns, and the fate of connectivity is being decided by officers empowered by the Temporary Suspension of Telecom Services (Public Emergency or Public Safety) Rules, 2017 under the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885, or Section 144 of the CrPC.
A disruption is an extreme measure, and should be countenanced only for a specific threat, and as an interim measure as official communications fill the information vacuum. A case in point is the spreading of rumours on child lifters on social media, which resulted in several lynchings. The net blackout of the kind being witnessed now, however, has little to do with rumors, and is clearly aimed at muzzling the protests.
The Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, who has fashioned himself as a digital first leader, issued a Twitter appeal to people in Assam on the CAA, but they did not get it as they had no net. The NDA government should also be aware that the connectivity chokehold applied on J&K is proving lethal to entrepreneurship, crippling a new generation running start-ups and promoting women's employment. A disrupted Internet is dealing a blow to digital financial transactions across several States, to e-governance initiatives, and economic productivity. It affects education and skill-building, as the Kerala High Court affirmed in an order holding access to the net a fundamental right that could not be denied arbitrarily. The court pointed out that the apprehension of a gadget being misused is not a legitimate ground for denial of service, and the government should act on specific complaints.
Yet, since 2015, shutdowns have been rising - 134 in 2018 - and the NDA seems unwilling to change course. It seems to matter little that blunt interventions make the ambitious goal of growing into a $5-trillion economy even more unrealistic, or that India is losing face as a democracy because it chooses to sit with authoritarian regimes. That is the wrong road to take. Reform and progress vitally need the net.

Q. According to the author, how has this act of shutting down the Internet affected India's image in the global scenario?

Solution:

The correct answer is (3). According to the author, such 'ham-handed interventions have won for India a place at the head of the table among intolerant countries that routinely shut down the Internet to block criticism of the government'. This is a clear indicator of the fact that according to the author, such acts of shutting down the Internet have a negative impact on India's global image as it places India among a group of intolerant countries resorting to such actions as a means of thwarting dissent.

QUESTION: 103

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

The shutting down of the Internet in Delhi and several States as a response to growing protests against the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA), 2019, is unsophisticated and deeply damaging to social life and the economy. Meghalaya, Tripura and Arunachal Pradesh were entirely cut off, and parts of Assam, West Bengal, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh were deprived of Internet access, in clumsy attempts to quell demonstrations. Such ham-handed interventions have won for India a place at the head of the table among intolerant countries that routinely shut down the Internet to block criticism of the government. Jammu and Kashmir is now acknowledged globally as a dark spot on the Internet, with service there blocked since August 4, 2019. After protests against the CAA began, other States are also experiencing shutdowns, and the fate of connectivity is being decided by officers empowered by the Temporary Suspension of Telecom Services (Public Emergency or Public Safety) Rules, 2017 under the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885, or Section 144 of the CrPC.
A disruption is an extreme measure, and should be countenanced only for a specific threat, and as an interim measure as official communications fill the information vacuum. A case in point is the spreading of rumours on child lifters on social media, which resulted in several lynchings. The net blackout of the kind being witnessed now, however, has little to do with rumors, and is clearly aimed at muzzling the protests.
The Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, who has fashioned himself as a digital first leader, issued a Twitter appeal to people in Assam on the CAA, but they did not get it as they had no net. The NDA government should also be aware that the connectivity chokehold applied on J&K is proving lethal to entrepreneurship, crippling a new generation running start-ups and promoting women's employment. A disrupted Internet is dealing a blow to digital financial transactions across several States, to e-governance initiatives, and economic productivity. It affects education and skill-building, as the Kerala High Court affirmed in an order holding access to the net a fundamental right that could not be denied arbitrarily. The court pointed out that the apprehension of a gadget being misused is not a legitimate ground for denial of service, and the government should act on specific complaints.
Yet, since 2015, shutdowns have been rising - 134 in 2018 - and the NDA seems unwilling to change course. It seems to matter little that blunt interventions make the ambitious goal of growing into a $5-trillion economy even more unrealistic, or that India is losing face as a democracy because it chooses to sit with authoritarian regimes. That is the wrong road to take. Reform and progress vitally need the net.

Q. Which of the following according to you accurately encapsulates the author's view of internet shutdowns?

Solution:

According to the author, the shutting down of the Internet is an extraordinary measure which should be resorted to only as a means of countering specific threats and it should be an interim measure which should be employed only for a brief period.

QUESTION: 104

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

The shutting down of the Internet in Delhi and several States as a response to growing protests against the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA), 2019, is unsophisticated and deeply damaging to social life and the economy. Meghalaya, Tripura and Arunachal Pradesh were entirely cut off, and parts of Assam, West Bengal, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh were deprived of Internet access, in clumsy attempts to quell demonstrations. Such ham-handed interventions have won for India a place at the head of the table among intolerant countries that routinely shut down the Internet to block criticism of the government. Jammu and Kashmir is now acknowledged globally as a dark spot on the Internet, with service there blocked since August 4, 2019. After protests against the CAA began, other States are also experiencing shutdowns, and the fate of connectivity is being decided by officers empowered by the Temporary Suspension of Telecom Services (Public Emergency or Public Safety) Rules, 2017 under the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885, or Section 144 of the CrPC.
A disruption is an extreme measure, and should be countenanced only for a specific threat, and as an interim measure as official communications fill the information vacuum. A case in point is the spreading of rumours on child lifters on social media, which resulted in several lynchings. The net blackout of the kind being witnessed now, however, has little to do with rumors, and is clearly aimed at muzzling the protests.
The Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, who has fashioned himself as a digital first leader, issued a Twitter appeal to people in Assam on the CAA, but they did not get it as they had no net. The NDA government should also be aware that the connectivity chokehold applied on J&K is proving lethal to entrepreneurship, crippling a new generation running start-ups and promoting women's employment. A disrupted Internet is dealing a blow to digital financial transactions across several States, to e-governance initiatives, and economic productivity. It affects education and skill-building, as the Kerala High Court affirmed in an order holding access to the net a fundamental right that could not be denied arbitrarily. The court pointed out that the apprehension of a gadget being misused is not a legitimate ground for denial of service, and the government should act on specific complaints.
Yet, since 2015, shutdowns have been rising - 134 in 2018 - and the NDA seems unwilling to change course. It seems to matter little that blunt interventions make the ambitious goal of growing into a $5-trillion economy even more unrealistic, or that India is losing face as a democracy because it chooses to sit with authoritarian regimes. That is the wrong road to take. Reform and progress vitally need the net.

Q. According to you, which of the following views would the author of the aforementioned passage agree to?

Solution:

According to the author, the government's act of shutting in such ham-handed manner is contradictory to the 'digital first leader' that the Prime Minister has fashioned for himself, since such Internet shutdowns result in choking connectivity instead of improving it.

QUESTION: 105

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

The shutting down of the Internet in Delhi and several States as a response to growing protests against the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA), 2019, is unsophisticated and deeply damaging to social life and the economy. Meghalaya, Tripura and Arunachal Pradesh were entirely cut off, and parts of Assam, West Bengal, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh were deprived of Internet access, in clumsy attempts to quell demonstrations. Such ham-handed interventions have won for India a place at the head of the table among intolerant countries that routinely shut down the Internet to block criticism of the government. Jammu and Kashmir is now acknowledged globally as a dark spot on the Internet, with service there blocked since August 4, 2019. After protests against the CAA began, other States are also experiencing shutdowns, and the fate of connectivity is being decided by officers empowered by the Temporary Suspension of Telecom Services (Public Emergency or Public Safety) Rules, 2017 under the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885, or Section 144 of the CrPC.
A disruption is an extreme measure, and should be countenanced only for a specific threat, and as an interim measure as official communications fill the information vacuum. A case in point is the spreading of rumours on child lifters on social media, which resulted in several lynchings. The net blackout of the kind being witnessed now, however, has little to do with rumors, and is clearly aimed at muzzling the protests.
The Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, who has fashioned himself as a digital first leader, issued a Twitter appeal to people in Assam on the CAA, but they did not get it as they had no net. The NDA government should also be aware that the connectivity chokehold applied on J&K is proving lethal to entrepreneurship, crippling a new generation running start-ups and promoting women's employment. A disrupted Internet is dealing a blow to digital financial transactions across several States, to e-governance initiatives, and economic productivity. It affects education and skill-building, as the Kerala High Court affirmed in an order holding access to the net a fundamental right that could not be denied arbitrarily. The court pointed out that the apprehension of a gadget being misused is not a legitimate ground for denial of service, and the government should act on specific complaints.
Yet, since 2015, shutdowns have been rising - 134 in 2018 - and the NDA seems unwilling to change course. It seems to matter little that blunt interventions make the ambitious goal of growing into a $5-trillion economy even more unrealistic, or that India is losing face as a democracy because it chooses to sit with authoritarian regimes. That is the wrong road to take. Reform and progress vitally need the net.

Q. Concern of the author regarding the Internet shutdowns emanates from the belief that

Solution:

From the author's criticism of the Internet shutdown, it is evident that the author is of the opinion that such shutdown has major economic and financial impact as it is crippling and choking innovation and growth. In the conclusion, the author also states categorically that the Internet is vital for progress.

QUESTION: 106

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

Every Country has its own laws which are made to regulate the conduct of the people who live in such countries. Like in India, the laws which govern Indian citizens are Indian laws and thus the laws of other countries like that of England or China will not be binding on Indians and such laws can only be referred to when there is a question of law on which the Indian law is silent.
A foreign tort can be defined as 'A tort which is committed abroad by a person and therefore the cause of action for such tort arises in abroad'.
Whenever any tort is committed against a property which is situated in a foreign country, the tort is called tort of reality. In this the affected property is an immovable property.
Under the English law of torts, no action can arise in a case where any tort relating to immovable property is committed and thus in such cases, the suit filed by the plaintiff is rejected by the courts.
In foreign torts, whenever there is an unlawful act committed against a person or against his movable property, such tort is known as personal tort. Unlike tort of reality, the person who suffers a loss has the right to file the suit against the tortfeasor and such person's suit is not rejected by the Courts. Thus for movable property and the body, personal torts are applied and remedy is available to the injured person.
Personal torts are separate from the tort of reality because in the tort of reality, there is no right to file a claim against the wrongdoer while under personal tort a person can file a suit for the injury or loss caused by a tortfeasor. But all the suits under Personal torts cannot be accepted by the Courts and therefore only on the fulfilment of certain conditions, a suit for a personal tort which has been committed in abroad can be accepted by the court. The first condition which has to be fulfilled in a case of personal tort to be successful is that the tortious act which is committed by the defendant against the body or the property of the plaintiff is actionable in the country in which this act has been committed. The second condition which must be fulfilled for a successful claim in cases of personal tort is if the country, in which the plaintiff wants to enforce his rights, does not provide such right or it does not consider that act to be unlawful, then in such a case if the Court allows the claim of the plaintiff it will amount to enforcing the laws of other nation and that situation cannot be allowed. One more important rule under such suits is that when the cause of action is not of a local nature then the suit is allowed by the Courts.

Q. Ananya, who visits Nepal frequently from India to meet her fiancé, was murdered in rage by his fiancé's neighbour, Bharat on his short trip to India, where he was held liable. Decide.

Solution:

Bharat, who is a Nepalese, visited India and there he committed a tort against Ananya, who is a citizen of India. Here the tort committed by Bharat is a foreign tort.

QUESTION: 107

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

Every Country has its own laws which are made to regulate the conduct of the people who live in such countries. Like in India, the laws which govern Indian citizens are Indian laws and thus the laws of other countries like that of England or China will not be binding on Indians and such laws can only be referred to when there is a question of law on which the Indian law is silent.
A foreign tort can be defined as 'A tort which is committed abroad by a person and therefore the cause of action for such tort arises in abroad'.
Whenever any tort is committed against a property which is situated in a foreign country, the tort is called tort of reality. In this the affected property is an immovable property.
Under the English law of torts, no action can arise in a case where any tort relating to immovable property is committed and thus in such cases, the suit filed by the plaintiff is rejected by the courts.
In foreign torts, whenever there is an unlawful act committed against a person or against his movable property, such tort is known as personal tort. Unlike tort of reality, the person who suffers a loss has the right to file the suit against the tortfeasor and such person's suit is not rejected by the Courts. Thus for movable property and the body, personal torts are applied and remedy is available to the injured person.
Personal torts are separate from the tort of reality because in the tort of reality, there is no right to file a claim against the wrongdoer while under personal tort a person can file a suit for the injury or loss caused by a tortfeasor. But all the suits under Personal torts cannot be accepted by the Courts and therefore only on the fulfilment of certain conditions, a suit for a personal tort which has been committed in abroad can be accepted by the court. The first condition which has to be fulfilled in a case of personal tort to be successful is that the tortious act which is committed by the defendant against the body or the property of the plaintiff is actionable in the country in which this act has been committed. The second condition which must be fulfilled for a successful claim in cases of personal tort is if the country, in which the plaintiff wants to enforce his rights, does not provide such right or it does not consider that act to be unlawful, then in such a case if the Court allows the claim of the plaintiff it will amount to enforcing the laws of other nation and that situation cannot be allowed. One more important rule under such suits is that when the cause of action is not of a local nature then the suit is allowed by the Courts.

Q. Michel, resident of India, had trespassed into the coffee garden of Jordan which is situated in Malaysia. Jordan filed a suit against him in the court for trespass. He was held by the court of law. Decide.

Solution:

Since the tort was committed against an immovable property in a foreign land, it is a tort of reality. The suit cannot be successful and therefore, Michel will not be held guilty.

QUESTION: 108

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

Every Country has its own laws which are made to regulate the conduct of the people who live in such countries. Like in India, the laws which govern Indian citizens are Indian laws and thus the laws of other countries like that of England or China will not be binding on Indians and such laws can only be referred to when there is a question of law on which the Indian law is silent.
A foreign tort can be defined as 'A tort which is committed abroad by a person and therefore the cause of action for such tort arises in abroad'.
Whenever any tort is committed against a property which is situated in a foreign country, the tort is called tort of reality. In this the affected property is an immovable property.
Under the English law of torts, no action can arise in a case where any tort relating to immovable property is committed and thus in such cases, the suit filed by the plaintiff is rejected by the courts.
In foreign torts, whenever there is an unlawful act committed against a person or against his movable property, such tort is known as personal tort. Unlike tort of reality, the person who suffers a loss has the right to file the suit against the tortfeasor and such person's suit is not rejected by the Courts. Thus for movable property and the body, personal torts are applied and remedy is available to the injured person.
Personal torts are separate from the tort of reality because in the tort of reality, there is no right to file a claim against the wrongdoer while under personal tort a person can file a suit for the injury or loss caused by a tortfeasor. But all the suits under Personal torts cannot be accepted by the Courts and therefore only on the fulfilment of certain conditions, a suit for a personal tort which has been committed in abroad can be accepted by the court. The first condition which has to be fulfilled in a case of personal tort to be successful is that the tortious act which is committed by the defendant against the body or the property of the plaintiff is actionable in the country in which this act has been committed. The second condition which must be fulfilled for a successful claim in cases of personal tort is if the country, in which the plaintiff wants to enforce his rights, does not provide such right or it does not consider that act to be unlawful, then in such a case if the Court allows the claim of the plaintiff it will amount to enforcing the laws of other nation and that situation cannot be allowed. One more important rule under such suits is that when the cause of action is not of a local nature then the suit is allowed by the Courts.

Q. Abir, resident of Dubai, had trespassed into Sahiba's showroom which is situated in India. Sahiba filed a suit against him in the court for trespass. He was held by the court of law. Decide.

Solution:

Since the tort has been committed against an immovable property which is situated in a foreign country, it is a tort of reality and such a case against Abir will not be maintainable.

QUESTION: 109

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

Every Country has its own laws which are made to regulate the conduct of the people who live in such countries. Like in India, the laws which govern Indian citizens are Indian laws and thus the laws of other countries like that of England or China will not be binding on Indians and such laws can only be referred to when there is a question of law on which the Indian law is silent.
A foreign tort can be defined as 'A tort which is committed abroad by a person and therefore the cause of action for such tort arises in abroad'.
Whenever any tort is committed against a property which is situated in a foreign country, the tort is called tort of reality. In this the affected property is an immovable property.
Under the English law of torts, no action can arise in a case where any tort relating to immovable property is committed and thus in such cases, the suit filed by the plaintiff is rejected by the courts.
In foreign torts, whenever there is an unlawful act committed against a person or against his movable property, such tort is known as personal tort. Unlike tort of reality, the person who suffers a loss has the right to file the suit against the tortfeasor and such person's suit is not rejected by the Courts. Thus for movable property and the body, personal torts are applied and remedy is available to the injured person.
Personal torts are separate from the tort of reality because in the tort of reality, there is no right to file a claim against the wrongdoer while under personal tort a person can file a suit for the injury or loss caused by a tortfeasor. But all the suits under Personal torts cannot be accepted by the Courts and therefore only on the fulfilment of certain conditions, a suit for a personal tort which has been committed in abroad can be accepted by the court. The first condition which has to be fulfilled in a case of personal tort to be successful is that the tortious act which is committed by the defendant against the body or the property of the plaintiff is actionable in the country in which this act has been committed. The second condition which must be fulfilled for a successful claim in cases of personal tort is if the country, in which the plaintiff wants to enforce his rights, does not provide such right or it does not consider that act to be unlawful, then in such a case if the Court allows the claim of the plaintiff it will amount to enforcing the laws of other nation and that situation cannot be allowed. One more important rule under such suits is that when the cause of action is not of a local nature then the suit is allowed by the Courts.

Q. Atif, an Indian resident, went for a trip to Jamaica. During this visit, Nick stole his wallet. He filed a case for the same. Decide.

Solution:

The tort comes under the ambit of private tort and hence, Nick would be held liable.
Such a tort will fall in the category of personal tort under foreign torts and the suit filed by Atif will be accepted by the court and Nick will be held liable.

QUESTION: 110

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

Every Country has its own laws which are made to regulate the conduct of the people who live in such countries. Like in India, the laws which govern Indian citizens are Indian laws and thus the laws of other countries like that of England or China will not be binding on Indians and such laws can only be referred to when there is a question of law on which the Indian law is silent.
A foreign tort can be defined as 'A tort which is committed abroad by a person and therefore the cause of action for such tort arises in abroad'.
Whenever any tort is committed against a property which is situated in a foreign country, the tort is called tort of reality. In this the affected property is an immovable property.
Under the English law of torts, no action can arise in a case where any tort relating to immovable property is committed and thus in such cases, the suit filed by the plaintiff is rejected by the courts.
In foreign torts, whenever there is an unlawful act committed against a person or against his movable property, such tort is known as personal tort. Unlike tort of reality, the person who suffers a loss has the right to file the suit against the tortfeasor and such person's suit is not rejected by the Courts. Thus for movable property and the body, personal torts are applied and remedy is available to the injured person.
Personal torts are separate from the tort of reality because in the tort of reality, there is no right to file a claim against the wrongdoer while under personal tort a person can file a suit for the injury or loss caused by a tortfeasor. But all the suits under Personal torts cannot be accepted by the Courts and therefore only on the fulfilment of certain conditions, a suit for a personal tort which has been committed in abroad can be accepted by the court. The first condition which has to be fulfilled in a case of personal tort to be successful is that the tortious act which is committed by the defendant against the body or the property of the plaintiff is actionable in the country in which this act has been committed. The second condition which must be fulfilled for a successful claim in cases of personal tort is if the country, in which the plaintiff wants to enforce his rights, does not provide such right or it does not consider that act to be unlawful, then in such a case if the Court allows the claim of the plaintiff it will amount to enforcing the laws of other nation and that situation cannot be allowed. One more important rule under such suits is that when the cause of action is not of a local nature then the suit is allowed by the Courts.

Q. Sultan, resident of U.A.E, had trespassed into Saba's house which is situated in India and assaulted her. Sahiba filed a suit against him in the court. He was held by the court of law. Decide.

Solution:

Since the tort was committed against the body of Sahiba, it will be a personal tort and the suit filed by Sahiba will be accepted by the Court and Sultan will be held liable only for assault and not trespass, as it is a tort of reality.

QUESTION: 111

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

Every Country has its own laws which are made to regulate the conduct of the people who live in such countries. Like in India, the laws which govern Indian citizens are Indian laws and thus the laws of other countries like that of England or China will not be binding on Indians and such laws can only be referred to when there is a question of law on which the Indian law is silent.
A foreign tort can be defined as 'A tort which is committed abroad by a person and therefore the cause of action for such tort arises in abroad'.
Whenever any tort is committed against a property which is situated in a foreign country, the tort is called tort of reality. In this the affected property is an immovable property.
Under the English law of torts, no action can arise in a case where any tort relating to immovable property is committed and thus in such cases, the suit filed by the plaintiff is rejected by the courts.
In foreign torts, whenever there is an unlawful act committed against a person or against his movable property, such tort is known as personal tort. Unlike tort of reality, the person who suffers a loss has the right to file the suit against the tortfeasor and such person's suit is not rejected by the Courts. Thus for movable property and the body, personal torts are applied and remedy is available to the injured person.
Personal torts are separate from the tort of reality because in the tort of reality, there is no right to file a claim against the wrongdoer while under personal tort a person can file a suit for the injury or loss caused by a tortfeasor. But all the suits under Personal torts cannot be accepted by the Courts and therefore only on the fulfilment of certain conditions, a suit for a personal tort which has been committed in abroad can be accepted by the court. The first condition which has to be fulfilled in a case of personal tort to be successful is that the tortious act which is committed by the defendant against the body or the property of the plaintiff is actionable in the country in which this act has been committed. The second condition which must be fulfilled for a successful claim in cases of personal tort is if the country, in which the plaintiff wants to enforce his rights, does not provide such right or it does not consider that act to be unlawful, then in such a case if the Court allows the claim of the plaintiff it will amount to enforcing the laws of other nation and that situation cannot be allowed. One more important rule under such suits is that when the cause of action is not of a local nature then the suit is allowed by the Courts.

Q. Amar, SP of Jilla district, had locked Jordan (resident of Niger) for few days without any lawful justification. Jordan after being released filed a case against Amar. Decide.

Solution:

In this case, the act of the SP was not of local nature and therefore the suit of Jordan was allowed and Amar was held liable.
If someone is wrongfully detained in another country and he could not file the case in their court because of the limitation period being over, the case can be accepted by the court of citizen's country. When the cause of action is not of a local nature, the suit is allowed by the courts.

QUESTION: 112

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

The term indemnity literally means security against loss. In a contract of indemnity, one party, i.e. the indemnifier, promise to compensate the other party, i.e. the indemnified, against the loss suffered by the other. The English law defines a contract of indemnity as a promise to save a person harmless from the consequences of an act. Thus, it includes within its ambit losses caused not merely by human agency, but also those caused by accident or fire or other natural calamities. As per Section 124 of the Contract Act, a contract of indemnity is that contract by which one party promises to save the other from loss caused to him by the conduct of the promisor himself, or by the conduct of any other person.

The definition provided by the Indian Contract Act confines itself to the losses occasioned due to the act of the promisor or due to the act of any other person. Under a contract of indemnity, liability of the promisor arises from loss caused to the promisee by the conduct of the promisor himself, or as per the terms in the indemnity contract. Every contract of insurance, other than life insurance, is a contract of indemnity. The definition is restricted to cases where loss has been caused by some human agency.

Section 124 deals with one particular kind of indemnity which arises from a promise made by an indemnifier to save the indemnified from the loss caused to him by the conduct of the indemnifier himself or by the conduct of any other person, but does not deal with those classes of cases where the indemnity arises from loss caused by events or accidents which do not depend upon the conduct of indemnifier or any other person.

In a contract of indemnity, there are two parties, i.e. indemnifier and indemnified. A contract of guarantee involves three parties, i.e. creditor, principal debtor and surety. An indemnity is for reimbursement of a loss, while a guarantee is for security of the creditor. In a contract of indemnity, the liability of the indemnifier is primary and arises when the contingent event occurs. In case of contract of guarantee, the liability of surety is secondary and arises when the principal debtor defaults. The indemnifier after performing his part of the promise has no rights against the third party and he can sue the third party only if there is an assignment in his favour. Whereas in a contract of guarantee, the surety steps into the shoes of the creditor on discharge of his liability, and may sue the principal debtor.

Q. A hires B to kill C. A and B enter into an indemnity agreement, wherein B will be reimbursed if B is hurt or injured in the process of killing C. B gets hurt when he tries to kill C. Can B claim the reimbursement?

Solution:

In a contract of indemnity, one party, i.e. the indemnifier, promises to compensate the other party, i.e. the indemnified, against the loss suffered by the other. Nothing in this passage is said about the legality of the contract.

QUESTION: 113

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

The term indemnity literally means security against loss. In a contract of indemnity, one party, i.e. the indemnifier, promise to compensate the other party, i.e. the indemnified, against the loss suffered by the other. The English law defines a contract of indemnity as a promise to save a person harmless from the consequences of an act. Thus, it includes within its ambit losses caused not merely by human agency, but also those caused by accident or fire or other natural calamities. As per Section 124 of the Contract Act, a contract of indemnity is that contract by which one party promises to save the other from loss caused to him by the conduct of the promisor himself, or by the conduct of any other person.

The definition provided by the Indian Contract Act confines itself to the losses occasioned due to the act of the promisor or due to the act of any other person. Under a contract of indemnity, liability of the promisor arises from loss caused to the promisee by the conduct of the promisor himself, or as per the terms in the indemnity contract. Every contract of insurance, other than life insurance, is a contract of indemnity. The definition is restricted to cases where loss has been caused by some human agency.

Section 124 deals with one particular kind of indemnity which arises from a promise made by an indemnifier to save the indemnified from the loss caused to him by the conduct of the indemnifier himself or by the conduct of any other person, but does not deal with those classes of cases where the indemnity arises from loss caused by events or accidents which do not depend upon the conduct of indemnifier or any other person.

In a contract of indemnity, there are two parties, i.e. indemnifier and indemnified. A contract of guarantee involves three parties, i.e. creditor, principal debtor and surety. An indemnity is for reimbursement of a loss, while a guarantee is for security of the creditor. In a contract of indemnity, the liability of the indemnifier is primary and arises when the contingent event occurs. In case of contract of guarantee, the liability of surety is secondary and arises when the principal debtor defaults. The indemnifier after performing his part of the promise has no rights against the third party and he can sue the third party only if there is an assignment in his favour. Whereas in a contract of guarantee, the surety steps into the shoes of the creditor on discharge of his liability, and may sue the principal debtor.

Q. A promises B to indemnify him in case his house is damaged by fire. B negligently lights up a firecracker in his house and burns it down. Now B wants to claim indemnity. Can B claim the reimbursement?

Solution:

A contract by which one party promises to save the other from loss caused to him by the conduct of the promisor himself, or by the conduct of any other person, is called a contract of indemnity. Nothing in the passage is mentioned about negligence etc. Hence, option 3 is the right option.

QUESTION: 114

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the