CLAT Mock Test (New Pattern) - 4 (19-04-2020)


150 Questions MCQ Test Mock Test Series for CLAT 2020 | CLAT Mock Test (New Pattern) - 4 (19-04-2020)


Description
This mock test of CLAT Mock Test (New Pattern) - 4 (19-04-2020) for CLAT helps you for every CLAT entrance exam. This contains 150 Multiple Choice Questions for CLAT CLAT Mock Test (New Pattern) - 4 (19-04-2020) (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this CLAT Mock Test (New Pattern) - 4 (19-04-2020) quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. CLAT students definitely take this CLAT Mock Test (New Pattern) - 4 (19-04-2020) exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other CLAT Mock Test (New Pattern) - 4 (19-04-2020) extra questions, long questions & short questions for CLAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

Have you ever come across a painting, by Picasso, Mondrian, Miro or any other modem abstract painter of this century, and found yourself engulfed in a brightly coloured canvas which your senses cannot interpret? Many people would tend to denounce abstractionism as senseless trash. These people are disoriented by Miro’s bright, fanciful creatures and two-dimensional canvases. They click their tongues and shake their head at Mondrian’s grid works, declaring the poor guy played too many scrabble games. They silently shake their heads in sympathy for Picasso, whose gruesome, distorted figures must be a reflection of his mental health. Then, standing in front of a work by Charlie Russell, the famous Western artist, they’ll declare it a work of God. People feel more comfortable with something they can relate to and understand immediately without too much thought. This is the case with the work of Charlie Russell. Being able to recognize the elements in his paintings - trees, horses and cowboys— gives people a safety line to their world of “reality”. There are some who would disagree when I say abstract art requires more creativity and artistic talent to produce a good piece than does representational art, but there are many weaknesses in their arguments.
People who look down upon abstract art have several major arguments to support their beliefs. They feel that artists turn abstract because they are not capable of the technical drafting skills that appear in a Russell; therefore, such artists create an art form that anyone is capable of and that is less time consuming, and then parade it as artistic progress. Secondly, they feel that the purpose of art is to create something of beauty in an orderly, logical composition. Russell’s compositions are balanced and rational; everything sits calmly on the canvas, leaving the viewer satisfied that he has seen all there is to see. The modem abstractionists, on the other hand, seem to compose their pieces irrationally. For example, upon seeing Picasso’s Guernica, a friend of mine asked me, “What’s the point?” Finally, many people feel that art should portray the ideal and real. The exactness of detail in Charlie Russell’s work is an example of this. He has been called a great historian because his pieces depict the life style, dress and events of the times. His subject matter is derived from his own experiences on the trail, and reproduced to the smallest detail.
I agree in part with many of these arguments, and at one time even endorsed them. But now, I believe differently. Firstly I object to the argument that abstract artists are not capable of drafting. Many abstract artists, such as Picasso, are excellent draftsmen. As his work matured, Picasso became more abstract in order to increase the expressive quality of his work .Guernica was meant as a protest against the bombing of that city by the Germans. To express the terror and suffering of the victims more vividly, he distorted the figures and presented them in a black and white journalistic manner. If he had used representational images and colour, much of the emotional content would have been lost and the piece would not have caused the demand for justice that it did. Secondly, I do not think that a piece must be logical and aesthetically pleasing to be art. The message it conveys to its viewers is more important. It should reflect the ideals and issues of its time and be true to itself, not just a flowery glossy surface. For example through his work Mondrian was trying to present a system of simplicity, logic, and rational older. As a result, his pieces did end up looking like a scrabble board. Miro created powerful, surrealistic images from his dreams and subconscious. These artists were trying to evoke a response from society through an expressionistic manner. Finally, abstract artists and representational artists maintain different ideas about ‘reality’. To the representational artist, reality is what he sees with his eyes. This is the reality he reproduces on canvas. To the abstract artist, reality is what he feels about what his eyes see. This is the reality he interprets on canvas. This can be illustrated by Mondrian’s Trees series. You can actually see the progression from the early recognizable, though abstracted, Trees, to his final solution, the grid system.
A cycle of abstract and representational art began with the first scratchings of prehistoric man. From the abstractions of ancient Egypt to representational, classical Rome, returning to abstractionism in early Christian art and so on up to the present day, the cycle has been going on. But this day and age may witness its death through the camera. With film, there is no need to produce finely detailed, historical records manually; the camera does this for us more efficiently. Maybe, representational art would cease to exist. With abstractionism as the victor of the first battle, may be a different kind of cycle will be touched off. Possibly, sometime in the distant future, thousands of years from now, art itself will be physically non-existent. Some artists today believe that once they have planned and constructed a piece in their mind there is no sense in finishing it with their hands; it has already been done and can never be duplicated.

Q. The author argues that many people look down upon abstract art because they feel that:

Solution:

Look at the beginning and the subsequent lines of the second para.

QUESTION: 2

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

Have you ever come across a painting, by Picasso, Mondrian, Miro or any other modem abstract painter of this century, and found yourself engulfed in a brightly coloured canvas which your senses cannot interpret? Many people would tend to denounce abstractionism as senseless trash. These people are disoriented by Miro’s bright, fanciful creatures and two-dimensional canvases. They click their tongues and shake their head at Mondrian’s grid works, declaring the poor guy played too many scrabble games. They silently shake their heads in sympathy for Picasso, whose gruesome, distorted figures must be a reflection of his mental health. Then, standing in front of a work by Charlie Russell, the famous Western artist, they’ll declare it a work of God. People feel more comfortable with something they can relate to and understand immediately without too much thought. This is the case with the work of Charlie Russell. Being able to recognize the elements in his paintings - trees, horses and cowboys— gives people a safety line to their world of “reality”. There are some who would disagree when I say abstract art requires more creativity and artistic talent to produce a good piece than does representational art, but there are many weaknesses in their arguments.
People who look down upon abstract art have several major arguments to support their beliefs. They feel that artists turn abstract because they are not capable of the technical drafting skills that appear in a Russell; therefore, such artists create an art form that anyone is capable of and that is less time consuming, and then parade it as artistic progress. Secondly, they feel that the purpose of art is to create something of beauty in an orderly, logical composition. Russell’s compositions are balanced and rational; everything sits calmly on the canvas, leaving the viewer satisfied that he has seen all there is to see. The modem abstractionists, on the other hand, seem to compose their pieces irrationally. For example, upon seeing Picasso’s Guernica, a friend of mine asked me, “What’s the point?” Finally, many people feel that art should portray the ideal and real. The exactness of detail in Charlie Russell’s work is an example of this. He has been called a great historian because his pieces depict the life style, dress and events of the times. His subject matter is derived from his own experiences on the trail, and reproduced to the smallest detail.
I agree in part with many of these arguments, and at one time even endorsed them. But now, I believe differently. Firstly I object to the argument that abstract artists are not capable of drafting. Many abstract artists, such as Picasso, are excellent draftsmen. As his work matured, Picasso became more abstract in order to increase the expressive quality of his work .Guernica was meant as a protest against the bombing of that city by the Germans. To express the terror and suffering of the victims more vividly, he distorted the figures and presented them in a black and white journalistic manner. If he had used representational images and colour, much of the emotional content would have been lost and the piece would not have caused the demand for justice that it did. Secondly, I do not think that a piece must be logical and aesthetically pleasing to be art. The message it conveys to its viewers is more important. It should reflect the ideals and issues of its time and be true to itself, not just a flowery glossy surface. For example through his work Mondrian was trying to present a system of simplicity, logic, and rational older. As a result, his pieces did end up looking like a scrabble board. Miro created powerful, surrealistic images from his dreams and subconscious. These artists were trying to evoke a response from society through an expressionistic manner. Finally, abstract artists and representational artists maintain different ideas about ‘reality’. To the representational artist, reality is what he sees with his eyes. This is the reality he reproduces on canvas. To the abstract artist, reality is what he feels about what his eyes see. This is the reality he interprets on canvas. This can be illustrated by Mondrian’s Trees series. You can actually see the progression from the early recognizable, though abstracted, Trees, to his final solution, the grid system.
A cycle of abstract and representational art began with the first scratchings of prehistoric man. From the abstractions of ancient Egypt to representational, classical Rome, returning to abstractionism in early Christian art and so on up to the present day, the cycle has been going on. But this day and age may witness its death through the camera. With film, there is no need to produce finely detailed, historical records manually; the camera does this for us more efficiently. Maybe, representational art would cease to exist. With abstractionism as the victor of the first battle, may be a different kind of cycle will be touched off. Possibly, sometime in the distant future, thousands of years from now, art itself will be physically non-existent. Some artists today believe that once they have planned and constructed a piece in their mind there is no sense in finishing it with their hands; it has already been done and can never be duplicated.

Q. The author believes that people feel comfortable with representational art because:

Solution:

This is what the last few lines of the first paragraph attest to.

QUESTION: 3

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

Have you ever come across a painting, by Picasso, Mondrian, Miro or any other modem abstract painter of this century, and found yourself engulfed in a brightly coloured canvas which your senses cannot interpret? Many people would tend to denounce abstractionism as senseless trash. These people are disoriented by Miro’s bright, fanciful creatures and two-dimensional canvases. They click their tongues and shake their head at Mondrian’s grid works, declaring the poor guy played too many scrabble games. They silently shake their heads in sympathy for Picasso, whose gruesome, distorted figures must be a reflection of his mental health. Then, standing in front of a work by Charlie Russell, the famous Western artist, they’ll declare it a work of God. People feel more comfortable with something they can relate to and understand immediately without too much thought. This is the case with the work of Charlie Russell. Being able to recognize the elements in his paintings - trees, horses and cowboys— gives people a safety line to their world of “reality”. There are some who would disagree when I say abstract art requires more creativity and artistic talent to produce a good piece than does representational art, but there are many weaknesses in their arguments.
People who look down upon abstract art have several major arguments to support their beliefs. They feel that artists turn abstract because they are not capable of the technical drafting skills that appear in a Russell; therefore, such artists create an art form that anyone is capable of and that is less time consuming, and then parade it as artistic progress. Secondly, they feel that the purpose of art is to create something of beauty in an orderly, logical composition. Russell’s compositions are balanced and rational; everything sits calmly on the canvas, leaving the viewer satisfied that he has seen all there is to see. The modem abstractionists, on the other hand, seem to compose their pieces irrationally. For example, upon seeing Picasso’s Guernica, a friend of mine asked me, “What’s the point?” Finally, many people feel that art should portray the ideal and real. The exactness of detail in Charlie Russell’s work is an example of this. He has been called a great historian because his pieces depict the life style, dress and events of the times. His subject matter is derived from his own experiences on the trail, and reproduced to the smallest detail.
I agree in part with many of these arguments, and at one time even endorsed them. But now, I believe differently. Firstly I object to the argument that abstract artists are not capable of drafting. Many abstract artists, such as Picasso, are excellent draftsmen. As his work matured, Picasso became more abstract in order to increase the expressive quality of his work .Guernica was meant as a protest against the bombing of that city by the Germans. To express the terror and suffering of the victims more vividly, he distorted the figures and presented them in a black and white journalistic manner. If he had used representational images and colour, much of the emotional content would have been lost and the piece would not have caused the demand for justice that it did. Secondly, I do not think that a piece must be logical and aesthetically pleasing to be art. The message it conveys to its viewers is more important. It should reflect the ideals and issues of its time and be true to itself, not just a flowery glossy surface. For example through his work Mondrian was trying to present a system of simplicity, logic, and rational older. As a result, his pieces did end up looking like a scrabble board. Miro created powerful, surrealistic images from his dreams and subconscious. These artists were trying to evoke a response from society through an expressionistic manner. Finally, abstract artists and representational artists maintain different ideas about ‘reality’. To the representational artist, reality is what he sees with his eyes. This is the reality he reproduces on canvas. To the abstract artist, reality is what he feels about what his eyes see. This is the reality he interprets on canvas. This can be illustrated by Mondrian’s Trees series. You can actually see the progression from the early recognizable, though abstracted, Trees, to his final solution, the grid system.
A cycle of abstract and representational art began with the first scratchings of prehistoric man. From the abstractions of ancient Egypt to representational, classical Rome, returning to abstractionism in early Christian art and so on up to the present day, the cycle has been going on. But this day and age may witness its death through the camera. With film, there is no need to produce finely detailed, historical records manually; the camera does this for us more efficiently. Maybe, representational art would cease to exist. With abstractionism as the victor of the first battle, may be a different kind of cycle will be touched off. Possibly, sometime in the distant future, thousands of years from now, art itself will be physically non-existent. Some artists today believe that once they have planned and constructed a piece in their mind there is no sense in finishing it with their hands; it has already been done and can never be duplicated.

Q. In the author’s opinion Picasso’s Guernica created a strong demand for justice since

Solution:

Please refer to the third paragraph. The line "if he had used…..” implies that its abstract nature alone was responsible for the consequences it generated.

QUESTION: 4

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

Have you ever come across a painting, by Picasso, Mondrian, Miro or any other modem abstract painter of this century, and found yourself engulfed in a brightly coloured canvas which your senses cannot interpret? Many people would tend to denounce abstractionism as senseless trash. These people are disoriented by Miro’s bright, fanciful creatures and two-dimensional canvases. They click their tongues and shake their head at Mondrian’s grid works, declaring the poor guy played too many scrabble games. They silently shake their heads in sympathy for Picasso, whose gruesome, distorted figures must be a reflection of his mental health. Then, standing in front of a work by Charlie Russell, the famous Western artist, they’ll declare it a work of God. People feel more comfortable with something they can relate to and understand immediately without too much thought. This is the case with the work of Charlie Russell. Being able to recognize the elements in his paintings - trees, horses and cowboys— gives people a safety line to their world of “reality”. There are some who would disagree when I say abstract art requires more creativity and artistic talent to produce a good piece than does representational art, but there are many weaknesses in their arguments.
People who look down upon abstract art have several major arguments to support their beliefs. They feel that artists turn abstract because they are not capable of the technical drafting skills that appear in a Russell; therefore, such artists create an art form that anyone is capable of and that is less time consuming, and then parade it as artistic progress. Secondly, they feel that the purpose of art is to create something of beauty in an orderly, logical composition. Russell’s compositions are balanced and rational; everything sits calmly on the canvas, leaving the viewer satisfied that he has seen all there is to see. The modem abstractionists, on the other hand, seem to compose their pieces irrationally. For example, upon seeing Picasso’s Guernica, a friend of mine asked me, “What’s the point?” Finally, many people feel that art should portray the ideal and real. The exactness of detail in Charlie Russell’s work is an example of this. He has been called a great historian because his pieces depict the life style, dress and events of the times. His subject matter is derived from his own experiences on the trail, and reproduced to the smallest detail.
I agree in part with many of these arguments, and at one time even endorsed them. But now, I believe differently. Firstly I object to the argument that abstract artists are not capable of drafting. Many abstract artists, such as Picasso, are excellent draftsmen. As his work matured, Picasso became more abstract in order to increase the expressive quality of his work .Guernica was meant as a protest against the bombing of that city by the Germans. To express the terror and suffering of the victims more vividly, he distorted the figures and presented them in a black and white journalistic manner. If he had used representational images and colour, much of the emotional content would have been lost and the piece would not have caused the demand for justice that it did. Secondly, I do not think that a piece must be logical and aesthetically pleasing to be art. The message it conveys to its viewers is more important. It should reflect the ideals and issues of its time and be true to itself, not just a flowery glossy surface. For example through his work Mondrian was trying to present a system of simplicity, logic, and rational older. As a result, his pieces did end up looking like a scrabble board. Miro created powerful, surrealistic images from his dreams and subconscious. These artists were trying to evoke a response from society through an expressionistic manner. Finally, abstract artists and representational artists maintain different ideas about ‘reality’. To the representational artist, reality is what he sees with his eyes. This is the reality he reproduces on canvas. To the abstract artist, reality is what he feels about what his eyes see. This is the reality he interprets on canvas. This can be illustrated by Mondrian’s Trees series. You can actually see the progression from the early recognizable, though abstracted, Trees, to his final solution, the grid system.
A cycle of abstract and representational art began with the first scratchings of prehistoric man. From the abstractions of ancient Egypt to representational, classical Rome, returning to abstractionism in early Christian art and so on up to the present day, the cycle has been going on. But this day and age may witness its death through the camera. With film, there is no need to produce finely detailed, historical records manually; the camera does this for us more efficiently. Maybe, representational art would cease to exist. With abstractionism as the victor of the first battle, may be a different kind of cycle will be touched off. Possibly, sometime in the distant future, thousands of years from now, art itself will be physically non-existent. Some artists today believe that once they have planned and constructed a piece in their mind there is no sense in finishing it with their hands; it has already been done and can never be duplicated.

Q. The author acknowledges that Mondrian’s pieces may have ended up looking like a scrabble board because

Solution:

Please refer back to the line “For example, through his work, … …” from the third paragraph.

QUESTION: 5

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

Have you ever come across a painting, by Picasso, Mondrian, Miro or any other modem abstract painter of this century, and found yourself engulfed in a brightly coloured canvas which your senses cannot interpret? Many people would tend to denounce abstractionism as senseless trash. These people are disoriented by Miro’s bright, fanciful creatures and two-dimensional canvases. They click their tongues and shake their head at Mondrian’s grid works, declaring the poor guy played too many scrabble games. They silently shake their heads in sympathy for Picasso, whose gruesome, distorted figures must be a reflection of his mental health. Then, standing in front of a work by Charlie Russell, the famous Western artist, they’ll declare it a work of God. People feel more comfortable with something they can relate to and understand immediately without too much thought. This is the case with the work of Charlie Russell. Being able to recognize the elements in his paintings - trees, horses and cowboys— gives people a safety line to their world of “reality”. There are some who would disagree when I say abstract art requires more creativity and artistic talent to produce a good piece than does representational art, but there are many weaknesses in their arguments.
People who look down upon abstract art have several major arguments to support their beliefs. They feel that artists turn abstract because they are not capable of the technical drafting skills that appear in a Russell; therefore, such artists create an art form that anyone is capable of and that is less time consuming, and then parade it as artistic progress. Secondly, they feel that the purpose of art is to create something of beauty in an orderly, logical composition. Russell’s compositions are balanced and rational; everything sits calmly on the canvas, leaving the viewer satisfied that he has seen all there is to see. The modem abstractionists, on the other hand, seem to compose their pieces irrationally. For example, upon seeing Picasso’s Guernica, a friend of mine asked me, “What’s the point?” Finally, many people feel that art should portray the ideal and real. The exactness of detail in Charlie Russell’s work is an example of this. He has been called a great historian because his pieces depict the life style, dress and events of the times. His subject matter is derived from his own experiences on the trail, and reproduced to the smallest detail.
I agree in part with many of these arguments, and at one time even endorsed them. But now, I believe differently. Firstly I object to the argument that abstract artists are not capable of drafting. Many abstract artists, such as Picasso, are excellent draftsmen. As his work matured, Picasso became more abstract in order to increase the expressive quality of his work .Guernica was meant as a protest against the bombing of that city by the Germans. To express the terror and suffering of the victims more vividly, he distorted the figures and presented them in a black and white journalistic manner. If he had used representational images and colour, much of the emotional content would have been lost and the piece would not have caused the demand for justice that it did. Secondly, I do not think that a piece must be logical and aesthetically pleasing to be art. The message it conveys to its viewers is more important. It should reflect the ideals and issues of its time and be true to itself, not just a flowery glossy surface. For example through his work Mondrian was trying to present a system of simplicity, logic, and rational older. As a result, his pieces did end up looking like a scrabble board. Miro created powerful, surrealistic images from his dreams and subconscious. These artists were trying to evoke a response from society through an expressionistic manner. Finally, abstract artists and representational artists maintain different ideas about ‘reality’. To the representational artist, reality is what he sees with his eyes. This is the reality he reproduces on canvas. To the abstract artist, reality is what he feels about what his eyes see. This is the reality he interprets on canvas. This can be illustrated by Mondrian’s Trees series. You can actually see the progression from the early recognizable, though abstracted, Trees, to his final solution, the grid system.
A cycle of abstract and representational art began with the first scratchings of prehistoric man. From the abstractions of ancient Egypt to representational, classical Rome, returning to abstractionism in early Christian art and so on up to the present day, the cycle has been going on. But this day and age may witness its death through the camera. With film, there is no need to produce finely detailed, historical records manually; the camera does this for us more efficiently. Maybe, representational art would cease to exist. With abstractionism as the victor of the first battle, may be a different kind of cycle will be touched off. Possibly, sometime in the distant future, thousands of years from now, art itself will be physically non-existent. Some artists today believe that once they have planned and constructed a piece in their mind there is no sense in finishing it with their hands; it has already been done and can never be duplicated.

Q. The main difference between the abstract artist and the representational artist in matters of the ‘ideal’ and the ‘real’, according to the author, is:

Solution:
QUESTION: 6

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

I first saw the leopard when I was crossing the small stream at the bottom of the hill. The ravine was so deep that for most of the day it remained in shadow. This encouraged many birds and animals to emerge from cover during the hours of daylight. Few people ever passed that way. As a result, the ravine had become a little haven of wildlife, one of the few natural sanctuaries left near Mussoorie.
It was early April and the wild roses were flowering. I walked down to the stream almost every day, after two or three hours of writing.
Nearly every morning, and sometimes during the day, I heard the cry of the barking deer. And in the evening, walking through the forest, I disturbed parties of khaleej pheasant. As I had not come to take anything from the jungle, the birds and animals soon grew accustomed to my face. After some time, my approach did not disturb them. But one evening, as I passed, I heard them chattering in the trees, and I was not the cause of their excitement.
As I crossed the stream a shower of pebbles came rattling down the steep hillside, and I looked up to see a sinewy orange-gold leopard poised on a rock about 20 feet above me.
It was not looking towards me, but had its head thrust attentively forward in the direction of the ravine. It must have sensed my presence, though, because slowly it turned its head to look down at me. It seemed a little puzzled at my presence there; when, to give myself courage, I clapped my hands sharply, the leopard sprang away into the thickets, making no sound as it melted into the shadows.
One day I found the remains of a barking deer, which had been partially eaten. I wondered why the leopard had not hidden the remains of his meal, and decided it must have been disturbed while eating. Then, climbing the hill, I met a party of shikaris. Leopard-skins, they told me, were selling in Delhi at over a thousand rupees each! Of course there was a ban on the export of skins, but they gave me to understand that there were ways and means …
I thanked them for their information and walked on, feeling uneasy. The shikaris had seen the carcass of the deer, and they had seen the leopard's pug marks, and they kept coming to the forest. Almost every evening I heard their guns banging away; for they were ready to fire at almost anything.
"There's a leopard about," they always told me. "You should carry a gun."
"I don't have one," I said.

Q. Why did the author feel that the animals in the ravine were not disturbed by his approach?

Solution:

Option 4 can be inferred from this sentence: 'As I had not come to take anything from the jungle, the birds and animals soon grew accustomed to my face. After some time, my approach did not disturb them.' This suggests that the animals became familiar or had gotten used to his presence. Option 1 states the opposite to what is implied in the text. Options 2 and 3 could be implied, but there is nothing in the passage to suggest they are true.

QUESTION: 7

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

I first saw the leopard when I was crossing the small stream at the bottom of the hill. The ravine was so deep that for most of the day it remained in shadow. This encouraged many birds and animals to emerge from cover during the hours of daylight. Few people ever passed that way. As a result, the ravine had become a little haven of wildlife, one of the few natural sanctuaries left near Mussoorie.
It was early April and the wild roses were flowering. I walked down to the stream almost every day, after two or three hours of writing.
Nearly every morning, and sometimes during the day, I heard the cry of the barking deer. And in the evening, walking through the forest, I disturbed parties of khaleej pheasant. As I had not come to take anything from the jungle, the birds and animals soon grew accustomed to my face. After some time, my approach did not disturb them. But one evening, as I passed, I heard them chattering in the trees, and I was not the cause of their excitement.
As I crossed the stream a shower of pebbles came rattling down the steep hillside, and I looked up to see a sinewy orange-gold leopard poised on a rock about 20 feet above me.
It was not looking towards me, but had its head thrust attentively forward in the direction of the ravine. It must have sensed my presence, though, because slowly it turned its head to look down at me. It seemed a little puzzled at my presence there; when, to give myself courage, I clapped my hands sharply, the leopard sprang away into the thickets, making no sound as it melted into the shadows.
One day I found the remains of a barking deer, which had been partially eaten. I wondered why the leopard had not hidden the remains of his meal, and decided it must have been disturbed while eating. Then, climbing the hill, I met a party of shikaris. Leopard-skins, they told me, were selling in Delhi at over a thousand rupees each! Of course there was a ban on the export of skins, but they gave me to understand that there were ways and means …
I thanked them for their information and walked on, feeling uneasy. The shikaris had seen the carcass of the deer, and they had seen the leopard's pug marks, and they kept coming to the forest. Almost every evening I heard their guns banging away; for they were ready to fire at almost anything.
"There's a leopard about," they always told me. "You should carry a gun."
"I don't have one," I said.

Q. Why did the author feel that the leopard might have sensed his presence?

Solution:

Option 3 can be derived from: "It must have sensed my presence, though, because slowly it turned its head to look down at me." Options 1 and 2, though stated in the passage, do not answer the question. Option 4 is not mentioned in the text and does not even answer the question.

QUESTION: 8

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

I first saw the leopard when I was crossing the small stream at the bottom of the hill. The ravine was so deep that for most of the day it remained in shadow. This encouraged many birds and animals to emerge from cover during the hours of daylight. Few people ever passed that way. As a result, the ravine had become a little haven of wildlife, one of the few natural sanctuaries left near Mussoorie.
It was early April and the wild roses were flowering. I walked down to the stream almost every day, after two or three hours of writing.
Nearly every morning, and sometimes during the day, I heard the cry of the barking deer. And in the evening, walking through the forest, I disturbed parties of khaleej pheasant. As I had not come to take anything from the jungle, the birds and animals soon grew accustomed to my face. After some time, my approach did not disturb them. But one evening, as I passed, I heard them chattering in the trees, and I was not the cause of their excitement.
As I crossed the stream a shower of pebbles came rattling down the steep hillside, and I looked up to see a sinewy orange-gold leopard poised on a rock about 20 feet above me.
It was not looking towards me, but had its head thrust attentively forward in the direction of the ravine. It must have sensed my presence, though, because slowly it turned its head to look down at me. It seemed a little puzzled at my presence there; when, to give myself courage, I clapped my hands sharply, the leopard sprang away into the thickets, making no sound as it melted into the shadows.
One day I found the remains of a barking deer, which had been partially eaten. I wondered why the leopard had not hidden the remains of his meal, and decided it must have been disturbed while eating. Then, climbing the hill, I met a party of shikaris. Leopard-skins, they told me, were selling in Delhi at over a thousand rupees each! Of course there was a ban on the export of skins, but they gave me to understand that there were ways and means …
I thanked them for their information and walked on, feeling uneasy. The shikaris had seen the carcass of the deer, and they had seen the leopard's pug marks, and they kept coming to the forest. Almost every evening I heard their guns banging away; for they were ready to fire at almost anything.
"There's a leopard about," they always told me. "You should carry a gun."
"I don't have one," I said.

Q. What does the word 'poised' as used in the passage mean?

Solution:

"Poised" in the passage means to stay in the same place without moving. Option 1 provides the correct answer.

QUESTION: 9

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

I first saw the leopard when I was crossing the small stream at the bottom of the hill. The ravine was so deep that for most of the day it remained in shadow. This encouraged many birds and animals to emerge from cover during the hours of daylight. Few people ever passed that way. As a result, the ravine had become a little haven of wildlife, one of the few natural sanctuaries left near Mussoorie.
It was early April and the wild roses were flowering. I walked down to the stream almost every day, after two or three hours of writing.
Nearly every morning, and sometimes during the day, I heard the cry of the barking deer. And in the evening, walking through the forest, I disturbed parties of khaleej pheasant. As I had not come to take anything from the jungle, the birds and animals soon grew accustomed to my face. After some time, my approach did not disturb them. But one evening, as I passed, I heard them chattering in the trees, and I was not the cause of their excitement.
As I crossed the stream a shower of pebbles came rattling down the steep hillside, and I looked up to see a sinewy orange-gold leopard poised on a rock about 20 feet above me.
It was not looking towards me, but had its head thrust attentively forward in the direction of the ravine. It must have sensed my presence, though, because slowly it turned its head to look down at me. It seemed a little puzzled at my presence there; when, to give myself courage, I clapped my hands sharply, the leopard sprang away into the thickets, making no sound as it melted into the shadows.
One day I found the remains of a barking deer, which had been partially eaten. I wondered why the leopard had not hidden the remains of his meal, and decided it must have been disturbed while eating. Then, climbing the hill, I met a party of shikaris. Leopard-skins, they told me, were selling in Delhi at over a thousand rupees each! Of course there was a ban on the export of skins, but they gave me to understand that there were ways and means …
I thanked them for their information and walked on, feeling uneasy. The shikaris had seen the carcass of the deer, and they had seen the leopard's pug marks, and they kept coming to the forest. Almost every evening I heard their guns banging away; for they were ready to fire at almost anything.
"There's a leopard about," they always told me. "You should carry a gun."
"I don't have one," I said.

Q. Why, according to the author, the leopard must have left the remains of the deer out in the open?

Solution:

The author states: "I wondered why the leopard had not hidden the remains of his meal, and decided it must have been disturbed while eating." This leads us to option 1. The remaining options are not mentioned in the passage.

QUESTION: 10

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

I first saw the leopard when I was crossing the small stream at the bottom of the hill. The ravine was so deep that for most of the day it remained in shadow. This encouraged many birds and animals to emerge from cover during the hours of daylight. Few people ever passed that way. As a result, the ravine had become a little haven of wildlife, one of the few natural sanctuaries left near Mussoorie.
It was early April and the wild roses were flowering. I walked down to the stream almost every day, after two or three hours of writing.
Nearly every morning, and sometimes during the day, I heard the cry of the barking deer. And in the evening, walking through the forest, I disturbed parties of khaleej pheasant. As I had not come to take anything from the jungle, the birds and animals soon grew accustomed to my face. After some time, my approach did not disturb them. But one evening, as I passed, I heard them chattering in the trees, and I was not the cause of their excitement.
As I crossed the stream a shower of pebbles came rattling down the steep hillside, and I looked up to see a sinewy orange-gold leopard poised on a rock about 20 feet above me.
It was not looking towards me, but had its head thrust attentively forward in the direction of the ravine. It must have sensed my presence, though, because slowly it turned its head to look down at me. It seemed a little puzzled at my presence there; when, to give myself courage, I clapped my hands sharply, the leopard sprang away into the thickets, making no sound as it melted into the shadows.
One day I found the remains of a barking deer, which had been partially eaten. I wondered why the leopard had not hidden the remains of his meal, and decided it must have been disturbed while eating. Then, climbing the hill, I met a party of shikaris. Leopard-skins, they told me, were selling in Delhi at over a thousand rupees each! Of course there was a ban on the export of skins, but they gave me to understand that there were ways and means …
I thanked them for their information and walked on, feeling uneasy. The shikaris had seen the carcass of the deer, and they had seen the leopard's pug marks, and they kept coming to the forest. Almost every evening I heard their guns banging away; for they were ready to fire at almost anything.
"There's a leopard about," they always told me. "You should carry a gun."
"I don't have one," I said.

Q. Which of the following can be inferred from the shikaris' response when the author states a fact about trading of leopard skin?

Solution:

Option 4 is correct. When the author mentions that exporting leopard skin is banned in India, the shikaris "gave [the author] to understand that there were ways and means". This most likely implies that they were ready to export it illegally. Option 1, though mentioned in the passage, does not answer the question. Options 2 and 3 are not implied in the passage.

QUESTION: 11

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

Each one has his reasons; for one art is a flight; for another a means of conquering. But one can flee into a hermitage, into madness, into death. One can conquer by arms. Why does it have to be writing, why does one have to manage his escapes and conquests by writing? Because, behind the various aims of authors, there is a deeper and more immediate choice which is common to all of us. We shall try to elucidate this choice, and we shall see whether it is not in the name of this very choice of writing that the engagement of writers must be required.
Each of our perceptions is accompanied by the consciousness that human reality is a ‘revealer’, that is, it is through human reality that ‘there is’ being, or, put it differently, that man is the means by which things are manifested. It is our presence in the world which multiplies relations. It is we who set up a relationship between this tree and that bit of sky. Thanks to us, that star which has been dead for millennia, that quarter moon, and that dark river are disclosed in the unity of a landscape. It is the speed of our auto and our airplane which organizes the great masses of the earth. With each of our acts, the world reveals to us a new face. But, if we know that we are directors of being, we also know that we are not its producers. If we turn away from this landscape, it will sink back into its dark permanence. At least, it will sink back; there is no one mad enough to think that it is going to be annihilated. It is we who shall be annihilated, and the earth will remain in its lethargy until another consciousness comes along to awaken it. Thus to our inner certainty of being ‘revealers’ is added that of being inessential in relation to the thing revealed.
One of the chief motives of artistic creation is certainly the need of feeling that we are essential in relationship to the world. If I fix on canvas or in writing a certain aspect of the fields or the sea or a look on someone’s face which I have disclosed, I am conscious of having produced them by condensing relationships, by introducing order where there was none, by imposing the unity of mind on the diversity of things. That is, I think myself essential in relation to my creation. But this time it is the created object which escapes me; I cannot reveal and produce at the same time. The creation becomes inessential in relation to the creative activity. First of all, even if it appears to others as definitive, the created object always seems to us in a state of suspension; we can always change this line, that shade, that word. Thus, it never forces itself. A novice painter asked his teacher, ‘When should I consider my painting finished?’ And the teacher answered, ‘When you can look at it in amazement and say to yourself “I’m the one who did that!”’
Which amounts to saying ‘never’. For it is virtually considering one’s work with someone else’s eyes and revealing what has been created. But it is self-evident that we are proportionally less conscious of the thing produced and more conscious of our productive activity. When it is a matter of poetry or carpentry we work according to traditional norms, with tools whose usage is codified; it is Heidegger’s famous ‘they’ who are working with our hands. In this case, the result can seem to us sufficiently strange to preserve its objectivity in our eyes. But if we ourselves produce the rules of production, the measures, the criteria, and if our creative drive comes from the very depths of our heart, then we never find anything but ourselves in our work. It is we who have invented the laws by which we judge it. It is our history, our love, our gaiety that we recognize in it. Even if we should regard it without touching it any further, we never receive from it that gaiety or love. We put them into it. The results which we have obtained on canvas or paper never seem to us objective. We are too familiar with the processes of which they are the effects. These processes remain a subjective discovery; they are ourselves, our inspiration, our ruse, and when we seek to perceive our work, we create it again, we repeat mentally the operations which produced it; each of its aspects appears as a result. Thus in the perception the object is given as the essential thing and the subject as the inessential. The latter seeks essentiality in the creation and obtains it but then it is the object which becomes the inessential.
The dialectic is nowhere more apparent than in the art of writing, for the literary object is a peculiar top which exists only in movement. To make it come into view a concrete act called reading is necessary, and it lasts only as long as this act can last. Beyond that, there are only black marks on paper. Now, the writer cannot read what he writes, whereas the shoemaker can put on the shoes he has just made if they are to his size, and the architect can live in the house he has built. In reading, one foresees; one waits. He foresees the end of the sentence, the following sentence, the next page. He waits for them to confirm or disappoint his foresights. The reading is composed of a host of hypotheses, followed by awakenings, of hopes and deceptions. Readers are always ahead of the sentence they are reading in a merely probable future which partly collapses and partly comes together in proportion as they progress, which withdraws from one page to the next and forms the moving horizon of the literary object. Without waiting, without a future, without ignorance, there is no objectivity.

Q. The author holds that:

Solution:

Read the line “With each of our acts, …” from the second paragraph.

QUESTION: 12

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

Each one has his reasons; for one art is a flight; for another a means of conquering. But one can flee into a hermitage, into madness, into death. One can conquer by arms. Why does it have to be writing, why does one have to manage his escapes and conquests by writing? Because, behind the various aims of authors, there is a deeper and more immediate choice which is common to all of us. We shall try to elucidate this choice, and we shall see whether it is not in the name of this very choice of writing that the engagement of writers must be required.
Each of our perceptions is accompanied by the consciousness that human reality is a ‘revealer’, that is, it is through human reality that ‘there is’ being, or, put it differently, that man is the means by which things are manifested. It is our presence in the world which multiplies relations. It is we who set up a relationship between this tree and that bit of sky. Thanks to us, that star which has been dead for millennia, that quarter moon, and that dark river are disclosed in the unity of a landscape. It is the speed of our auto and our airplane which organizes the great masses of the earth. With each of our acts, the world reveals to us a new face. But, if we know that we are directors of being, we also know that we are not its producers. If we turn away from this landscape, it will sink back into its dark permanence. At least, it will sink back; there is no one mad enough to think that it is going to be annihilated. It is we who shall be annihilated, and the earth will remain in its lethargy until another consciousness comes along to awaken it. Thus to our inner certainty of being ‘revealers’ is added that of being inessential in relation to the thing revealed.
One of the chief motives of artistic creation is certainly the need of feeling that we are essential in relationship to the world. If I fix on canvas or in writing a certain aspect of the fields or the sea or a look on someone’s face which I have disclosed, I am conscious of having produced them by condensing relationships, by introducing order where there was none, by imposing the unity of mind on the diversity of things. That is, I think myself essential in relation to my creation. But this time it is the created object which escapes me; I cannot reveal and produce at the same time. The creation becomes inessential in relation to the creative activity. First of all, even if it appears to others as definitive, the created object always seems to us in a state of suspension; we can always change this line, that shade, that word. Thus, it never forces itself. A novice painter asked his teacher, ‘When should I consider my painting finished?’ And the teacher answered, ‘When you can look at it in amazement and say to yourself “I’m the one who did that!”’
Which amounts to saying ‘never’. For it is virtually considering one’s work with someone else’s eyes and revealing what has been created. But it is self-evident that we are proportionally less conscious of the thing produced and more conscious of our productive activity. When it is a matter of poetry or carpentry we work according to traditional norms, with tools whose usage is codified; it is Heidegger’s famous ‘they’ who are working with our hands. In this case, the result can seem to us sufficiently strange to preserve its objectivity in our eyes. But if we ourselves produce the rules of production, the measures, the criteria, and if our creative drive comes from the very depths of our heart, then we never find anything but ourselves in our work. It is we who have invented the laws by which we judge it. It is our history, our love, our gaiety that we recognize in it. Even if we should regard it without touching it any further, we never receive from it that gaiety or love. We put them into it. The results which we have obtained on canvas or paper never seem to us objective. We are too familiar with the processes of which they are the effects. These processes remain a subjective discovery; they are ourselves, our inspiration, our ruse, and when we seek to perceive our work, we create it again, we repeat mentally the operations which produced it; each of its aspects appears as a result. Thus in the perception the object is given as the essential thing and the subject as the inessential. The latter seeks essentiality in the creation and obtains it but then it is the object which becomes the inessential.
The dialectic is nowhere more apparent than in the art of writing, for the literary object is a peculiar top which exists only in movement. To make it come into view a concrete act called reading is necessary, and it lasts only as long as this act can last. Beyond that, there are only black marks on paper. Now, the writer cannot read what he writes, whereas the shoemaker can put on the shoes he has just made if they are to his size, and the architect can live in the house he has built. In reading, one foresees; one waits. He foresees the end of the sentence, the following sentence, the next page. He waits for them to confirm or disappoint his foresights. The reading is composed of a host of hypotheses, followed by awakenings, of hopes and deceptions. Readers are always ahead of the sentence they are reading in a merely probable future which partly collapses and partly comes together in proportion as they progress, which withdraws from one page to the next and forms the moving horizon of the literary object. Without waiting, without a future, without ignorance, there is no objectivity.

Q. It is the author's contention that:

Solution:
QUESTION: 13

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

Each one has his reasons; for one art is a flight; for another a means of conquering. But one can flee into a hermitage, into madness, into death. One can conquer by arms. Why does it have to be writing, why does one have to manage his escapes and conquests by writing? Because, behind the various aims of authors, there is a deeper and more immediate choice which is common to all of us. We shall try to elucidate this choice, and we shall see whether it is not in the name of this very choice of writing that the engagement of writers must be required.
Each of our perceptions is accompanied by the consciousness that human reality is a ‘revealer’, that is, it is through human reality that ‘there is’ being, or, put it differently, that man is the means by which things are manifested. It is our presence in the world which multiplies relations. It is we who set up a relationship between this tree and that bit of sky. Thanks to us, that star which has been dead for millennia, that quarter moon, and that dark river are disclosed in the unity of a landscape. It is the speed of our auto and our airplane which organizes the great masses of the earth. With each of our acts, the world reveals to us a new face. But, if we know that we are directors of being, we also know that we are not its producers. If we turn away from this landscape, it will sink back into its dark permanence. At least, it will sink back; there is no one mad enough to think that it is going to be annihilated. It is we who shall be annihilated, and the earth will remain in its lethargy until another consciousness comes along to awaken it. Thus to our inner certainty of being ‘revealers’ is added that of being inessential in relation to the thing revealed.
One of the chief motives of artistic creation is certainly the need of feeling that we are essential in relationship to the world. If I fix on canvas or in writing a certain aspect of the fields or the sea or a look on someone’s face which I have disclosed, I am conscious of having produced them by condensing relationships, by introducing order where there was none, by imposing the unity of mind on the diversity of things. That is, I think myself essential in relation to my creation. But this time it is the created object which escapes me; I cannot reveal and produce at the same time. The creation becomes inessential in relation to the creative activity. First of all, even if it appears to others as definitive, the created object always seems to us in a state of suspension; we can always change this line, that shade, that word. Thus, it never forces itself. A novice painter asked his teacher, ‘When should I consider my painting finished?’ And the teacher answered, ‘When you can look at it in amazement and say to yourself “I’m the one who did that!”’
Which amounts to saying ‘never’. For it is virtually considering one’s work with someone else’s eyes and revealing what has been created. But it is self-evident that we are proportionally less conscious of the thing produced and more conscious of our productive activity. When it is a matter of poetry or carpentry we work according to traditional norms, with tools whose usage is codified; it is Heidegger’s famous ‘they’ who are working with our hands. In this case, the result can seem to us sufficiently strange to preserve its objectivity in our eyes. But if we ourselves produce the rules of production, the measures, the criteria, and if our creative drive comes from the very depths of our heart, then we never find anything but ourselves in our work. It is we who have invented the laws by which we judge it. It is our history, our love, our gaiety that we recognize in it. Even if we should regard it without touching it any further, we never receive from it that gaiety or love. We put them into it. The results which we have obtained on canvas or paper never seem to us objective. We are too familiar with the processes of which they are the effects. These processes remain a subjective discovery; they are ourselves, our inspiration, our ruse, and when we seek to perceive our work, we create it again, we repeat mentally the operations which produced it; each of its aspects appears as a result. Thus in the perception the object is given as the essential thing and the subject as the inessential. The latter seeks essentiality in the creation and obtains it but then it is the object which becomes the inessential.
The dialectic is nowhere more apparent than in the art of writing, for the literary object is a peculiar top which exists only in movement. To make it come into view a concrete act called reading is necessary, and it lasts only as long as this act can last. Beyond that, there are only black marks on paper. Now, the writer cannot read what he writes, whereas the shoemaker can put on the shoes he has just made if they are to his size, and the architect can live in the house he has built. In reading, one foresees; one waits. He foresees the end of the sentence, the following sentence, the next page. He waits for them to confirm or disappoint his foresights. The reading is composed of a host of hypotheses, followed by awakenings, of hopes and deceptions. Readers are always ahead of the sentence they are reading in a merely probable future which partly collapses and partly comes together in proportion as they progress, which withdraws from one page to the next and forms the moving horizon of the literary object. Without waiting, without a future, without ignorance, there is no objectivity.

Q. The passage makes a distinction between perception and creation in terms of:

Solution:

The last few lines of the fourth para hold the key to this question.

QUESTION: 14

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

Each one has his reasons; for one art is a flight; for another a means of conquering. But one can flee into a hermitage, into madness, into death. One can conquer by arms. Why does it have to be writing, why does one have to manage his escapes and conquests by writing? Because, behind the various aims of authors, there is a deeper and more immediate choice which is common to all of us. We shall try to elucidate this choice, and we shall see whether it is not in the name of this very choice of writing that the engagement of writers must be required.
Each of our perceptions is accompanied by the consciousness that human reality is a ‘revealer’, that is, it is through human reality that ‘there is’ being, or, put it differently, that man is the means by which things are manifested. It is our presence in the world which multiplies relations. It is we who set up a relationship between this tree and that bit of sky. Thanks to us, that star which has been dead for millennia, that quarter moon, and that dark river are disclosed in the unity of a landscape. It is the speed of our auto and our airplane which organizes the great masses of the earth. With each of our acts, the world reveals to us a new face. But, if we know that we are directors of being, we also know that we are not its producers. If we turn away from this landscape, it will sink back into its dark permanence. At least, it will sink back; there is no one mad enough to think that it is going to be annihilated. It is we who shall be annihilated, and the earth will remain in its lethargy until another consciousness comes along to awaken it. Thus to our inner certainty of being ‘revealers’ is added that of being inessential in relation to the thing revealed.
One of the chief motives of artistic creation is certainly the need of feeling that we are essential in relationship to the world. If I fix on canvas or in writing a certain aspect of the fields or the sea or a look on someone’s face which I have disclosed, I am conscious of having produced them by condensing relationships, by introducing order where there was none, by imposing the unity of mind on the diversity of things. That is, I think myself essential in relation to my creation. But this time it is the created object which escapes me; I cannot reveal and produce at the same time. The creation becomes inessential in relation to the creative activity. First of all, even if it appears to others as definitive, the created object always seems to us in a state of suspension; we can always change this line, that shade, that word. Thus, it never forces itself. A novice painter asked his teacher, ‘When should I consider my painting finished?’ And the teacher answered, ‘When you can look at it in amazement and say to yourself “I’m the one who did that!”’
Which amounts to saying ‘never’. For it is virtually considering one’s work with someone else’s eyes and revealing what has been created. But it is self-evident that we are proportionally less conscious of the thing produced and more conscious of our productive activity. When it is a matter of poetry or carpentry we work according to traditional norms, with tools whose usage is codified; it is Heidegger’s famous ‘they’ who are working with our hands. In this case, the result can seem to us sufficiently strange to preserve its objectivity in our eyes. But if we ourselves produce the rules of production, the measures, the criteria, and if our creative drive comes from the very depths of our heart, then we never find anything but ourselves in our work. It is we who have invented the laws by which we judge it. It is our history, our love, our gaiety that we recognize in it. Even if we should regard it without touching it any further, we never receive from it that gaiety or love. We put them into it. The results which we have obtained on canvas or paper never seem to us objective. We are too familiar with the processes of which they are the effects. These processes remain a subjective discovery; they are ourselves, our inspiration, our ruse, and when we seek to perceive our work, we create it again, we repeat mentally the operations which produced it; each of its aspects appears as a result. Thus in the perception the object is given as the essential thing and the subject as the inessential. The latter seeks essentiality in the creation and obtains it but then it is the object which becomes the inessential.
The dialectic is nowhere more apparent than in the art of writing, for the literary object is a peculiar top which exists only in movement. To make it come into view a concrete act called reading is necessary, and it lasts only as long as this act can last. Beyond that, there are only black marks on paper. Now, the writer cannot read what he writes, whereas the shoemaker can put on the shoes he has just made if they are to his size, and the architect can live in the house he has built. In reading, one foresees; one waits. He foresees the end of the sentence, the following sentence, the next page. He waits for them to confirm or disappoint his foresights. The reading is composed of a host of hypotheses, followed by awakenings, of hopes and deceptions. Readers are always ahead of the sentence they are reading in a merely probable future which partly collapses and partly comes together in proportion as they progress, which withdraws from one page to the next and forms the moving horizon of the literary object. Without waiting, without a future, without ignorance, there is no objectivity.

Q. The art of writing manifests the dialectic of perception and creation because

Solution:

Please refer back to the second line of the last paragraph.

QUESTION: 15

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

Each one has his reasons; for one art is a flight; for another a means of conquering. But one can flee into a hermitage, into madness, into death. One can conquer by arms. Why does it have to be writing, why does one have to manage his escapes and conquests by writing? Because, behind the various aims of authors, there is a deeper and more immediate choice which is common to all of us. We shall try to elucidate this choice, and we shall see whether it is not in the name of this very choice of writing that the engagement of writers must be required.
Each of our perceptions is accompanied by the consciousness that human reality is a ‘revealer’, that is, it is through human reality that ‘there is’ being, or, put it differently, that man is the means by which things are manifested. It is our presence in the world which multiplies relations. It is we who set up a relationship between this tree and that bit of sky. Thanks to us, that star which has been dead for millennia, that quarter moon, and that dark river are disclosed in the unity of a landscape. It is the speed of our auto and our airplane which organizes the great masses of the earth. With each of our acts, the world reveals to us a new face. But, if we know that we are directors of being, we also know that we are not its producers. If we turn away from this landscape, it will sink back into its dark permanence. At least, it will sink back; there is no one mad enough to think that it is going to be annihilated. It is we who shall be annihilated, and the earth will remain in its lethargy until another consciousness comes along to awaken it. Thus to our inner certainty of being ‘revealers’ is added that of being inessential in relation to the thing revealed.
One of the chief motives of artistic creation is certainly the need of feeling that we are essential in relationship to the world. If I fix on canvas or in writing a certain aspect of the fields or the sea or a look on someone’s face which I have disclosed, I am conscious of having produced them by condensing relationships, by introducing order where there was none, by imposing the unity of mind on the diversity of things. That is, I think myself essential in relation to my creation. But this time it is the created object which escapes me; I cannot reveal and produce at the same time. The creation becomes inessential in relation to the creative activity. First of all, even if it appears to others as definitive, the created object always seems to us in a state of suspension; we can always change this line, that shade, that word. Thus, it never forces itself. A novice painter asked his teacher, ‘When should I consider my painting finished?’ And the teacher answered, ‘When you can look at it in amazement and say to yourself “I’m the one who did that!”’
Which amounts to saying ‘never’. For it is virtually considering one’s work with someone else’s eyes and revealing what has been created. But it is self-evident that we are proportionally less conscious of the thing produced and more conscious of our productive activity. When it is a matter of poetry or carpentry we work according to traditional norms, with tools whose usage is codified; it is Heidegger’s famous ‘they’ who are working with our hands. In this case, the result can seem to us sufficiently strange to preserve its objectivity in our eyes. But if we ourselves produce the rules of production, the measures, the criteria, and if our creative drive comes from the very depths of our heart, then we never find anything but ourselves in our work. It is we who have invented the laws by which we judge it. It is our history, our love, our gaiety that we recognize in it. Even if we should regard it without touching it any further, we never receive from it that gaiety or love. We put them into it. The results which we have obtained on canvas or paper never seem to us objective. We are too familiar with the processes of which they are the effects. These processes remain a subjective discovery; they are ourselves, our inspiration, our ruse, and when we seek to perceive our work, we create it again, we repeat mentally the operations which produced it; each of its aspects appears as a result. Thus in the perception the object is given as the essential thing and the subject as the inessential. The latter seeks essentiality in the creation and obtains it but then it is the object which becomes the inessential.
The dialectic is nowhere more apparent than in the art of writing, for the literary object is a peculiar top which exists only in movement. To make it come into view a concrete act called reading is necessary, and it lasts only as long as this act can last. Beyond that, there are only black marks on paper. Now, the writer cannot read what he writes, whereas the shoemaker can put on the shoes he has just made if they are to his size, and the architect can live in the house he has built. In reading, one foresees; one waits. He foresees the end of the sentence, the following sentence, the next page. He waits for them to confirm or disappoint his foresights. The reading is composed of a host of hypotheses, followed by awakenings, of hopes and deceptions. Readers are always ahead of the sentence they are reading in a merely probable future which partly collapses and partly comes together in proportion as they progress, which withdraws from one page to the next and forms the moving horizon of the literary object. Without waiting, without a future, without ignorance, there is no objectivity.

Q. A writer as an artist,

Solution:

Refer to the Second paragraph.

QUESTION: 16

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

It was the festival of spring. From the wintry shades of narrow lanes and alleys emerged a gaily clad humanity. Some walked, some rode on horses, others sat, being carried in bamboo and bullock carts. One little boy ran between his father's legs, brimming over with life and laughter. "Come, child, come," called his parents, as he lagged behind, fascinated by the toys in the shops that lined the way.
He hurried towards his parents, his feet obedient to their call, his eyes still lingering on the receding toys. As he came to where they had stopped to wait for him, he could not suppress the desire of his heart, even though he well knew the old, cold stare of refusal in their eyes. "I want that toy," he pleaded. His father looked at him red-eyed, in his familiar tyrant's way. His mother, melted by the free spirit of the day was tender and, giving him her finger to hold, said, "Look, child, what is before you!"
It was a flowering mustard-field, pale like melting gold as it swept across miles and miles of even land. A group of dragon-flies were bustling about on their gaudy purple wings.
The child followed them in the air with his gaze, till one of them would still its wings and rest, and he would try to catch it. Then his mother gave a cautionary call: "Come, child, come, come on to the footpath."
He ran towards his parents gaily and walked abreast of them for a while, being, however, soon left behind, attracted by the little insects and worms along the footpath that were teeming out from their hiding places to enjoy the sunshine.
"Come, child, come!" they called to the child, who had now gone running in wild capers round the banyan tree, and gathering him up they took the narrow, winding footpath which led to the fair through the mustard fields. As they neared the village the child could see many other footpaths full of throngs, converging to the whirlpool of the fair, and felt at once repelled and fascinated by the confusion of the world he was entering.
A snake-charmer stood playing a flute to a snake which coiled itself in a basket, its head raised in a graceful bend like the neck of a swan, while the music stole into its invisible ears like the gentle rippling of an invisible waterfall. The child went towards the snake-charmer. But, knowing his parents had forbidden him to hear such coarse music as the snake- charmer played, he proceeded farther.

Q. Why did the mother prompt the child to look at the mustard field?

Solution:

From the passage, we can infer that both parents did not want to purchase the toy. They expressed this with 'the old, cold stare of refusal in their eyes.' We can then infer that the mother wanted to divert the boy's attention from the toy as she encouraged him to look at the mustard field: 'Look, child, what is before you!' Option 1 is not mentioned in the passage. Option 3 is incorrect because there is nothing in the passage that supports this. Option 4 is suggested, but it does not answer the question.

QUESTION: 17

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

It was the festival of spring. From the wintry shades of narrow lanes and alleys emerged a gaily clad humanity. Some walked, some rode on horses, others sat, being carried in bamboo and bullock carts. One little boy ran between his father's legs, brimming over with life and laughter. "Come, child, come," called his parents, as he lagged behind, fascinated by the toys in the shops that lined the way.
He hurried towards his parents, his feet obedient to their call, his eyes still lingering on the receding toys. As he came to where they had stopped to wait for him, he could not suppress the desire of his heart, even though he well knew the old, cold stare of refusal in their eyes. "I want that toy," he pleaded. His father looked at him red-eyed, in his familiar tyrant's way. His mother, melted by the free spirit of the day was tender and, giving him her finger to hold, said, "Look, child, what is before you!"
It was a flowering mustard-field, pale like melting gold as it swept across miles and miles of even land. A group of dragon-flies were bustling about on their gaudy purple wings.
The child followed them in the air with his gaze, till one of them would still its wings and rest, and he would try to catch it. Then his mother gave a cautionary call: "Come, child, come, come on to the footpath."
He ran towards his parents gaily and walked abreast of them for a while, being, however, soon left behind, attracted by the little insects and worms along the footpath that were teeming out from their hiding places to enjoy the sunshine.
"Come, child, come!" they called to the child, who had now gone running in wild capers round the banyan tree, and gathering him up they took the narrow, winding footpath which led to the fair through the mustard fields. As they neared the village the child could see many other footpaths full of throngs, converging to the whirlpool of the fair, and felt at once repelled and fascinated by the confusion of the world he was entering.
A snake-charmer stood playing a flute to a snake which coiled itself in a basket, its head raised in a graceful bend like the neck of a swan, while the music stole into its invisible ears like the gentle rippling of an invisible waterfall. The child went towards the snake-charmer. But, knowing his parents had forbidden him to hear such coarse music as the snake- charmer played, he proceeded farther.

Q. Why did the boy's parents call him several times along the way?

Solution:

The child at various places got distracted by all that came along his path: 'The child followed them in the air with his gaze, till one of them would still its wings and rest, and he would try to catch it'; 'soon left behind, attracted by the little insects and worms along the footpath'; and 'had now gone running in wild capers round the banyan tree'. All these suggest that the child was straying away from his parents, which suggests why they would call him to make sure he stays with them as they are walking.

QUESTION: 18

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

It was the festival of spring. From the wintry shades of narrow lanes and alleys emerged a gaily clad humanity. Some walked, some rode on horses, others sat, being carried in bamboo and bullock carts. One little boy ran between his father's legs, brimming over with life and laughter. "Come, child, come," called his parents, as he lagged behind, fascinated by the toys in the shops that lined the way.
He hurried towards his parents, his feet obedient to their call, his eyes still lingering on the receding toys. As he came to where they had stopped to wait for him, he could not suppress the desire of his heart, even though he well knew the old, cold stare of refusal in their eyes. "I want that toy," he pleaded. His father looked at him red-eyed, in his familiar tyrant's way. His mother, melted by the free spirit of the day was tender and, giving him her finger to hold, said, "Look, child, what is before you!"
It was a flowering mustard-field, pale like melting gold as it swept across miles and miles of even land. A group of dragon-flies were bustling about on their gaudy purple wings.
The child followed them in the air with his gaze, till one of them would still its wings and rest, and he would try to catch it. Then his mother gave a cautionary call: "Come, child, come, come on to the footpath."
He ran towards his parents gaily and walked abreast of them for a while, being, however, soon left behind, attracted by the little insects and worms along the footpath that were teeming out from their hiding places to enjoy the sunshine.
"Come, child, come!" they called to the child, who had now gone running in wild capers round the banyan tree, and gathering him up they took the narrow, winding footpath which led to the fair through the mustard fields. As they neared the village the child could see many other footpaths full of throngs, converging to the whirlpool of the fair, and felt at once repelled and fascinated by the confusion of the world he was entering.
A snake-charmer stood playing a flute to a snake which coiled itself in a basket, its head raised in a graceful bend like the neck of a swan, while the music stole into its invisible ears like the gentle rippling of an invisible waterfall. The child went towards the snake-charmer. But, knowing his parents had forbidden him to hear such coarse music as the snake- charmer played, he proceeded farther.

Q. What does the word 'tender' as used in the passage mean?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. We can infer that the mother was trying to be gentle with the child as indicated by the word 'melted' which is used to suggest that the mother's disapproval was replaced by a desire to calm the child from being disappointed by the parents' refusal to purchase the toy. By offering her finger to hold, we can derive a sense of nurturing as well.

QUESTION: 19

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

It was the festival of spring. From the wintry shades of narrow lanes and alleys emerged a gaily clad humanity. Some walked, some rode on horses, others sat, being carried in bamboo and bullock carts. One little boy ran between his father's legs, brimming over with life and laughter. "Come, child, come," called his parents, as he lagged behind, fascinated by the toys in the shops that lined the way.
He hurried towards his parents, his feet obedient to their call, his eyes still lingering on the receding toys. As he came to where they had stopped to wait for him, he could not suppress the desire of his heart, even though he well knew the old, cold stare of refusal in their eyes. "I want that toy," he pleaded. His father looked at him red-eyed, in his familiar tyrant's way. His mother, melted by the free spirit of the day was tender and, giving him her finger to hold, said, "Look, child, what is before you!"
It was a flowering mustard-field, pale like melting gold as it swept across miles and miles of even land. A group of dragon-flies were bustling about on their gaudy purple wings.
The child followed them in the air with his gaze, till one of them would still its wings and rest, and he would try to catch it. Then his mother gave a cautionary call: "Come, child, come, come on to the footpath."
He ran towards his parents gaily and walked abreast of them for a while, being, however, soon left behind, attracted by the little insects and worms along the footpath that were teeming out from their hiding places to enjoy the sunshine.
"Come, child, come!" they called to the child, who had now gone running in wild capers round the banyan tree, and gathering him up they took the narrow, winding footpath which led to the fair through the mustard fields. As they neared the village the child could see many other footpaths full of throngs, converging to the whirlpool of the fair, and felt at once repelled and fascinated by the confusion of the world he was entering.
A snake-charmer stood playing a flute to a snake which coiled itself in a basket, its head raised in a graceful bend like the neck of a swan, while the music stole into its invisible ears like the gentle rippling of an invisible waterfall. The child went towards the snake-charmer. But, knowing his parents had forbidden him to hear such coarse music as the snake- charmer played, he proceeded farther.

Q. Based on the information set out in the passage, which of the following is most accurate?

Solution:

From the text, we can only infer that the boy was fascinated with everything that came in his way. The parents repeatedly called him to let him follow them, but his fascination with the things he saw overpowered him.

QUESTION: 20

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

It was the festival of spring. From the wintry shades of narrow lanes and alleys emerged a gaily clad humanity. Some walked, some rode on horses, others sat, being carried in bamboo and bullock carts. One little boy ran between his father's legs, brimming over with life and laughter. "Come, child, come," called his parents, as he lagged behind, fascinated by the toys in the shops that lined the way.
He hurried towards his parents, his feet obedient to their call, his eyes still lingering on the receding toys. As he came to where they had stopped to wait for him, he could not suppress the desire of his heart, even though he well knew the old, cold stare of refusal in their eyes. "I want that toy," he pleaded. His father looked at him red-eyed, in his familiar tyrant's way. His mother, melted by the free spirit of the day was tender and, giving him her finger to hold, said, "Look, child, what is before you!"
It was a flowering mustard-field, pale like melting gold as it swept across miles and miles of even land. A group of dragon-flies were bustling about on their gaudy purple wings.
The child followed them in the air with his gaze, till one of them would still its wings and rest, and he would try to catch it. Then his mother gave a cautionary call: "Come, child, come, come on to the footpath."
He ran towards his parents gaily and walked abreast of them for a while, being, however, soon left behind, attracted by the little insects and worms along the footpath that were teeming out from their hiding places to enjoy the sunshine.
"Come, child, come!" they called to the child, who had now gone running in wild capers round the banyan tree, and gathering him up they took the narrow, winding footpath which led to the fair through the mustard fields. As they neared the village the child could see many other footpaths full of throngs, converging to the whirlpool of the fair, and felt at once repelled and fascinated by the confusion of the world he was entering.
A snake-charmer stood playing a flute to a snake which coiled itself in a basket, its head raised in a graceful bend like the neck of a swan, while the music stole into its invisible ears like the gentle rippling of an invisible waterfall. The child went towards the snake-charmer. But, knowing his parents had forbidden him to hear such coarse music as the snake- charmer played, he proceeded farther.

Q. Which of the following best sums up the author's main point in the given passage?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. This is clear from the author's description of how the boy tried to stay in the parent's sight whilst enjoying the spring festival in his own way. He was fascinated by all that came in his way. Other options are too negative and are not consistent with the author's description in the passage.

QUESTION: 21

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

“Well, lately Mas’r has been saying that he was a fool to let me marry off the place; that he hates Mr. Shelby and all his tribe, because they are proud, and hold their heads up above him, and that I’ve got proud notions from you; and he says he won’t let me come here anymore, and that I shall take a wife and settle down on his place. At first he only scolded and grumbled these things; but yesterday he told me that I should take Mina for a wife, and settle down in a cabin with her, or he would sell me down river.”
“Why—but you were married to me, by the minister, as much as if you’d been a white man!” said Eliza, simply.
“Don’t you know a slave can’t be married? There is no law in this country for that; I can’t hold you for my wife, if he chooses to part us. That’s why I wish I’d never seen you,—why I wish I’d never been born; it would have been better for us both,—it would have been better for this poor child if he had never been born. All this may happen to him yet!”
“O, but master is so kind!”
“Yes, but who knows?—he may die—and then he may be sold to nobody knows who. What pleasure is it that he is handsome, and smart, and bright? I tell you, Eliza, that a sword will pierce through your soul for every good and pleasant thing your child is or has; it will make him worth too much for you to keep.”
The words smote heavily on Eliza’s heart; the vision of the trader came before her eyes, and, as if someone had struck her a deadly blow, she turned pale and gasped for breath. She looked nervously out on the verandah, where the boy, tired of the grave conversation, had retired, and where he was riding triumphantly up and down on Mr. Shelby’s walking-stick. She would have spoken to tell her husband her fears, but checked herself.

Q. Why does George say he wishes he had never seen Eliza?

Solution:
QUESTION: 22

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

“Well, lately Mas’r has been saying that he was a fool to let me marry off the place; that he hates Mr. Shelby and all his tribe, because they are proud, and hold their heads up above him, and that I’ve got proud notions from you; and he says he won’t let me come here anymore, and that I shall take a wife and settle down on his place. At first he only scolded and grumbled these things; but yesterday he told me that I should take Mina for a wife, and settle down in a cabin with her, or he would sell me down river.”
“Why—but you were married to me, by the minister, as much as if you’d been a white man!” said Eliza, simply.
“Don’t you know a slave can’t be married? There is no law in this country for that; I can’t hold you for my wife, if he chooses to part us. That’s why I wish I’d never seen you,—why I wish I’d never been born; it would have been better for us both,—it would have been better for this poor child if he had never been born. All this may happen to him yet!”
“O, but master is so kind!”
“Yes, but who knows?—he may die—and then he may be sold to nobody knows who. What pleasure is it that he is handsome, and smart, and bright? I tell you, Eliza, that a sword will pierce through your soul for every good and pleasant thing your child is or has; it will make him worth too much for you to keep.”
The words smote heavily on Eliza’s heart; the vision of the trader came before her eyes, and, as if someone had struck her a deadly blow, she turned pale and gasped for breath. She looked nervously out on the verandah, where the boy, tired of the grave conversation, had retired, and where he was riding triumphantly up and down on Mr. Shelby’s walking-stick. She would have spoken to tell her husband her fears, but checked herself.

Q. What reason does George give Eliza as to why their marriage isn't real?

Solution:
QUESTION: 23

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

“Well, lately Mas’r has been saying that he was a fool to let me marry off the place; that he hates Mr. Shelby and all his tribe, because they are proud, and hold their heads up above him, and that I’ve got proud notions from you; and he says he won’t let me come here anymore, and that I shall take a wife and settle down on his place. At first he only scolded and grumbled these things; but yesterday he told me that I should take Mina for a wife, and settle down in a cabin with her, or he would sell me down river.”
“Why—but you were married to me, by the minister, as much as if you’d been a white man!” said Eliza, simply.
“Don’t you know a slave can’t be married? There is no law in this country for that; I can’t hold you for my wife, if he chooses to part us. That’s why I wish I’d never seen you,—why I wish I’d never been born; it would have been better for us both,—it would have been better for this poor child if he had never been born. All this may happen to him yet!”
“O, but master is so kind!”
“Yes, but who knows?—he may die—and then he may be sold to nobody knows who. What pleasure is it that he is handsome, and smart, and bright? I tell you, Eliza, that a sword will pierce through your soul for every good and pleasant thing your child is or has; it will make him worth too much for you to keep.”
The words smote heavily on Eliza’s heart; the vision of the trader came before her eyes, and, as if someone had struck her a deadly blow, she turned pale and gasped for breath. She looked nervously out on the verandah, where the boy, tired of the grave conversation, had retired, and where he was riding triumphantly up and down on Mr. Shelby’s walking-stick. She would have spoken to tell her husband her fears, but checked herself.

Q. What does George mean when he says "a sword will pierce through your soul for every good and pleasant thing your child is or has"?

Solution:
QUESTION: 24

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

“Well, lately Mas’r has been saying that he was a fool to let me marry off the place; that he hates Mr. Shelby and all his tribe, because they are proud, and hold their heads up above him, and that I’ve got proud notions from you; and he says he won’t let me come here anymore, and that I shall take a wife and settle down on his place. At first he only scolded and grumbled these things; but yesterday he told me that I should take Mina for a wife, and settle down in a cabin with her, or he would sell me down river.”
“Why—but you were married to me, by the minister, as much as if you’d been a white man!” said Eliza, simply.
“Don’t you know a slave can’t be married? There is no law in this country for that; I can’t hold you for my wife, if he chooses to part us. That’s why I wish I’d never seen you,—why I wish I’d never been born; it would have been better for us both,—it would have been better for this poor child if he had never been born. All this may happen to him yet!”
“O, but master is so kind!”
“Yes, but who knows?—he may die—and then he may be sold to nobody knows who. What pleasure is it that he is handsome, and smart, and bright? I tell you, Eliza, that a sword will pierce through your soul for every good and pleasant thing your child is or has; it will make him worth too much for you to keep.”
The words smote heavily on Eliza’s heart; the vision of the trader came before her eyes, and, as if someone had struck her a deadly blow, she turned pale and gasped for breath. She looked nervously out on the verandah, where the boy, tired of the grave conversation, had retired, and where he was riding triumphantly up and down on Mr. Shelby’s walking-stick. She would have spoken to tell her husband her fears, but checked herself.

Q. In the last paragraph, he author mentions Eliza turning pale and gasping for breath. Why does Eliza turn pale and gasp for breath?

Solution:
QUESTION: 25

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

“Well, lately Mas’r has been saying that he was a fool to let me marry off the place; that he hates Mr. Shelby and all his tribe, because they are proud, and hold their heads up above him, and that I’ve got proud notions from you; and he says he won’t let me come here anymore, and that I shall take a wife and settle down on his place. At first he only scolded and grumbled these things; but yesterday he told me that I should take Mina for a wife, and settle down in a cabin with her, or he would sell me down river.”
“Why—but you were married to me, by the minister, as much as if you’d been a white man!” said Eliza, simply.
“Don’t you know a slave can’t be married? There is no law in this country for that; I can’t hold you for my wife, if he chooses to part us. That’s why I wish I’d never seen you,—why I wish I’d never been born; it would have been better for us both,—it would have been better for this poor child if he had never been born. All this may happen to him yet!”
“O, but master is so kind!”
“Yes, but who knows?—he may die—and then he may be sold to nobody knows who. What pleasure is it that he is handsome, and smart, and bright? I tell you, Eliza, that a sword will pierce through your soul for every good and pleasant thing your child is or has; it will make him worth too much for you to keep.”
The words smote heavily on Eliza’s heart; the vision of the trader came before her eyes, and, as if someone had struck her a deadly blow, she turned pale and gasped for breath. She looked nervously out on the verandah, where the boy, tired of the grave conversation, had retired, and where he was riding triumphantly up and down on Mr. Shelby’s walking-stick. She would have spoken to tell her husband her fears, but checked herself.

Q. Which of the following can be attributed to George?

Solution:
QUESTION: 26

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

There are believed to be at least 125 million speakers of English in India, which makes it the world's second-largest English-speaking country. This is reason enough for you to sit up and read this section, but the unique cultural differences between Indian English and our western mother tongue are, I think, utterly fascinating. I cannot hope but to skate blissfully along the surface of this deepest of linguistic oceans (how's that for a seasonal mix?), but I would like to share some of its historical roots.
English in India is usually associated with the British Raj, but Indian English as we know it today is an entirely different creature. Once recognised as the ruling language of the starch-shirted elite, Indian English now represents the unique socio-cultural mechanisms of this diverse, multilingual country. The sub-dialects vary according to region and the speaker's mother tongue. Numerous options and possibilities can be placed before 'English', and a completely different kind of hybrid and accent persists from state to state. One's linguistic background is made prominent by one's English. Delightfully, it is easy for one's ear to be spoiled by the mellifluousness of Indian English. The speaker's intention is, in the utterance, to define a word in as tangible a manner as possible. The r's are hard, and words like 'summer' are spoken as 'sum-mer'. On the other hand, this need for emphasis can also lead to a sense of anxiety about not relaying one's politeness in professional mails.
In June 2018, Shashi Tharoor wrote a piece for the Week and made a bold announcement: that in his college days, he had invented the word 'prepone'. Two columns later, Tharoor started his new piece with an apology for this 'immodest thought'. In truth, the very first use of the word 'prepone' is credited in 1913 to a J. J. D. Trenor in the New York Times. Tharoor's mistake is understandable, as the word is not as prevalent abroad as it is in India. Tharoor's two columns launch into interesting facts about the Indian English phenomenon. He notes the comical difference between 'mugging' in India and abroad. While Google would say that mugging means to be robbed in a public place, or to, as an actor, make great big comical faces, for Indians the word is popularly used by students to refer to cramming before an exam. And if they then tell you they 'passed out' of college? Congratulate them, because all that mugging has paid off. 'Passing out' is simply the Indian English way of saying 'I graduated', rather than the American or British English way of implying that after one too many keggers or drinks parties you will never graduate at all.

Q. Which of the following best expresses the author's main idea in the passage?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 1. This is can be derived from the following sentences; 'the unique cultural differences between Indian English and our western mother tongue are, I think, utterly fascinating' and 'Indian English as we know it today is an entirely different creature'. Paragraphs 2 and 3 both discuss some of the features that make Indian English unique. Option 2 is stated, but is a detail. Option 3 can be inferred, but this is discussed in paragraph 2. Option 4 explains how it is different, but does not represent the main idea of the passage.

QUESTION: 27

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

There are believed to be at least 125 million speakers of English in India, which makes it the world's second-largest English-speaking country. This is reason enough for you to sit up and read this section, but the unique cultural differences between Indian English and our western mother tongue are, I think, utterly fascinating. I cannot hope but to skate blissfully along the surface of this deepest of linguistic oceans (how's that for a seasonal mix?), but I would like to share some of its historical roots.
English in India is usually associated with the British Raj, but Indian English as we know it today is an entirely different creature. Once recognised as the ruling language of the starch-shirted elite, Indian English now represents the unique socio-cultural mechanisms of this diverse, multilingual country. The sub-dialects vary according to region and the speaker's mother tongue. Numerous options and possibilities can be placed before 'English', and a completely different kind of hybrid and accent persists from state to state. One's linguistic background is made prominent by one's English. Delightfully, it is easy for one's ear to be spoiled by the mellifluousness of Indian English. The speaker's intention is, in the utterance, to define a word in as tangible a manner as possible. The r's are hard, and words like 'summer' are spoken as 'sum-mer'. On the other hand, this need for emphasis can also lead to a sense of anxiety about not relaying one's politeness in professional mails.
In June 2018, Shashi Tharoor wrote a piece for the Week and made a bold announcement: that in his college days, he had invented the word 'prepone'. Two columns later, Tharoor started his new piece with an apology for this 'immodest thought'. In truth, the very first use of the word 'prepone' is credited in 1913 to a J. J. D. Trenor in the New York Times. Tharoor's mistake is understandable, as the word is not as prevalent abroad as it is in India. Tharoor's two columns launch into interesting facts about the Indian English phenomenon. He notes the comical difference between 'mugging' in India and abroad. While Google would say that mugging means to be robbed in a public place, or to, as an actor, make great big comical faces, for Indians the word is popularly used by students to refer to cramming before an exam. And if they then tell you they 'passed out' of college? Congratulate them, because all that mugging has paid off. 'Passing out' is simply the Indian English way of saying 'I graduated', rather than the American or British English way of implying that after one too many keggers or drinks parties you will never graduate at all.

Q. Why does the author think Indian English represents India's cultural diversity?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. This can be derived from the following sentences: "Indian English now represents the unique socio-cultural mechanisms of this diverse, multilingual country. The sub-dialects vary according to region and the speaker's mother tongue. Numerous options and possibilities can be placed before 'English'". Option 1 is stated, but does not provide a reason for this. Options 3 and 4 are not mentioned in the passage.

QUESTION: 28

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

There are believed to be at least 125 million speakers of English in India, which makes it the world's second-largest English-speaking country. This is reason enough for you to sit up and read this section, but the unique cultural differences between Indian English and our western mother tongue are, I think, utterly fascinating. I cannot hope but to skate blissfully along the surface of this deepest of linguistic oceans (how's that for a seasonal mix?), but I would like to share some of its historical roots.
English in India is usually associated with the British Raj, but Indian English as we know it today is an entirely different creature. Once recognised as the ruling language of the starch-shirted elite, Indian English now represents the unique socio-cultural mechanisms of this diverse, multilingual country. The sub-dialects vary according to region and the speaker's mother tongue. Numerous options and possibilities can be placed before 'English', and a completely different kind of hybrid and accent persists from state to state. One's linguistic background is made prominent by one's English. Delightfully, it is easy for one's ear to be spoiled by the mellifluousness of Indian English. The speaker's intention is, in the utterance, to define a word in as tangible a manner as possible. The r's are hard, and words like 'summer' are spoken as 'sum-mer'. On the other hand, this need for emphasis can also lead to a sense of anxiety about not relaying one's politeness in professional mails.
In June 2018, Shashi Tharoor wrote a piece for the Week and made a bold announcement: that in his college days, he had invented the word 'prepone'. Two columns later, Tharoor started his new piece with an apology for this 'immodest thought'. In truth, the very first use of the word 'prepone' is credited in 1913 to a J. J. D. Trenor in the New York Times. Tharoor's mistake is understandable, as the word is not as prevalent abroad as it is in India. Tharoor's two columns launch into interesting facts about the Indian English phenomenon. He notes the comical difference between 'mugging' in India and abroad. While Google would say that mugging means to be robbed in a public place, or to, as an actor, make great big comical faces, for Indians the word is popularly used by students to refer to cramming before an exam. And if they then tell you they 'passed out' of college? Congratulate them, because all that mugging has paid off. 'Passing out' is simply the Indian English way of saying 'I graduated', rather than the American or British English way of implying that after one too many keggers or drinks parties you will never graduate at all.

Q. What does the word 'skate' as used in the passage mean?

Solution:

The correct option is 3 -- 'to easily progress through'. The context states "to skate blissfully along the surface of this deepest of linguistic oceans". If something is deep, you will be able to progress easily when you're only trying to understand the 'surface' of it.

QUESTION: 29

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

There are believed to be at least 125 million speakers of English in India, which makes it the world's second-largest English-speaking country. This is reason enough for you to sit up and read this section, but the unique cultural differences between Indian English and our western mother tongue are, I think, utterly fascinating. I cannot hope but to skate blissfully along the surface of this deepest of linguistic oceans (how's that for a seasonal mix?), but I would like to share some of its historical roots.
English in India is usually associated with the British Raj, but Indian English as we know it today is an entirely different creature. Once recognised as the ruling language of the starch-shirted elite, Indian English now represents the unique socio-cultural mechanisms of this diverse, multilingual country. The sub-dialects vary according to region and the speaker's mother tongue. Numerous options and possibilities can be placed before 'English', and a completely different kind of hybrid and accent persists from state to state. One's linguistic background is made prominent by one's English. Delightfully, it is easy for one's ear to be spoiled by the mellifluousness of Indian English. The speaker's intention is, in the utterance, to define a word in as tangible a manner as possible. The r's are hard, and words like 'summer' are spoken as 'sum-mer'. On the other hand, this need for emphasis can also lead to a sense of anxiety about not relaying one's politeness in professional mails.
In June 2018, Shashi Tharoor wrote a piece for the Week and made a bold announcement: that in his college days, he had invented the word 'prepone'. Two columns later, Tharoor started his new piece with an apology for this 'immodest thought'. In truth, the very first use of the word 'prepone' is credited in 1913 to a J. J. D. Trenor in the New York Times. Tharoor's mistake is understandable, as the word is not as prevalent abroad as it is in India. Tharoor's two columns launch into interesting facts about the Indian English phenomenon. He notes the comical difference between 'mugging' in India and abroad. While Google would say that mugging means to be robbed in a public place, or to, as an actor, make great big comical faces, for Indians the word is popularly used by students to refer to cramming before an exam. And if they then tell you they 'passed out' of college? Congratulate them, because all that mugging has paid off. 'Passing out' is simply the Indian English way of saying 'I graduated', rather than the American or British English way of implying that after one too many keggers or drinks parties you will never graduate at all.

Q. What, according to the author, could be a cause of anxiety among speakers of Indian English?

Solution:

Option 1 is the correct answer. This can be derived from this sentence: "this need for emphasis can also lead to a sense of anxiety about not relaying one's politeness in professional mails."

QUESTION: 30

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

There are believed to be at least 125 million speakers of English in India, which makes it the world's second-largest English-speaking country. This is reason enough for you to sit up and read this section, but the unique cultural differences between Indian English and our western mother tongue are, I think, utterly fascinating. I cannot hope but to skate blissfully along the surface of this deepest of linguistic oceans (how's that for a seasonal mix?), but I would like to share some of its historical roots.
English in India is usually associated with the British Raj, but Indian English as we know it today is an entirely different creature. Once recognised as the ruling language of the starch-shirted elite, Indian English now represents the unique socio-cultural mechanisms of this diverse, multilingual country. The sub-dialects vary according to region and the speaker's mother tongue. Numerous options and possibilities can be placed before 'English', and a completely different kind of hybrid and accent persists from state to state. One's linguistic background is made prominent by one's English. Delightfully, it is easy for one's ear to be spoiled by the mellifluousness of Indian English. The speaker's intention is, in the utterance, to define a word in as tangible a manner as possible. The r's are hard, and words like 'summer' are spoken as 'sum-mer'. On the other hand, this need for emphasis can also lead to a sense of anxiety about not relaying one's politeness in professional mails.
In June 2018, Shashi Tharoor wrote a piece for the Week and made a bold announcement: that in his college days, he had invented the word 'prepone'. Two columns later, Tharoor started his new piece with an apology for this 'immodest thought'. In truth, the very first use of the word 'prepone' is credited in 1913 to a J. J. D. Trenor in the New York Times. Tharoor's mistake is understandable, as the word is not as prevalent abroad as it is in India. Tharoor's two columns launch into interesting facts about the Indian English phenomenon. He notes the comical difference between 'mugging' in India and abroad. While Google would say that mugging means to be robbed in a public place, or to, as an actor, make great big comical faces, for Indians the word is popularly used by students to refer to cramming before an exam. And if they then tell you they 'passed out' of college? Congratulate them, because all that mugging has paid off. 'Passing out' is simply the Indian English way of saying 'I graduated', rather than the American or British English way of implying that after one too many keggers or drinks parties you will never graduate at all.

Q. Why does the author mention about Tharoor's columns that state interesting facts about Indian English?

Solution:

The answer can be derived from the following sentences: 'He notes the comical difference between 'mugging' in India and abroad'. The rest of the paragraph is filled with humorous banter such as 'Congratulate them, because all that mugging has paid off' and 'implying that after one too many keggers or drinks parties you will never graduate at all' which suggest there is a difference in what words mean in Indian English from those in British or American English.

QUESTION: 31

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

“Finally, the new decade of 2020 has brought a new ray of hope in the life of the Bru-Reang community.” The agreement was an example of cooperative federalism, he said, thanking the Chief Ministers of Tripura and Mizoram for helping to conclude it. He said insurgency in the northeastern region had significantly come down, citing the recent surrender in Assam of 644 militants of [X] groups. Last year, he said, more than 80 insurgents returned to the mainstream in Tirpura. Tripura was the first State in the region to lift the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act.
Mr. Modi utilised the occasion to appeal for peace. “On the solemn occasion of the Republic Day, I would appeal to anyone in any part of the country, who’s still seeking solutions to problems through violence and weapons, to return to the mainstream,” he said.
Mr. Modi’s monthly radio address is the first of the year and the [Y] edition of the programme. The timing was changed to 6 p.m. from 11 a.m. in view of the Republic Day parade.

Q. Approximately how many Bru people are going back to Mizoram after this quadripartite agreement was signed among the Centre, state governments of Tripura and Mizoram and Bru-Reang representatives.

Solution:
QUESTION: 32

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

“Finally, the new decade of 2020 has brought a new ray of hope in the life of the Bru-Reang community.” The agreement was an example of cooperative federalism, he said, thanking the Chief Ministers of Tripura and Mizoram for helping to conclude it. He said insurgency in the northeastern region had significantly come down, citing the recent surrender in Assam of 644 militants of [X] groups. Last year, he said, more than 80 insurgents returned to the mainstream in Tirpura. Tripura was the first State in the region to lift the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act.
Mr. Modi utilised the occasion to appeal for peace. “On the solemn occasion of the Republic Day, I would appeal to anyone in any part of the country, who’s still seeking solutions to problems through violence and weapons, to return to the mainstream,” he said.
Mr. Modi’s monthly radio address is the first of the year and the [Y] edition of the programme. The timing was changed to 6 p.m. from 11 a.m. in view of the Republic Day parade.

Q. Which of the following organisation's militants surrendered?

Solution:
QUESTION: 33

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

“Finally, the new decade of 2020 has brought a new ray of hope in the life of the Bru-Reang community.” The agreement was an example of cooperative federalism, he said, thanking the Chief Ministers of Tripura and Mizoram for helping to conclude it. He said insurgency in the northeastern region had significantly come down, citing the recent surrender in Assam of 644 militants of [X] groups. Last year, he said, more than 80 insurgents returned to the mainstream in Tirpura. Tripura was the first State in the region to lift the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act.
Mr. Modi utilised the occasion to appeal for peace. “On the solemn occasion of the Republic Day, I would appeal to anyone in any part of the country, who’s still seeking solutions to problems through violence and weapons, to return to the mainstream,” he said.
Mr. Modi’s monthly radio address is the first of the year and the [Y] edition of the programme. The timing was changed to 6 p.m. from 11 a.m. in view of the Republic Day parade.

Q. The highest number of 301 militants who surrendered belonged to which of the following

Solution:
QUESTION: 34

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

“Finally, the new decade of 2020 has brought a new ray of hope in the life of the Bru-Reang community.” The agreement was an example of cooperative federalism, he said, thanking the Chief Ministers of Tripura and Mizoram for helping to conclude it. He said insurgency in the northeastern region had significantly come down, citing the recent surrender in Assam of 644 militants of [X] groups. Last year, he said, more than 80 insurgents returned to the mainstream in Tirpura. Tripura was the first State in the region to lift the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act.
Mr. Modi utilised the occasion to appeal for peace. “On the solemn occasion of the Republic Day, I would appeal to anyone in any part of the country, who’s still seeking solutions to problems through violence and weapons, to return to the mainstream,” he said.
Mr. Modi’s monthly radio address is the first of the year and the [Y] edition of the programme. The timing was changed to 6 p.m. from 11 a.m. in view of the Republic Day parade.

Q. Which of the following can replace [Y] in the above Paragraph?

Solution:
QUESTION: 35

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

“Finally, the new decade of 2020 has brought a new ray of hope in the life of the Bru-Reang community.” The agreement was an example of cooperative federalism, he said, thanking the Chief Ministers of Tripura and Mizoram for helping to conclude it. He said insurgency in the northeastern region had significantly come down, citing the recent surrender in Assam of 644 militants of [X] groups. Last year, he said, more than 80 insurgents returned to the mainstream in Tirpura. Tripura was the first State in the region to lift the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act.
Mr. Modi utilised the occasion to appeal for peace. “On the solemn occasion of the Republic Day, I would appeal to anyone in any part of the country, who’s still seeking solutions to problems through violence and weapons, to return to the mainstream,” he said.
Mr. Modi’s monthly radio address is the first of the year and the [Y] edition of the programme. The timing was changed to 6 p.m. from 11 a.m. in view of the Republic Day parade.

Q. Armed Forces Special Power Act (AFSPA-1958) till now applied to how many States or UTs?

Solution:

A is the correct option.Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA), 1958 is an act of the Parliament of India that grant special powers to the Indian Armed Forces the power to maintain public order in “disturbed areas”.Till now it has applied on the seven sister states, Punjab,Chandigarh and J and K. 

QUESTION: 36

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

“Finally, the new decade of 2020 has brought a new ray of hope in the life of the Bru-Reang community.” The agreement was an example of cooperative federalism, he said, thanking the Chief Ministers of Tripura and Mizoram for helping to conclude it. He said insurgency in the northeastern region had significantly come down, citing the recent surrender in Assam of 644 militants of [X] groups. Last year, he said, more than 80 insurgents returned to the mainstream in Tirpura. Tripura was the first State in the region to lift the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act.
Mr. Modi utilised the occasion to appeal for peace. “On the solemn occasion of the Republic Day, I would appeal to anyone in any part of the country, who’s still seeking solutions to problems through violence and weapons, to return to the mainstream,” he said.
Mr. Modi’s monthly radio address is the first of the year and the [Y] edition of the programme. The timing was changed to 6 p.m. from 11 a.m. in view of the Republic Day parade.

Q. Which of the following can replace [X] in the above paragraph?

Solution:
QUESTION: 37

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

“Finally, the new decade of 2020 has brought a new ray of hope in the life of the Bru-Reang community.” The agreement was an example of cooperative federalism, he said, thanking the Chief Ministers of Tripura and Mizoram for helping to conclude it. He said insurgency in the northeastern region had significantly come down, citing the recent surrender in Assam of 644 militants of [X] groups. Last year, he said, more than 80 insurgents returned to the mainstream in Tirpura. Tripura was the first State in the region to lift the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act.
Mr. Modi utilised the occasion to appeal for peace. “On the solemn occasion of the Republic Day, I would appeal to anyone in any part of the country, who’s still seeking solutions to problems through violence and weapons, to return to the mainstream,” he said.
Mr. Modi’s monthly radio address is the first of the year and the [Y] edition of the programme. The timing was changed to 6 p.m. from 11 a.m. in view of the Republic Day parade.

Q. Narender Modi __ is Prime Minister of India.

Solution:
QUESTION: 38

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

“Finally, the new decade of 2020 has brought a new ray of hope in the life of the Bru-Reang community.” The agreement was an example of cooperative federalism, he said, thanking the Chief Ministers of Tripura and Mizoram for helping to conclude it. He said insurgency in the northeastern region had significantly come down, citing the recent surrender in Assam of 644 militants of [X] groups. Last year, he said, more than 80 insurgents returned to the mainstream in Tirpura. Tripura was the first State in the region to lift the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act.
Mr. Modi utilised the occasion to appeal for peace. “On the solemn occasion of the Republic Day, I would appeal to anyone in any part of the country, who’s still seeking solutions to problems through violence and weapons, to return to the mainstream,” he said.
Mr. Modi’s monthly radio address is the first of the year and the [Y] edition of the programme. The timing was changed to 6 p.m. from 11 a.m. in view of the Republic Day parade.

Q. In 2019 Lok Sabha elections were held for the ___ time

Solution:
QUESTION: 39

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

“Finally, the new decade of 2020 has brought a new ray of hope in the life of the Bru-Reang community.” The agreement was an example of cooperative federalism, he said, thanking the Chief Ministers of Tripura and Mizoram for helping to conclude it. He said insurgency in the northeastern region had significantly come down, citing the recent surrender in Assam of 644 militants of [X] groups. Last year, he said, more than 80 insurgents returned to the mainstream in Tirpura. Tripura was the first State in the region to lift the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act.
Mr. Modi utilised the occasion to appeal for peace. “On the solemn occasion of the Republic Day, I would appeal to anyone in any part of the country, who’s still seeking solutions to problems through violence and weapons, to return to the mainstream,” he said.
Mr. Modi’s monthly radio address is the first of the year and the [Y] edition of the programme. The timing was changed to 6 p.m. from 11 a.m. in view of the Republic Day parade.

Q. Inner line permit at present is in how many states

Solution:

It is present in 3 states  Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Nagaland.

QUESTION: 40

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

Union Home Minister Shri Amit Shah launched '__{X}__' and 'VISWAS' projects of Gujarat police for cyber security which aim to prevent cyber crime and enhance cyber security. On this occasion, he said, "In order to ensure peace and security in the society, proper compliance with the law and order is essential." As the global challenges of cyber crime have arisen in the changing times, optimal use of technology is essential to control the law and order situation. Gujarat government's initiatives like '__{X}__', and 'VISWAS' projects will be fruitful in this direction. Shri Amit Shah said that Gujarat has been a leader in every field. This approach was first initiated by the then Chief Minister and the then Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi. Under these projects, everything can be monitored and analysed for each city of state by CCTV from one place. Congratulations to the Chief Minister, Home Minister and the state police chief on this arrangement.
Commendable efforts of Gujarat Police in reducing crime rate, Mr. Shah said that Gujarat has the image of the safest state in the country. While global challenges have arisen in the field of cyber crime in the changing times, these projects will not only be useful to curb crime in the region but will also reliably assure people suffering from cyber crime. With the inauguration of 'VISWAS' project, Union Home Minister inaugurated 'NETRANG' Command and Control Centre.
The Chief Minister said that '__{X}__' and 'VISWAS' projects will be important tool for catching the criminals who cheat people through online cheating and cyber crime.
The 'VISWAS' project will enhance the security of the people of the state and their confidence for security. The projects include '___(blank 1)___' -VISWAS project, 'NETRANG' project to establish Command and Control Room, online portal to pay E-Challan and Cyber Crime Prevention Unit- '__{X}__'.
The Chief Minister also said that confidence in the morale and work preparedness of the police force will be strengthened. In addition, setting up 7500 cameras in the state at 1500 locations and connection with command control centre would result in immediate crime detection.

Q. In the above passage, the name of the initiative has been redacted with '__{X}__'. What is the name of the initiative?

Solution:

Union Home Minister Shri Amit Shah launched 'AASHVAST' and 'VISWAS' projects of Gujarat police for cyber security which aim to prevent cyber crime and enhance cyber security. As the global challenges of cybercrime have arisen in the changing times, optimal use of technology is essential to control the law and order situation. Gujarat government's initiatives like 'AASHVAST' and 'VISWAS' projects will be fruitful in this direction. Under these projects, everything can be monitored and analysed for each city of state by CCTV from one place.

QUESTION: 41

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

Union Home Minister Shri Amit Shah launched '__{X}__' and 'VISWAS' projects of Gujarat police for cyber security which aim to prevent cyber crime and enhance cyber security. On this occasion, he said, "In order to ensure peace and security in the society, proper compliance with the law and order is essential." As the global challenges of cyber crime have arisen in the changing times, optimal use of technology is essential to control the law and order situation. Gujarat government's initiatives like '__{X}__', and 'VISWAS' projects will be fruitful in this direction. Shri Amit Shah said that Gujarat has been a leader in every field. This approach was first initiated by the then Chief Minister and the then Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi. Under these projects, everything can be monitored and analysed for each city of state by CCTV from one place. Congratulations to the Chief Minister, Home Minister and the state police chief on this arrangement.
Commendable efforts of Gujarat Police in reducing crime rate, Mr. Shah said that Gujarat has the image of the safest state in the country. While global challenges have arisen in the field of cyber crime in the changing times, these projects will not only be useful to curb crime in the region but will also reliably assure people suffering from cyber crime. With the inauguration of 'VISWAS' project, Union Home Minister inaugurated 'NETRANG' Command and Control Centre.
The Chief Minister said that '__{X}__' and 'VISWAS' projects will be important tool for catching the criminals who cheat people through online cheating and cyber crime.
The 'VISWAS' project will enhance the security of the people of the state and their confidence for security. The projects include '___(blank 1)___' -VISWAS project, 'NETRANG' project to establish Command and Control Room, online portal to pay E-Challan and Cyber Crime Prevention Unit- '__{X}__'.
The Chief Minister also said that confidence in the morale and work preparedness of the police force will be strengthened. In addition, setting up 7500 cameras in the state at 1500 locations and connection with command control centre would result in immediate crime detection.

Q. Give the full form of 'VISWAS' as redacted with '___(blank 1)___' in the above passage.

Solution:

VISHWAS is an acronym for 'Video Integration and StateWide Advance Security'. The project aims to improve law and order management, proactive traffic management and control, crime detection through video analytics, and post-incident investigation and video forensic screening. The Cyber AASHVAST is a unit that will act to prevent cyber crimes with the help of VISHWAS and NETRANG.

QUESTION: 42

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

Union Home Minister Shri Amit Shah launched '__{X}__' and 'VISWAS' projects of Gujarat police for cyber security which aim to prevent cyber crime and enhance cyber security. On this occasion, he said, "In order to ensure peace and security in the society, proper compliance with the law and order is essential." As the global challenges of cyber crime have arisen in the changing times, optimal use of technology is essential to control the law and order situation. Gujarat government's initiatives like '__{X}__', and 'VISWAS' projects will be fruitful in this direction. Shri Amit Shah said that Gujarat has been a leader in every field. This approach was first initiated by the then Chief Minister and the then Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi. Under these projects, everything can be monitored and analysed for each city of state by CCTV from one place. Congratulations to the Chief Minister, Home Minister and the state police chief on this arrangement.
Commendable efforts of Gujarat Police in reducing crime rate, Mr. Shah said that Gujarat has the image of the safest state in the country. While global challenges have arisen in the field of cyber crime in the changing times, these projects will not only be useful to curb crime in the region but will also reliably assure people suffering from cyber crime. With the inauguration of 'VISWAS' project, Union Home Minister inaugurated 'NETRANG' Command and Control Centre.
The Chief Minister said that '__{X}__' and 'VISWAS' projects will be important tool for catching the criminals who cheat people through online cheating and cyber crime.
The 'VISWAS' project will enhance the security of the people of the state and their confidence for security. The projects include '___(blank 1)___' -VISWAS project, 'NETRANG' project to establish Command and Control Room, online portal to pay E-Challan and Cyber Crime Prevention Unit- '__{X}__'.
The Chief Minister also said that confidence in the morale and work preparedness of the police force will be strengthened. In addition, setting up 7500 cameras in the state at 1500 locations and connection with command control centre would result in immediate crime detection.

Q. After reading the above passage and statements below, choose the correct option.
Statement I: VISWAS project establishes command and control centre in 33 districts.
Statement II: '__{X}__' is an online portal to pay E-Challan.

Solution:

Along with AASHVAST and VISWAS, Project NETRANG was also launched. It will establish command and control rooms in 33 districts of Gujarat.
Under AASHVAST scheme, online portal to pay E-Challan and Cyber Crime Prevention Unit was set up which will have a dedicated service helpline for victims of cyber crimes.

QUESTION: 43

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

Union Home Minister Shri Amit Shah launched '__{X}__' and 'VISWAS' projects of Gujarat police for cyber security which aim to prevent cyber crime and enhance cyber security. On this occasion, he said, "In order to ensure peace and security in the society, proper compliance with the law and order is essential." As the global challenges of cyber crime have arisen in the changing times, optimal use of technology is essential to control the law and order situation. Gujarat government's initiatives like '__{X}__', and 'VISWAS' projects will be fruitful in this direction. Shri Amit Shah said that Gujarat has been a leader in every field. This approach was first initiated by the then Chief Minister and the then Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi. Under these projects, everything can be monitored and analysed for each city of state by CCTV from one place. Congratulations to the Chief Minister, Home Minister and the state police chief on this arrangement.
Commendable efforts of Gujarat Police in reducing crime rate, Mr. Shah said that Gujarat has the image of the safest state in the country. While global challenges have arisen in the field of cyber crime in the changing times, these projects will not only be useful to curb crime in the region but will also reliably assure people suffering from cyber crime. With the inauguration of 'VISWAS' project, Union Home Minister inaugurated 'NETRANG' Command and Control Centre.
The Chief Minister said that '__{X}__' and 'VISWAS' projects will be important tool for catching the criminals who cheat people through online cheating and cyber crime.
The 'VISWAS' project will enhance the security of the people of the state and their confidence for security. The projects include '___(blank 1)___' -VISWAS project, 'NETRANG' project to establish Command and Control Room, online portal to pay E-Challan and Cyber Crime Prevention Unit- '__{X}__'.
The Chief Minister also said that confidence in the morale and work preparedness of the police force will be strengthened. In addition, setting up 7500 cameras in the state at 1500 locations and connection with command control centre would result in immediate crime detection.

Q. In India, which law deals with the cyber crime?

Solution:

The Information Technology Act, 2000 (also known as ITA-2000, or the IT Act) is an Act of the Indian Parliament (No. 21 of 2000) notified on 17th October, 2000. It is the primary law in India dealing with cyber crime and electronic commerce. It is based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration recommended by the General Assembly of United Nations by a resolution dated 30th January, 1997.

QUESTION: 44

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

Union Home Minister Shri Amit Shah launched '__{X}__' and 'VISWAS' projects of Gujarat police for cyber security which aim to prevent cyber crime and enhance cyber security. On this occasion, he said, "In order to ensure peace and security in the society, proper compliance with the law and order is essential." As the global challenges of cyber crime have arisen in the changing times, optimal use of technology is essential to control the law and order situation. Gujarat government's initiatives like '__{X}__', and 'VISWAS' projects will be fruitful in this direction. Shri Amit Shah said that Gujarat has been a leader in every field. This approach was first initiated by the then Chief Minister and the then Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi. Under these projects, everything can be monitored and analysed for each city of state by CCTV from one place. Congratulations to the Chief Minister, Home Minister and the state police chief on this arrangement.
Commendable efforts of Gujarat Police in reducing crime rate, Mr. Shah said that Gujarat has the image of the safest state in the country. While global challenges have arisen in the field of cyber crime in the changing times, these projects will not only be useful to curb crime in the region but will also reliably assure people suffering from cyber crime. With the inauguration of 'VISWAS' project, Union Home Minister inaugurated 'NETRANG' Command and Control Centre.
The Chief Minister said that '__{X}__' and 'VISWAS' projects will be important tool for catching the criminals who cheat people through online cheating and cyber crime.
The 'VISWAS' project will enhance the security of the people of the state and their confidence for security. The projects include '___(blank 1)___' -VISWAS project, 'NETRANG' project to establish Command and Control Room, online portal to pay E-Challan and Cyber Crime Prevention Unit- '__{X}__'.
The Chief Minister also said that confidence in the morale and work preparedness of the police force will be strengthened. In addition, setting up 7500 cameras in the state at 1500 locations and connection with command control centre would result in immediate crime detection.

Q. Which state introduced India's first Cyber Crime Prevention Unit?

Solution:

On January 11, 2020, Home Minister Amit Shah launched the country's first Cyber Crime Prevention Unit called 'Cyber AASHVAST' in Gandhinagar, Gujarat. Along with AASHVAST, the Video Integration and State Wide Advance Security project called 'VISWAS' was also launched. It owns an exclusive online portal that has a dedicated service helpline for victims of cyber crimes.

QUESTION: 45

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

The European Parliament (EP) is the legislative branch of the European Union and one of its seven institutions. Together with the Council of the European Union, it adopts European legislation, normally on a proposal from the European Commission. The Parliament is composed of [X] members (MEPs), intended to become 705 starting from the 2019–2024 legislature because of specific provisions adopted about Brexit. The Parliament represents the second-largest democratic electorate in the world [after the Parliament of (1)] and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world (375 million eligible voters in 2009).
EU Parliament intend to move a draft resolution on the CAA. The CAA is a matter that is entirely internal to India. Moreover, this legislation has been adopted by due process and through democratic means after a public debate in both Houses of Parliament,” sources in the government said.
The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 (CAA) enables migrants/foreigners of six minority communities from three specified countries who have come to India because of persecution on grounds of their religion to apply for Indian citizenship.
The European Commission Vice-President/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (HR/VP) Josep Borell will first deliver a statement on “India's Citizenship (Amendment) Act 2019”, the published plenary agenda says. The EU parliament had discussed developments in Jammu and Kashmir in September 2019, but had not ended in a vote. In October 2019 the government had even facilitated a visit by 22 EU MEPs to Delhi and Srinagar, but the effort doesn’t appear to have had the desired effect on the European Parliament.
Sources said the issues had been discussed when Mr. Borrell met with Prime Minister Narendra Modi and External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar on the sidelines of the Raisina Dialogue conference earlier this month. The sources indicated that a visit by European Union envoys to Jammu and Kashmir, that has been discussed for several weeks, has now been put off until March this year, after the EU-India summit is held on March 13, but didn’t specify reasons for the delay.

Q. Where is the headquarter of European Union?

Solution:
QUESTION: 46

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

The European Parliament (EP) is the legislative branch of the European Union and one of its seven institutions. Together with the Council of the European Union, it adopts European legislation, normally on a proposal from the European Commission. The Parliament is composed of [X] members (MEPs), intended to become 705 starting from the 2019–2024 legislature because of specific provisions adopted about Brexit. The Parliament represents the second-largest democratic electorate in the world [after the Parliament of (1)] and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world (375 million eligible voters in 2009).
EU Parliament intend to move a draft resolution on the CAA. The CAA is a matter that is entirely internal to India. Moreover, this legislation has been adopted by due process and through democratic means after a public debate in both Houses of Parliament,” sources in the government said.
The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 (CAA) enables migrants/foreigners of six minority communities from three specified countries who have come to India because of persecution on grounds of their religion to apply for Indian citizenship.
The European Commission Vice-President/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (HR/VP) Josep Borell will first deliver a statement on “India's Citizenship (Amendment) Act 2019”, the published plenary agenda says. The EU parliament had discussed developments in Jammu and Kashmir in September 2019, but had not ended in a vote. In October 2019 the government had even facilitated a visit by 22 EU MEPs to Delhi and Srinagar, but the effort doesn’t appear to have had the desired effect on the European Parliament.
Sources said the issues had been discussed when Mr. Borrell met with Prime Minister Narendra Modi and External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar on the sidelines of the Raisina Dialogue conference earlier this month. The sources indicated that a visit by European Union envoys to Jammu and Kashmir, that has been discussed for several weeks, has now been put off until March this year, after the EU-India summit is held on March 13, but didn’t specify reasons for the delay.

Q. What does (X) represent in the above paragraph?

Solution:

The correct answer is D as the options given are incorrect as 705 is correct.

QUESTION: 47

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

The European Parliament (EP) is the legislative branch of the European Union and one of its seven institutions. Together with the Council of the European Union, it adopts European legislation, normally on a proposal from the European Commission. The Parliament is composed of [X] members (MEPs), intended to become 705 starting from the 2019–2024 legislature because of specific provisions adopted about Brexit. The Parliament represents the second-largest democratic electorate in the world [after the Parliament of (1)] and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world (375 million eligible voters in 2009).
EU Parliament intend to move a draft resolution on the CAA. The CAA is a matter that is entirely internal to India. Moreover, this legislation has been adopted by due process and through democratic means after a public debate in both Houses of Parliament,” sources in the government said.
The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 (CAA) enables migrants/foreigners of six minority communities from three specified countries who have come to India because of persecution on grounds of their religion to apply for Indian citizenship.
The European Commission Vice-President/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (HR/VP) Josep Borell will first deliver a statement on “India's Citizenship (Amendment) Act 2019”, the published plenary agenda says. The EU parliament had discussed developments in Jammu and Kashmir in September 2019, but had not ended in a vote. In October 2019 the government had even facilitated a visit by 22 EU MEPs to Delhi and Srinagar, but the effort doesn’t appear to have had the desired effect on the European Parliament.
Sources said the issues had been discussed when Mr. Borrell met with Prime Minister Narendra Modi and External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar on the sidelines of the Raisina Dialogue conference earlier this month. The sources indicated that a visit by European Union envoys to Jammu and Kashmir, that has been discussed for several weeks, has now been put off until March this year, after the EU-India summit is held on March 13, but didn’t specify reasons for the delay.

Q. Who is the president of European Union?

Solution:

D is the correct option. None of the options is the president of European Union because Charles Michel is the current EU (council) president.
president of EU commission - Ursula Von Der Leyen
president of EU parliament- David Sassoli

QUESTION: 48

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

The European Parliament (EP) is the legislative branch of the European Union and one of its seven institutions. Together with the Council of the European Union, it adopts European legislation, normally on a proposal from the European Commission. The Parliament is composed of [X] members (MEPs), intended to become 705 starting from the 2019–2024 legislature because of specific provisions adopted about Brexit. The Parliament represents the second-largest democratic electorate in the world [after the Parliament of (1)] and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world (375 million eligible voters in 2009).
EU Parliament intend to move a draft resolution on the CAA. The CAA is a matter that is entirely internal to India. Moreover, this legislation has been adopted by due process and through democratic means after a public debate in both Houses of Parliament,” sources in the government said.
The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 (CAA) enables migrants/foreigners of six minority communities from three specified countries who have come to India because of persecution on grounds of their religion to apply for Indian citizenship.
The European Commission Vice-President/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (HR/VP) Josep Borell will first deliver a statement on “India's Citizenship (Amendment) Act 2019”, the published plenary agenda says. The EU parliament had discussed developments in Jammu and Kashmir in September 2019, but had not ended in a vote. In October 2019 the government had even facilitated a visit by 22 EU MEPs to Delhi and Srinagar, but the effort doesn’t appear to have had the desired effect on the European Parliament.
Sources said the issues had been discussed when Mr. Borrell met with Prime Minister Narendra Modi and External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar on the sidelines of the Raisina Dialogue conference earlier this month. The sources indicated that a visit by European Union envoys to Jammu and Kashmir, that has been discussed for several weeks, has now been put off until March this year, after the EU-India summit is held on March 13, but didn’t specify reasons for the delay.

Q. The CAA amendment seeks the naturalisation years come down to 5 years from years earlier

Solution:
QUESTION: 49

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

The European Parliament (EP) is the legislative branch of the European Union and one of its seven institutions. Together with the Council of the European Union, it adopts European legislation, normally on a proposal from the European Commission. The Parliament is composed of [X] members (MEPs), intended to become 705 starting from the 2019–2024 legislature because of specific provisions adopted about Brexit. The Parliament represents the second-largest democratic electorate in the world [after the Parliament of (1)] and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world (375 million eligible voters in 2009).
EU Parliament intend to move a draft resolution on the CAA. The CAA is a matter that is entirely internal to India. Moreover, this legislation has been adopted by due process and through democratic means after a public debate in both Houses of Parliament,” sources in the government said.
The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 (CAA) enables migrants/foreigners of six minority communities from three specified countries who have come to India because of persecution on grounds of their religion to apply for Indian citizenship.
The European Commission Vice-President/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (HR/VP) Josep Borell will first deliver a statement on “India's Citizenship (Amendment) Act 2019”, the published plenary agenda says. The EU parliament had discussed developments in Jammu and Kashmir in September 2019, but had not ended in a vote. In October 2019 the government had even facilitated a visit by 22 EU MEPs to Delhi and Srinagar, but the effort doesn’t appear to have had the desired effect on the European Parliament.
Sources said the issues had been discussed when Mr. Borrell met with Prime Minister Narendra Modi and External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar on the sidelines of the Raisina Dialogue conference earlier this month. The sources indicated that a visit by European Union envoys to Jammu and Kashmir, that has been discussed for several weeks, has now been put off until March this year, after the EU-India summit is held on March 13, but didn’t specify reasons for the delay.

Q. Which of the following acts also got amended along with citizenship act of 1955?

Solution:
QUESTION: 50

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

The European Parliament (EP) is the legislative branch of the European Union and one of its seven institutions. Together with the Council of the European Union, it adopts European legislation, normally on a proposal from the European Commission. The Parliament is composed of [X] members (MEPs), intended to become 705 starting from the 2019–2024 legislature because of specific provisions adopted about Brexit. The Parliament represents the second-largest democratic electorate in the world [after the Parliament of (1)] and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world (375 million eligible voters in 2009).
EU Parliament intend to move a draft resolution on the CAA. The CAA is a matter that is entirely internal to India. Moreover, this legislation has been adopted by due process and through democratic means after a public debate in both Houses of Parliament,” sources in the government said.
The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 (CAA) enables migrants/foreigners of six minority communities from three specified countries who have come to India because of persecution on grounds of their religion to apply for Indian citizenship.
The European Commission Vice-President/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (HR/VP) Josep Borell will first deliver a statement on “India's Citizenship (Amendment) Act 2019”, the published plenary agenda says. The EU parliament had discussed developments in Jammu and Kashmir in September 2019, but had not ended in a vote. In October 2019 the government had even facilitated a visit by 22 EU MEPs to Delhi and Srinagar, but the effort doesn’t appear to have had the desired effect on the European Parliament.
Sources said the issues had been discussed when Mr. Borrell met with Prime Minister Narendra Modi and External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar on the sidelines of the Raisina Dialogue conference earlier this month. The sources indicated that a visit by European Union envoys to Jammu and Kashmir, that has been discussed for several weeks, has now been put off until March this year, after the EU-India summit is held on March 13, but didn’t specify reasons for the delay.

Q. One can acquire Indian citizenship by how many ways?

Solution:

The correct option is B

 According to the Ministry of Home Affairs, there are four ways in which Indian citizenship can be acquired: birth, descent, registration and naturalisation.

QUESTION: 51

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

The European Parliament (EP) is the legislative branch of the European Union and one of its seven institutions. Together with the Council of the European Union, it adopts European legislation, normally on a proposal from the European Commission. The Parliament is composed of [X] members (MEPs), intended to become 705 starting from the 2019–2024 legislature because of specific provisions adopted about Brexit. The Parliament represents the second-largest democratic electorate in the world [after the Parliament of (1)] and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world (375 million eligible voters in 2009).
EU Parliament intend to move a draft resolution on the CAA. The CAA is a matter that is entirely internal to India. Moreover, this legislation has been adopted by due process and through democratic means after a public debate in both Houses of Parliament,” sources in the government said.
The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 (CAA) enables migrants/foreigners of six minority communities from three specified countries who have come to India because of persecution on grounds of their religion to apply for Indian citizenship.
The European Commission Vice-President/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (HR/VP) Josep Borell will first deliver a statement on “India's Citizenship (Amendment) Act 2019”, the published plenary agenda says. The EU parliament had discussed developments in Jammu and Kashmir in September 2019, but had not ended in a vote. In October 2019 the government had even facilitated a visit by 22 EU MEPs to Delhi and Srinagar, but the effort doesn’t appear to have had the desired effect on the European Parliament.
Sources said the issues had been discussed when Mr. Borrell met with Prime Minister Narendra Modi and External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar on the sidelines of the Raisina Dialogue conference earlier this month. The sources indicated that a visit by European Union envoys to Jammu and Kashmir, that has been discussed for several weeks, has now been put off until March this year, after the EU-India summit is held on March 13, but didn’t specify reasons for the delay.

Q. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) was founded on 14th December 1950 and headquartered in

Solution:
QUESTION: 52

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

The European Parliament (EP) is the legislative branch of the European Union and one of its seven institutions. Together with the Council of the European Union, it adopts European legislation, normally on a proposal from the European Commission. The Parliament is composed of [X] members (MEPs), intended to become 705 starting from the 2019–2024 legislature because of specific provisions adopted about Brexit. The Parliament represents the second-largest democratic electorate in the world [after the Parliament of (1)] and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world (375 million eligible voters in 2009).
EU Parliament intend to move a draft resolution on the CAA. The CAA is a matter that is entirely internal to India. Moreover, this legislation has been adopted by due process and through democratic means after a public debate in both Houses of Parliament,” sources in the government said.
The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 (CAA) enables migrants/foreigners of six minority communities from three specified countries who have come to India because of persecution on grounds of their religion to apply for Indian citizenship.
The European Commission Vice-President/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (HR/VP) Josep Borell will first deliver a statement on “India's Citizenship (Amendment) Act 2019”, the published plenary agenda says. The EU parliament had discussed developments in Jammu and Kashmir in September 2019, but had not ended in a vote. In October 2019 the government had even facilitated a visit by 22 EU MEPs to Delhi and Srinagar, but the effort doesn’t appear to have had the desired effect on the European Parliament.
Sources said the issues had been discussed when Mr. Borrell met with Prime Minister Narendra Modi and External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar on the sidelines of the Raisina Dialogue conference earlier this month. The sources indicated that a visit by European Union envoys to Jammu and Kashmir, that has been discussed for several weeks, has now been put off until March this year, after the EU-India summit is held on March 13, but didn’t specify reasons for the delay.

Q. Which of the following can replace (X) in the above Paragraph?

Solution:
QUESTION: 53

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

India and Pakistan on January 1, 2020 exchanged lists of nuclear installations that cannot be attacked in the event of hostilities, maintaining a tradition dating back nearly three decades.
The two countries also exchanged lists of their nationals held in prisons of the other country, with New Delhi seeking the early release of Indian civilian prisoners, missing defence personnel and fishermen.
The lists of nuclear installations were exchanged simultaneously through diplomatic channels in New Delhi and Islamabad. These facilities are covered by the Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Installations. The Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Installations and Facilities between India and Pakistan was signed on December 31, 1988 and entered into force on January 27, 1991.
Under the pact, the two countries inform each other of nuclear installations to be covered under the agreement on January 1 every year. This was the 29th consecutive exchange of such lists, with the first one having taken place in January 1992. Both sides do not disclose details of the facilities.
The lists of prisoners were exchanged under the ____(X)____. India handed over a list of 267 Pakistani civilians and 99 fishermen who are in its custody. Pakistan shared a list of 55 civilians and 227 fishermen in its custody, who are Indians or believed to be Indians, the Ministry of External Affairs said in a statement.
The Pakistani side was asked to expedite the release of four Indian civilians and 126 fishermen whose nationality has been confirmed and conveyed to Pakistan.
India asked Pakistan to grant visas to a team of medical experts and facilitate their visit to assess the mental condition of "believed-to-be Indian prisoners of unsound mind, lodged in different jails of Pakistan".
It asked Pakistan to organise an early visit of the Joint Judicial Committee, which is covered by the ____(X)____, and to also organise the visit of a ____(Y)____ to facilitate the release of 22 Indian fishing boats.
India also asked Pakistan to act speedily to confirm the nationality of 82 Pakistani prisoners, whose repatriation has been held up as Islamabad hasn't yet confirmed their citizenship.
The agreement (____(X)____) helped speed up the identification and release of hundreds of prisoners, a majority of them were fishermen. However, the process has been hit in recent years by tensions between the two sides.

Q. In the above passage, the name of the agreement has been redacted with '____(X)____'. What is the name of the agreement?

Solution:

India and Pakistan exchanged, through diplomatic channels simultaneously at New Delhi and Islamabad, the lists of nationals (including civil prisoners and fishermen) of each country lodged in the jails of the other country consistent with the provisions of the ''Agreement on Consular Access'' between India and Pakistan.
The agreement, which was signed on May 21, 2008, provides that a comprehensive list of nationals of each country lodged in other country's jails has to be exchanged twice each year, on January 1 and July 1.

QUESTION: 54

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

India and Pakistan on January 1, 2020 exchanged lists of nuclear installations that cannot be attacked in the event of hostilities, maintaining a tradition dating back nearly three decades.
The two countries also exchanged lists of their nationals held in prisons of the other country, with New Delhi seeking the early release of Indian civilian prisoners, missing defence personnel and fishermen.
The lists of nuclear installations were exchanged simultaneously through diplomatic channels in New Delhi and Islamabad. These facilities are covered by the Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Installations. The Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Installations and Facilities between India and Pakistan was signed on December 31, 1988 and entered into force on January 27, 1991.
Under the pact, the two countries inform each other of nuclear installations to be covered under the agreement on January 1 every year. This was the 29th consecutive exchange of such lists, with the first one having taken place in January 1992. Both sides do not disclose details of the facilities.
The lists of prisoners were exchanged under the ____(X)____. India handed over a list of 267 Pakistani civilians and 99 fishermen who are in its custody. Pakistan shared a list of 55 civilians and 227 fishermen in its custody, who are Indians or believed to be Indians, the Ministry of External Affairs said in a statement.
The Pakistani side was asked to expedite the release of four Indian civilians and 126 fishermen whose nationality has been confirmed and conveyed to Pakistan.
India asked Pakistan to grant visas to a team of medical experts and facilitate their visit to assess the mental condition of "believed-to-be Indian prisoners of unsound mind, lodged in different jails of Pakistan".
It asked Pakistan to organise an early visit of the Joint Judicial Committee, which is covered by the ____(X)____, and to also organise the visit of a ____(Y)____ to facilitate the release of 22 Indian fishing boats.
India also asked Pakistan to act speedily to confirm the nationality of 82 Pakistani prisoners, whose repatriation has been held up as Islamabad hasn't yet confirmed their citizenship.
The agreement (____(X)____) helped speed up the identification and release of hundreds of prisoners, a majority of them were fishermen. However, the process has been hit in recent years by tensions between the two sides.

Q. In the above passage, whose visit has been redacted with '____(Y)____'?

Solution:

India asked Pakistan to organise an early visit of the Joint Judicial Committee, which is covered by the Agreement on Consular Access, and to also organise the visit of a four-member team to Karachi to facilitate the release of 22 Indian fishing boats.

QUESTION: 55

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

India and Pakistan on January 1, 2020 exchanged lists of nuclear installations that cannot be attacked in the event of hostilities, maintaining a tradition dating back nearly three decades.
The two countries also exchanged lists of their nationals held in prisons of the other country, with New Delhi seeking the early release of Indian civilian prisoners, missing defence personnel and fishermen.
The lists of nuclear installations were exchanged simultaneously through diplomatic channels in New Delhi and Islamabad. These facilities are covered by the Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Installations. The Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Installations and Facilities between India and Pakistan was signed on December 31, 1988 and entered into force on January 27, 1991.
Under the pact, the two countries inform each other of nuclear installations to be covered under the agreement on January 1 every year. This was the 29th consecutive exchange of such lists, with the first one having taken place in January 1992. Both sides do not disclose details of the facilities.
The lists of prisoners were exchanged under the ____(X)____. India handed over a list of 267 Pakistani civilians and 99 fishermen who are in its custody. Pakistan shared a list of 55 civilians and 227 fishermen in its custody, who are Indians or believed to be Indians, the Ministry of External Affairs said in a statement.
The Pakistani side was asked to expedite the release of four Indian civilians and 126 fishermen whose nationality has been confirmed and conveyed to Pakistan.
India asked Pakistan to grant visas to a team of medical experts and facilitate their visit to assess the mental condition of "believed-to-be Indian prisoners of unsound mind, lodged in different jails of Pakistan".
It asked Pakistan to organise an early visit of the Joint Judicial Committee, which is covered by the ____(X)____, and to also organise the visit of a ____(Y)____ to facilitate the release of 22 Indian fishing boats.
India also asked Pakistan to act speedily to confirm the nationality of 82 Pakistani prisoners, whose repatriation has been held up as Islamabad hasn't yet confirmed their citizenship.
The agreement (____(X)____) helped speed up the identification and release of hundreds of prisoners, a majority of them were fishermen. However, the process has been hit in recent years by tensions between the two sides.

Q. After reading the above passage and statements below, choose the correct option.
Statement I: Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Installations was signed between PM Rajeev Gandhi and the then Pakistani president Muhammad Khan Junejo.
Statement II: The Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Installations and Facilities between India and Pakistan was signed on December 31, 1988.

Solution:

Statement I is incorrect:
Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear installations between India and Pakistan. It was signed on December 31, 1988 and entered into force on January 27, 1991. It was signed by then Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Pakistani counterpart Benazir Bhutto.
Statement II is correct:
The Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Installations and Facilities between India and Pakistan was signed on December 31, 1988 and entered into force on January 27, 1991. This bilateral agreement bars both nations from carrying out any surprise attack (or to assist foreign power to attack) on each other's nuclear Installations and Facilities.

QUESTION: 56

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

India and Pakistan on January 1, 2020 exchanged lists of nuclear installations that cannot be attacked in the event of hostilities, maintaining a tradition dating back nearly three decades.
The two countries also exchanged lists of their nationals held in prisons of the other country, with New Delhi seeking the early release of Indian civilian prisoners, missing defence personnel and fishermen.
The lists of nuclear installations were exchanged simultaneously through diplomatic channels in New Delhi and Islamabad. These facilities are covered by the Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Installations. The Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Installations and Facilities between India and Pakistan was signed on December 31, 1988 and entered into force on January 27, 1991.
Under the pact, the two countries inform each other of nuclear installations to be covered under the agreement on January 1 every year. This was the 29th consecutive exchange of such lists, with the first one having taken place in January 1992. Both sides do not disclose details of the facilities.
The lists of prisoners were exchanged under the ____(X)____. India handed over a list of 267 Pakistani civilians and 99 fishermen who are in its custody. Pakistan shared a list of 55 civilians and 227 fishermen in its custody, who are Indians or believed to be Indians, the Ministry of External Affairs said in a statement.
The Pakistani side was asked to expedite the release of four Indian civilians and 126 fishermen whose nationality has been confirmed and conveyed to Pakistan.
India asked Pakistan to grant visas to a team of medical experts and facilitate their visit to assess the mental condition of "believed-to-be Indian prisoners of unsound mind, lodged in different jails of Pakistan".
It asked Pakistan to organise an early visit of the Joint Judicial Committee, which is covered by the ____(X)____, and to also organise the visit of a ____(Y)____ to facilitate the release of 22 Indian fishing boats.
India also asked Pakistan to act speedily to confirm the nationality of 82 Pakistani prisoners, whose repatriation has been held up as Islamabad hasn't yet confirmed their citizenship.
The agreement (____(X)____) helped speed up the identification and release of hundreds of prisoners, a majority of them were fishermen. However, the process has been hit in recent years by tensions between the two sides.

Q. Under the agreement redacted with '____(X)____', how many times does the list of prisoners have to be released in a year?

Solution:

Keeping with the provisions of the 2008 Agreement under which such lists are exchanged on January 1 and July 1 every year, Pakistan handed over a list of 282 Indian prisoners including 55 civilians and 227 fishermen lodged in the country's jail to the High Commission of India as part of a bilateral agreement in January 2020. While India handed over lists of 267 Pakistan civilian prisoners and 99 fishermen to Pakistan.

QUESTION: 57

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

India and Pakistan on January 1, 2020 exchanged lists of nuclear installations that cannot be attacked in the event of hostilities, maintaining a tradition dating back nearly three decades.
The two countries also exchanged lists of their nationals held in prisons of the other country, with New Delhi seeking the early release of Indian civilian prisoners, missing defence personnel and fishermen.
The lists of nuclear installations were exchanged simultaneously through diplomatic channels in New Delhi and Islamabad. These facilities are covered by the Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Installations. The Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Installations and Facilities between India and Pakistan was signed on December 31, 1988 and entered into force on January 27, 1991.
Under the pact, the two countries inform each other of nuclear installations to be covered under the agreement on January 1 every year. This was the 29th consecutive exchange of such lists, with the first one having taken place in January 1992. Both sides do not disclose details of the facilities.
The lists of prisoners were exchanged under the ____(X)____. India handed over a list of 267 Pakistani civilians and 99 fishermen who are in its custody. Pakistan shared a list of 55 civilians and 227 fishermen in its custody, who are Indians or believed to be Indians, the Ministry of External Affairs said in a statement.
The Pakistani side was asked to expedite the release of four Indian civilians and 126 fishermen whose nationality has been confirmed and conveyed to Pakistan.
India asked Pakistan to grant visas to a team of medical experts and facilitate their visit to assess the mental condition of "believed-to-be Indian prisoners of unsound mind, lodged in different jails of Pakistan".
It asked Pakistan to organise an early visit of the Joint Judicial Committee, which is covered by the ____(X)____, and to also organise the visit of a ____(Y)____ to facilitate the release of 22 Indian fishing boats.
India also asked Pakistan to act speedily to confirm the nationality of 82 Pakistani prisoners, whose repatriation has been held up as Islamabad hasn't yet confirmed their citizenship.
The agreement (____(X)____) helped speed up the identification and release of hundreds of prisoners, a majority of them were fishermen. However, the process has been hit in recent years by tensions between the two sides.

Q. Who is the Prime Minister of Pakistan as in 2020?

Solution:

Imran Ahmed Khan Niazi HI PP is the 22nd Prime Minister of Pakistan as in 2020 and the chairman of the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf.
Before entering politics, Khan was an international cricketer and captain of the Pakistan national cricket team, which he led to victory in the 1992 Cricket World Cup.

QUESTION: 58

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

The deliberations, in Beijing, of the Asia-Pacific joint group of the global watchdog on terror financing and money laundering, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), gave Pakistan some encouraging news: that it had progressed in its efforts to avoid a blacklisting. A final decision will be taken at a plenary meeting of the body, expected in Paris next month: in keeping Pakistan on the current “grey list”, downgrading it to a (1)”, or letting it off altogether for the moment. The [Z]member body had determined that Pakistan was to be placed on the grey list in 2018, and presented it a [X] list of actions. These included freezing the funds of UN Security Council entities such as 26/11 mastermind Hafiz Saeed and the LeT, the Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) and other Taliban- affiliated groups. The actions entailed a sustained effort to bring legal action against these groups, and also called for changes to Pakistani law in line with global standards for measures against money laundering and financing terrorism. Unlike in October 2019, when Pakistan had completed five points, the Beijing meeting has cleared it on *Y+. While Pakistan’s progress will come as a disappointment to India — it wants more scrutiny of Pakistan’s support to terror groups lest Islamabad feels it has been let off the hook — there are a few points to consider. First, the grey listing is not new. Pakistan was placed on it in 2012, and was removed in 2015 after it passed a National Action Plan to deal with terrorism following the 2014 Peshawar School massacre. It was also placed under severe restrictions in the years 2008-2012, after the Mumbai attack. Second, this last grey list period has already seen some Indian demands met, including the chargesheeting of Hafiz Saeed for terror financing, and the addition of JeM chief Masood Azhar to the UNSC 1267 list. Finally, although the FATF is a technical organisation, there is no doubting that geopolitics and bilateral deals play a part in deciding outcomes.
As a result, New Delhi must study the politics behind Pakistan’s FATF “progress”. Officials have suggested that Pakistan’s role in ensuring Taliban talks are brought to a successful conclusion soon may have weighed with the U.S. and its allies in the grouping. Other countries may have determined that with China in the president’s chair, and the backing of Turkey and Malaysia, Pakistan could escape being blacklisted in any case, and dropped the effort. India’s recent troubles on the international stage, including the UNSC where China has been allowed to raise the Kashmir issue twice in five months, after nearly five decades, may also be a reason its objections at the Beijing discussions were not considered as carefully as in the past.

Q. [X] in the above Paragraph will be replaced by

Solution:
QUESTION: 59

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

The deliberations, in Beijing, of the Asia-Pacific joint group of the global watchdog on terror financing and money laundering, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), gave Pakistan some encouraging news: that it had progressed in its efforts to avoid a blacklisting. A final decision will be taken at a plenary meeting of the body, expected in Paris next month: in keeping Pakistan on the current “grey list”, downgrading it to a (1)”, or letting it off altogether for the moment. The [Z]member body had determined that Pakistan was to be placed on the grey list in 2018, and presented it a [X] list of actions. These included freezing the funds of UN Security Council entities such as 26/11 mastermind Hafiz Saeed and the LeT, the Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) and other Taliban- affiliated groups. The actions entailed a sustained effort to bring legal action against these groups, and also called for changes to Pakistani law in line with global standards for measures against money laundering and financing terrorism. Unlike in October 2019, when Pakistan had completed five points, the Beijing meeting has cleared it on *Y+. While Pakistan’s progress will come as a disappointment to India — it wants more scrutiny of Pakistan’s support to terror groups lest Islamabad feels it has been let off the hook — there are a few points to consider. First, the grey listing is not new. Pakistan was placed on it in 2012, and was removed in 2015 after it passed a National Action Plan to deal with terrorism following the 2014 Peshawar School massacre. It was also placed under severe restrictions in the years 2008-2012, after the Mumbai attack. Second, this last grey list period has already seen some Indian demands met, including the chargesheeting of Hafiz Saeed for terror financing, and the addition of JeM chief Masood Azhar to the UNSC 1267 list. Finally, although the FATF is a technical organisation, there is no doubting that geopolitics and bilateral deals play a part in deciding outcomes.
As a result, New Delhi must study the politics behind Pakistan’s FATF “progress”. Officials have suggested that Pakistan’s role in ensuring Taliban talks are brought to a successful conclusion soon may have weighed with the U.S. and its allies in the grouping. Other countries may have determined that with China in the president’s chair, and the backing of Turkey and Malaysia, Pakistan could escape being blacklisted in any case, and dropped the effort. India’s recent troubles on the international stage, including the UNSC where China has been allowed to raise the Kashmir issue twice in five months, after nearly five decades, may also be a reason its objections at the Beijing discussions were not considered as carefully as in the past.

Q. FATF is headquartered in Paris ,Which of the following Organization is not headquartered in Paris?

Solution:
QUESTION: 60

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

The deliberations, in Beijing, of the Asia-Pacific joint group of the global watchdog on terror financing and money laundering, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), gave Pakistan some encouraging news: that it had progressed in its efforts to avoid a blacklisting. A final decision will be taken at a plenary meeting of the body, expected in Paris next month: in keeping Pakistan on the current “grey list”, downgrading it to a (1)”, or letting it off altogether for the moment. The [Z]member body had determined that Pakistan was to be placed on the grey list in 2018, and presented it a [X] list of actions. These included freezing the funds of UN Security Council entities such as 26/11 mastermind Hafiz Saeed and the LeT, the Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) and other Taliban- affiliated groups. The actions entailed a sustained effort to bring legal action against these groups, and also called for changes to Pakistani law in line with global standards for measures against money laundering and financing terrorism. Unlike in October 2019, when Pakistan had completed five points, the Beijing meeting has cleared it on *Y+. While Pakistan’s progress will come as a disappointment to India — it wants more scrutiny of Pakistan’s support to terror groups lest Islamabad feels it has been let off the hook — there are a few points to consider. First, the grey listing is not new. Pakistan was placed on it in 2012, and was removed in 2015 after it passed a National Action Plan to deal with terrorism following the 2014 Peshawar School massacre. It was also placed under severe restrictions in the years 2008-2012, after the Mumbai attack. Second, this last grey list period has already seen some Indian demands met, including the chargesheeting of Hafiz Saeed for terror financing, and the addition of JeM chief Masood Azhar to the UNSC 1267 list. Finally, although the FATF is a technical organisation, there is no doubting that geopolitics and bilateral deals play a part in deciding outcomes.
As a result, New Delhi must study the politics behind Pakistan’s FATF “progress”. Officials have suggested that Pakistan’s role in ensuring Taliban talks are brought to a successful conclusion soon may have weighed with the U.S. and its allies in the grouping. Other countries may have determined that with China in the president’s chair, and the backing of Turkey and Malaysia, Pakistan could escape being blacklisted in any case, and dropped the effort. India’s recent troubles on the international stage, including the UNSC where China has been allowed to raise the Kashmir issue twice in five months, after nearly five decades, may also be a reason its objections at the Beijing discussions were not considered as carefully as in the past.

Q. Which of the following is going to replace (Y)?

Solution:
QUESTION: 61

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

The deliberations, in Beijing, of the Asia-Pacific joint group of the global watchdog on terror financing and money laundering, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), gave Pakistan some encouraging news: that it had progressed in its efforts to avoid a blacklisting. A final decision will be taken at a plenary meeting of the body, expected in Paris next month: in keeping Pakistan on the current “grey list”, downgrading it to a (1)”, or letting it off altogether for the moment. The [Z]member body had determined that Pakistan was to be placed on the grey list in 2018, and presented it a [X] list of actions. These included freezing the funds of UN Security Council entities such as 26/11 mastermind Hafiz Saeed and the LeT, the Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) and other Taliban- affiliated groups. The actions entailed a sustained effort to bring legal action against these groups, and also called for changes to Pakistani law in line with global standards for measures against money laundering and financing terrorism. Unlike in October 2019, when Pakistan had completed five points, the Beijing meeting has cleared it on *Y+. While Pakistan’s progress will come as a disappointment to India — it wants more scrutiny of Pakistan’s support to terror groups lest Islamabad feels it has been let off the hook — there are a few points to consider. First, the grey listing is not new. Pakistan was placed on it in 2012, and was removed in 2015 after it passed a National Action Plan to deal with terrorism following the 2014 Peshawar School massacre. It was also placed under severe restrictions in the years 2008-2012, after the Mumbai attack. Second, this last grey list period has already seen some Indian demands met, including the chargesheeting of Hafiz Saeed for terror financing, and the addition of JeM chief Masood Azhar to the UNSC 1267 list. Finally, although the FATF is a technical organisation, there is no doubting that geopolitics and bilateral deals play a part in deciding outcomes.
As a result, New Delhi must study the politics behind Pakistan’s FATF “progress”. Officials have suggested that Pakistan’s role in ensuring Taliban talks are brought to a successful conclusion soon may have weighed with the U.S. and its allies in the grouping. Other countries may have determined that with China in the president’s chair, and the backing of Turkey and Malaysia, Pakistan could escape being blacklisted in any case, and dropped the effort. India’s recent troubles on the international stage, including the UNSC where China has been allowed to raise the Kashmir issue twice in five months, after nearly five decades, may also be a reason its objections at the Beijing discussions were not considered as carefully as in the past.

Q. (Z) will be replaced by ____

Solution:
QUESTION: 62

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

The deliberations, in Beijing, of the Asia-Pacific joint group of the global watchdog on terror financing and money laundering, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), gave Pakistan some encouraging news: that it had progressed in its efforts to avoid a blacklisting. A final decision will be taken at a plenary meeting of the body, expected in Paris next month: in keeping Pakistan on the current “grey list”, downgrading it to a (1)”, or letting it off altogether for the moment. The [Z]member body had determined that Pakistan was to be placed on the grey list in 2018, and presented it a [X] list of actions. These included freezing the funds of UN Security Council entities such as 26/11 mastermind Hafiz Saeed and the LeT, the Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) and other Taliban- affiliated groups. The actions entailed a sustained effort to bring legal action against these groups, and also called for changes to Pakistani law in line with global standards for measures against money laundering and financing terrorism. Unlike in October 2019, when Pakistan had completed five points, the Beijing meeting has cleared it on *Y+. While Pakistan’s progress will come as a disappointment to India — it wants more scrutiny of Pakistan’s support to terror groups lest Islamabad feels it has been let off the hook — there are a few points to consider. First, the grey listing is not new. Pakistan was placed on it in 2012, and was removed in 2015 after it passed a National Action Plan to deal with terrorism following the 2014 Peshawar School massacre. It was also placed under severe restrictions in the years 2008-2012, after the Mumbai attack. Second, this last grey list period has already seen some Indian demands met, including the chargesheeting of Hafiz Saeed for terror financing, and the addition of JeM chief Masood Azhar to the UNSC 1267 list. Finally, although the FATF is a technical organisation, there is no doubting that geopolitics and bilateral deals play a part in deciding outcomes.
As a result, New Delhi must study the politics behind Pakistan’s FATF “progress”. Officials have suggested that Pakistan’s role in ensuring Taliban talks are brought to a successful conclusion soon may have weighed with the U.S. and its allies in the grouping. Other countries may have determined that with China in the president’s chair, and the backing of Turkey and Malaysia, Pakistan could escape being blacklisted in any case, and dropped the effort. India’s recent troubles on the international stage, including the UNSC where China has been allowed to raise the Kashmir issue twice in five months, after nearly five decades, may also be a reason its objections at the Beijing discussions were not considered as carefully as in the past.

Q. Which of the following is going to replace (1)?

Solution:
QUESTION: 63

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

A new malware dubbed '____(X)____' has affected 14.23 per cent smartphones in India, according to the latest report by the global anti-virus brand Kaspersky.
The Trojan application affects the user's device through unauthorised installation of shopping and retail apps, boosting the ratings of such apps and by displaying unnecessary ads adding to the annoyance of the user. The app can also post content from the user's social media accounts, reports say.
The malware, also known as 'Trojan-Dropper. AndroidOS. ____(X)____', has infected devices across the globe. It gained momentum between October and November 2019. Russia is at the top of the list of countries where user devices have been hit by this malware with over 28 per cent users having been affected. Brazil precedes India on the list with over 18 per cent users affected.
According to the IANS report, once the Trojan acquires the required permissions within the system, it has unlimited opportunities to freely interact with the system interface and applications.
Kaspersky states that the malware is being spread through fraudulent ads or ____(Y)____.
It can, however, be difficult to detect this malware as it disguises itself as a system file labelled '____(Z)____'.
Once downloaded, the app launches itself as soon as the screen is unlocked. It can further use the device owner's Google or Facebook account as logged in the device to register on shopping and entertainment websites such as AliExpress, Lazada, Zalora, Shein, Joom, Likee and Alibaba. It can also access and turn off Google Play Protect as well as leave reviews on various apps on the Google Play Store.
As per Inc42, it can also create and replace shortcuts to advertised sites on the app menu. Users will be lead to the shortcut created by the malware instead of the originally advertised sites.
Data Security Council of India (DSCI), for now states that the app is focused on retail. However, the app's capabilities regarding posting content from a user's social media accounts pose an imminent threat to the user's privacy and security.

Q. In the above passage, the name of the malware has been redacted with '____(X)____'. What is the name of the malware?

Solution:

Researchers from cybersecurity solutions provider Kaspersky, on January 9, 2020, revealed that a new Trojan malware application called 'Shopper' has infected more than 14.23% Indian users. The malware boosts shopping app ratings, spreads ads, and installs apps without the consent of the user. This malware also has the potential to spread false information through social media channels and other platforms.

QUESTION: 64

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

A new malware dubbed '____(X)____' has affected 14.23 per cent smartphones in India, according to the latest report by the global anti-virus brand Kaspersky.
The Trojan application affects the user's device through unauthorised installation of shopping and retail apps, boosting the ratings of such apps and by displaying unnecessary ads adding to the annoyance of the user. The app can also post content from the user's social media accounts, reports say.
The malware, also known as 'Trojan-Dropper. AndroidOS. ____(X)____', has infected devices across the globe. It gained momentum between October and November 2019. Russia is at the top of the list of countries where user devices have been hit by this malware with over 28 per cent users having been affected. Brazil precedes India on the list with over 18 per cent users affected.
According to the IANS report, once the Trojan acquires the required permissions within the system, it has unlimited opportunities to freely interact with the system interface and applications.
Kaspersky states that the malware is being spread through fraudulent ads or ____(Y)____.
It can, however, be difficult to detect this malware as it disguises itself as a system file labelled '____(Z)____'.
Once downloaded, the app launches itself as soon as the screen is unlocked. It can further use the device owner's Google or Facebook account as logged in the device to register on shopping and entertainment websites such as AliExpress, Lazada, Zalora, Shein, Joom, Likee and Alibaba. It can also access and turn off Google Play Protect as well as leave reviews on various apps on the Google Play Store.
As per Inc42, it can also create and replace shortcuts to advertised sites on the app menu. Users will be lead to the shortcut created by the malware instead of the originally advertised sites.
Data Security Council of India (DSCI), for now states that the app is focused on retail. However, the app's capabilities regarding posting content from a user's social media accounts pose an imminent threat to the user's privacy and security.

Q. In the above passage, what is the name of the source that has been redacted with '____(Y)____'?

Solution:

According to the Kaspersky report, the malware is spread through fraudulent ads or Third-party App Stores where users are led to download this malicious app in an attempt to get a legitimate application.
Third-party apps are basically any apps that aren't native apps; in other words, an app created by a vendor that is not the manufacturer of the device and/or its operating system. Third-party App Stores are app marketplaces that only offer third-party apps.

QUESTION: 65

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

A new malware dubbed '____(X)____' has affected 14.23 per cent smartphones in India, according to the latest report by the global anti-virus brand Kaspersky.
The Trojan application affects the user's device through unauthorised installation of shopping and retail apps, boosting the ratings of such apps and by displaying unnecessary ads adding to the annoyance of the user. The app can also post content from the user's social media accounts, reports say.
The malware, also known as 'Trojan-Dropper. AndroidOS. ____(X)____', has infected devices across the globe. It gained momentum between October and November 2019. Russia is at the top of the list of countries where user devices have been hit by this malware with over 28 per cent users having been affected. Brazil precedes India on the list with over 18 per cent users affected.
According to the IANS report, once the Trojan acquires the required permissions within the system, it has unlimited opportunities to freely interact with the system interface and applications.
Kaspersky states that the malware is being spread through fraudulent ads or ____(Y)____.
It can, however, be difficult to detect this malware as it disguises itself as a system file labelled '____(Z)____'.
Once downloaded, the app launches itself as soon as the screen is unlocked. It can further use the device owner's Google or Facebook account as logged in the device to register on shopping and entertainment websites such as AliExpress, Lazada, Zalora, Shein, Joom, Likee and Alibaba. It can also access and turn off Google Play Protect as well as leave reviews on various apps on the Google Play Store.
As per Inc42, it can also create and replace shortcuts to advertised sites on the app menu. Users will be lead to the shortcut created by the malware instead of the originally advertised sites.
Data Security Council of India (DSCI), for now states that the app is focused on retail. However, the app's capabilities regarding posting content from a user's social media accounts pose an imminent threat to the user's privacy and security.

Q. In the above passage, the system file's name has been redacted with '____(Z)____'. What is the name of the file?

Solution:

It is difficult to detect 'Shopper' malware as it disguises itself as a system file labelled 'ConfigAPKs'. Once downloaded, the app launches itself as soon as the screen is unlocked. It can further use the device owner's Google or Facebook account as logged in the device to register on shopping and entertainment websites.

QUESTION: 66

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

A new malware dubbed '____(X)____' has affected 14.23 per cent smartphones in India, according to the latest report by the global anti-virus brand Kaspersky.
The Trojan application affects the user's device through unauthorised installation of shopping and retail apps, boosting the ratings of such apps and by displaying unnecessary ads adding to the annoyance of the user. The app can also post content from the user's social media accounts, reports say.
The malware, also known as 'Trojan-Dropper. AndroidOS. ____(X)____', has infected devices across the globe. It gained momentum between October and November 2019. Russia is at the top of the list of countries where user devices have been hit by this malware with over 28 per cent users having been affected. Brazil precedes India on the list with over 18 per cent users affected.
According to the IANS report, once the Trojan acquires the required permissions within the system, it has unlimited opportunities to freely interact with the system interface and applications.
Kaspersky states that the malware is being spread through fraudulent ads or ____(Y)____.
It can, however, be difficult to detect this malware as it disguises itself as a system file labelled '____(Z)____'.
Once downloaded, the app launches itself as soon as the screen is unlocked. It can further use the device owner's Google or Facebook account as logged in the device to register on shopping and entertainment websites such as AliExpress, Lazada, Zalora, Shein, Joom, Likee and Alibaba. It can also access and turn off Google Play Protect as well as leave reviews on various apps on the Google Play Store.
As per Inc42, it can also create and replace shortcuts to advertised sites on the app menu. Users will be lead to the shortcut created by the malware instead of the originally advertised sites.
Data Security Council of India (DSCI), for now states that the app is focused on retail. However, the app's capabilities regarding posting content from a user's social media accounts pose an imminent threat to the user's privacy and security.

Q. After reading the above passage and statements below, choose the correct option.
Statement I: According to Data Security Council of India (DSCI) report, India ranks first in the list of countries most affected by cyber attacks.
Statement II: The ____(X)____ malware can access and turn off Google Play Protect.

Solution:

Statement I: Incorrect
India has been the second most cyber attacks affected country according to a new Data Security Council of India (DSCI) report. The rising cyber attacks has resulted in more and more companies opting for cyber insurance policies to mitigate the cyber-breach risk.
Statement II: Correct
Once downloaded, Trojan malware application called 'Shopper' launches itself as soon as the screen is unlocked. It can further use the device owner's Google or Facebook account as logged in the device to register on shopping and entertainment websites. It can also access and turn off Google Play Protect as well as leave reviews on various apps on the Google Play Store.

QUESTION: 67

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.

A new malware dubbed '____(X)____' has affected 14.23 per cent smartphones in India, according to the latest report by the global anti-virus brand Kaspersky.
The Trojan application affects the user's device through unauthorised installation of shopping and retail apps, boosting the ratings of such apps and by displaying unnecessary ads adding to the annoyance of the user. The app can also post content from the user's social media accounts, reports say.
The malware, also known as 'Trojan-Dropper. AndroidOS. ____(X)____', has infected devices across the globe. It gained momentum between October and November 2019. Russia is at the top of the list of countries where user devices have been hit by this malware with over 28 per cent users having been affected. Brazil precedes India on the list with over 18 per cent users affected.
According to the IANS report, once the Trojan acquires the required permissions within the system, it has unlimited opportunities to freely interact with the system interface and applications.
Kaspersky states that the malware is being spread through fraudulent ads or ____(Y)____.
It can, however, be difficult to detect this malware as it disguises itself as a system file labelled '____(Z)____'.
Once downloaded, the app launches itself as soon as the screen is unlocked. It can further use the device owner's Google or Facebook account as logged in the device to register on shopping and entertainment websites such as AliExpress, Lazada, Zalora, Shein, Joom, Likee and Alibaba. It can also access and turn off Google Play Protect as well as leave reviews on various apps on the Google Play Store.
As per Inc42, it can also create and replace shortcuts to advertised sites on the app menu. Users will be lead to the shortcut created by the malware instead of the originally advertised sites.
Data Security Council of India (DSCI), for now states that the app is focused on retail. However, the app's capabilities regarding posting content from a user's social media accounts pose an imminent threat to the user's privacy and security.

Q. Name the centre that has been set up by the Indian government to detect malware injection and to clean botnet infection from India.

Solution:

The 'Cyber Swachhta Kendra' is a Botnet Cleaning and Malware Analysis Centre (BCMAC), operated by the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) as part of the Government of India's Digital India initiative under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY). Its goal is to create a secure cyberspace by detecting botnet infections in India and to notify, enable cleaning and securing systems of end users so as to prevent further infection.

QUESTION: 68

Read the following information given and answer the questions based on it.
Recently, Ghosh Babu spent his winter vacation on Kyakya island. During the vacation, he visited the local casino where he came across a new card game. Two players, using a normal deck of 52 playing cards, play this game. One player picks a card at random from the deck. This is called the base card. The amount in Rupees equal to the face value of the base card is called the base amount. The face values of Ace, King, Jack and Queen are ten. For other cards, the face value is the number on the card. Once a dealer picks up a card from the deck, the dealer pays him the base amount. Then the dealer picks a card from the deck and this is called the top card. If the top card is of the same suit as the base card, the player pays twice the amount to the dealer. If the top card is of the same color as the base card (but not of the same suit) then the player pays the base amount to the dealer. If the top card happens to be of a different color than the base card, the dealer pays the base amount to the player.
Ghosh Babu played the game 4 times. First time he picked eight of clubs and the dealer picked queen of clubs. The second time, he picked ten of hearts and the dealer picked two of spades. Next time, Ghosh Babu picked six of diamonds and the dealer picked ace of hearts. Lastly, he picked eight of spades and the dealer picked jack of spades. Answer the following questions based on these four games.

Q. If Ghosh Babu stopped playing the game when his gain would be maximized, the gain in Rs. would have been:

Solution:

To 29. In the first round, G gets 8 and pays 16. Negative balance of 8. In the second round he gets Rs. 20. Balance = 12. In the third round he gets 6 and pays 6. Balance = 12. In the fourth round he gets 8 and pays 16. Balance = 4. His gain is maximum at the end of round 2 or 3, in which case his gain would be 12.

QUESTION: 69

Read the following information given and answer the questions based on it.
Recently, Ghosh Babu spent his winter vacation on Kyakya island. During the vacation, he visited the local casino where he came across a new card game. Two players, using a normal deck of 52 playing cards, play this game. One player picks a card at random from the deck. This is called the base card. The amount in Rupees equal to the face value of the base card is called the base amount. The face values of Ace, King, Jack and Queen are ten. For other cards, the face value is the number on the card. Once a dealer picks up a card from the deck, the dealer pays him the base amount. Then the dealer picks a card from the deck and this is called the top card. If the top card is of the same suit as the base card, the player pays twice the amount to the dealer. If the top card is of the same color as the base card (but not of the same suit) then the player pays the base amount to the dealer. If the top card happens to be of a different color than the base card, the dealer pays the base amount to the player.
Ghosh Babu played the game 4 times. First time he picked eight of clubs and the dealer picked queen of clubs. The second time, he picked ten of hearts and the dealer picked two of spades. Next time, Ghosh Babu picked six of diamonds and the dealer picked ace of hearts. Lastly, he picked eight of spades and the dealer picked jack of spades. Answer the following questions based on these four games.

Q. The initial money Ghosh Babu had (before beginning the game session), was Rs. X. At no point did he have to borrow any money. What is the minimum possible value of X?

Solution:

The minimum G has to have is the lowest negative balance = 8.

QUESTION: 70

Read the following information given and answer the questions based on it.
Recently, Ghosh Babu spent his winter vacation on Kyakya island. During the vacation, he visited the local casino where he came across a new card game. Two players, using a normal deck of 52 playing cards, play this game. One player picks a card at random from the deck. This is called the base card. The amount in Rupees equal to the face value of the base card is called the base amount. The face values of Ace, King, Jack and Queen are ten. For other cards, the face value is the number on the card. Once a dealer picks up a card from the deck, the dealer pays him the base amount. Then the dealer picks a card from the deck and this is called the top card. If the top card is of the same suit as the base card, the player pays twice the amount to the dealer. If the top card is of the same color as the base card (but not of the same suit) then the player pays the base amount to the dealer. If the top card happens to be of a different color than the base card, the dealer pays the base amount to the player.
Ghosh Babu played the game 4 times. First time he picked eight of clubs and the dealer picked queen of clubs. The second time, he picked ten of hearts and the dealer picked two of spades. Next time, Ghosh Babu picked six of diamonds and the dealer picked ace of hearts. Lastly, he picked eight of spades and the dealer picked jack of spades. Answer the following questions based on these four games.

Q. If the final amount of money Ghosh Babu had with him was Rs. 100, what is the amount he had with him initially?

Solution:

Since he made a net gain of 4 at the end of the game, he must have started of with 100 – 44 = 96.

QUESTION: 71

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Asian Motors Ltd. is an automobile spare part company serving to the needs of the customers by delivering good quality products from time to time. The work force is the main reason behind Asian Motors' reputation for its timely delivery and quality goods.
Most of the employees in Asian Motors are associated with the organisation for more than 3 to 4 decades. The turnover ratio is very low due to a feel of satisfaction and job security provided by Asian Motors Ltd. management. Everything was fine with Asian Motors till last year when the scenario changed. A number of competitors entered the market and all of them were well-equipped with modern technologies.
The management is also ready for organisational development by accruing new machines. The management hired an organisation development consultant for the same. The OD consultant stated, in his report, that employees are the major hurdle in achieving the target of modern plant in Asian Motors. The report also mentioned that it is not advisable and won't be fruitful to invest the training and development amount on those employees (40%) who are going to retire in less than 5 years.
This in turn made the employees concerned about job security. The management assured them that "we will never commit such things which will put our employees in loss."

Q. Which of the following could be the possible continuation of the passage?

Solution:

The last paragraph states that the employees were stressed and the management tried to assure them. So, options 2 and 4 cannot be correct as it cannot be inferred whether the employees were greatly satisfied with the assurance or not. Option 3 is also incorrect as employees are already aware of the HR policies. Re-stating those to them would not help in giving "further assurance". Thus, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 72

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Asian Motors Ltd. is an automobile spare part company serving to the needs of the customers by delivering good quality products from time to time. The work force is the main reason behind Asian Motors' reputation for its timely delivery and quality goods.
Most of the employees in Asian Motors are associated with the organisation for more than 3 to 4 decades. The turnover ratio is very low due to a feel of satisfaction and job security provided by Asian Motors Ltd. management. Everything was fine with Asian Motors till last year when the scenario changed. A number of competitors entered the market and all of them were well-equipped with modern technologies.
The management is also ready for organisational development by accruing new machines. The management hired an organisation development consultant for the same. The OD consultant stated, in his report, that employees are the major hurdle in achieving the target of modern plant in Asian Motors. The report also mentioned that it is not advisable and won't be fruitful to invest the training and development amount on those employees (40%) who are going to retire in less than 5 years.
This in turn made the employees concerned about job security. The management assured them that "we will never commit such things which will put our employees in loss."

Q. Which of the following is not similar to the strategy adopted by Asian Motors Ltd. to deal with its new competitors?

Solution:

Option 4 is the correct answer as the institutions in the remaining three options use technology similar to Asian Motors Ltd.'s move to acquire more machines to beat its technology rich competitors. Option 4 mentions training the best out of the workforce which is not similar to Asian Motors Ltd.'s strategy.

QUESTION: 73

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Asian Motors Ltd. is an automobile spare part company serving to the needs of the customers by delivering good quality products from time to time. The work force is the main reason behind Asian Motors' reputation for its timely delivery and quality goods.
Most of the employees in Asian Motors are associated with the organisation for more than 3 to 4 decades. The turnover ratio is very low due to a feel of satisfaction and job security provided by Asian Motors Ltd. management. Everything was fine with Asian Motors till last year when the scenario changed. A number of competitors entered the market and all of them were well-equipped with modern technologies.
The management is also ready for organisational development by accruing new machines. The management hired an organisation development consultant for the same. The OD consultant stated, in his report, that employees are the major hurdle in achieving the target of modern plant in Asian Motors. The report also mentioned that it is not advisable and won't be fruitful to invest the training and development amount on those employees (40%) who are going to retire in less than 5 years.
This in turn made the employees concerned about job security. The management assured them that "we will never commit such things which will put our employees in loss."

Q. Which of the following could Asian Motors Ltd. consider favourable, as inferred from the context?

Solution:

The context states that Asian Motors Ltd wants to compete and not discourage its employees. So both options 1 and 2 are correct. It states 'achieving the target of modern plant in Asian Motors' and 'we will never commit such things which will put our employees in loss' to define the stand taken by Asian Motors Ltd. So option 4 is right.

QUESTION: 74

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Asian Motors Ltd. is an automobile spare part company serving to the needs of the customers by delivering good quality products from time to time. The work force is the main reason behind Asian Motors' reputation for its timely delivery and quality goods.
Most of the employees in Asian Motors are associated with the organisation for more than 3 to 4 decades. The turnover ratio is very low due to a feel of satisfaction and job security provided by Asian Motors Ltd. management. Everything was fine with Asian Motors till last year when the scenario changed. A number of competitors entered the market and all of them were well-equipped with modern technologies.
The management is also ready for organisational development by accruing new machines. The management hired an organisation development consultant for the same. The OD consultant stated, in his report, that employees are the major hurdle in achieving the target of modern plant in Asian Motors. The report also mentioned that it is not advisable and won't be fruitful to invest the training and development amount on those employees (40%) who are going to retire in less than 5 years.
This in turn made the employees concerned about job security. The management assured them that "we will never commit such things which will put our employees in loss."

Q. Which of the following, if true, strengthens the decision taken by Asian Motors Ltd.?

Solution:

The plan of accruing new machines to cope up with the competition besides keeping the workforce satisfied would be successful if option 2 is considered to be true. The company does not want to see the workers at loss and will do every bit to compete. From this, we can understand that the company considers its employees vital for its success. If option 1 is true, then it will mean that the company's move to get hold of new machines is unfavourable. Option 3 assumes that just by 'contacting' the plan will become a success. Option 4 does not strengthen the decision; it just states the market share value which is unrelated to the decision taken.

QUESTION: 75

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Asian Motors Ltd. is an automobile spare part company serving to the needs of the customers by delivering good quality products from time to time. The work force is the main reason behind Asian Motors' reputation for its timely delivery and quality goods.
Most of the employees in Asian Motors are associated with the organisation for more than 3 to 4 decades. The turnover ratio is very low due to a feel of satisfaction and job security provided by Asian Motors Ltd. management. Everything was fine with Asian Motors till last year when the scenario changed. A number of competitors entered the market and all of them were well-equipped with modern technologies.
The management is also ready for organisational development by accruing new machines. The management hired an organisation development consultant for the same. The OD consultant stated, in his report, that employees are the major hurdle in achieving the target of modern plant in Asian Motors. The report also mentioned that it is not advisable and won't be fruitful to invest the training and development amount on those employees (40%) who are going to retire in less than 5 years.
This in turn made the employees concerned about job security. The management assured them that "we will never commit such things which will put our employees in loss."

Q. Which of the following best represents the main point of the given passage?

Solution:

The company is concerned about its workforce even in adverse situations. Option 4 best captures this point. Option 2 is all about performance review which is not the main point of the passage.

QUESTION: 76

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Homo economicus bases his choices on a consideration of his own personal “utility function.” Economic man is also amoral, ignoring all social values unless adhering to them gives him utility. Some believe such assumptions about humans are not only empirically inaccurate but also unethical.
Economists criticize the role of Homo economicus as the principal actor in understanding macroeconomics and economic forecasting. They stress uncertainty and bounded rationality in the making of economic decisions, rather than relying on the rational man who is fully informed of all circumstances impinging on his decisions. They argue that perfect knowledge never exists, which means that all economic activity implies risk.
Empirical studies by Amos Tversky questioned the assumption that investors are rational. In 1995, Tversky demonstrated the tendency of investors to make risk-averse choices in gains, and risk-seeking choices in losses. The investors appeared as very risk-averse for small losses but indifferent for a small chance of a very large loss. This violates economic rationality as usually understood. Further research on this subject, showing other deviations from conventionally defined economic rationality, is being done in the growing field of experimental or behavioral economics.
Other critics of the Homo economicus model of humanity, such as Bruno Frey, point to the excessive emphasis on extrinsic motivation (rewards and punishments from the social environment) as opposed to intrinsic motivation, For example, it is difficult if not impossible to understand how Homo economicus would be a hero in war or would get inherent pleasure from craftsmanship. Frey and others argue that too much emphasis on rewards and punishments can “crowd out” (discourage) intrinsic motivation: paying a boy for doing household tasks may push him from doing those tasks “to help the family” to doing them simply for the reward.
Yet others, especially sociologists, argue that the model ignores an extremely important question, i.e., the origins of tastes and the parameters of the utility function. The exogeneity of tastes (preferences) in the Homo economicus model is the major distinction from Homo sociologicus, in which tastes are taken as partially or even totally determined by the societal environment.

Q. According to the second paragraph, which of the following is the reason why some economists criticize the Homo economicus model?

Solution:

(A) the passage does not say that Homo economicus does not understand macroeconomics and forecasting. It says that we cannot base our understanding of macroeconomics and forecasting on the assumption that human beings are Homo economicus. (B) Correct. Critics refute the model by negating the premise of the Homo economicus model that states that man always acts rationally in his economic decision-making. They negate it by saying that he never has complete information and hence he cannot make rational economic decisions. (C) The paragraph does not say that man is not rational, but that his rationality is bounded or can be applied only to the amount of information he has, and this information is not complete and hence his economic decisions are not fully rational. That man is irrational is a big generalization, which the critics do not make. (D) The paragraph does not say that there is no access to information; it says perfect knowledge never exists. By saying so, the critics are refuting the theory with finality.

QUESTION: 77

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Homo economicus bases his choices on a consideration of his own personal “utility function.” Economic man is also amoral, ignoring all social values unless adhering to them gives him utility. Some believe such assumptions about humans are not only empirically inaccurate but also unethical.
Economists criticize the role of Homo economicus as the principal actor in understanding macroeconomics and economic forecasting. They stress uncertainty and bounded rationality in the making of economic decisions, rather than relying on the rational man who is fully informed of all circumstances impinging on his decisions. They argue that perfect knowledge never exists, which means that all economic activity implies risk.
Empirical studies by Amos Tversky questioned the assumption that investors are rational. In 1995, Tversky demonstrated the tendency of investors to make risk-averse choices in gains, and risk-seeking choices in losses. The investors appeared as very risk-averse for small losses but indifferent for a small chance of a very large loss. This violates economic rationality as usually understood. Further research on this subject, showing other deviations from conventionally defined economic rationality, is being done in the growing field of experimental or behavioral economics.
Other critics of the Homo economicus model of humanity, such as Bruno Frey, point to the excessive emphasis on extrinsic motivation (rewards and punishments from the social environment) as opposed to intrinsic motivation, For example, it is difficult if not impossible to understand how Homo economicus would be a hero in war or would get inherent pleasure from craftsmanship. Frey and others argue that too much emphasis on rewards and punishments can “crowd out” (discourage) intrinsic motivation: paying a boy for doing household tasks may push him from doing those tasks “to help the family” to doing them simply for the reward.
Yet others, especially sociologists, argue that the model ignores an extremely important question, i.e., the origins of tastes and the parameters of the utility function. The exogeneity of tastes (preferences) in the Homo economicus model is the major distinction from Homo sociologicus, in which tastes are taken as partially or even totally determined by the societal environment.

Q. The passage suggests that typically a rational man would:
I. Invest in a risky option if the amount of loss that he would sustain is small and does not do so if it is huge.
II. Be risk-averse to small losses and indifferent to the possibility of huge losses.
III. Make risk-seeking choices in gains and risk-averse choices in losses.
IV. Make risk-seeking choices in losses and risk-averse choices in gains.

Solution:

The third paragraph says that studies have shown that investors make decisions that disprove the assumption that they always act rationally. To support this, it says “make risk-averse choice in gains, and risk-seeking choices in losses” and “the investors appeared as very risk-averse for small losses but indifferent for a small chance of a very large loss”. Hence, it can be inferred that a rational man would do the opposite (line 5, paragraph 3), of what (I) and (III) state. Hence, (D) is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 78

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Homo economicus bases his choices on a consideration of his own personal “utility function.” Economic man is also amoral, ignoring all social values unless adhering to them gives him utility. Some believe such assumptions about humans are not only empirically inaccurate but also unethical.
Economists criticize the role of Homo economicus as the principal actor in understanding macroeconomics and economic forecasting. They stress uncertainty and bounded rationality in the making of economic decisions, rather than relying on the rational man who is fully informed of all circumstances impinging on his decisions. They argue that perfect knowledge never exists, which means that all economic activity implies risk.
Empirical studies by Amos Tversky questioned the assumption that investors are rational. In 1995, Tversky demonstrated the tendency of investors to make risk-averse choices in gains, and risk-seeking choices in losses. The investors appeared as very risk-averse for small losses but indifferent for a small chance of a very large loss. This violates economic rationality as usually understood. Further research on this subject, showing other deviations from conventionally defined economic rationality, is being done in the growing field of experimental or behavioral economics.
Other critics of the Homo economicus model of humanity, such as Bruno Frey, point to the excessive emphasis on extrinsic motivation (rewards and punishments from the social environment) as opposed to intrinsic motivation, For example, it is difficult if not impossible to understand how Homo economicus would be a hero in war or would get inherent pleasure from craftsmanship. Frey and others argue that too much emphasis on rewards and punishments can “crowd out” (discourage) intrinsic motivation: paying a boy for doing household tasks may push him from doing those tasks “to help the family” to doing them simply for the reward.
Yet others, especially sociologists, argue that the model ignores an extremely important question, i.e., the origins of tastes and the parameters of the utility function. The exogeneity of tastes (preferences) in the Homo economicus model is the major distinction from Homo sociologicus, in which tastes are taken as partially or even totally determined by the societal environment.

Q. In the fourth paragraph, Bruno Frey cites the examples of the war hero and the craftsman in order to demonstrate that:

Solution:

He cites the example after saying that there is an excessive emphasis on extrinsic motivation (rewards and punishments from the social environment) as opposed to intrinsic motivation. He cites the example to disprove the hypothesis that man is always driven by extrinsic motivations. By saying that it is difficult to imagine Homo economicus in the situations suggested in the example, he wants to prove that not all of man’s actions (like the actions suggested in the example) can be based or explained by extrinsic motivations. (D) states this. (A), (B) and (C) limit themselves to the example itself and do not capture what it wants to demonstrate.

QUESTION: 79

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Homo economicus bases his choices on a consideration of his own personal “utility function.” Economic man is also amoral, ignoring all social values unless adhering to them gives him utility. Some believe such assumptions about humans are not only empirically inaccurate but also unethical.
Economists criticize the role of Homo economicus as the principal actor in understanding macroeconomics and economic forecasting. They stress uncertainty and bounded rationality in the making of economic decisions, rather than relying on the rational man who is fully informed of all circumstances impinging on his decisions. They argue that perfect knowledge never exists, which means that all economic activity implies risk.
Empirical studies by Amos Tversky questioned the assumption that investors are rational. In 1995, Tversky demonstrated the tendency of investors to make risk-averse choices in gains, and risk-seeking choices in losses. The investors appeared as very risk-averse for small losses but indifferent for a small chance of a very large loss. This violates economic rationality as usually understood. Further research on this subject, showing other deviations from conventionally defined economic rationality, is being done in the growing field of experimental or behavioral economics.
Other critics of the Homo economicus model of humanity, such as Bruno Frey, point to the excessive emphasis on extrinsic motivation (rewards and punishments from the social environment) as opposed to intrinsic motivation, For example, it is difficult if not impossible to understand how Homo economicus would be a hero in war or would get inherent pleasure from craftsmanship. Frey and others argue that too much emphasis on rewards and punishments can “crowd out” (discourage) intrinsic motivation: paying a boy for doing household tasks may push him from doing those tasks “to help the family” to doing them simply for the reward.
Yet others, especially sociologists, argue that the model ignores an extremely important question, i.e., the origins of tastes and the parameters of the utility function. The exogeneity of tastes (preferences) in the Homo economicus model is the major distinction from Homo sociologicus, in which tastes are taken as partially or even totally determined by the societal environment.

Q. Which of the following best describes the point on which the Homo economicus and Homo sociologicus differ?

Solution:

(A) Relationship is not of mutual dependence. According to the Homo sociologicus model, societal environment influences utility function and the reverse is not true. (B) Correct. The origin of the parameters that define utility function according to the Homo sociologicus model lies in the societal environment and is not independent of it (the Homo economicus model). (C) The passage does not talk about “origin of societal environment”. (D) The passage talks about the reverse, influence of society on utility function.

QUESTION: 80

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Homo economicus bases his choices on a consideration of his own personal “utility function.” Economic man is also amoral, ignoring all social values unless adhering to them gives him utility. Some believe such assumptions about humans are not only empirically inaccurate but also unethical.
Economists criticize the role of Homo economicus as the principal actor in understanding macroeconomics and economic forecasting. They stress uncertainty and bounded rationality in the making of economic decisions, rather than relying on the rational man who is fully informed of all circumstances impinging on his decisions. They argue that perfect knowledge never exists, which means that all economic activity implies risk.
Empirical studies by Amos Tversky questioned the assumption that investors are rational. In 1995, Tversky demonstrated the tendency of investors to make risk-averse choices in gains, and risk-seeking choices in losses. The investors appeared as very risk-averse for small losses but indifferent for a small chance of a very large loss. This violates economic rationality as usually understood. Further research on this subject, showing other deviations from conventionally defined economic rationality, is being done in the growing field of experimental or behavioral economics.
Other critics of the Homo economicus model of humanity, such as Bruno Frey, point to the excessive emphasis on extrinsic motivation (rewards and punishments from the social environment) as opposed to intrinsic motivation, For example, it is difficult if not impossible to understand how Homo economicus would be a hero in war or would get inherent pleasure from craftsmanship. Frey and others argue that too much emphasis on rewards and punishments can “crowd out” (discourage) intrinsic motivation: paying a boy for doing household tasks may push him from doing those tasks “to help the family” to doing them simply for the reward.
Yet others, especially sociologists, argue that the model ignores an extremely important question, i.e., the origins of tastes and the parameters of the utility function. The exogeneity of tastes (preferences) in the Homo economicus model is the major distinction from Homo sociologicus, in which tastes are taken as partially or even totally determined by the societal environment.

Q. All of the following are examples of “crowding out” of intrinsic motivations as described by critics of the Homo economicus model of humanity, EXCEPT:

Solution:

All options EXCEPT (C) are extrinsic motivations and hence illustrate crowding out. In (C), an athlete wanting to compete with the best in his sport is an intrinsic motivation. A sportsman with his goal to be the richest sportsman in the world would have been an extrinsic motivation.

QUESTION: 81

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

If knowledge is power, a majority of Indians are powerless. An analysis of the data for 2017-18 released by the National Statistical Office shows that only 10.6 per cent of Indians aged above 15 years have successfully completed a graduate degree. Unsurprisingly, the figures are even more dismal when it comes to rural India and women, standing at 5.7 per cent and 8.3 per cent respectively. One of the reasons for these dismal figures is that higher education comes at a price — one that average Indians cannot afford for their children. At present, India's education budget is a mere 2.7 per cent of the gross domestic product. This wilful neglect of education belies India's hopes of being a dominant global player. The dream of becoming an economic force to reckon with cannot be realized unless education is made easily accessible to as well as affordable for all sections of society. More important, technology and science — the dividends from India's push towards these fields are now whittling down — are not enough for progress. A true knowledge economy needs thinkers, analysts and philosophers who can guide policy decisions with an eye on long-term gains.

Q. Which of the following best captures the essence of the passage?

Solution:

The essence of the text is best captured by option 4. The text states, "The dream of becoming an economic force to reckon with cannot be realized unless education is made easily accessible to as well as affordable for all sections of society." to highlight its main point.

QUESTION: 82

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

If knowledge is power, a majority of Indians are powerless. An analysis of the data for 2017-18 released by the National Statistical Office shows that only 10.6 per cent of Indians aged above 15 years have successfully completed a graduate degree. Unsurprisingly, the figures are even more dismal when it comes to rural India and women, standing at 5.7 per cent and 8.3 per cent respectively. One of the reasons for these dismal figures is that higher education comes at a price — one that average Indians cannot afford for their children. At present, India's education budget is a mere 2.7 per cent of the gross domestic product. This wilful neglect of education belies India's hopes of being a dominant global player. The dream of becoming an economic force to reckon with cannot be realized unless education is made easily accessible to as well as affordable for all sections of society. More important, technology and science — the dividends from India's push towards these fields are now whittling down — are not enough for progress. A true knowledge economy needs thinkers, analysts and philosophers who can guide policy decisions with an eye on long-term gains.

Q. Which of the following, as per the context, is the major cause of illiteracy in India?

Solution:

The context mentions "One of the reasons for these dismal figures is that higher education comes at a price ... unless education is made easily accessible to as well as affordable ..." This points out towards the underinvestment in the education sector as the main factor.

QUESTION: 83

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

If knowledge is power, a majority of Indians are powerless. An analysis of the data for 2017-18 released by the National Statistical Office shows that only 10.6 per cent of Indians aged above 15 years have successfully completed a graduate degree. Unsurprisingly, the figures are even more dismal when it comes to rural India and women, standing at 5.7 per cent and 8.3 per cent respectively. One of the reasons for these dismal figures is that higher education comes at a price — one that average Indians cannot afford for their children. At present, India's education budget is a mere 2.7 per cent of the gross domestic product. This wilful neglect of education belies India's hopes of being a dominant global player. The dream of becoming an economic force to reckon with cannot be realized unless education is made easily accessible to as well as affordable for all sections of society. More important, technology and science — the dividends from India's push towards these fields are now whittling down — are not enough for progress. A true knowledge economy needs thinkers, analysts and philosophers who can guide policy decisions with an eye on long-term gains.

Q. In the argument, which of the following roles is played by the statement in bold?

Solution:

The boldface statement states that thinkers, analysts, and philosophers would help in formulation of policies. These would, in turn, be beneficial to the economy of the country. Thus, the most appropriate answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 84

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

If knowledge is power, a majority of Indians are powerless. An analysis of the data for 2017-18 released by the National Statistical Office shows that only 10.6 per cent of Indians aged above 15 years have successfully completed a graduate degree. Unsurprisingly, the figures are even more dismal when it comes to rural India and women, standing at 5.7 per cent and 8.3 per cent respectively. One of the reasons for these dismal figures is that higher education comes at a price — one that average Indians cannot afford for their children. At present, India's education budget is a mere 2.7 per cent of the gross domestic product. This wilful neglect of education belies India's hopes of being a dominant global player. The dream of becoming an economic force to reckon with cannot be realized unless education is made easily accessible to as well as affordable for all sections of society. More important, technology and science — the dividends from India's push towards these fields are now whittling down — are not enough for progress. A true knowledge economy needs thinkers, analysts and philosophers who can guide policy decisions with an eye on long-term gains.

Q. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the author's argument that Indians cannot afford higher education for their children?

Solution:

The question requires us to strengthen the claim made in the argument -- "Indians cannot afford higher education for their children". In order to strengthen this, the additional premise that they are poor and hence cannot afford education is required. Option 1 provides us that premise.

QUESTION: 85

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

If knowledge is power, a majority of Indians are powerless. An analysis of the data for 2017-18 released by the National Statistical Office shows that only 10.6 per cent of Indians aged above 15 years have successfully completed a graduate degree. Unsurprisingly, the figures are even more dismal when it comes to rural India and women, standing at 5.7 per cent and 8.3 per cent respectively. One of the reasons for these dismal figures is that higher education comes at a price — one that average Indians cannot afford for their children. At present, India's education budget is a mere 2.7 per cent of the gross domestic product. This wilful neglect of education belies India's hopes of being a dominant global player. The dream of becoming an economic force to reckon with cannot be realized unless education is made easily accessible to as well as affordable for all sections of society. More important, technology and science — the dividends from India's push towards these fields are now whittling down — are not enough for progress. A true knowledge economy needs thinkers, analysts and philosophers who can guide policy decisions with an eye on long-term gains.

Q. Which of the following is similar to the reason provided in the passage for the increasing rate of illiteracy in India?

Solution:

Only option 1 matches the reasoning provided in the passage for the widespread illiteracy. The text states that even though India wants to become an economic force to be reckoned with, it is not ready to invest in education (evident from "India's education budget is a mere 2.7 per cent of the gross domestic product"). Similarly, if athletes who want to be successful do not spend enough time preparing for it, they will not be successful.

QUESTION: 86

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Unlike disciplines within the natural sciences-such as physics or chemistry-social theorists may be less committed to use the scientific method to vindicate their theories. Instead, they tackle very large-scale social trends and structures using hypotheses that cannot be easily proved, except by historical and psychological interpretation, which is often the basis of criticism from opponents of social theories. Extremely critical theorists, such as deconstructionists or postmodernists, may argue that any systematic type of research or method is inherently flawed, Many times, however, “social theory” is defined without reference to science because the social reality it describes is so overarching as to be unprovable. The social theories of modernity or anarchy might be two examples of this.
However, social theories are a major part of the science of sociology. Objective science-based research can often provide support for explanations given by social theorists. Statistical research grounded in the scientific method, for instance, that finds a severe income disparity between women and men performing the same occupation can complement the underlying premise of the complex social theories of feminism or patriarchy. In general, and particularly among adherents of pure sociology, social theory has an appeal because it takes the focus away from the individual (which is how most humans look at the world) and focuses it on the society itself and the social forces that control our lives. This sociological insight (or sociological imagination) has through the years appealed to students and others dissatisfied with the status quo because it carries the assumption that societal structures and patterns are either random, arbitrary or controlled by specific powerful groups- thus, implying the possibility of change. This has a particular appeal to champions of the underdog, the dispossessed, and/or those at the bottom of the socioeconomic ladder because it implies that their position in society is undeserved and/or the result of oppression.

Q. Based on the first paragraph, it can be inferred that…

Solution:

The passage says that social theorists are criticized for using historical and psychological interpretation instead of scientific methods, from which it can be inferred that opponents of social theories consider the latter method better. (B) The paragraph mentions that the hypothesis used for large-scale social trends cannot be proved EXCEPT by using historical and psychological interpretation. This does not mean that they can be proven by scientific research. (C) No information to support this generalization. This is the view held by a few people. (D) Too far-fatched an inference that cannot be made on the basis of the information given in the passage.

QUESTION: 87

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Unlike disciplines within the natural sciences-such as physics or chemistry-social theorists may be less committed to use the scientific method to vindicate their theories. Instead, they tackle very large-scale social trends and structures using hypotheses that cannot be easily proved, except by historical and psychological interpretation, which is often the basis of criticism from opponents of social theories. Extremely critical theorists, such as deconstructionists or postmodernists, may argue that any systematic type of research or method is inherently flawed, Many times, however, “social theory” is defined without reference to science because the social reality it describes is so overarching as to be unprovable. The social theories of modernity or anarchy might be two examples of this.
However, social theories are a major part of the science of sociology. Objective science-based research can often provide support for explanations given by social theorists. Statistical research grounded in the scientific method, for instance, that finds a severe income disparity between women and men performing the same occupation can complement the underlying premise of the complex social theories of feminism or patriarchy. In general, and particularly among adherents of pure sociology, social theory has an appeal because it takes the focus away from the individual (which is how most humans look at the world) and focuses it on the society itself and the social forces that control our lives. This sociological insight (or sociological imagination) has through the years appealed to students and others dissatisfied with the status quo because it carries the assumption that societal structures and patterns are either random, arbitrary or controlled by specific powerful groups- thus, implying the possibility of change. This has a particular appeal to champions of the underdog, the dispossessed, and/or those at the bottom of the socioeconomic ladder because it implies that their position in society is undeserved and/or the result of oppression.

Q. The passage suggests all of the following, EXCEPT:

Solution:

All options EXCEPT (A) are clearly stated in the passage. Students do not feel their position is undeserved.

QUESTION: 88

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Unlike disciplines within the natural sciences-such as physics or chemistry-social theorists may be less committed to use the scientific method to vindicate their theories. Instead, they tackle very large-scale social trends and structures using hypotheses that cannot be easily proved, except by historical and psychological interpretation, which is often the basis of criticism from opponents of social theories. Extremely critical theorists, such as deconstructionists or postmodernists, may argue that any systematic type of research or method is inherently flawed, Many times, however, “social theory” is defined without reference to science because the social reality it describes is so overarching as to be unprovable. The social theories of modernity or anarchy might be two examples of this.
However, social theories are a major part of the science of sociology. Objective science-based research can often provide support for explanations given by social theorists. Statistical research grounded in the scientific method, for instance, that finds a severe income disparity between women and men performing the same occupation can complement the underlying premise of the complex social theories of feminism or patriarchy. In general, and particularly among adherents of pure sociology, social theory has an appeal because it takes the focus away from the individual (which is how most humans look at the world) and focuses it on the society itself and the social forces that control our lives. This sociological insight (or sociological imagination) has through the years appealed to students and others dissatisfied with the status quo because it carries the assumption that societal structures and patterns are either random, arbitrary or controlled by specific powerful groups- thus, implying the possibility of change. This has a particular appeal to champions of the underdog, the dispossessed, and/or those at the bottom of the socioeconomic ladder because it implies that their position in society is undeserved and/or the result of oppression.

Q. Which of the following best describes the author’s attitude towards social theories?

Solution:

The author does not believe the social theories to be correct or true as he says that they cannot be scientifically proven. In fact, he is so negative that he adopts a sarcastic and disparaging tone when he calls sociological insights sociological imaginations (line 10, last paragraph).

QUESTION: 89

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Unlike disciplines within the natural sciences-such as physics or chemistry-social theorists may be less committed to use the scientific method to vindicate their theories. Instead, they tackle very large-scale social trends and structures using hypotheses that cannot be easily proved, except by historical and psychological interpretation, which is often the basis of criticism from opponents of social theories. Extremely critical theorists, such as deconstructionists or postmodernists, may argue that any systematic type of research or method is inherently flawed, Many times, however, “social theory” is defined without reference to science because the social reality it describes is so overarching as to be unprovable. The social theories of modernity or anarchy might be two examples of this.
However, social theories are a major part of the science of sociology. Objective science-based research can often provide support for explanations given by social theorists. Statistical research grounded in the scientific method, for instance, that finds a severe income disparity between women and men performing the same occupation can complement the underlying premise of the complex social theories of feminism or patriarchy. In general, and particularly among adherents of pure sociology, social theory has an appeal because it takes the focus away from the individual (which is how most humans look at the world) and focuses it on the society itself and the social forces that control our lives. This sociological insight (or sociological imagination) has through the years appealed to students and others dissatisfied with the status quo because it carries the assumption that societal structures and patterns are either random, arbitrary or controlled by specific powerful groups- thus, implying the possibility of change. This has a particular appeal to champions of the underdog, the dispossessed, and/or those at the bottom of the socioeconomic ladder because it implies that their position in society is undeserved and/or the result of oppression.

Q. The author refers to anarchy and modernity in order to:

Solution:

 “Many times, however, “social theory” is defined without reference to science because the social reality it describes is so overarching as to be unprovable.” (B) To refute the claim of critical theorists, the author has to prove that systematic research is not inherently flawed. The example does not do so. (C) Critical theorists are not saying that sociological theories are inherently flawed. They are countering the opponents of social theorists who prefer scientific research by saying that all systematic methods are inherently flawed. (D) Makes a generalization about social reality. The paragraph mentions that the social reality that social theories describe is unprovable. The author is not saying that all social reality itself is unprovable.

QUESTION: 90

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Unlike disciplines within the natural sciences-such as physics or chemistry-social theorists may be less committed to use the scientific method to vindicate their theories. Instead, they tackle very large-scale social trends and structures using hypotheses that cannot be easily proved, except by historical and psychological interpretation, which is often the basis of criticism from opponents of social theories. Extremely critical theorists, such as deconstructionists or postmodernists, may argue that any systematic type of research or method is inherently flawed, Many times, however, “social theory” is defined without reference to science because the social reality it describes is so overarching as to be unprovable. The social theories of modernity or anarchy might be two examples of this.
However, social theories are a major part of the science of sociology. Objective science-based research can often provide support for explanations given by social theorists. Statistical research grounded in the scientific method, for instance, that finds a severe income disparity between women and men performing the same occupation can complement the underlying premise of the complex social theories of feminism or patriarchy. In general, and particularly among adherents of pure sociology, social theory has an appeal because it takes the focus away from the individual (which is how most humans look at the world) and focuses it on the society itself and the social forces that control our lives. This sociological insight (or sociological imagination) has through the years appealed to students and others dissatisfied with the status quo because it carries the assumption that societal structures and patterns are either random, arbitrary or controlled by specific powerful groups- thus, implying the possibility of change. This has a particular appeal to champions of the underdog, the dispossessed, and/or those at the bottom of the socioeconomic ladder because it implies that their position in society is undeserved and/or the result of oppression.

Q. Which of the following best completes the passage below?
In a survey of airline pilots, forty-five percent of them owned up to being at least a little dishonest. It is felt that the survey may, however, have underestimated the proportion of airline pilots who are dishonest, because _______.

Solution:

Option (A) some dishonest persons while participating in the survey might have claimed to be honest. Since the numerator has the number of airline pilots who are dishonest, if some who are dishonest and yet claim that they are honest, this would understate the numerator. Option (A) is certainly workable. Option (B) some persons while participating in the survey and may have claimed to be dishonest may have been answering honestly. If someone who has been claiming that he is dishonest and he is saying this honestly, he is indeed dishonest. This only states the numerator correctly. Hence Option (B) is not workable. Option (C) some persons while participating in the survey may have claimed to be at least a little dishonest may be very dishonest. This too would put the numerator correctly. The numerator is the number of people who are at least a little dishonest. If a fellow weighs at least ten pounds, he could weigh anything from ten pounds to two hundred pounds. Even a blooming Sumo wrestler would qualify to be at least ten pounds in weight. Option (C) will not do for this reason. Option (D) some generally honest persons while participating in the survey might have claimed to be dishonest. This will inflate the numerator since those who are not dishonest will also get included in the numerator. This will on the contrary overestimate the proportion of airline pilots who are dishonest and hence Option (D) will not do.

QUESTION: 91

Read the following passage and answer the question.

As Finland's prime minister, 34-year-old Sanna Marin, scanned international news headlines this week, she may have been surprised to learn that she was being credited for looking into the feasibility of a four-day working week. Marin first discussed the idea during a panel debate at the Social Democratic Party's 120th anniversary event last summer, where speakers took stock of the movement's achievements -- including the eight-hour work day -- and envisioned future causes. The political movement has struggled to find relevance among younger voters, as pensioners become a more dominant group among its base of supporters. "A four-day work week, a six-hour workday, why couldn't that be the next step? Is eight hours the final truth?" Marin asked on August 17. "I think people deserve more time with their families, hobbies, life. This could be the next step for us in working life."
Finns work on average about 40 hours over a five-day work week, according to the statistics office, but unemployment remains high and many have fallen outside the work force. That's prompted a broad debate on work in Finland in recent years, including the first nationwide experiment on a form of basic income run by the previous center-right government in 2016-2018.

Q. Which of the following, if true, best refutes the author's statement that Sanna Marin was credited for looking into the feasibility of a four-day working week?

Solution:

The context mentions that "she was being credited for looking into the feasibility of a four-day working week." However, if option 3 is true, i.e., the idea was taken from a neighbouring country, it would refute the author's statement that she came up with the idea.

QUESTION: 92

Read the following passage and answer the question.

As Finland's prime minister, 34-year-old Sanna Marin, scanned international news headlines this week, she may have been surprised to learn that she was being credited for looking into the feasibility of a four-day working week. Marin first discussed the idea during a panel debate at the Social Democratic Party's 120th anniversary event last summer, where speakers took stock of the movement's achievements -- including the eight-hour work day -- and envisioned future causes. The political movement has struggled to find relevance among younger voters, as pensioners become a more dominant group among its base of supporters. "A four-day work week, a six-hour workday, why couldn't that be the next step? Is eight hours the final truth?" Marin asked on August 17. "I think people deserve more time with their families, hobbies, life. This could be the next step for us in working life."
Finns work on average about 40 hours over a five-day work week, according to the statistics office, but unemployment remains high and many have fallen outside the work force. That's prompted a broad debate on work in Finland in recent years, including the first nationwide experiment on a form of basic income run by the previous center-right government in 2016-2018.

Q. Which of the following gives strong support in favour of executing a four-day working week plan from the employees' viewpoint?

Solution:

Option 1 neither supports nor weakens the argument for a four-day working week. It just states a related fact. Option 2 states that a five-day working week is more favourable than a four-day working week. Option 3 weakens the argument for four-day working week. Only option 4 strengthens the argument for a four-day working week from the viewpoint of employees.

QUESTION: 93

Read the following passage and answer the question.

As Finland's prime minister, 34-year-old Sanna Marin, scanned international news headlines this week, she may have been surprised to learn that she was being credited for looking into the feasibility of a four-day working week. Marin first discussed the idea during a panel debate at the Social Democratic Party's 120th anniversary event last summer, where speakers took stock of the movement's achievements -- including the eight-hour work day -- and envisioned future causes. The political movement has struggled to find relevance among younger voters, as pensioners become a more dominant group among its base of supporters. "A four-day work week, a six-hour workday, why couldn't that be the next step? Is eight hours the final truth?" Marin asked on August 17. "I think people deserve more time with their families, hobbies, life. This could be the next step for us in working life."
Finns work on average about 40 hours over a five-day work week, according to the statistics office, but unemployment remains high and many have fallen outside the work force. That's prompted a broad debate on work in Finland in recent years, including the first nationwide experiment on a form of basic income run by the previous center-right government in 2016-2018.

Q. Which of the following best describes the author's method of reasoning to support Sanna Marin's idea for a four-day working week?

Solution:

The author mentions "Finns work on average about 40 hours over a five-day work week, according to the statistics office, but unemployment remains high and many have fallen outside the work force." as evidence in favour of a four-day working week. This disproves the idea that the present five-day working week needs no change. Even Sanna Marin questions it: "A four-day work week, a six-hour workday, why couldn't that be the next step? Is eight hours the final truth?"

QUESTION: 94

Read the following passage and answer the question.

As Finland's prime minister, 34-year-old Sanna Marin, scanned international news headlines this week, she may have been surprised to learn that she was being credited for looking into the feasibility of a four-day working week. Marin first discussed the idea during a panel debate at the Social Democratic Party's 120th anniversary event last summer, where speakers took stock of the movement's achievements -- including the eight-hour work day -- and envisioned future causes. The political movement has struggled to find relevance among younger voters, as pensioners become a more dominant group among its base of supporters. "A four-day work week, a six-hour workday, why couldn't that be the next step? Is eight hours the final truth?" Marin asked on August 17. "I think people deserve more time with their families, hobbies, life. This could be the next step for us in working life."
Finns work on average about 40 hours over a five-day work week, according to the statistics office, but unemployment remains high and many have fallen outside the work force. That's prompted a broad debate on work in Finland in recent years, including the first nationwide experiment on a form of basic income run by the previous center-right government in 2016-2018.

Q. Which of the following can be inferred from the author's description of a four-day working week?

Solution:

From the last few lines in the passage: "Finns work on average about 40 hours over a five-day work week, according to the statistics office, but unemployment remains high and many have fallen outside the work force. That's prompted a broad debate on work in Finland in recent years, including the first nationwide experiment on a form of basic income run by the previous center-right government in 2016-2018." it can be inferred that it may be one of the solutions to the rising unemployment in Finland. So option 2 is correct. Option 1 cannot be inferred as nothing of the sort is mentioned in the passage.

QUESTION: 95

Read the following passage and answer the question.

As Finland's prime minister, 34-year-old Sanna Marin, scanned international news headlines this week, she may have been surprised to learn that she was being credited for looking into the feasibility of a four-day working week. Marin first discussed the idea during a panel debate at the Social Democratic Party's 120th anniversary event last summer, where speakers took stock of the movement's achievements -- including the eight-hour work day -- and envisioned future causes. The political movement has struggled to find relevance among younger voters, as pensioners become a more dominant group among its base of supporters. "A four-day work week, a six-hour workday, why couldn't that be the next step? Is eight hours the final truth?" Marin asked on August 17. "I think people deserve more time with their families, hobbies, life. This could be the next step for us in working life."
Finns work on average about 40 hours over a five-day work week, according to the statistics office, but unemployment remains high and many have fallen outside the work force. That's prompted a broad debate on work in Finland in recent years, including the first nationwide experiment on a form of basic income run by the previous center-right government in 2016-2018.

Q. Which of the following best represents the main point of the given passage?

Solution:

Option 2 is the best answer as it highlights the two major benefits of a four-day working week stated in the passage. It would be beneficial for the workers as it will help them spend time with their families. It would also benefit the country as a whole by possibly reducing unemployment, as suggested in the passage.

QUESTION: 96

Read the following passage and answer the question.

As Finland's prime minister, 34-year-old Sanna Marin, scanned international news headlines this week, she may have been surprised to learn that she was being credited for looking into the feasibility of a four-day working week. Marin first discussed the idea during a panel debate at the Social Democratic Party's 120th anniversary event last summer, where speakers took stock of the movement's achievements -- including the eight-hour work day -- and envisioned future causes. The political movement has struggled to find relevance among younger voters, as pensioners become a more dominant group among its base of supporters. "A four-day work week, a six-hour workday, why couldn't that be the next step? Is eight hours the final truth?" Marin asked on August 17. "I think people deserve more time with their families, hobbies, life. This could be the next step for us in working life."
Finns work on average about 40 hours over a five-day work week, according to the statistics office, but unemployment remains high and many have fallen outside the work force. That's prompted a broad debate on work in Finland in recent years, including the first nationwide experiment on a form of basic income run by the previous center-right government in 2016-2018.

Q. Which of the following statements presents a paradox that is mentioned in the text?

Solution:

The paradox is present in the statement "... India being the largest producer of food and food products, suffers from an acute shortage of food." This is only stated in option 4.

QUESTION: 97

Read the following passage and answer the question.

A citizen’s right to own private property is a human right. The state cannot take possession of it without following due procedure and authority of law, the Supreme Court has held in a judgment.
The state cannot trespass into the private property of a citizen and then claim ownership of the land in the name of ‘adverse possession’, the court said. Grabbing private land and then claiming it as its own makes the state an encroacher.
In a welfare state, right to property is a human right, a Bench of Justices Indu Malhotra and Ajay Rastogi declared in their January 8 verdict.
“A welfare state cannot be permitted to take the plea of adverse possession, which allows a trespasser i.e. a person guilty of a tort, or even a crime, to gain legal title over such property for over 12 years. The State cannot be permitted to perfect its title over the land by invoking the doctrine of adverse possession to grab the property of its own citizens,” Justice Malhotra, who authored the judgment, laid down the law.
Yet, this is exactly what happened 52 years ago with Vidya Devi, a widow. The Himachal Pradesh government forcibly took over her four acres at Hamipur district to build a road in 1967.
Justice Malhotra highlights how the state took advantage of Ms. Devi’s illiteracy and failed to pay her a compensation for 52 years.
“The appellant [Ms. Devi] being an illiterate widow, coming from a rural background, was wholly unaware of her rights and entitlement in law, and did not file any proceedings for compensation of the land compulsorily taken over by the state,” Justice Malhotra empathised with Ms. Devi, who is 80 years old now.
Ordering the state to pay her Rs1 crore in compensation, the Supreme Court noted that in 1967, when the government forcibly took over Ms. Devi’s land, ‘right to private property was still a human/legal right’ under Article 31 of the Constitution.
Property ceased to be a human/legal right with the 44th Constitution Amendment in 1978. Nevertheless, Article 300A required the state to follow due procedure and authority of law to deprive a person of his or her private property, the Supreme Court reminded the government.

Q. Which of the following can be attributed to Supreme Court on the basis of above passage?

Solution:

The para clearly states that the court believes in right to property as a legal right which is subject to due process of law. A, B and D options are against the reasoning given by the court.

QUESTION: 98

Read the following passage and answer the question.

A citizen’s right to own private property is a human right. The state cannot take possession of it without following due procedure and authority of law, the Supreme Court has held in a judgment.
The state cannot trespass into the private property of a citizen and then claim ownership of the land in the name of ‘adverse possession’, the court said. Grabbing private land and then claiming it as its own makes the state an encroacher.
In a welfare state, right to property is a human right, a Bench of Justices Indu Malhotra and Ajay Rastogi declared in their January 8 verdict.
“A welfare state cannot be permitted to take the plea of adverse possession, which allows a trespasser i.e. a person guilty of a tort, or even a crime, to gain legal title over such property for over 12 years. The State cannot be permitted to perfect its title over the land by invoking the doctrine of adverse possession to grab the property of its own citizens,” Justice Malhotra, who authored the judgment, laid down the law.
Yet, this is exactly what happened 52 years ago with Vidya Devi, a widow. The Himachal Pradesh government forcibly took over her four acres at Hamipur district to build a road in 1967.
Justice Malhotra highlights how the state took advantage of Ms. Devi’s illiteracy and failed to pay her a compensation for 52 years.
“The appellant [Ms. Devi] being an illiterate widow, coming from a rural background, was wholly unaware of her rights and entitlement in law, and did not file any proceedings for compensation of the land compulsorily taken over by the state,” Justice Malhotra empathised with Ms. Devi, who is 80 years old now.
Ordering the state to pay her Rs1 crore in compensation, the Supreme Court noted that in 1967, when the government forcibly took over Ms. Devi’s land, ‘right to private property was still a human/legal right’ under Article 31 of the Constitution.
Property ceased to be a human/legal right with the 44th Constitution Amendment in 1978. Nevertheless, Article 300A required the state to follow due procedure and authority of law to deprive a person of his or her private property, the Supreme Court reminded the government.

Q. Saukar is the prominent real estate businessman who have acquired many important properties on important locations throughout the city at times he had taken benefit of the needy conditions of the seller. Sometimes the properties were acquired through pestering the sellers at times he had given loans and kept the property documents as security whereby they are acquired by him on nonpayment of loan. Everyone in the city knows about Saukar being a miser and a greedy person whoever had shrewd dealing to run his business. Now he charges high rent from tenants in these properties. Which of the following would be true in context to the judgement and given facts?

Solution:

Option (d) is the answer as Right to own property is a human/legal right and can only be subjected to due process of law. Option (a), (b) and (c) are against the reasoning given in the para.

QUESTION: 99

Read the following passage and answer the question.

A citizen’s right to own private property is a human right. The state cannot take possession of it without following due procedure and authority of law, the Supreme Court has held in a judgment.
The state cannot trespass into the private property of a citizen and then claim ownership of the land in the name of ‘adverse possession’, the court said. Grabbing private land and then claiming it as its own makes the state an encroacher.
In a welfare state, right to property is a human right, a Bench of Justices Indu Malhotra and Ajay Rastogi declared in their January 8 verdict.
“A welfare state cannot be permitted to take the plea of adverse possession, which allows a trespasser i.e. a person guilty of a tort, or even a crime, to gain legal title over such property for over 12 years. The State cannot be permitted to perfect its title over the land by invoking the doctrine of adverse possession to grab the property of its own citizens,” Justice Malhotra, who authored the judgment, laid down the law.
Yet, this is exactly what happened 52 years ago with Vidya Devi, a widow. The Himachal Pradesh government forcibly took over her four acres at Hamipur district to build a road in 1967.
Justice Malhotra highlights how the state took advantage of Ms. Devi’s illiteracy and failed to pay her a compensation for 52 years.
“The appellant [Ms. Devi] being an illiterate widow, coming from a rural background, was wholly unaware of her rights and entitlement in law, and did not file any proceedings for compensation of the land compulsorily taken over by the state,” Justice Malhotra empathised with Ms. Devi, who is 80 years old now.
Ordering the state to pay her Rs1 crore in compensation, the Supreme Court noted that in 1967, when the government forcibly took over Ms. Devi’s land, ‘right to private property was still a human/legal right’ under Article 31 of the Constitution.
Property ceased to be a human/legal right with the 44th Constitution Amendment in 1978. Nevertheless, Article 300A required the state to follow due procedure and authority of law to deprive a person of his or her private property, the Supreme Court reminded the government.

Q. According the Court’s judgement, which of the following would be valid acquisition of private property by the government?

Solution:

In all the situations mentioned in the options, government authorities have acquired properties without proper procedure established by law making all of them invalid acquisition.

QUESTION: 100

Read the following passage and answer the question.

A citizen’s right to own private property is a human right. The state cannot take possession of it without following due procedure and authority of law, the Supreme Court has held in a judgment.
The state cannot trespass into the private property of a citizen and then claim ownership of the land in the name of ‘adverse possession’, the court said. Grabbing private land and then claiming it as its own makes the state an encroacher.
In a welfare state, right to property is a human right, a Bench of Justices Indu Malhotra and Ajay Rastogi declared in their January 8 verdict.
“A welfare state cannot be permitted to take the plea of adverse possession, which allows a trespasser i.e. a person guilty of a tort, or even a crime, to gain legal title over such property for over 12 years. The State cannot be permitted to perfect its title over the land by invoking the doctrine of adverse possession to grab the property of its own citizens,” Justice Malhotra, who authored the judgment, laid down the law.
Yet, this is exactly what happened 52 years ago with Vidya Devi, a widow. The Himachal Pradesh government forcibly took over her four acres at Hamipur district to build a road in 1967.
Justice Malhotra highlights how the state took advantage of Ms. Devi’s illiteracy and failed to pay her a compensation for 52 years.
“The appellant [Ms. Devi] being an illiterate widow, coming from a rural background, was wholly unaware of her rights and entitlement in law, and did not file any proceedings for compensation of the land compulsorily taken over by the state,” Justice Malhotra empathised with Ms. Devi, who is 80 years old now.
Ordering the state to pay her Rs1 crore in compensation, the Supreme Court noted that in 1967, when the government forcibly took over Ms. Devi’s land, ‘right to private property was still a human/legal right’ under Article 31 of the Constitution.
Property ceased to be a human/legal right with the 44th Constitution Amendment in 1978. Nevertheless, Article 300A required the state to follow due procedure and authority of law to deprive a person of his or her private property, the Supreme Court reminded the government.

Q. Let us say, Government passes a law acquiring the property of Mr. Krishna for creating Public Park, a property of Mr. Xeveir for the purpose of extending airport and Mr. Khan for building a public school. Under the law government is paying sufficient compensation for such acquisition. As per the given law in the passage which of the acquisition would be valid?

Solution:

Self Explanatory. Option (a), (c) and (d) are against the reasoning of the court’s judgement.

QUESTION: 101

Read the following passage and answer the question.

A citizen’s right to own private property is a human right. The state cannot take possession of it without following due procedure and authority of law, the Supreme Court has held in a judgment.
The state cannot trespass into the private property of a citizen and then claim ownership of the land in the name of ‘adverse possession’, the court said. Grabbing private land and then claiming it as its own makes the state an encroacher.
In a welfare state, right to property is a human right, a Bench of Justices Indu Malhotra and Ajay Rastogi declared in their January 8 verdict.
“A welfare state cannot be permitted to take the plea of adverse possession, which allows a trespasser i.e. a person guilty of a tort, or even a crime, to gain legal title over such property for over 12 years. The State cannot be permitted to perfect its title over the land by invoking the doctrine of adverse possession to grab the property of its own citizens,” Justice Malhotra, who authored the judgment, laid down the law.
Yet, this is exactly what happened 52 years ago with Vidya Devi, a widow. The Himachal Pradesh government forcibly took over her four acres at Hamipur district to build a road in 1967.
Justice Malhotra highlights how the state took advantage of Ms. Devi’s illiteracy and failed to pay her a compensation for 52 years.
“The appellant [Ms. Devi] being an illiterate widow, coming from a rural background, was wholly unaware of her rights and entitlement in law, and did not file any proceedings for compensation of the land compulsorily taken over by the state,” Justice Malhotra empathised with Ms. Devi, who is 80 years old now.
Ordering the state to pay her Rs1 crore in compensation, the Supreme Court noted that in 1967, when the government forcibly took over Ms. Devi’s land, ‘right to private property was still a human/legal right’ under Article 31 of the Constitution.
Property ceased to be a human/legal right with the 44th Constitution Amendment in 1978. Nevertheless, Article 300A required the state to follow due procedure and authority of law to deprive a person of his or her private property, the Supreme Court reminded the government.

Q. If case of a property acquired by the government, if true, which of the following argument can be used by the owner of the property to support his case against such acquisition?

Solution:

Option (a) is right, as when a government acquire property it has to be done through proper procedure established by the law. The requirement o proper procedure was there before 1967 as well, thus option (d) is not correct. Option (b) and (c) are irrelevant to the reasoning of the court.

QUESTION: 102

Read the following passage and answer the question.

A citizen’s right to own private property is a human right. The state cannot take possession of it without following due procedure and authority of law, the Supreme Court has held in a judgment.
The state cannot trespass into the private property of a citizen and then claim ownership of the land in the name of ‘adverse possession’, the court said. Grabbing private land and then claiming it as its own makes the state an encroacher.
In a welfare state, right to property is a human right, a Bench of Justices Indu Malhotra and Ajay Rastogi declared in their January 8 verdict.
“A welfare state cannot be permitted to take the plea of adverse possession, which allows a trespasser i.e. a person guilty of a tort, or even a crime, to gain legal title over such property for over 12 years. The State cannot be permitted to perfect its title over the land by invoking the doctrine of adverse possession to grab the property of its own citizens,” Justice Malhotra, who authored the judgment, laid down the law.
Yet, this is exactly what happened 52 years ago with Vidya Devi, a widow. The Himachal Pradesh government forcibly took over her four acres at Hamipur district to build a road in 1967.
Justice Malhotra highlights how the state took advantage of Ms. Devi’s illiteracy and failed to pay her a compensation for 52 years.
“The appellant [Ms. Devi] being an illiterate widow, coming from a rural background, was wholly unaware of her rights and entitlement in law, and did not file any proceedings for compensation of the land compulsorily taken over by the state,” Justice Malhotra empathised with Ms. Devi, who is 80 years old now.
Ordering the state to pay her Rs1 crore in compensation, the Supreme Court noted that in 1967, when the government forcibly took over Ms. Devi’s land, ‘right to private property was still a human/legal right’ under Article 31 of the Constitution.
Property ceased to be a human/legal right with the 44th Constitution Amendment in 1978. Nevertheless, Article 300A required the state to follow due procedure and authority of law to deprive a person of his or her private property, the Supreme Court reminded the government.

Q. If case of a property acquired by the govt, if true, which of the following argument can be used by the government?

Solution:

None of these given options are relevant to court’s reasoning in the above passage. Govt can only acquire a property after following due process of law.

QUESTION: 103

Read the following passage and answer the question.

A citizen’s right to own private property is a human right. The state cannot take possession of it without following due procedure and authority of law, the Supreme Court has held in a judgment.
The state cannot trespass into the private property of a citizen and then claim ownership of the land in the name of ‘adverse possession’, the court said. Grabbing private land and then claiming it as its own makes the state an encroacher.
In a welfare state, right to property is a human right, a Bench of Justices Indu Malhotra and Ajay Rastogi declared in their January 8 verdict.
“A welfare state cannot be permitted to take the plea of adverse possession, which allows a trespasser i.e. a person guilty of a tort, or even a crime, to gain legal title over such property for over 12 years. The State cannot be permitted to perfect its title over the land by invoking the doctrine of adverse possession to grab the property of its own citizens,” Justice Malhotra, who authored the judgment, laid down the law.
Yet, this is exactly what happened 52 years ago with Vidya Devi, a widow. The Himachal Pradesh government forcibly took over her four acres at Hamipur district to build a road in 1967.
Justice Malhotra highlights how the state took advantage of Ms. Devi’s illiteracy and failed to pay her a compensation for 52 years.
“The appellant [Ms. Devi] being an illiterate widow, coming from a rural background, was wholly unaware of her rights and entitlement in law, and did not file any proceedings for compensation of the land compulsorily taken over by the state,” Justice Malhotra empathised with Ms. Devi, who is 80 years old now.
Ordering the state to pay her Rs1 crore in compensation, the Supreme Court noted that in 1967, when the government forcibly took over Ms. Devi’s land, ‘right to private property was still a human/legal right’ under Article 31 of the Constitution.
Property ceased to be a human/legal right with the 44th Constitution Amendment in 1978. Nevertheless, Article 300A required the state to follow due procedure and authority of law to deprive a person of his or her private property, the Supreme Court reminded the government.

Q. Which of the following, if true would have strengthened the case of Government against Ms. Devi?

Solution:

(a) (b) (d) options are relevant to court’s reasoning in the above passage. Govt can only acquire a property after following due process of law.

QUESTION: 104

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

For a contract to be valid, the consent of the parties must be genuine. The principle of consensus-ad-idem is followed, which means that the parties entering into the contract must mean the same thing in the same sense. The parties to the contract must have the same understanding in regard to the subject matter of the contract.
Mere consent is not enough for a contract to be enforceable; the consent given must be free and voluntary. The definition of free consent provided under the Indian Contracts Act is as: 'Consent that is free from coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake'. Consent is said to be so caused when it would not have been given but for the existence of such coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake.
Clearly, free consent means the absence of any kind of coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake. When the consent which is given is affected by these elements, it calls into question whether the consent given was free and voluntary. The objective of this principle is to ensure that judgement of the parties while entering into the contract wasn't clouded. Therefore, consent given under coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake has the potential to invalidate the contract.
For example, such a factor which could invalidate a contract is the presence of coercion. According to the Indian Contracts Act, 1872, coercion is defined as commission, or threat to commit, any act forbidden by the Indian Penal Code or the unlawful detaining, or threatening to detain, any property, to the prejudice of any person whatever, with the intention of causing any person to enter into an agreement.
A very crucial part of the law is the phrase "to the prejudice of any person whatever", which means the coercion could be directed against the prejudice of any person and not just the party to the contract. It is also not necessary that only the party to the contract causes the coercion. Even a third party to the contract can cause coercion to obtain the consent, as was seen in the case of Ranganayakamma v. Alwar Sethi, where a widow was coerced into adopting a boy by the boy's parents by not allowing the corpse of the widow's husband to be removed from the home until the adoption was made.
The burden of proof in cases of coercion lies on the party whose consent was coerced. When consent of a party was obtained through coercion, the contract becomes voidable at the option of the party whose consent was so obtained.

Q. Adam, a customer, was forcibly not allowed by a shopkeeper to leave the store until he purchased the item he inquired about. Adam purchased the item and was allowed to leave. Which of the following, as per your understanding of the passage, is correct regarding the validity of the contract?

Solution:

A contract entered into through coercion is not void but voidable at the option of the party whose consent was obtained through such coercion. If Adam exercises his option to void the contract, it shall only then become void.

QUESTION: 105

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

For a contract to be valid, the consent of the parties must be genuine. The principle of consensus-ad-idem is followed, which means that the parties entering into the contract must mean the same thing in the same sense. The parties to the contract must have the same understanding in regard to the subject matter of the contract.
Mere consent is not enough for a contract to be enforceable; the consent given must be free and voluntary. The definition of free consent provided under the Indian Contracts Act is as: 'Consent that is free from coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake'. Consent is said to be so caused when it would not have been given but for the existence of such coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake.
Clearly, free consent means the absence of any kind of coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake. When the consent which is given is affected by these elements, it calls into question whether the consent given was free and voluntary. The objective of this principle is to ensure that judgement of the parties while entering into the contract wasn't clouded. Therefore, consent given under coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake has the potential to invalidate the contract.
For example, such a factor which could invalidate a contract is the presence of coercion. According to the Indian Contracts Act, 1872, coercion is defined as commission, or threat to commit, any act forbidden by the Indian Penal Code or the unlawful detaining, or threatening to detain, any property, to the prejudice of any person whatever, with the intention of causing any person to enter into an agreement.
A very crucial part of the law is the phrase "to the prejudice of any person whatever", which means the coercion could be directed against the prejudice of any person and not just the party to the contract. It is also not necessary that only the party to the contract causes the coercion. Even a third party to the contract can cause coercion to obtain the consent, as was seen in the case of Ranganayakamma v. Alwar Sethi, where a widow was coerced into adopting a boy by the boy's parents by not allowing the corpse of the widow's husband to be removed from the home until the adoption was made.
The burden of proof in cases of coercion lies on the party whose consent was coerced. When consent of a party was obtained through coercion, the contract becomes voidable at the option of the party whose consent was so obtained.

Q. Sheila entered into a contract to purchase a three-year-old cow from a farm. The seller delivered the cow and she took ownership of the same. Sheila later came to know that the cow sold to her was six years old. As per your understanding of the passage, which of the following would truly describe this transaction?

Solution:

On the careful reading of the passage, we can say that this contract would be one of fraud as the seller wrongfully sold Sheila something different to that agreed in the contract. Had she been aware of the true age of the cow, she would not have given consent for the same.

QUESTION: 106

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

For a contract to be valid, the consent of the parties must be genuine. The principle of consensus-ad-idem is followed, which means that the parties entering into the contract must mean the same thing in the same sense. The parties to the contract must have the same understanding in regard to the subject matter of the contract.
Mere consent is not enough for a contract to be enforceable; the consent given must be free and voluntary. The definition of free consent provided under the Indian Contracts Act is as: 'Consent that is free from coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake'. Consent is said to be so caused when it would not have been given but for the existence of such coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake.
Clearly, free consent means the absence of any kind of coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake. When the consent which is given is affected by these elements, it calls into question whether the consent given was free and voluntary. The objective of this principle is to ensure that judgement of the parties while entering into the contract wasn't clouded. Therefore, consent given under coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake has the potential to invalidate the contract.
For example, such a factor which could invalidate a contract is the presence of coercion. According to the Indian Contracts Act, 1872, coercion is defined as commission, or threat to commit, any act forbidden by the Indian Penal Code or the unlawful detaining, or threatening to detain, any property, to the prejudice of any person whatever, with the intention of causing any person to enter into an agreement.
A very crucial part of the law is the phrase "to the prejudice of any person whatever", which means the coercion could be directed against the prejudice of any person and not just the party to the contract. It is also not necessary that only the party to the contract causes the coercion. Even a third party to the contract can cause coercion to obtain the consent, as was seen in the case of Ranganayakamma v. Alwar Sethi, where a widow was coerced into adopting a boy by the boy's parents by not allowing the corpse of the widow's husband to be removed from the home until the adoption was made.
The burden of proof in cases of coercion lies on the party whose consent was coerced. When consent of a party was obtained through coercion, the contract becomes voidable at the option of the party whose consent was so obtained.

Q. John and Manoj were in the business of trading computer equipment. John had regularly threatened Manoj physically so that he could be his exclusive business partner. The court passed a judgement invalidating the contract based on Manoj's complaint alone. Was the court justified in doing so?

Solution:

As per the passage, the burden of proof is on Manoj to show how his consent was obtained by coercion and the court must ask for the justification. Mere complaint alone of such coercion will not be sufficient to pass the judgement.

QUESTION: 107

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

For a contract to be valid, the consent of the parties must be genuine. The principle of consensus-ad-idem is followed, which means that the parties entering into the contract must mean the same thing in the same sense. The parties to the contract must have the same understanding in regard to the subject matter of the contract.
Mere consent is not enough for a contract to be enforceable; the consent given must be free and voluntary. The definition of free consent provided under the Indian Contracts Act is as: 'Consent that is free from coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake'. Consent is said to be so caused when it would not have been given but for the existence of such coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake.
Clearly, free consent means the absence of any kind of coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake. When the consent which is given is affected by these elements, it calls into question whether the consent given was free and voluntary. The objective of this principle is to ensure that judgement of the parties while entering into the contract wasn't clouded. Therefore, consent given under coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake has the potential to invalidate the contract.
For example, such a factor which could invalidate a contract is the presence of coercion. According to the Indian Contracts Act, 1872, coercion is defined as commission, or threat to commit, any act forbidden by the Indian Penal Code or the unlawful detaining, or threatening to detain, any property, to the prejudice of any person whatever, with the intention of causing any person to enter into an agreement.
A very crucial part of the law is the phrase "to the prejudice of any person whatever", which means the coercion could be directed against the prejudice of any person and not just the party to the contract. It is also not necessary that only the party to the contract causes the coercion. Even a third party to the contract can cause coercion to obtain the consent, as was seen in the case of Ranganayakamma v. Alwar Sethi, where a widow was coerced into adopting a boy by the boy's parents by not allowing the corpse of the widow's husband to be removed from the home until the adoption was made.
The burden of proof in cases of coercion lies on the party whose consent was coerced. When consent of a party was obtained through coercion, the contract becomes voidable at the option of the party whose consent was so obtained.

Q. Chan is a new trader in the market. He entered into a contract with another trader, who had the biggest market share. However, Chan later felt that he might have made a mistake and wished to invalidate the contract claiming he felt pressured by the big trader. Can the contract be invalidated?

Solution:

Chan gave his consent freely as he had voluntarily come to the big trader, who did not employ any illegal means to obtain the same. Just feeling pressurised later after the contract does not allow a party to invalidate the contract as it (contract) did not arise due to any wrongful act of the other party initially.

QUESTION: 108

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

For a contract to be valid, the consent of the parties must be genuine. The principle of consensus-ad-idem is followed, which means that the parties entering into the contract must mean the same thing in the same sense. The parties to the contract must have the same understanding in regard to the subject matter of the contract.
Mere consent is not enough for a contract to be enforceable; the consent given must be free and voluntary. The definition of free consent provided under the Indian Contracts Act is as: 'Consent that is free from coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake'. Consent is said to be so caused when it would not have been given but for the existence of such coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake.
Clearly, free consent means the absence of any kind of coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake. When the consent which is given is affected by these elements, it calls into question whether the consent given was free and voluntary. The objective of this principle is to ensure that judgement of the parties while entering into the contract wasn't clouded. Therefore, consent given under coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake has the potential to invalidate the contract.
For example, such a factor which could invalidate a contract is the presence of coercion. According to the Indian Contracts Act, 1872, coercion is defined as commission, or threat to commit, any act forbidden by the Indian Penal Code or the unlawful detaining, or threatening to detain, any property, to the prejudice of any person whatever, with the intention of causing any person to enter into an agreement.
A very crucial part of the law is the phrase "to the prejudice of any person whatever", which means the coercion could be directed against the prejudice of any person and not just the party to the contract. It is also not necessary that only the party to the contract causes the coercion. Even a third party to the contract can cause coercion to obtain the consent, as was seen in the case of Ranganayakamma v. Alwar Sethi, where a widow was coerced into adopting a boy by the boy's parents by not allowing the corpse of the widow's husband to be removed from the home until the adoption was made.
The burden of proof in cases of coercion lies on the party whose consent was coerced. When consent of a party was obtained through coercion, the contract becomes voidable at the option of the party whose consent was so obtained.

Q. A football player was interested in joining a certain club. However, his manager detained his assets until he joined another club of the manager's choice. The player then entered into a contract with the club chosen for him and reached the premises. Is it too late now for him to change his mind?

Solution:

Coercion can also be applied by a third party to the contract and this would also cause such contract to be voidable at the option of the coerced party. Hence, the player can invalidate the contract if he wishes to do so.

QUESTION: 109

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

For a contract to be valid, the consent of the parties must be genuine. The principle of consensus-ad-idem is followed, which means that the parties entering into the contract must mean the same thing in the same sense. The parties to the contract must have the same understanding in regard to the subject matter of the contract.
Mere consent is not enough for a contract to be enforceable; the consent given must be free and voluntary. The definition of free consent provided under the Indian Contracts Act is as: 'Consent that is free from coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake'. Consent is said to be so caused when it would not have been given but for the existence of such coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake.
Clearly, free consent means the absence of any kind of coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake. When the consent which is given is affected by these elements, it calls into question whether the consent given was free and voluntary. The objective of this principle is to ensure that judgement of the parties while entering into the contract wasn't clouded. Therefore, consent given under coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake has the potential to invalidate the contract.
For example, such a factor which could invalidate a contract is the presence of coercion. According to the Indian Contracts Act, 1872, coercion is defined as commission, or threat to commit, any act forbidden by the Indian Penal Code or the unlawful detaining, or threatening to detain, any property, to the prejudice of any person whatever, with the intention of causing any person to enter into an agreement.
A very crucial part of the law is the phrase "to the prejudice of any person whatever", which means the coercion could be directed against the prejudice of any person and not just the party to the contract. It is also not necessary that only the party to the contract causes the coercion. Even a third party to the contract can cause coercion to obtain the consent, as was seen in the case of Ranganayakamma v. Alwar Sethi, where a widow was coerced into adopting a boy by the boy's parents by not allowing the corpse of the widow's husband to be removed from the home until the adoption was made.
The burden of proof in cases of coercion lies on the party whose consent was coerced. When consent of a party was obtained through coercion, the contract becomes voidable at the option of the party whose consent was so obtained.

Q. Aman sent an email to a contractor for the building project and made an offer that if the latter completed the work within 12 months, Aman would give him 5% over and above the expected market rate. After a month, the contractor replied stating that he could complete the work in 10 months. However, he found that the offer had been given to another contractor two days before, without providing any information to him. Aman said that the contractor should have informed him well in time. The contractor sued Aman stating that the former had accepted the offer on the proposal made to him and Aman had breached the contract. Decide.

Solution:

The offer was made via email, which means there was no delay in the proposal reaching the contractor. He had ample time. There is no indication that he had asked for a little more time for replying. There is no consensus-ad-idem as per the passage, therefore, Aman committed no wrong.

QUESTION: 110

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

For a contract to be valid, the consent of the parties must be genuine. The principle of consensus-ad-idem is followed, which means that the parties entering into the contract must mean the same thing in the same sense. The parties to the contract must have the same understanding in regard to the subject matter of the contract.
Mere consent is not enough for a contract to be enforceable; the consent given must be free and voluntary. The definition of free consent provided under the Indian Contracts Act is as: 'Consent that is free from coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake'. Consent is said to be so caused when it would not have been given but for the existence of such coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake.
Clearly, free consent means the absence of any kind of coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake. When the consent which is given is affected by these elements, it calls into question whether the consent given was free and voluntary. The objective of this principle is to ensure that judgement of the parties while entering into the contract wasn't clouded. Therefore, consent given under coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake has the potential to invalidate the contract.
For example, such a factor which could invalidate a contract is the presence of coercion. According to the Indian Contracts Act, 1872, coercion is defined as commission, or threat to commit, any act forbidden by the Indian Penal Code or the unlawful detaining, or threatening to detain, any property, to the prejudice of any person whatever, with the intention of causing any person to enter into an agreement.
A very crucial part of the law is the phrase "to the prejudice of any person whatever", which means the coercion could be directed against the prejudice of any person and not just the party to the contract. It is also not necessary that only the party to the contract causes the coercion. Even a third party to the contract can cause coercion to obtain the consent, as was seen in the case of Ranganayakamma v. Alwar Sethi, where a widow was coerced into adopting a boy by the boy's parents by not allowing the corpse of the widow's husband to be removed from the home until the adoption was made.
The burden of proof in cases of coercion lies on the party whose consent was coerced. When consent of a party was obtained through coercion, the contract becomes voidable at the option of the party whose consent was so obtained.

Q. Abhi worked in a space research agency. He entered into a contract with Ravi that he would make him travel to Mars if he invested in his next space project. Ravi agreed and invested heavily in Abhi's project. Abhi promised him that he would send him to Mars whenever they launched the project. Later, Ravi found that Abhi's company had gone bankrupt and his Mars mission had never taken shape. Abhi told him that they were about to start the Mars project hoping that people would invest and they would recover the debt money, but a newspaper wrote that scientists are yet to discover the method to reach Mars and people took back their money. Ravi sued Abhi for influencing him in investing in an unenforceable contract. Decide.

Solution:

Abhi mentioned that they were to begin with the project and had already promised him to send him to Mars whenever they launched the project. Moreover, it may be possible in the future to send human being to Mars. Though this can be a future event, it is enforceable whenever it is completed. Moreover, an article in newspaper cannot be taken as the basis to declare a particular event impossible.

QUESTION: 111

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Rule of natural justice are placed so highthat it has been declared time and again by courts that “no human law are of any validity, if contrary to this”, and court of law could discard an act of parliament if it is contrary to natural justice. Generally no provision is found in any statute for observance of principle of natural justice by adjudicating authorities.
Question then arises, whether the adjudicating authorities are bound to follow these principles. Law is well settled on this point, courts have observed that even though there is no positive words in a statuteor rules requiring that the parties shall be heard, yet the principles of natural justice will supply the omission of legislature. In other words if a statute or rule authorising interference with property, civil or fundamental rights was silent on question of hearing and notice, the courts will apply the rules as it is “of universal application and founded on plainest principle of natural justice”. Non-observance of principle will invalidate the exercise of power by any authority. Principle of natural justice are binding on all courts, judicial bodies and quasi judicial bodies. Question is -are they applicable to an administrative action? Earlier court took the view that it is inapplicable but as per lord denning “that heresy has been scotched”. Thus a statutory body irrespective of its nature or function has to act fairly and not in an arbitrary manner.
Principles of natural justice differs from situation to situation but certain basic premises remain the same. For instance, accused should know the nature of accusation made, he should be given an opportunity to state his case and tribunal should act in good faith. Whenever, a complaint is made to court regarding non observance of principles of natural justice, court has to see whether the observance of that rule was necessary for a just and fair decision as per the facts of the case. If it was necessary then court will declare the decision ultra vires the power of authority.
Traditionally, there are 2 principles of natural justice.
(i) No man shall be judge in his own cause, or no man can act as both at the one and the same time- a party or a suitor and also a judge, or a deciding authority must be impartial and without bias.
(ii) Hear the other side, or both the side must be heard, or no man should be condemned unheard, or that there must be fairness on the part of deciding authority.
Rule against bias simply means that, justice should not only be done, but manifestly and undoubtedly be seen to be done. Anything which tends or may be regarded as tending to cause such person to decide a case otherwise than on evidence must be held to be biased. Judge is supposed to be indifferent to the parties in a controversy. He must be in position to decide the matter objectively. He cannot allow his personal prejudice to go into decision making. Object is not merely that scales be held even; it is also that they may not appear to be inclined. This rule also applies to administrative authorities required to act judicially.
Right to be heard simply means that, a party is not to suffer in person or in purse without an opportunity of being heard. In short, before an order is passed against any person, reasonable opportunity of being heard must be given to him. This maxim includes 2 elements- notice and hearing. Any action taken without notice is against principle of natural justice and is void ab initio. Notice must be clear, specific and unambiguous and charges should not be vague and uncertain. Moreover, notice must give reasonable opportunity to comply with requirement mentioned therein. Hearing simply means that no adverse action can be taken against any person without giving him an opportunity of being heard. It also means that, adjudicating authority must disclose all evidence and material placed before it in the course of hearing proceeding and must afford an opportunity to the person against whom the evidences are to be used to rebut it. Another rule of hearing is “he who hears should decide” or “one who decides must hear”.

Q. Government passed a law named UAPA, under which government had power to name any person as terrorist and throw him in jail. Power to declare terrorist has been given to cabinet secretary of India. The act was introduced to remove the threat of secessionist forces who wanted to disintegrate the unity and integrity of India. Situation of Country was so bad that, even the ardent opposition of the government supported such an act. Under the law, person can after three months apply to a body presided by the cabinet secretary as sole member. Decide, whether such law will be valid or not?

Solution:

Passage suggests that no man can act at the same time as party or suitor and also a judge. It was cabinet secretary who has the power to declare a person as terrorist and when the person appeals, he has also been made the judge. Option D which suggests that cabinet secretary is not acting in good faith is an assumption and from facts we do not know whether he will act in good faith or not.

QUESTION: 112

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Rule of natural justice are placed so highthat it has been declared time and again by courts that “no human law are of any validity, if contrary to this”, and court of law could discard an act of parliament if it is contrary to natural justice. Generally no provision is found in any statute for observance of principle of natural justice by adjudicating authorities.
Question then arises, whether the adjudicating authorities are bound to follow these principles. Law is well settled on this point, courts have observed that even though there is no positive words in a statuteor rules requiring that the parties shall be heard, yet the principles of natural justice will supply the omission of legislature. In other words if a statute or rule authorising interference with property, civil or fundamental rights was silent on question of hearing and notice, the courts will apply the rules as it is “of universal application and founded on plainest principle of natural justice”. Non-observance of principle will invalidate the exercise of power by any authority. Principle of natural justice are binding on all courts, judicial bodies and quasi judicial bodies. Question is -are they applicable to an administrative action? Earlier court took the view that it is inapplicable but as per lord denning “that heresy has been scotched”. Thus a statutory body irrespective of its nature or function has to act fairly and not in an arbitrary manner.
Principles of natural justice differs from situation to situation but certain basic premises remain the same. For instance, accused should know the nature of accusation made, he should be given an opportunity to state his case and tribunal should act in good faith. Whenever, a complaint is made to court regarding non observance of principles of natural justice, court has to see whether the observance of that rule was necessary for a just and fair decision as per the facts of the case. If it was necessary then court will declare the decision ultra vires the power of authority.
Traditionally, there are 2 principles of natural justice.
(i) No man shall be judge in his own cause, or no man can act as both at the one and the same time- a party or a suitor and also a judge, or a deciding authority must be impartial and without bias.
(ii) Hear the other side, or both the side mus