CLAT Mock Test (New Pattern) - 6 (03-05-2020)


150 Questions MCQ Test Mock Test Series for CLAT 2020 | CLAT Mock Test (New Pattern) - 6 (03-05-2020)


Description
This mock test of CLAT Mock Test (New Pattern) - 6 (03-05-2020) for CLAT helps you for every CLAT entrance exam. This contains 150 Multiple Choice Questions for CLAT CLAT Mock Test (New Pattern) - 6 (03-05-2020) (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this CLAT Mock Test (New Pattern) - 6 (03-05-2020) quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. CLAT students definitely take this CLAT Mock Test (New Pattern) - 6 (03-05-2020) exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other CLAT Mock Test (New Pattern) - 6 (03-05-2020) extra questions, long questions & short questions for CLAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

Read the following passage and answer the question.

One minute the lamb was there, and the next it was not! "I saw it a moment ago," said Tara to her brother, who was helping her create the cattle stall. "It was here among the other animals," she went on. "Where on earth could it have gone?"
Tarun, busy finding a suitable spot for a pair of pigeons on the rafters of the thatched roof, laid the birds aside. They looked under stools and chairs and all over the sofa. They even sifted through the glittering ornaments that would soon adorn the Christmas tree.
"Are you sure it was put away with all our other stuff last year?" said Tarun. "I mean, did it get left behind, when we were packing our Christmas decorations? If I remember correctly, I took down the bells, baubles, lights and tinsel, while you were in charge of everything not on the tree."
Tara nodded. "I made sure every piece went safely into the box. You know how attached we are to them. They may not be expensive, but we've had them for years, and they are still so bright and beautiful."
"Of course, we've had to hide the broken ear of one of the wise men by positioning him behind the others," said Tarun, smiling. "Then there's Bessie, our cute tailless cow." He spoke lightly, but he was as upset as Tara that they could not locate the lamb.
A casual observer might not have understood the siblings' feelings. Apart from Mary and Joseph, the wise men and shepherds, there were sheep and cows, besides three stately camels. The lamb was among the smaller pieces, even tinier than the infant Jesus, who was at the heart of the stable setting. Everything seemed complete, but Tara and Tarun were not satisfied.
"You remind me of the story in the Bible," said their mother, who had been listening to the children. Jesus said that a shepherd left his flock of 99 sheep to search for the one that was lost. He meant that every one of us is precious. God does not want any of us out of His sight, anymore than you feel your Nativity scene is perfect without the lamb. If you look closely, you'll see that your baby is curled up with the Baby in the manger. Appropriately enough, the lost lamb is seated beside the Lamb of God, who came to seek and save us."

Q. Which of the following cannot be rightly inferred from the given passage?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 1. There is nothing in the passage to support this inference. The lamb was actually not lost; it was "curled up with the Baby in the manger".
Option 2 is supported by Tara's statement that they were attached to each piece: "You know how attached we are to them".
Option 3 is supported by her statement that she made sure each piece was safely put into the box.
Option 4 can be inferred from the mother's story about the significance of the lamb in the Nativity scene in the final paragraph.

QUESTION: 2

Read the following passage and answer the question.

One minute the lamb was there, and the next it was not! "I saw it a moment ago," said Tara to her brother, who was helping her create the cattle stall. "It was here among the other animals," she went on. "Where on earth could it have gone?"
Tarun, busy finding a suitable spot for a pair of pigeons on the rafters of the thatched roof, laid the birds aside. They looked under stools and chairs and all over the sofa. They even sifted through the glittering ornaments that would soon adorn the Christmas tree.
"Are you sure it was put away with all our other stuff last year?" said Tarun. "I mean, did it get left behind, when we were packing our Christmas decorations? If I remember correctly, I took down the bells, baubles, lights and tinsel, while you were in charge of everything not on the tree."
Tara nodded. "I made sure every piece went safely into the box. You know how attached we are to them. They may not be expensive, but we've had them for years, and they are still so bright and beautiful."
"Of course, we've had to hide the broken ear of one of the wise men by positioning him behind the others," said Tarun, smiling. "Then there's Bessie, our cute tailless cow." He spoke lightly, but he was as upset as Tara that they could not locate the lamb.
A casual observer might not have understood the siblings' feelings. Apart from Mary and Joseph, the wise men and shepherds, there were sheep and cows, besides three stately camels. The lamb was among the smaller pieces, even tinier than the infant Jesus, who was at the heart of the stable setting. Everything seemed complete, but Tara and Tarun were not satisfied.
"You remind me of the story in the Bible," said their mother, who had been listening to the children. Jesus said that a shepherd left his flock of 99 sheep to search for the one that was lost. He meant that every one of us is precious. God does not want any of us out of His sight, anymore than you feel your Nativity scene is perfect without the lamb. If you look closely, you'll see that your baby is curled up with the Baby in the manger. Appropriately enough, the lost lamb is seated beside the Lamb of God, who came to seek and save us."

Q. Based on the information set out in the passage, which of the following is most accurate?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 3. From the whole passage, we can understand that the children (Tarun and Tara) are busy trying to recreate the Nativity scene. Option 1 is incorrect because it was Tara, not Tarun, who had stored the Christmas decoration pieces last year. Option 2 is incorrect because it is not stated in the passage. Option 4 is incorrect because from the description in the passage, the children were looking for the Christmas decorations they stored last year, they weren't purchasing new ones.

QUESTION: 3

Read the following passage and answer the question.

One minute the lamb was there, and the next it was not! "I saw it a moment ago," said Tara to her brother, who was helping her create the cattle stall. "It was here among the other animals," she went on. "Where on earth could it have gone?"
Tarun, busy finding a suitable spot for a pair of pigeons on the rafters of the thatched roof, laid the birds aside. They looked under stools and chairs and all over the sofa. They even sifted through the glittering ornaments that would soon adorn the Christmas tree.
"Are you sure it was put away with all our other stuff last year?" said Tarun. "I mean, did it get left behind, when we were packing our Christmas decorations? If I remember correctly, I took down the bells, baubles, lights and tinsel, while you were in charge of everything not on the tree."
Tara nodded. "I made sure every piece went safely into the box. You know how attached we are to them. They may not be expensive, but we've had them for years, and they are still so bright and beautiful."
"Of course, we've had to hide the broken ear of one of the wise men by positioning him behind the others," said Tarun, smiling. "Then there's Bessie, our cute tailless cow." He spoke lightly, but he was as upset as Tara that they could not locate the lamb.
A casual observer might not have understood the siblings' feelings. Apart from Mary and Joseph, the wise men and shepherds, there were sheep and cows, besides three stately camels. The lamb was among the smaller pieces, even tinier than the infant Jesus, who was at the heart of the stable setting. Everything seemed complete, but Tara and Tarun were not satisfied.
"You remind me of the story in the Bible," said their mother, who had been listening to the children. Jesus said that a shepherd left his flock of 99 sheep to search for the one that was lost. He meant that every one of us is precious. God does not want any of us out of His sight, anymore than you feel your Nativity scene is perfect without the lamb. If you look closely, you'll see that your baby is curled up with the Baby in the manger. Appropriately enough, the lost lamb is seated beside the Lamb of God, who came to seek and save us."

Q. Which of the following is the author most likely to agree with based on the contents of the given passage?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. This is apparent in the sixth paragraph which states: 'A casual observer might not have understood the siblings' feelings.' There is nothing in the passage to support that the author would agree that the siblings understood the story of their Mother, so option 1 cannot be correct. There is nothing in the passage to support that the author would agree with the mother's view that the lamb was just as important as Baby Jesus, so option 3 cannot be correct. There was nothing to suggest that the author believes that Tara misplaced the lamb, so option 4 is also incorrect.

QUESTION: 4

Read the following passage and answer the question.

One minute the lamb was there, and the next it was not! "I saw it a moment ago," said Tara to her brother, who was helping her create the cattle stall. "It was here among the other animals," she went on. "Where on earth could it have gone?"
Tarun, busy finding a suitable spot for a pair of pigeons on the rafters of the thatched roof, laid the birds aside. They looked under stools and chairs and all over the sofa. They even sifted through the glittering ornaments that would soon adorn the Christmas tree.
"Are you sure it was put away with all our other stuff last year?" said Tarun. "I mean, did it get left behind, when we were packing our Christmas decorations? If I remember correctly, I took down the bells, baubles, lights and tinsel, while you were in charge of everything not on the tree."
Tara nodded. "I made sure every piece went safely into the box. You know how attached we are to them. They may not be expensive, but we've had them for years, and they are still so bright and beautiful."
"Of course, we've had to hide the broken ear of one of the wise men by positioning him behind the others," said Tarun, smiling. "Then there's Bessie, our cute tailless cow." He spoke lightly, but he was as upset as Tara that they could not locate the lamb.
A casual observer might not have understood the siblings' feelings. Apart from Mary and Joseph, the wise men and shepherds, there were sheep and cows, besides three stately camels. The lamb was among the smaller pieces, even tinier than the infant Jesus, who was at the heart of the stable setting. Everything seemed complete, but Tara and Tarun were not satisfied.
"You remind me of the story in the Bible," said their mother, who had been listening to the children. Jesus said that a shepherd left his flock of 99 sheep to search for the one that was lost. He meant that every one of us is precious. God does not want any of us out of His sight, anymore than you feel your Nativity scene is perfect without the lamb. If you look closely, you'll see that your baby is curled up with the Baby in the manger. Appropriately enough, the lost lamb is seated beside the Lamb of God, who came to seek and save us."

Q. What does the word 'adorn' as used in the passage mean?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 4. 'Adorn' in the passage means to decorate. Here, the children are looking for Christmas decoration pieces to decorate the Christmas tree and recreate the Nativity scene.

QUESTION: 5

Read the following passage and answer the question.

One minute the lamb was there, and the next it was not! "I saw it a moment ago," said Tara to her brother, who was helping her create the cattle stall. "It was here among the other animals," she went on. "Where on earth could it have gone?"
Tarun, busy finding a suitable spot for a pair of pigeons on the rafters of the thatched roof, laid the birds aside. They looked under stools and chairs and all over the sofa. They even sifted through the glittering ornaments that would soon adorn the Christmas tree.
"Are you sure it was put away with all our other stuff last year?" said Tarun. "I mean, did it get left behind, when we were packing our Christmas decorations? If I remember correctly, I took down the bells, baubles, lights and tinsel, while you were in charge of everything not on the tree."
Tara nodded. "I made sure every piece went safely into the box. You know how attached we are to them. They may not be expensive, but we've had them for years, and they are still so bright and beautiful."
"Of course, we've had to hide the broken ear of one of the wise men by positioning him behind the others," said Tarun, smiling. "Then there's Bessie, our cute tailless cow." He spoke lightly, but he was as upset as Tara that they could not locate the lamb.
A casual observer might not have understood the siblings' feelings. Apart from Mary and Joseph, the wise men and shepherds, there were sheep and cows, besides three stately camels. The lamb was among the smaller pieces, even tinier than the infant Jesus, who was at the heart of the stable setting. Everything seemed complete, but Tara and Tarun were not satisfied.
"You remind me of the story in the Bible," said their mother, who had been listening to the children. Jesus said that a shepherd left his flock of 99 sheep to search for the one that was lost. He meant that every one of us is precious. God does not want any of us out of His sight, anymore than you feel your Nativity scene is perfect without the lamb. If you look closely, you'll see that your baby is curled up with the Baby in the manger. Appropriately enough, the lost lamb is seated beside the Lamb of God, who came to seek and save us."

Q. Based on information from the passage, which of the following can we infer from the mother's recounting of the Bible's story?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 1. This is based on the information in the final paragraph which states: 'God does not want any of us out of His sight, anymore than you feel your Nativity scene is perfect without the lamb' and 'Appropriately enough, the lost lamb is seated beside the Lamb of God, who came to seek and save us'. From this, it can be inferred that the lost lamb represents mankind.

QUESTION: 6

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Here's my latest report on things grown-ups say but don't actually mean.
So, our school's Annual Day finally happened last week and I couldn't be happier. This year, I decided that I wanted to try something different, so I opted for media and editing. What's that, you ask? Who cares, I thought. As long as I didn't have to dress up as a sunflower and wave my arms about while lip-synching to the song by Post Malone, I didn't really care.
But to be honest, I thought media and editing would be cool. That I'd learn how to create special effects which I could then use on my YouTube channel. That it would launch my movie career. HA! Can you tell that that is not what happened?
A tad off?
First, the Sir who taught us editing was not some cool guy with amazing stories about how he worked on The Hobbit and Lord of the Rings. He worked in an IT company and spent most of his time 'writing code'. And not cool spy code but Python. Bleh.
Well, after he taught us a few of the basics, we were divided into groups and told to start working on backdrops for some of the scenes in the production. When we went to him with ideas and images and clips he kept waving us away and saying "No! No! Show me the final thing. And remember, it's not about being perfect! It's about learning."
DOUBLE HA!
So, after spending weeks and weeks finding stuff and putting it together, Sir finally takes a look and tells us that it's terrible! That we can't have work like this up on the stage. That we should have come to him sooner. That it was all a terrible disaster. Are you confused by his reaction? I sure was.
I don't know if you've ever tried to correct a grown up, but let me save you the trouble and tell you not to bother. They hate being reminded that they said one thing and are doing the exact opposite. When we tried to tell Sir that we had come to him with ideas and that he said perfection didn't matter — he kicked us off the team! YUP! You read that right. He said that if we'd spent more time working and less time arguing and answering back, then our work would have looked better.
So, I present to you 'Things grownups say but don't actually mean #103: The results don't matter, the learning does'. You can also apply this to chemistry lab explosions and getting your report card signed by your parents.
I had to spend the rest of Annual Day practice as an understudy. To a lamp post.

Q. Which of the following cannot be rightly inferred from the given passage?

Solution:

The correct option is A.

A)The Sir was more skilled in developing software applications.

QUESTION: 7

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Here's my latest report on things grown-ups say but don't actually mean.
So, our school's Annual Day finally happened last week and I couldn't be happier. This year, I decided that I wanted to try something different, so I opted for media and editing. What's that, you ask? Who cares, I thought. As long as I didn't have to dress up as a sunflower and wave my arms about while lip-synching to the song by Post Malone, I didn't really care.
But to be honest, I thought media and editing would be cool. That I'd learn how to create special effects which I could then use on my YouTube channel. That it would launch my movie career. HA! Can you tell that that is not what happened?
A tad off?
First, the Sir who taught us editing was not some cool guy with amazing stories about how he worked on The Hobbit and Lord of the Rings. He worked in an IT company and spent most of his time 'writing code'. And not cool spy code but Python. Bleh.
Well, after he taught us a few of the basics, we were divided into groups and told to start working on backdrops for some of the scenes in the production. When we went to him with ideas and images and clips he kept waving us away and saying "No! No! Show me the final thing. And remember, it's not about being perfect! It's about learning."
DOUBLE HA!
So, after spending weeks and weeks finding stuff and putting it together, Sir finally takes a look and tells us that it's terrible! That we can't have work like this up on the stage. That we should have come to him sooner. That it was all a terrible disaster. Are you confused by his reaction? I sure was.
I don't know if you've ever tried to correct a grown up, but let me save you the trouble and tell you not to bother. They hate being reminded that they said one thing and are doing the exact opposite. When we tried to tell Sir that we had come to him with ideas and that he said perfection didn't matter — he kicked us off the team! YUP! You read that right. He said that if we'd spent more time working and less time arguing and answering back, then our work would have looked better.
So, I present to you 'Things grownups say but don't actually mean #103: The results don't matter, the learning does'. You can also apply this to chemistry lab explosions and getting your report card signed by your parents.
I had to spend the rest of Annual Day practice as an understudy. To a lamp post.

Q. According to the passage, which of the following actions can also be an example of 'things grownups say but don't actually mean'?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 1. From the passage, an example of things grownups say things that they don't always mean is when they say results don't matter but learning does. Such a situation is highlighted in option 1 where the father tells his son to just pass the exams and then scolds him for not topping the exam. In other options, a parallel situation to the one stated in the passage is not highlighted.

QUESTION: 8

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Here's my latest report on things grown-ups say but don't actually mean.
So, our school's Annual Day finally happened last week and I couldn't be happier. This year, I decided that I wanted to try something different, so I opted for media and editing. What's that, you ask? Who cares, I thought. As long as I didn't have to dress up as a sunflower and wave my arms about while lip-synching to the song by Post Malone, I didn't really care.
But to be honest, I thought media and editing would be cool. That I'd learn how to create special effects which I could then use on my YouTube channel. That it would launch my movie career. HA! Can you tell that that is not what happened?
A tad off?
First, the Sir who taught us editing was not some cool guy with amazing stories about how he worked on The Hobbit and Lord of the Rings. He worked in an IT company and spent most of his time 'writing code'. And not cool spy code but Python. Bleh.
Well, after he taught us a few of the basics, we were divided into groups and told to start working on backdrops for some of the scenes in the production. When we went to him with ideas and images and clips he kept waving us away and saying "No! No! Show me the final thing. And remember, it's not about being perfect! It's about learning."
DOUBLE HA!
So, after spending weeks and weeks finding stuff and putting it together, Sir finally takes a look and tells us that it's terrible! That we can't have work like this up on the stage. That we should have come to him sooner. That it was all a terrible disaster. Are you confused by his reaction? I sure was.
I don't know if you've ever tried to correct a grown up, but let me save you the trouble and tell you not to bother. They hate being reminded that they said one thing and are doing the exact opposite. When we tried to tell Sir that we had come to him with ideas and that he said perfection didn't matter — he kicked us off the team! YUP! You read that right. He said that if we'd spent more time working and less time arguing and answering back, then our work would have looked better.
So, I present to you 'Things grownups say but don't actually mean #103: The results don't matter, the learning does'. You can also apply this to chemistry lab explosions and getting your report card signed by your parents.
I had to spend the rest of Annual Day practice as an understudy. To a lamp post.

Q. What does the word 'opted' as used in the passage mean?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. 'Opted' in the passage means 'to make a choice from a range of possibilities'. Other options don't come even close to what 'opted' means in the passage.

QUESTION: 9

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Here's my latest report on things grown-ups say but don't actually mean.
So, our school's Annual Day finally happened last week and I couldn't be happier. This year, I decided that I wanted to try something different, so I opted for media and editing. What's that, you ask? Who cares, I thought. As long as I didn't have to dress up as a sunflower and wave my arms about while lip-synching to the song by Post Malone, I didn't really care.
But to be honest, I thought media and editing would be cool. That I'd learn how to create special effects which I could then use on my YouTube channel. That it would launch my movie career. HA! Can you tell that that is not what happened?
A tad off?
First, the Sir who taught us editing was not some cool guy with amazing stories about how he worked on The Hobbit and Lord of the Rings. He worked in an IT company and spent most of his time 'writing code'. And not cool spy code but Python. Bleh.
Well, after he taught us a few of the basics, we were divided into groups and told to start working on backdrops for some of the scenes in the production. When we went to him with ideas and images and clips he kept waving us away and saying "No! No! Show me the final thing. And remember, it's not about being perfect! It's about learning."
DOUBLE HA!
So, after spending weeks and weeks finding stuff and putting it together, Sir finally takes a look and tells us that it's terrible! That we can't have work like this up on the stage. That we should have come to him sooner. That it was all a terrible disaster. Are you confused by his reaction? I sure was.
I don't know if you've ever tried to correct a grown up, but let me save you the trouble and tell you not to bother. They hate being reminded that they said one thing and are doing the exact opposite. When we tried to tell Sir that we had come to him with ideas and that he said perfection didn't matter — he kicked us off the team! YUP! You read that right. He said that if we'd spent more time working and less time arguing and answering back, then our work would have looked better.
So, I present to you 'Things grownups say but don't actually mean #103: The results don't matter, the learning does'. You can also apply this to chemistry lab explosions and getting your report card signed by your parents.
I had to spend the rest of Annual Day practice as an understudy. To a lamp post.

Q. Why, according to the author, is it best not to correct a grown-up?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 4. The answer is apparent from the second last paragraph. The author was kicked off from the team when he confronted the teacher. The author states, "I don't know if you've ever tried to correct a grown up, but let me save you the trouble and tell you not to bother. They hate being reminded that they said one thing and are doing the exact opposite."

QUESTION: 10

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Here's my latest report on things grown-ups say but don't actually mean.
So, our school's Annual Day finally happened last week and I couldn't be happier. This year, I decided that I wanted to try something different, so I opted for media and editing. What's that, you ask? Who cares, I thought. As long as I didn't have to dress up as a sunflower and wave my arms about while lip-synching to the song by Post Malone, I didn't really care.
But to be honest, I thought media and editing would be cool. That I'd learn how to create special effects which I could then use on my YouTube channel. That it would launch my movie career. HA! Can you tell that that is not what happened?
A tad off?
First, the Sir who taught us editing was not some cool guy with amazing stories about how he worked on The Hobbit and Lord of the Rings. He worked in an IT company and spent most of his time 'writing code'. And not cool spy code but Python. Bleh.
Well, after he taught us a few of the basics, we were divided into groups and told to start working on backdrops for some of the scenes in the production. When we went to him with ideas and images and clips he kept waving us away and saying "No! No! Show me the final thing. And remember, it's not about being perfect! It's about learning."
DOUBLE HA!
So, after spending weeks and weeks finding stuff and putting it together, Sir finally takes a look and tells us that it's terrible! That we can't have work like this up on the stage. That we should have come to him sooner. That it was all a terrible disaster. Are you confused by his reaction? I sure was.
I don't know if you've ever tried to correct a grown up, but let me save you the trouble and tell you not to bother. They hate being reminded that they said one thing and are doing the exact opposite. When we tried to tell Sir that we had come to him with ideas and that he said perfection didn't matter — he kicked us off the team! YUP! You read that right. He said that if we'd spent more time working and less time arguing and answering back, then our work would have looked better.
So, I present to you 'Things grownups say but don't actually mean #103: The results don't matter, the learning does'. You can also apply this to chemistry lab explosions and getting your report card signed by your parents.
I had to spend the rest of Annual Day practice as an understudy. To a lamp post.

Q. How did the Sir react when he was approached by the author and other students with ideas about the assignment?

Solution:

The correct option is 3. The author states the Sir's reaction in these lines: "When we went to him with ideas and images and clips he kept waving us away and saying No! No! Show me the final thing. And remember, it's not about being perfect! It's about learning."

QUESTION: 11

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Dad looked at the lines on my palm and said, "You'll live to be 90, my child." The day I was diagnosed with cancer, five decades later, I thought of him and wept.
I was at the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai in October 2007. At 58, I looked 40, bursting with energy and passion for my work. At the end of the workshop, while changing my clothes, I stood transfixed before the mirror, staring at the bright red flower glaring back at me from my right breast. I was sure it wasn't there the day before. My heart pounding, I returned home to Pune and rushed to the doctor who recommended an ultrasound and a fine needle aspiration cytology. Both tested positive for malignancy.
When I picked up the reports in a daze, I wondered, how could this be happening to me? Leaning against the tall hospital pillar, I shivered like a leaf while breaking the news to my family—stage-three breast cancer.
My treatment began straight away. First, I underwent a radical mastectomy. Then came the chemo. Six cycles of chemo later, it was time for 33 rounds of radiation. After the fourth, I was lying unconscious on the bathroom floor. I was told later that I had suffered a mild stroke but was lucky the clot had passed on.
I soon realized that if I was going to have any chance at life again, I had to take control of my disease, instead of allowing it to overpower me as it had done until now. On 19 April 2008, a day after my treatment ended, I tied a scarf around my hairless head and flew to Chandigarh to train Rotary Club leaders in soft skills. A burning desire to get a hold of life, and find purpose pushed me forward and distracted me from that terrifying thought—What if the cancer returned?
While I focused on regaining normalcy, I was unaware of a developing crisis. In 2009, a 2D echocardiogram reported an inexplicable drop in my heart's pumping rate from 65 to 55 per cent. I was anxious but doctors allayed my fears. Three years later drained, breathless and perspiring, I was carried to a car that conveyed me to the hospital once again. It was not a heart attack, but my survival was at stake.
A year later, I learnt that a drug administered to me during chemo had damaged it. I was in shock. I restarted meditation and visualization to feel more positive. Work was my mainstay, my hope and source of comfort. That and a nightly prayer pushed the thought of death away.

Q. Why did the author cry thinking about her father when she was diagnosed with cancer?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 1. This is apparent in the first paragraph in which the author states that her father predicted that she would live to be 90 years. So, she was assured that she will live till 90. After five decades, when she was diagnosed with cancer her thought of living long were shattered.

QUESTION: 12

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Dad looked at the lines on my palm and said, "You'll live to be 90, my child." The day I was diagnosed with cancer, five decades later, I thought of him and wept.
I was at the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai in October 2007. At 58, I looked 40, bursting with energy and passion for my work. At the end of the workshop, while changing my clothes, I stood transfixed before the mirror, staring at the bright red flower glaring back at me from my right breast. I was sure it wasn't there the day before. My heart pounding, I returned home to Pune and rushed to the doctor who recommended an ultrasound and a fine needle aspiration cytology. Both tested positive for malignancy.
When I picked up the reports in a daze, I wondered, how could this be happening to me? Leaning against the tall hospital pillar, I shivered like a leaf while breaking the news to my family—stage-three breast cancer.
My treatment began straight away. First, I underwent a radical mastectomy. Then came the chemo. Six cycles of chemo later, it was time for 33 rounds of radiation. After the fourth, I was lying unconscious on the bathroom floor. I was told later that I had suffered a mild stroke but was lucky the clot had passed on.
I soon realized that if I was going to have any chance at life again, I had to take control of my disease, instead of allowing it to overpower me as it had done until now. On 19 April 2008, a day after my treatment ended, I tied a scarf around my hairless head and flew to Chandigarh to train Rotary Club leaders in soft skills. A burning desire to get a hold of life, and find purpose pushed me forward and distracted me from that terrifying thought—What if the cancer returned?
While I focused on regaining normalcy, I was unaware of a developing crisis. In 2009, a 2D echocardiogram reported an inexplicable drop in my heart's pumping rate from 65 to 55 per cent. I was anxious but doctors allayed my fears. Three years later drained, breathless and perspiring, I was carried to a car that conveyed me to the hospital once again. It was not a heart attack, but my survival was at stake.
A year later, I learnt that a drug administered to me during chemo had damaged it. I was in shock. I restarted meditation and visualization to feel more positive. Work was my mainstay, my hope and source of comfort. That and a nightly prayer pushed the thought of death away.

Q. What does the word 'transfixed' as used in the passage mean?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 3. It can be inferred that the author was shocked and horrified to discover the sign of cancer on her breast ('bright red flower'). This is further highlighted by the fact that the author states that it was not there the previous day. All other options do not match the context of the passage, so options 1, 2 and 4 are all incorrect.

QUESTION: 13

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Dad looked at the lines on my palm and said, "You'll live to be 90, my child." The day I was diagnosed with cancer, five decades later, I thought of him and wept.
I was at the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai in October 2007. At 58, I looked 40, bursting with energy and passion for my work. At the end of the workshop, while changing my clothes, I stood transfixed before the mirror, staring at the bright red flower glaring back at me from my right breast. I was sure it wasn't there the day before. My heart pounding, I returned home to Pune and rushed to the doctor who recommended an ultrasound and a fine needle aspiration cytology. Both tested positive for malignancy.
When I picked up the reports in a daze, I wondered, how could this be happening to me? Leaning against the tall hospital pillar, I shivered like a leaf while breaking the news to my family—stage-three breast cancer.
My treatment began straight away. First, I underwent a radical mastectomy. Then came the chemo. Six cycles of chemo later, it was time for 33 rounds of radiation. After the fourth, I was lying unconscious on the bathroom floor. I was told later that I had suffered a mild stroke but was lucky the clot had passed on.
I soon realized that if I was going to have any chance at life again, I had to take control of my disease, instead of allowing it to overpower me as it had done until now. On 19 April 2008, a day after my treatment ended, I tied a scarf around my hairless head and flew to Chandigarh to train Rotary Club leaders in soft skills. A burning desire to get a hold of life, and find purpose pushed me forward and distracted me from that terrifying thought—What if the cancer returned?
While I focused on regaining normalcy, I was unaware of a developing crisis. In 2009, a 2D echocardiogram reported an inexplicable drop in my heart's pumping rate from 65 to 55 per cent. I was anxious but doctors allayed my fears. Three years later drained, breathless and perspiring, I was carried to a car that conveyed me to the hospital once again. It was not a heart attack, but my survival was at stake.
A year later, I learnt that a drug administered to me during chemo had damaged it. I was in shock. I restarted meditation and visualization to feel more positive. Work was my mainstay, my hope and source of comfort. That and a nightly prayer pushed the thought of death away.

Q. According to the passage, how did the author react when she got her reports for utlrasound and cytology tests?

Solution:

Option 3 is the correct answer. The author describes her state after getting the reports in these lines: "When I picked up the reports in a daze, I wondered, How could this be happening to me? Leaning against the tall hospital pillar, I shivered like a leaf while breaking the news to my family—stage-three breast cancer."

QUESTION: 14

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Dad looked at the lines on my palm and said, "You'll live to be 90, my child." The day I was diagnosed with cancer, five decades later, I thought of him and wept.
I was at the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai in October 2007. At 58, I looked 40, bursting with energy and passion for my work. At the end of the workshop, while changing my clothes, I stood transfixed before the mirror, staring at the bright red flower glaring back at me from my right breast. I was sure it wasn't there the day before. My heart pounding, I returned home to Pune and rushed to the doctor who recommended an ultrasound and a fine needle aspiration cytology. Both tested positive for malignancy.
When I picked up the reports in a daze, I wondered, how could this be happening to me? Leaning against the tall hospital pillar, I shivered like a leaf while breaking the news to my family—stage-three breast cancer.
My treatment began straight away. First, I underwent a radical mastectomy. Then came the chemo. Six cycles of chemo later, it was time for 33 rounds of radiation. After the fourth, I was lying unconscious on the bathroom floor. I was told later that I had suffered a mild stroke but was lucky the clot had passed on.
I soon realized that if I was going to have any chance at life again, I had to take control of my disease, instead of allowing it to overpower me as it had done until now. On 19 April 2008, a day after my treatment ended, I tied a scarf around my hairless head and flew to Chandigarh to train Rotary Club leaders in soft skills. A burning desire to get a hold of life, and find purpose pushed me forward and distracted me from that terrifying thought—What if the cancer returned?
While I focused on regaining normalcy, I was unaware of a developing crisis. In 2009, a 2D echocardiogram reported an inexplicable drop in my heart's pumping rate from 65 to 55 per cent. I was anxious but doctors allayed my fears. Three years later drained, breathless and perspiring, I was carried to a car that conveyed me to the hospital once again. It was not a heart attack, but my survival was at stake.
A year later, I learnt that a drug administered to me during chemo had damaged it. I was in shock. I restarted meditation and visualization to feel more positive. Work was my mainstay, my hope and source of comfort. That and a nightly prayer pushed the thought of death away.

Q. What does the author mean when she says that work was her 'mainstay'?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 1. In the final paragraph, the author states that she found hope and comfort in her work. Moreover, the fifth paragraph, the author states 'A burning desire to get a hold of life, and find purpose pushed me forward' which supports the inference that she found work as a way of finding purpose and meaning and that this was central to helping her deal with her illness.

QUESTION: 15

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Dad looked at the lines on my palm and said, "You'll live to be 90, my child." The day I was diagnosed with cancer, five decades later, I thought of him and wept.
I was at the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai in October 2007. At 58, I looked 40, bursting with energy and passion for my work. At the end of the workshop, while changing my clothes, I stood transfixed before the mirror, staring at the bright red flower glaring back at me from my right breast. I was sure it wasn't there the day before. My heart pounding, I returned home to Pune and rushed to the doctor who recommended an ultrasound and a fine needle aspiration cytology. Both tested positive for malignancy.
When I picked up the reports in a daze, I wondered, how could this be happening to me? Leaning against the tall hospital pillar, I shivered like a leaf while breaking the news to my family—stage-three breast cancer.
My treatment began straight away. First, I underwent a radical mastectomy. Then came the chemo. Six cycles of chemo later, it was time for 33 rounds of radiation. After the fourth, I was lying unconscious on the bathroom floor. I was told later that I had suffered a mild stroke but was lucky the clot had passed on.
I soon realized that if I was going to have any chance at life again, I had to take control of my disease, instead of allowing it to overpower me as it had done until now. On 19 April 2008, a day after my treatment ended, I tied a scarf around my hairless head and flew to Chandigarh to train Rotary Club leaders in soft skills. A burning desire to get a hold of life, and find purpose pushed me forward and distracted me from that terrifying thought—What if the cancer returned?
While I focused on regaining normalcy, I was unaware of a developing crisis. In 2009, a 2D echocardiogram reported an inexplicable drop in my heart's pumping rate from 65 to 55 per cent. I was anxious but doctors allayed my fears. Three years later drained, breathless and perspiring, I was carried to a car that conveyed me to the hospital once again. It was not a heart attack, but my survival was at stake.
A year later, I learnt that a drug administered to me during chemo had damaged it. I was in shock. I restarted meditation and visualization to feel more positive. Work was my mainstay, my hope and source of comfort. That and a nightly prayer pushed the thought of death away.

Q. From the given passage, which of the following can we infer about the author?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 4. This is apparent throughout the passage as she states that she needed to take control of her disease and not let it empower her as well as her focusing on 'normalcy' and finding comfort in work.

QUESTION: 16

Read the following passage and answer the question.

The last few months of the year are always filled with fun stuff at school — Dussehra break, Deepavali holidays, sports day, annual day and then the long Christmas break. There's practice, Sport's Day heats, and Project Day submissions and regular studies kind of take a back seat.
It's the best! But, like in any fairy tale, just when everything seems perfect and made of candy, a big bad wolf or an evil witch lurking in the shadows jumps out, grabs you and cooks you in an oven. Okay, I know I'm mixing fairy tales up — think of it as a remix okay?
In my fairy tale life of hardly any studies and homework, the big bad wolf-witch (hybrid villains, people) looks like the ASSET exam. ASSET stands for Assessment of Scholastic Skills through Educational Testing, and this national test is meant to see what concepts students understand and don't understand with detailed feedback on what we can improve in. WHY?
I mean, I already know that I get confused between 12:00a.m. and 12:00p.m. and never remember which is which.
And that irregular verbs are just something my brain can't process. And that I'm not sure where people dance Bhangra — is it Gujarat or Assam? Neither? SEE!
More exams!
Why do I need another exam to tell me what I suck at? School has enough of those exams already. At least school exams are a little straightforward. These ASSET tests try to confuse you and trip you up at every turn. All the questions are sneaky and all the answers sound the same. It's awful.
And then, when they give you the results, they don't stop with just a grade or score, but they write pages and pages of feedback of what you 'might' want to work on. And guess what happens when parents read that kind of feedback? They go into hyperdrive. Suddenly, everything is about how to make me improve my 'spatial awareness' and 'logical reasoning' and 'improve my structural foundation'. Structural foundation? I'm a child, not a church. Aargh.
My ASSET scores have been pretty unspectacular these last few years and you'd think I'd be worried. But no. Do you want to know why? The scores don't matter. They can't keep me back a year or kick me out of school if I don't do well in them. The scores have no bearing on my great future as a PubG superstar, a spider expert, or a writer of amazing graphic novels. I protest that I have to take them only to have them make me feel bad and not smart.

Q. Which of the following best expresses the author's main point in the passage?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 1. This is apparent from the final paragraph in which the author states that this test has no effect on academics. There is nothing to support that ASSET exam should be optional, so option 2 is not correct. There is nothing in the passage to suggest that ASSET exam is crucial for the student, so option 3 cannot be correct. Option 4 does not represent what the author states. He believes that ASSET should not be given if they have no weight on a student's academics, so option 4 is incorrect.

QUESTION: 17

Read the following passage and answer the question.

The last few months of the year are always filled with fun stuff at school — Dussehra break, Deepavali holidays, sports day, annual day and then the long Christmas break. There's practice, Sport's Day heats, and Project Day submissions and regular studies kind of take a back seat.
It's the best! But, like in any fairy tale, just when everything seems perfect and made of candy, a big bad wolf or an evil witch lurking in the shadows jumps out, grabs you and cooks you in an oven. Okay, I know I'm mixing fairy tales up — think of it as a remix okay?
In my fairy tale life of hardly any studies and homework, the big bad wolf-witch (hybrid villains, people) looks like the ASSET exam. ASSET stands for Assessment of Scholastic Skills through Educational Testing, and this national test is meant to see what concepts students understand and don't understand with detailed feedback on what we can improve in. WHY?
I mean, I already know that I get confused between 12:00a.m. and 12:00p.m. and never remember which is which.
And that irregular verbs are just something my brain can't process. And that I'm not sure where people dance Bhangra — is it Gujarat or Assam? Neither? SEE!
More exams!
Why do I need another exam to tell me what I suck at? School has enough of those exams already. At least school exams are a little straightforward. These ASSET tests try to confuse you and trip you up at every turn. All the questions are sneaky and all the answers sound the same. It's awful.
And then, when they give you the results, they don't stop with just a grade or score, but they write pages and pages of feedback of what you 'might' want to work on. And guess what happens when parents read that kind of feedback? They go into hyperdrive. Suddenly, everything is about how to make me improve my 'spatial awareness' and 'logical reasoning' and 'improve my structural foundation'. Structural foundation? I'm a child, not a church. Aargh.
My ASSET scores have been pretty unspectacular these last few years and you'd think I'd be worried. But no. Do you want to know why? The scores don't matter. They can't keep me back a year or kick me out of school if I don't do well in them. The scores have no bearing on my great future as a PubG superstar, a spider expert, or a writer of amazing graphic novels. I protest that I have to take them only to have them make me feel bad and not smart.

Q. According to the passage, which of the following seems to be true about the author?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. From what the author has written, we can understand that the author is more creative and fun-loving than good at studies. He states, "In my fairy tale life of hardly any studies and homework, the big bad wolf-witch (hybrid villains, people) looks like the ASSET exam ... " and "The scores have no bearing on my great future as a PubG superstar, a spider expert, or a writer of amazing graphic novels."

QUESTION: 18

Read the following passage and answer the question.

The last few months of the year are always filled with fun stuff at school — Dussehra break, Deepavali holidays, sports day, annual day and then the long Christmas break. There's practice, Sport's Day heats, and Project Day submissions and regular studies kind of take a back seat.
It's the best! But, like in any fairy tale, just when everything seems perfect and made of candy, a big bad wolf or an evil witch lurking in the shadows jumps out, grabs you and cooks you in an oven. Okay, I know I'm mixing fairy tales up — think of it as a remix okay?
In my fairy tale life of hardly any studies and homework, the big bad wolf-witch (hybrid villains, people) looks like the ASSET exam. ASSET stands for Assessment of Scholastic Skills through Educational Testing, and this national test is meant to see what concepts students understand and don't understand with detailed feedback on what we can improve in. WHY?
I mean, I already know that I get confused between 12:00a.m. and 12:00p.m. and never remember which is which.
And that irregular verbs are just something my brain can't process. And that I'm not sure where people dance Bhangra — is it Gujarat or Assam? Neither? SEE!
More exams!
Why do I need another exam to tell me what I suck at? School has enough of those exams already. At least school exams are a little straightforward. These ASSET tests try to confuse you and trip you up at every turn. All the questions are sneaky and all the answers sound the same. It's awful.
And then, when they give you the results, they don't stop with just a grade or score, but they write pages and pages of feedback of what you 'might' want to work on. And guess what happens when parents read that kind of feedback? They go into hyperdrive. Suddenly, everything is about how to make me improve my 'spatial awareness' and 'logical reasoning' and 'improve my structural foundation'. Structural foundation? I'm a child, not a church. Aargh.
My ASSET scores have been pretty unspectacular these last few years and you'd think I'd be worried. But no. Do you want to know why? The scores don't matter. They can't keep me back a year or kick me out of school if I don't do well in them. The scores have no bearing on my great future as a PubG superstar, a spider expert, or a writer of amazing graphic novels. I protest that I have to take them only to have them make me feel bad and not smart.

Q. In context of the given passage, which of the following would be the most appropriate meaning of the term 'go into hyperdrive'?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 1. The author provides examples to help understand what this phrase means in the overall context: "Suddenly, everything is about how to make me improve my 'spatial awareness' and 'logical reasoning' and 'improve my structural foundation'. "

QUESTION: 19

Read the following passage and answer the question.

The last few months of the year are always filled with fun stuff at school — Dussehra break, Deepavali holidays, sports day, annual day and then the long Christmas break. There's practice, Sport's Day heats, and Project Day submissions and regular studies kind of take a back seat.
It's the best! But, like in any fairy tale, just when everything seems perfect and made of candy, a big bad wolf or an evil witch lurking in the shadows jumps out, grabs you and cooks you in an oven. Okay, I know I'm mixing fairy tales up — think of it as a remix okay?
In my fairy tale life of hardly any studies and homework, the big bad wolf-witch (hybrid villains, people) looks like the ASSET exam. ASSET stands for Assessment of Scholastic Skills through Educational Testing, and this national test is meant to see what concepts students understand and don't understand with detailed feedback on what we can improve in. WHY?
I mean, I already know that I get confused between 12:00a.m. and 12:00p.m. and never remember which is which.
And that irregular verbs are just something my brain can't process. And that I'm not sure where people dance Bhangra — is it Gujarat or Assam? Neither? SEE!
More exams!
Why do I need another exam to tell me what I suck at? School has enough of those exams already. At least school exams are a little straightforward. These ASSET tests try to confuse you and trip you up at every turn. All the questions are sneaky and all the answers sound the same. It's awful.
And then, when they give you the results, they don't stop with just a grade or score, but they write pages and pages of feedback of what you 'might' want to work on. And guess what happens when parents read that kind of feedback? They go into hyperdrive. Suddenly, everything is about how to make me improve my 'spatial awareness' and 'logical reasoning' and 'improve my structural foundation'. Structural foundation? I'm a child, not a church. Aargh.
My ASSET scores have been pretty unspectacular these last few years and you'd think I'd be worried. But no. Do you want to know why? The scores don't matter. They can't keep me back a year or kick me out of school if I don't do well in them. The scores have no bearing on my great future as a PubG superstar, a spider expert, or a writer of amazing graphic novels. I protest that I have to take them only to have them make me feel bad and not smart.

Q. Based on information in the passage, which of the following is most accurate?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 3. The author states in the passage: 'These ASSET tests try to confuse you and trip you up at every turn. All the questions are sneaky and all the answers sound the same.'

QUESTION: 20

Read the following passage and answer the question

The last few months of the year are always filled with fun stuff at school — Dussehra break, Deepavali holidays, sports day, annual day and then the long Christmas break. There's practice, Sport's Day heats, and Project Day submissions and regular studies kind of take a back seat.
It's the best! But, like in any fairy tale, just when everything seems perfect and made of candy, a big bad wolf or an evil witch lurking in the shadows jumps out, grabs you and cooks you in an oven. Okay, I know I'm mixing fairy tales up — think of it as a remix okay?
In my fairy tale life of hardly any studies and homework, the big bad wolf-witch (hybrid villains, people) looks like the ASSET exam. ASSET stands for Assessment of Scholastic Skills through Educational Testing, and this national test is meant to see what concepts students understand and don't understand with detailed feedback on what we can improve in. WHY?
I mean, I already know that I get confused between 12:00a.m. and 12:00p.m. and never remember which is which.
And that irregular verbs are just something my brain can't process. And that I'm not sure where people dance Bhangra — is it Gujarat or Assam? Neither? SEE!
More exams!
Why do I need another exam to tell me what I suck at? School has enough of those exams already. At least school exams are a little straightforward. These ASSET tests try to confuse you and trip you up at every turn. All the questions are sneaky and all the answers sound the same. It's awful.
And then, when they give you the results, they don't stop with just a grade or score, but they write pages and pages of feedback of what you 'might' want to work on. And guess what happens when parents read that kind of feedback? They go into hyperdrive. Suddenly, everything is about how to make me improve my 'spatial awareness' and 'logical reasoning' and 'improve my structural foundation'. Structural foundation? I'm a child, not a church. Aargh.
My ASSET scores have been pretty unspectacular these last few years and you'd think I'd be worried. But no. Do you want to know why? The scores don't matter. They can't keep me back a year or kick me out of school if I don't do well in them. The scores have no bearing on my great future as a PubG superstar, a spider expert, or a writer of amazing graphic novels. I protest that I have to take them only to have them make me feel bad and not smart.

Q. Which of the following statements is the author most likely to agree with?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. This is apparent in the passage: "My ASSET scores ... don't matter. They can't keep me back a year or kick me out of school if I don't do well in them. The scores have no bearing on my great future as a PubG superstar, a spider expert, or a writer of amazing graphic novels. I protest that I have to take them only to have them make me feel bad and not smart."
There is nothing in the passage to indicate that the author would agree with the statements in options 1, 3 and 4.

QUESTION: 21

Read the following passage and answer the question.

I came across a study from the New England Journal of Medicine (2018) that found that the most productive age in a human's life is not your 20s or 30s, but 60 to 70. And, the study confirms that the second most productive age is between 70 and 80 and the third most productive decade is 50 to 60.
What is going on here? Is this another disinformation campaign by the oldies among us, trying to vindicate their creaking joints, swollen knees, aching backs and greying hair by purveying fake news about their superiority to the fit, energetic, six-pack-sporting, young whippersnappers who are actually producing everything that matters in the world?
Not quite. Consider the evidence: The average age of a Nobel Prize winner is 62. The average age of a CEO in a Fortune 500 company is 63. The average age of popes is 76. And, in India, the average age of the cabinet is 60. Our prime minister, at 69, is a mere juvenile compared with some of his predecessors, such as Morarji Desai, who became PM at 81, or even the much-maligned Jawaharlal Nehru, who died in office at 74.
Looking back at my own life, next month I will publish my 20th book. Ten of those have seen the light of print since after my 50th birthday. There is little doubt that I have been more productive in my sixth and now seventh decade than in my (at least partially) misspent youth.
There is a logical reason for this. It is true that when you are young you are still feeling your way, acquiring the skills you need and laying the foundations of your future achievements. Most of our 20s and 30s are spent on romance, on wooing our future partner, and in creating and bringing up our family. The responsibility of making a living, of educating our children, and of taking care of our parents is a time-consuming one that inevitably distracts us from a single-minded focus on professional accomplishment.
In other words, most people's social and personal circumstances mean that their lives are so designed that the best years of their existence are between 60 and 80. That is the age when they have acquired whatever skills they are likely to acquire, have made (and learned from) their mistakes, and can focus on sharpening and deploying those skills. Thanks to modern medicine, most people are able to remain reasonably healthy past 60 and, even if physically slower, remain capable of top-quality intellectual performance. It is an age when there are fewer distractions. It is the time when you can do your best work.

Q. Which of the following best expresses the author's main idea in the passage?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. The author makes this claim in the first paragraph by stating that a study has proven this and then discusses it in-depth throughout the entire passage. The importance of being productive for adults in their latter years is not supported in the passage, so option 1 cannot be correct. The notion of adults under the age of 50 years are more productive is contradictory, so option 3 is incorrect. The average age of business leaders and politicians being in the 6th and 7th decades is stated, but is used as an example to support the author's main idea, so option 4 is incorrect.

QUESTION: 22

Read the following passage and answer the question.

I came across a study from the New England Journal of Medicine (2018) that found that the most productive age in a human's life is not your 20s or 30s, but 60 to 70. And, the study confirms that the second most productive age is between 70 and 80 and the third most productive decade is 50 to 60.
What is going on here? Is this another disinformation campaign by the oldies among us, trying to vindicate their creaking joints, swollen knees, aching backs and greying hair by purveying fake news about their superiority to the fit, energetic, six-pack-sporting, young whippersnappers who are actually producing everything that matters in the world?
Not quite. Consider the evidence: The average age of a Nobel Prize winner is 62. The average age of a CEO in a Fortune 500 company is 63. The average age of popes is 76. And, in India, the average age of the cabinet is 60. Our prime minister, at 69, is a mere juvenile compared with some of his predecessors, such as Morarji Desai, who became PM at 81, or even the much-maligned Jawaharlal Nehru, who died in office at 74.
Looking back at my own life, next month I will publish my 20th book. Ten of those have seen the light of print since after my 50th birthday. There is little doubt that I have been more productive in my sixth and now seventh decade than in my (at least partially) misspent youth.
There is a logical reason for this. It is true that when you are young you are still feeling your way, acquiring the skills you need and laying the foundations of your future achievements. Most of our 20s and 30s are spent on romance, on wooing our future partner, and in creating and bringing up our family. The responsibility of making a living, of educating our children, and of taking care of our parents is a time-consuming one that inevitably distracts us from a single-minded focus on professional accomplishment.
In other words, most people's social and personal circumstances mean that their lives are so designed that the best years of their existence are between 60 and 80. That is the age when they have acquired whatever skills they are likely to acquire, have made (and learned from) their mistakes, and can focus on sharpening and deploying those skills. Thanks to modern medicine, most people are able to remain reasonably healthy past 60 and, even if physically slower, remain capable of top-quality intellectual performance. It is an age when there are fewer distractions. It is the time when you can do your best work.

Q. Which of the following statements would the author most likely agree with?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 1. This is based on information from the fifth paragraph which describes the activities of "romance, on wooing our future partner, and in creating and bringing up our family" as distractions. Younger adults being incapable of fully realising their potential is not supported in the passage, so option 2 cannot be correct. Option 2 implies that these skills are laid down during one's education in primary, secondary and post-secondary levels and is not supported in the passage, so option 3 is incorrect. Option 4 contradicts the information in the passage, so it is also incorrect.

QUESTION: 23

Read the following passage and answer the question.

I came across a study from the New England Journal of Medicine (2018) that found that the most productive age in a human's life is not your 20s or 30s, but 60 to 70. And, the study confirms that the second most productive age is between 70 and 80 and the third most productive decade is 50 to 60.
What is going on here? Is this another disinformation campaign by the oldies among us, trying to vindicate their creaking joints, swollen knees, aching backs and greying hair by purveying fake news about their superiority to the fit, energetic, six-pack-sporting, young whippersnappers who are actually producing everything that matters in the world?
Not quite. Consider the evidence: The average age of a Nobel Prize winner is 62. The average age of a CEO in a Fortune 500 company is 63. The average age of popes is 76. And, in India, the average age of the cabinet is 60. Our prime minister, at 69, is a mere juvenile compared with some of his predecessors, such as Morarji Desai, who became PM at 81, or even the much-maligned Jawaharlal Nehru, who died in office at 74.
Looking back at my own life, next month I will publish my 20th book. Ten of those have seen the light of print since after my 50th birthday. There is little doubt that I have been more productive in my sixth and now seventh decade than in my (at least partially) misspent youth.
There is a logical reason for this. It is true that when you are young you are still feeling your way, acquiring the skills you need and laying the foundations of your future achievements. Most of our 20s and 30s are spent on romance, on wooing our future partner, and in creating and bringing up our family. The responsibility of making a living, of educating our children, and of taking care of our parents is a time-consuming one that inevitably distracts us from a single-minded focus on professional accomplishment.
In other words, most people's social and personal circumstances mean that their lives are so designed that the best years of their existence are between 60 and 80. That is the age when they have acquired whatever skills they are likely to acquire, have made (and learned from) their mistakes, and can focus on sharpening and deploying those skills. Thanks to modern medicine, most people are able to remain reasonably healthy past 60 and, even if physically slower, remain capable of top-quality intellectual performance. It is an age when there are fewer distractions. It is the time when you can do your best work.

Q. According to the passage which of the following can be rightly justified as a distraction that could limit the productivity of a younger adult?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. Based on information in the passage, this can be assumed to take place when a person begins their career and establishes their life as an adult and not at an older age. Option 1 states a short-term task and is not necessarily a distraction. Taking classes for self-enrichment could be construed as something positive and is not necessarily a distraction, so option 3 cannot be correct. Similarly, the situation stated in option 4 is not a distraction; it is what a person should aspire for.

QUESTION: 24

Read the following passage and answer the question.

I came across a study from the New England Journal of Medicine (2018) that found that the most productive age in a human's life is not your 20s or 30s, but 60 to 70. And, the study confirms that the second most productive age is between 70 and 80 and the third most productive decade is 50 to 60.
What is going on here? Is this another disinformation campaign by the oldies among us, trying to vindicate their creaking joints, swollen knees, aching backs and greying hair by purveying fake news about their superiority to the fit, energetic, six-pack-sporting, young whippersnappers who are actually producing everything that matters in the world?
Not quite. Consider the evidence: The average age of a Nobel Prize winner is 62. The average age of a CEO in a Fortune 500 company is 63. The average age of popes is 76. And, in India, the average age of the cabinet is 60. Our prime minister, at 69, is a mere juvenile compared with some of his predecessors, such as Morarji Desai, who became PM at 81, or even the much-maligned Jawaharlal Nehru, who died in office at 74.
Looking back at my own life, next month I will publish my 20th book. Ten of those have seen the light of print since after my 50th birthday. There is little doubt that I have been more productive in my sixth and now seventh decade than in my (at least partially) misspent youth.
There is a logical reason for this. It is true that when you are young you are still feeling your way, acquiring the skills you need and laying the foundations of your future achievements. Most of our 20s and 30s are spent on romance, on wooing our future partner, and in creating and bringing up our family. The responsibility of making a living, of educating our children, and of taking care of our parents is a time-consuming one that inevitably distracts us from a single-minded focus on professional accomplishment.
In other words, most people's social and personal circumstances mean that their lives are so designed that the best years of their existence are between 60 and 80. That is the age when they have acquired whatever skills they are likely to acquire, have made (and learned from) their mistakes, and can focus on sharpening and deploying those skills. Thanks to modern medicine, most people are able to remain reasonably healthy past 60 and, even if physically slower, remain capable of top-quality intellectual performance. It is an age when there are fewer distractions. It is the time when you can do your best work.

Q. What does the word 'vindicate' as used in the passage mean?

Solution:

The correct option is 4. The author asks a rhetorical question that most young readers would have when he states that older people are more productive. He states that they are trying to justify their incapacities by spreading fake information.

QUESTION: 25

Read the following passage and answer the question.

I came across a study from the New England Journal of Medicine (2018) that found that the most productive age in a human's life is not your 20s or 30s, but 60 to 70. And, the study confirms that the second most productive age is between 70 and 80 and the third most productive decade is 50 to 60.
What is going on here? Is this another disinformation campaign by the oldies among us, trying to vindicate their creaking joints, swollen knees, aching backs and greying hair by purveying fake news about their superiority to the fit, energetic, six-pack-sporting, young whippersnappers who are actually producing everything that matters in the world?
Not quite. Consider the evidence: The average age of a Nobel Prize winner is 62. The average age of a CEO in a Fortune 500 company is 63. The average age of popes is 76. And, in India, the average age of the cabinet is 60. Our prime minister, at 69, is a mere juvenile compared with some of his predecessors, such as Morarji Desai, who became PM at 81, or even the much-maligned Jawaharlal Nehru, who died in office at 74.
Looking back at my own life, next month I will publish my 20th book. Ten of those have seen the light of print since after my 50th birthday. There is little doubt that I have been more productive in my sixth and now seventh decade than in my (at least partially) misspent youth.
There is a logical reason for this. It is true that when you are young you are still feeling your way, acquiring the skills you need and laying the foundations of your future achievements. Most of our 20s and 30s are spent on romance, on wooing our future partner, and in creating and bringing up our family. The responsibility of making a living, of educating our children, and of taking care of our parents is a time-consuming one that inevitably distracts us from a single-minded focus on professional accomplishment.
In other words, most people's social and personal circumstances mean that their lives are so designed that the best years of their existence are between 60 and 80. That is the age when they have acquired whatever skills they are likely to acquire, have made (and learned from) their mistakes, and can focus on sharpening and deploying those skills. Thanks to modern medicine, most people are able to remain reasonably healthy past 60 and, even if physically slower, remain capable of top-quality intellectual performance. It is an age when there are fewer distractions. It is the time when you can do your best work.

Q. What, according to the author, makes it possible for a person's best years to fall between ages of 60 and 80?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 3. This is evident from the information in the final paragraph which states: 'That is the age when they have acquired whatever skills they are likely to acquire, have made (and learned from) their mistakes, and can focus on sharpening and deploying those skills.' That this is the age group during which adults find success is not supported in the passage; rather the author states adults at this age are more productive, so option 1 is incorrect. Option 2 is suggested in the passage, but this does not explain why this age group is the best years, so option 2 is incorrect. Option 4 is not supported in the passage, so it cannot be correct.

QUESTION: 26

Read the following passage and answer the question.

One summer, many years ago, while I was living in the garden city of Pune, I lay in bed, unwell. Lying in bed, I watched a large neem tree teeming with activity. Birds like orioles, flycatchers, and magpie robins were frequent visitors to the tree. Another cute resident on the neem tree was the palm squirrel; common in peninsular India. As I lay in bed, I enjoyed watching these creatures go about their daily tasks. Their activities on the tree made me get well quicker!
Then one day, I saw to my dismay that the tree was being chopped down to widen the road in the neighbouring society. I had watched the squirrel build its nest all summer, and it was with sadness I watched as the tree was slowly chopped down. I wondered what happened to the squirrel nesting in the tree.
The loss of the squirrel's nest made me sad. After much thought, I decided to do something about this. The loss of the tree led me to find out that in India trees, even the ones planted by us in our homes, need permission before they are chopped.
Over the next few years, I got involved in a programme called Pune Tree Watch, where citizens engaged with the Garden Department, to reduce tree felling in the rapidly developing city of Pune. We looked to balance development with the green needs of the city. We sought solutions like tree transplantation, alternate routes for roads or different designs for buildings, sewage and pipelines to save trees. In two to three years, we were able to save many trees, and create awareness about the laws relating to tree felling among citizens.
In 2008, I shifted to Dehradun, where I continued my work to save urban biodiversity. We worked with citizens and institutions _ the municipal and forest departments _ to save green cover in Dehradun. Over the last few years, we have successfully transplanted some trees, and saved many of them from being felled, too.
My ultimate reward in this line of work came when a tree in the middle of Dehradun city was being cut down. I watched as a squirrel ran down the tree that the municipality was chopping, and run up the one we had saved. It had lost a home, but found a new one. All the work I had done in the last decade seemed worthwhile.
It took a squirrel and a tree to move me from being aware and feeling sad, to action. All of us need to act to save nature.
So, what will be your "squirrel" moment?

Q. According to the passage, which of the following made the author feel that he needed to do something about tree felling?

Solution:

The author in the first few paragraphs states how he became involved in the movement of tree preservation. We learn from the first few paragraphs that the author was feeling ill and found respite in watching the neem tree "teeming with activity" nearby. The chopping down of the tree and the loss squirrel's nest was a moment of awakening for the author who decided later to join a local chapter that helped preserve trees in urban neighbourhoods.

QUESTION: 27

Read the following passage and answer the question.

One summer, many years ago, while I was living in the garden city of Pune, I lay in bed, unwell. Lying in bed, I watched a large neem tree teeming with activity. Birds like orioles, flycatchers, and magpie robins were frequent visitors to the tree. Another cute resident on the neem tree was the palm squirrel; common in peninsular India. As I lay in bed, I enjoyed watching these creatures go about their daily tasks. Their activities on the tree made me get well quicker!
Then one day, I saw to my dismay that the tree was being chopped down to widen the road in the neighbouring society. I had watched the squirrel build its nest all summer, and it was with sadness I watched as the tree was slowly chopped down. I wondered what happened to the squirrel nesting in the tree.
The loss of the squirrel's nest made me sad. After much thought, I decided to do something about this. The loss of the tree led me to find out that in India trees, even the ones planted by us in our homes, need permission before they are chopped.
Over the next few years, I got involved in a programme called Pune Tree Watch, where citizens engaged with the Garden Department, to reduce tree felling in the rapidly developing city of Pune. We looked to balance development with the green needs of the city. We sought solutions like tree transplantation, alternate routes for roads or different designs for buildings, sewage and pipelines to save trees. In two to three years, we were able to save many trees, and create awareness about the laws relating to tree felling among citizens.
In 2008, I shifted to Dehradun, where I continued my work to save urban biodiversity. We worked with citizens and institutions _ the municipal and forest departments _ to save green cover in Dehradun. Over the last few years, we have successfully transplanted some trees, and saved many of them from being felled, too.
My ultimate reward in this line of work came when a tree in the middle of Dehradun city was being cut down. I watched as a squirrel ran down the tree that the municipality was chopping, and run up the one we had saved. It had lost a home, but found a new one. All the work I had done in the last decade seemed worthwhile.
It took a squirrel and a tree to move me from being aware and feeling sad, to action. All of us need to act to save nature.
So, what will be your "squirrel" moment?

Q. Based on information from the given passage, which of the following is the author most likely to agree with?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. This is apparent from the author's statement: "We looked to balance development with the green needs of the city." Other options don't find support in the passage.

QUESTION: 28

Read the following passage and answer the question.

One summer, many years ago, while I was living in the garden city of Pune, I lay in bed, unwell. Lying in bed, I watched a large neem tree teeming with activity. Birds like orioles, flycatchers, and magpie robins were frequent visitors to the tree. Another cute resident on the neem tree was the palm squirrel; common in peninsular India. As I lay in bed, I enjoyed watching these creatures go about their daily tasks. Their activities on the tree made me get well quicker!
Then one day, I saw to my dismay that the tree was being chopped down to widen the road in the neighbouring society. I had watched the squirrel build its nest all summer, and it was with sadness I watched as the tree was slowly chopped down. I wondered what happened to the squirrel nesting in the tree.
The loss of the squirrel's nest made me sad. After much thought, I decided to do something about this. The loss of the tree led me to find out that in India trees, even the ones planted by us in our homes, need permission before they are chopped.
Over the next few years, I got involved in a programme called Pune Tree Watch, where citizens engaged with the Garden Department, to reduce tree felling in the rapidly developing city of Pune. We looked to balance development with the green needs of the city. We sought solutions like tree transplantation, alternate routes for roads or different designs for buildings, sewage and pipelines to save trees. In two to three years, we were able to save many trees, and create awareness about the laws relating to tree felling among citizens.
In 2008, I shifted to Dehradun, where I continued my work to save urban biodiversity. We worked with citizens and institutions _ the municipal and forest departments _ to save green cover in Dehradun. Over the last few years, we have successfully transplanted some trees, and saved many of them from being felled, too.
My ultimate reward in this line of work came when a tree in the middle of Dehradun city was being cut down. I watched as a squirrel ran down the tree that the municipality was chopping, and run up the one we had saved. It had lost a home, but found a new one. All the work I had done in the last decade seemed worthwhile.
It took a squirrel and a tree to move me from being aware and feeling sad, to action. All of us need to act to save nature.
So, what will be your "squirrel" moment?

Q. What does the word 'dismay' mean as used in the passage?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. We can infer that the author felt shock when it was discovered that the neem tree was being cut down and felt sorrowful because the squirrel lost its home, which is supported by 'I wondered what happened to the squirrel...' It could be inferred that the author was disappointed with the felling of the tree.

QUESTION: 29

Read the following passage and answer the question.

One summer, many years ago, while I was living in the garden city of Pune, I lay in bed, unwell. Lying in bed, I watched a large neem tree teeming with activity. Birds like orioles, flycatchers, and magpie robins were frequent visitors to the tree. Another cute resident on the neem tree was the palm squirrel; common in peninsular India. As I lay in bed, I enjoyed watching these creatures go about their daily tasks. Their activities on the tree made me get well quicker!
Then one day, I saw to my dismay that the tree was being chopped down to widen the road in the neighbouring society. I had watched the squirrel build its nest all summer, and it was with sadness I watched as the tree was slowly chopped down. I wondered what happened to the squirrel nesting in the tree.
The loss of the squirrel's nest made me sad. After much thought, I decided to do something about this. The loss of the tree led me to find out that in India trees, even the ones planted by us in our homes, need permission before they are chopped.
Over the next few years, I got involved in a programme called Pune Tree Watch, where citizens engaged with the Garden Department, to reduce tree felling in the rapidly developing city of Pune. We looked to balance development with the green needs of the city. We sought solutions like tree transplantation, alternate routes for roads or different designs for buildings, sewage and pipelines to save trees. In two to three years, we were able to save many trees, and create awareness about the laws relating to tree felling among citizens.
In 2008, I shifted to Dehradun, where I continued my work to save urban biodiversity. We worked with citizens and institutions _ the municipal and forest departments _ to save green cover in Dehradun. Over the last few years, we have successfully transplanted some trees, and saved many of them from being felled, too.
My ultimate reward in this line of work came when a tree in the middle of Dehradun city was being cut down. I watched as a squirrel ran down the tree that the municipality was chopping, and run up the one we had saved. It had lost a home, but found a new one. All the work I had done in the last decade seemed worthwhile.
It took a squirrel and a tree to move me from being aware and feeling sad, to action. All of us need to act to save nature.
So, what will be your "squirrel" moment?

Q. Which of the following can be correctly inferred from the passage?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 1. This is apparent in both paragraph four and five in which the author states; 'In two to three years, we were able to save many trees' and 'Over the last few years, we have successfully transplanted some trees, and saved many of them...'

QUESTION: 30

Read the following passage and answer the question.

One summer, many years ago, while I was living in the garden city of Pune, I lay in bed, unwell. Lying in bed, I watched a large neem tree teeming with activity. Birds like orioles, flycatchers, and magpie robins were frequent visitors to the tree. Another cute resident on the neem tree was the palm squirrel; common in peninsular India. As I lay in bed, I enjoyed watching these creatures go about their daily tasks. Their activities on the tree made me get well quicker!
Then one day, I saw to my dismay that the tree was being chopped down to widen the road in the neighbouring society. I had watched the squirrel build its nest all summer, and it was with sadness I watched as the tree was slowly chopped down. I wondered what happened to the squirrel nesting in the tree.
The loss of the squirrel's nest made me sad. After much thought, I decided to do something about this. The loss of the tree led me to find out that in India trees, even the ones planted by us in our homes, need permission before they are chopped.
Over the next few years, I got involved in a programme called Pune Tree Watch, where citizens engaged with the Garden Department, to reduce tree felling in the rapidly developing city of Pune. We looked to balance development with the green needs of the city. We sought solutions like tree transplantation, alternate routes for roads or different designs for buildings, sewage and pipelines to save trees. In two to three years, we were able to save many trees, and create awareness about the laws relating to tree felling among citizens.
In 2008, I shifted to Dehradun, where I continued my work to save urban biodiversity. We worked with citizens and institutions _ the municipal and forest departments _ to save green cover in Dehradun. Over the last few years, we have successfully transplanted some trees, and saved many of them from being felled, too.
My ultimate reward in this line of work came when a tree in the middle of Dehradun city was being cut down. I watched as a squirrel ran down the tree that the municipality was chopping, and run up the one we had saved. It had lost a home, but found a new one. All the work I had done in the last decade seemed worthwhile.
It took a squirrel and a tree to move me from being aware and feeling sad, to action. All of us need to act to save nature.
So, what will be your "squirrel" moment?

Q. Which of the following can be considered similar to the situation when the author decided to fight for tree preservation in his region?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. It can be inferred from the passage, that the author's squirrel moment was the inspiration gained from knowing that the squirrel losing its home that drew the author to do something about the felling of trees and thereby leading the author to get involved in Pune Tree Watch. Based on this, we can rightly infer that the scenario presented in option 2 is similar in context. Options 1 and 4 do not match the context. Option 3 might seem to match the context, but there is no sense of inspiration articulated in the statement, so option 3 cannot be correct.

QUESTION: 31

Read the following passage and answer the question.

{X} Finance Minister in February, 2020 made a bold announcement that the state will impose a ban on the sale of compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) and incandescent (filament) bulbs starting November, 2020 as a part of sustainable energy policy. He also added that streetlights and bulbs in government offices across the state will be converted to light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs.
In his budget speech, the finance minister said nearly 2.5 crore LED bulbs have been produced on a mass scale in the state for public consumption.
Isaac's announcement is in line with the government project of 'Filament-free {X}' envisaged in 2018 as a part of the state's {Y}. LED bulbs are energy-efficient than filament or CFL bulbs and will, therefore, generate less waste. Also, filament bulbs contain the mercury element which, when broken, is polluting in nature.
The filament-free {X} project will be implemented by the {X} State Electricity Board and the Energy Management Centre, {X}. Consumers in the state can place orders for LED bulbs on the State Electricity Board website in exchange for existing filament bulbs. Nine-watt LED bulbs are being sold at reduced prices by the government to encourage usage. Last year in 2019, Peelikode, in Kasaragod district, became the first panchayat in the country to be completely filament-free.
The project is also a part of the long-term sustainable energy policy of the Left Government to reduce the dependence on conventional energy sources and instead, maximise potential on renewable sources, like solar and hydel power. The project to install solar panels on rooftops of households and residential complexes, being implemented by {X}, is a step in that direction.

Q. In the above passage, which of the following states has been redacted with {X}?

Solution:

Kerala Government has made a bold announcement that the State will impose a ban on the sale of compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) and incandescent (filament) bulbs starting November, 2020 as a part of sustainable energy policy. The project is also a part of the long-term sustainable energy policy of the Government to reduce the dependence on conventional energy sources and instead, maximise potential on renewable sources, like solar and hydel power.

QUESTION: 32

Read the following passage and answer the question.

{X} Finance Minister in February, 2020 made a bold announcement that the state will impose a ban on the sale of compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) and incandescent (filament) bulbs starting November, 2020 as a part of sustainable energy policy. He also added that streetlights and bulbs in government offices across the state will be converted to light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs.
In his budget speech, the finance minister said nearly 2.5 crore LED bulbs have been produced on a mass scale in the state for public consumption.
Isaac's announcement is in line with the government project of 'Filament-free {X}' envisaged in 2018 as a part of the state's {Y}. LED bulbs are energy-efficient than filament or CFL bulbs and will, therefore, generate less waste. Also, filament bulbs contain the mercury element which, when broken, is polluting in nature.
The filament-free {X} project will be implemented by the {X} State Electricity Board and the Energy Management Centre, {X}. Consumers in the state can place orders for LED bulbs on the State Electricity Board website in exchange for existing filament bulbs. Nine-watt LED bulbs are being sold at reduced prices by the government to encourage usage. Last year in 2019, Peelikode, in Kasaragod district, became the first panchayat in the country to be completely filament-free.
The project is also a part of the long-term sustainable energy policy of the Left Government to reduce the dependence on conventional energy sources and instead, maximise potential on renewable sources, like solar and hydel power. The project to install solar panels on rooftops of households and residential complexes, being implemented by {X}, is a step in that direction.

Q. In the above passage, which of the following state missions has been redacted with {Y}?

Solution:

Kerala has launched 'Urja Kerala Mission' – an aggressive energy generation and conservation program - aimed at the integrated development of electricity sector in the State. It aims at implementing five important projects at a total investment of ₹ 15,000 Crore.

QUESTION: 33

Read the following passage and answer the question.

{X} Finance Minister in February, 2020 made a bold announcement that the state will impose a ban on the sale of compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) and incandescent (filament) bulbs starting November, 2020 as a part of sustainable energy policy. He also added that streetlights and bulbs in government offices across the state will be converted to light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs.
In his budget speech, the finance minister said nearly 2.5 crore LED bulbs have been produced on a mass scale in the state for public consumption.
Isaac's announcement is in line with the government project of 'Filament-free {X}' envisaged in 2018 as a part of the state's {Y}. LED bulbs are energy-efficient than filament or CFL bulbs and will, therefore, generate less waste. Also, filament bulbs contain the mercury element which, when broken, is polluting in nature.
The filament-free {X} project will be implemented by the {X} State Electricity Board and the Energy Management Centre, {X}. Consumers in the state can place orders for LED bulbs on the State Electricity Board website in exchange for existing filament bulbs. Nine-watt LED bulbs are being sold at reduced prices by the government to encourage usage. Last year in 2019, Peelikode, in Kasaragod district, became the first panchayat in the country to be completely filament-free.
The project is also a part of the long-term sustainable energy policy of the Left Government to reduce the dependence on conventional energy sources and instead, maximise potential on renewable sources, like solar and hydel power. The project to install solar panels on rooftops of households and residential complexes, being implemented by {X}, is a step in that direction.

Q. Who invented the CFL bulbs?

Solution:

The spiral CFL was invented in 1976 by Edward E. Hammer, an engineer with General Electric, in response to the 1973 oil crisis. Although the design met its goals, it would have cost GE about $25 million to build new factories to produce the lamps and thus, the invention was shelved.

QUESTION: 34

Read the following passage and answer the question.

{X} Finance Minister in February, 2020 made a bold announcement that the state will impose a ban on the sale of compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) and incandescent (filament) bulbs starting November, 2020 as a part of sustainable energy policy. He also added that streetlights and bulbs in government offices across the state will be converted to light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs.
In his budget speech, the finance minister said nearly 2.5 crore LED bulbs have been produced on a mass scale in the state for public consumption.
Isaac's announcement is in line with the government project of 'Filament-free {X}' envisaged in 2018 as a part of the state's {Y}. LED bulbs are energy-efficient than filament or CFL bulbs and will, therefore, generate less waste. Also, filament bulbs contain the mercury element which, when broken, is polluting in nature.
The filament-free {X} project will be implemented by the {X} State Electricity Board and the Energy Management Centre, {X}. Consumers in the state can place orders for LED bulbs on the State Electricity Board website in exchange for existing filament bulbs. Nine-watt LED bulbs are being sold at reduced prices by the government to encourage usage. Last year in 2019, Peelikode, in Kasaragod district, became the first panchayat in the country to be completely filament-free.
The project is also a part of the long-term sustainable energy policy of the Left Government to reduce the dependence on conventional energy sources and instead, maximise potential on renewable sources, like solar and hydel power. The project to install solar panels on rooftops of households and residential complexes, being implemented by {X}, is a step in that direction.

Q. Which of the following government agencies released the 'State Energy Efficiency Index, 2019'?

Solution:

The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), Ministry of Power released the 'State Energy Efficiency Index, 2019' which tracks the progress of Energy Efficiency (EE) initiatives in 36 states and union territories based on 97 significant indicators. The Index helps states contribute towards national goals on energy security and climate action.

QUESTION: 35

Read the following passage and answer the question.

{X} Finance Minister in February, 2020 made a bold announcement that the state will impose a ban on the sale of compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) and incandescent (filament) bulbs starting November, 2020 as a part of sustainable energy policy. He also added that streetlights and bulbs in government offices across the state will be converted to light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs.
In his budget speech, the finance minister said nearly 2.5 crore LED bulbs have been produced on a mass scale in the state for public consumption.
Isaac's announcement is in line with the government project of 'Filament-free {X}' envisaged in 2018 as a part of the state's {Y}. LED bulbs are energy-efficient than filament or CFL bulbs and will, therefore, generate less waste. Also, filament bulbs contain the mercury element which, when broken, is polluting in nature.
The filament-free {X} project will be implemented by the {X} State Electricity Board and the Energy Management Centre, {X}. Consumers in the state can place orders for LED bulbs on the State Electricity Board website in exchange for existing filament bulbs. Nine-watt LED bulbs are being sold at reduced prices by the government to encourage usage. Last year in 2019, Peelikode, in Kasaragod district, became the first panchayat in the country to be completely filament-free.
The project is also a part of the long-term sustainable energy policy of the Left Government to reduce the dependence on conventional energy sources and instead, maximise potential on renewable sources, like solar and hydel power. The project to install solar panels on rooftops of households and residential complexes, being implemented by {X}, is a step in that direction.

Q. Which of the following is not an index category under the State Energy Efficiency Index?

Solution:

Index categorises states as 'Front Runner', 'Achiever', 'Contender' and 'Aspirant' based on their efforts and achievements towards energy efficiency implementation. The top-performing states for 2019 were Haryana, Kerala and Karnataka, in the 'Achiever' category. Manipur, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand and Rajasthan performed the worst in the 'Aspirant' group.

QUESTION: 36

Read the following passage and answer the question.

The winners of the prestigious Booker Prize, 2019 have been announced. {X} and {Y} were jointly awarded Booker Prize, 2019. This award has been given jointly to two people for the first time in nearly 30 years.
Total six books were shortlisted for the award and Salman Rushdie's tragicomic '{Z}' was one of them. {Y} became the first black woman to win this prize.
{X} received the award for her novel 'The Handmaid's Tale' and {Y} won Booker Prize for her novel 'Girl, Women, Other.' She become the first black woman and the first black British writer to win the Booker Prize. Canada's {X} has become oldest (79) to win Booker Prize. {X} had won her first Booker Prize in 2000 for 'The Blind Assassin.' She is the second woman author to win the Booker Award twice and fourth overall writer.
The Booker Prize committee changed rules in 1992 and started declaring joint winners. Earlier, the Booker Prize rules were insistent on not dividing the prize. However, judges found that they could not separate Atwood's - 'The Testament' and 'Girl, Woman, Other' by Evaristo.
The Mumbai-born novelist Salman Rushdie was shortlisted for the fifth time for his works. Judging panel said about '{Y}' that it is a picaresque tour-de-force of contemporary America, with all its alarms and craziness. Salman Rushdie won Booker Prize for 'Midnight's Children' in 1981.

Q. Who won the Booker Prize in 2019 as redacted with {X} and {Y}?
(1) Margaret Atwood
(2) Bernardine Evaristo
(3) Margaret Busby

Solution:

The winners of the prestigious Booker Prize, 2019 were Margaret Atwood and Bernardine Evaristo. Margaret Atwood received the award for her novel 'The Handmaid's Tale' and Bernardine Evaristo won Booker Prize for her novel 'Girl, Woman, Other.'

QUESTION: 37

Read the following passage and answer the question.

The winners of the prestigious Booker Prize, 2019 have been announced. {X} and {Y} were jointly awarded Booker Prize, 2019. This award has been given jointly to two people for the first time in nearly 30 years.
Total six books were shortlisted for the award and Salman Rushdie's tragicomic '{Z}' was one of them. {Y} became the first black woman to win this prize.
{X} received the award for her novel 'The Handmaid's Tale' and {Y} won Booker Prize for her novel 'Girl, Women, Other.' She become the first black woman and the first black British writer to win the Booker Prize. Canada's {X} has become oldest (79) to win Booker Prize. {X} had won her first Booker Prize in 2000 for 'The Blind Assassin.' She is the second woman author to win the Booker Award twice and fourth overall writer.
The Booker Prize committee changed rules in 1992 and started declaring joint winners. Earlier, the Booker Prize rules were insistent on not dividing the prize. However, judges found that they could not separate Atwood's - 'The Testament' and 'Girl, Woman, Other' by Evaristo.
The Mumbai-born novelist Salman Rushdie was shortlisted for the fifth time for his works. Judging panel said about '{Y}' that it is a picaresque tour-de-force of contemporary America, with all its alarms and craziness. Salman Rushdie won Booker Prize for 'Midnight's Children' in 1981.

Q. This book was the only nominee by an Indian publisher in Booker Prize, 2019 shortlisted as replaced by {Z}. What is the name of the book?

Solution:

'Quichotte' is published in India by Penguin Random House India, making it the only nominee by an Indian publisher in this year's (2019) shortlist. This book is published under the Hamish Hamilton imprint in India and was simultaneously released in the UK and India on August 29, 2019.

QUESTION: 38

Read the following passage and answer the question.

The winners of the prestigious Booker Prize, 2019 have been announced. {X} and {Y} were jointly awarded Booker Prize, 2019. This award has been given jointly to two people for the first time in nearly 30 years.
Total six books were shortlisted for the award and Salman Rushdie's tragicomic '{Z}' was one of them. {Y} became the first black woman to win this prize.
{X} received the award for her novel 'The Handmaid's Tale' and {Y} won Booker Prize for her novel 'Girl, Women, Other.' She become the first black woman and the first black British writer to win the Booker Prize. Canada's {X} has become oldest (79) to win Booker Prize. {X} had won her first Booker Prize in 2000 for 'The Blind Assassin.' She is the second woman author to win the Booker Award twice and fourth overall writer.
The Booker Prize committee changed rules in 1992 and started declaring joint winners. Earlier, the Booker Prize rules were insistent on not dividing the prize. However, judges found that they could not separate Atwood's - 'The Testament' and 'Girl, Woman, Other' by Evaristo.
The Mumbai-born novelist Salman Rushdie was shortlisted for the fifth time for his works. Judging panel said about '{Y}' that it is a picaresque tour-de-force of contemporary America, with all its alarms and craziness. Salman Rushdie won Booker Prize for 'Midnight's Children' in 1981.

Q. Who won the Booker Prize twice?

Solution:

John Maxwell Coetzee is a South African-born novelist, essayist, linguist, translator and recipient of the 2003 Nobel Prize in Literature. He has also won the Booker Prize (twice), the CNA Prize (thrice), the Jerusalem Prize, the Prix Femina étranger, The Irish Times International Fiction Prize and holds a number of other awards and honorary doctorates.

QUESTION: 39

Read the following passage and answer the question.

The winners of the prestigious Booker Prize, 2019 have been announced. {X} and {Y} were jointly awarded Booker Prize, 2019. This award has been given jointly to two people for the first time in nearly 30 years.
Total six books were shortlisted for the award and Salman Rushdie's tragicomic '{Z}' was one of them. {Y} became the first black woman to win this prize.
{X} received the award for her novel 'The Handmaid's Tale' and {Y} won Booker Prize for her novel 'Girl, Women, Other.' She become the first black woman and the first black British writer to win the Booker Prize. Canada's {X} has become oldest (79) to win Booker Prize. {X} had won her first Booker Prize in 2000 for 'The Blind Assassin.' She is the second woman author to win the Booker Award twice and fourth overall writer.
The Booker Prize committee changed rules in 1992 and started declaring joint winners. Earlier, the Booker Prize rules were insistent on not dividing the prize. However, judges found that they could not separate Atwood's - 'The Testament' and 'Girl, Woman, Other' by Evaristo.
The Mumbai-born novelist Salman Rushdie was shortlisted for the fifth time for his works. Judging panel said about '{Y}' that it is a picaresque tour-de-force of contemporary America, with all its alarms and craziness. Salman Rushdie won Booker Prize for 'Midnight's Children' in 1981.

Q. How many times was Man Bookers awarded until 2015?

Solution:

A separate prize for which any living writer in the world may qualify, the Man Booker International Prize was inaugurated in 2005. Until 2015, it was given every two years to a living author of any nationality for a body of work published in English or generally available in English translation. In 2016, it was significantly reconfigured and is now given annually to a single book in English translation, with a £50,000 prize for the winning title, shared equally between author and translator.

QUESTION: 40

Read the following passage and answer the question.

The winners of the prestigious Booker Prize, 2019 have been announced. {X} and {Y} were jointly awarded Booker Prize, 2019. This award has been given jointly to two people for the first time in nearly 30 years.
Total six books were shortlisted for the award and Salman Rushdie's tragicomic '{Z}' was one of them. {Y} became the first black woman to win this prize.
{X} received the award for her novel 'The Handmaid's Tale' and {Y} won Booker Prize for her novel 'Girl, Women, Other.' She become the first black woman and the first black British writer to win the Booker Prize. Canada's {X} has become oldest (79) to win Booker Prize. {X} had won her first Booker Prize in 2000 for 'The Blind Assassin.' She is the second woman author to win the Booker Award twice and fourth overall writer.
The Booker Prize committee changed rules in 1992 and started declaring joint winners. Earlier, the Booker Prize rules were insistent on not dividing the prize. However, judges found that they could not separate Atwood's - 'The Testament' and 'Girl, Woman, Other' by Evaristo.
The Mumbai-born novelist Salman Rushdie was shortlisted for the fifth time for his works. Judging panel said about '{Y}' that it is a picaresque tour-de-force of contemporary America, with all its alarms and craziness. Salman Rushdie won Booker Prize for 'Midnight's Children' in 1981.

Q. What was the prize money of Booker Prize, 2019?

Solution:

The Booker Prize for Fiction, formerly known as the Booker–McConnell Prize and the Man Booker Prize, is a literary prize awarded each year for the best original novel written in the English language and published in the United Kingdom. Both the winners of 2019 shared prize money of 50,000 British Pounds for their novels.

QUESTION: 41

Read the following passage and answer the question.

National Conference leader and former Jammu and Kashmir Chief Minister {X} has been detained under the Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act.
"His house has been declared as Subsidiary Jail. He will continue to stay in his house though. There is no bar on him meeting relatives and friends who visit him," a Kashmir administration source said.
In October 2019, former IAS officer Shah Faesal was stopped at New Delhi airport and sent back to Kashmir, where he has been detained under the Public Safety Act (PSA), PTI reported, quoting unnamed government sources.
The Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act (PSA), which received the assent of the J&K Governor on April 8, 1978, is often referred to as a "{Y}" law.
The Act was introduced by the Government of Sheikh Abdullah as a tough law to prevent the smuggling of timber and keep the smugglers "out of circulation". However, right from the beginning, the law was misused widely and was repeatedly employed against political opponents by consecutive governments until 1990. After the emergence of militancy, the J&K government frequently invoked the PSA to crack down on separatists.
In the aftermath of the killing of Hizbul Mujahideen commander Burhan Wani in July 2016, hundreds of youths in the Valley were detained under PSA, with extendable detention periods. In August 2018, the Act was amended to allow individuals to be detained under the PSA outside the state as well.
The PSA allows for administrative detention "in the case of persons acting in any manner prejudicial to the security of the State" and for administrative detention up to one year where "any person is acting in any manner prejudicial to the maintenance of public order".
Detention orders under PSA can be issued by Divisional Commissioners or District Magistrates. The detaining authority need not disclose any facts about the detention "which it considers to be against the public interest to disclose".
Section 22 of the Act provides protection for any action taken "in good faith". Under the Act, "No suit, prosecution or any other legal proceeding shall lie against any person for anything done or intended to be done in good faith in pursuance of the provisions of this Act."
Under Section 23 of the Act, the government is empowered to "make such rules consistent with the provisions of this Act as may be necessary for carrying out the objects of this Act".

Q. Which of the following former chief ministers of Jammu and Kashmir has been redacted with {X}?

Solution:

Farooq Abdullah has been redacted with {X}. Farooq Abdullah is an Indian politician and Chairman of Jammu and Kashmir National Conference. He has served as the Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir on several occasions since 1982 and as the Union Minister for New and Renewable Energy between 2009 and 2014.

QUESTION: 42

Read the following passage and answer the question.

National Conference leader and former Jammu and Kashmir Chief Minister {X} has been detained under the Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act.
"His house has been declared as Subsidiary Jail. He will continue to stay in his house though. There is no bar on him meeting relatives and friends who visit him," a Kashmir administration source said.
In October 2019, former IAS officer Shah Faesal was stopped at New Delhi airport and sent back to Kashmir, where he has been detained under the Public Safety Act (PSA), PTI reported, quoting unnamed government sources.
The Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act (PSA), which received the assent of the J&K Governor on April 8, 1978, is often referred to as a "{Y}" law.
The Act was introduced by the Government of Sheikh Abdullah as a tough law to prevent the smuggling of timber and keep the smugglers "out of circulation". However, right from the beginning, the law was misused widely and was repeatedly employed against political opponents by consecutive governments until 1990. After the emergence of militancy, the J&K government frequently invoked the PSA to crack down on separatists.
In the aftermath of the killing of Hizbul Mujahideen commander Burhan Wani in July 2016, hundreds of youths in the Valley were detained under PSA, with extendable detention periods. In August 2018, the Act was amended to allow individuals to be detained under the PSA outside the state as well.
The PSA allows for administrative detention "in the case of persons acting in any manner prejudicial to the security of the State" and for administrative detention up to one year where "any person is acting in any manner prejudicial to the maintenance of public order".
Detention orders under PSA can be issued by Divisional Commissioners or District Magistrates. The detaining authority need not disclose any facts about the detention "which it considers to be against the public interest to disclose".
Section 22 of the Act provides protection for any action taken "in good faith". Under the Act, "No suit, prosecution or any other legal proceeding shall lie against any person for anything done or intended to be done in good faith in pursuance of the provisions of this Act."
Under Section 23 of the Act, the government is empowered to "make such rules consistent with the provisions of this Act as may be necessary for carrying out the objects of this Act".

Q. In the above passage, what has been redacted with {Y}?

Solution:

In order to strengthen its foothold in the Indian occupied Kashmir, over the years, India has enacted a regime of 'black laws' parallel to the normal criminal laws of the State. Under these draconian laws, the basic human rights of the people of Kashmir have virtually stood suspended for years.

QUESTION: 43

Read the following passage and answer the question.

National Conference leader and former Jammu and Kashmir Chief Minister {X} has been detained under the Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act.
"His house has been declared as Subsidiary Jail. He will continue to stay in his house though. There is no bar on him meeting relatives and friends who visit him," a Kashmir administration source said.
In October 2019, former IAS officer Shah Faesal was stopped at New Delhi airport and sent back to Kashmir, where he has been detained under the Public Safety Act (PSA), PTI reported, quoting unnamed government sources.
The Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act (PSA), which received the assent of the J&K Governor on April 8, 1978, is often referred to as a "{Y}" law.
The Act was introduced by the Government of Sheikh Abdullah as a tough law to prevent the smuggling of timber and keep the smugglers "out of circulation". However, right from the beginning, the law was misused widely and was repeatedly employed against political opponents by consecutive governments until 1990. After the emergence of militancy, the J&K government frequently invoked the PSA to crack down on separatists.
In the aftermath of the killing of Hizbul Mujahideen commander Burhan Wani in July 2016, hundreds of youths in the Valley were detained under PSA, with extendable detention periods. In August 2018, the Act was amended to allow individuals to be detained under the PSA outside the state as well.
The PSA allows for administrative detention "in the case of persons acting in any manner prejudicial to the security of the State" and for administrative detention up to one year where "any person is acting in any manner prejudicial to the maintenance of public order".
Detention orders under PSA can be issued by Divisional Commissioners or District Magistrates. The detaining authority need not disclose any facts about the detention "which it considers to be against the public interest to disclose".
Section 22 of the Act provides protection for any action taken "in good faith". Under the Act, "No suit, prosecution or any other legal proceeding shall lie against any person for anything done or intended to be done in good faith in pursuance of the provisions of this Act."
Under Section 23 of the Act, the government is empowered to "make such rules consistent with the provisions of this Act as may be necessary for carrying out the objects of this Act".

Q. Consider the following statements and mark the correct option.
Statement I: The law allowed the government to detain any person above the age of 14 without trial for a period of two years.
Statement II: Any person can be booked under PSA when an administrative order is passed by either Divisional Commissioner (DC) or District Magistrate (DM).

Solution:

Statement I: The law allowed the government to detain any person above the age of 16 without trial for a period of two years.
Statement II: Any person can be booked under PSA when an administrative order is passed by either Divisional Commissioner (DC) or District Magistrate (DM). Any detention under this Act can't be made under the order by police based on specific allegations or for a specific violation of laws.

QUESTION: 44

Read the following passage and answer the question.

National Conference leader and former Jammu and Kashmir Chief Minister {X} has been detained under the Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act.
"His house has been declared as Subsidiary Jail. He will continue to stay in his house though. There is no bar on him meeting relatives and friends who visit him," a Kashmir administration source said.
In October 2019, former IAS officer Shah Faesal was stopped at New Delhi airport and sent back to Kashmir, where he has been detained under the Public Safety Act (PSA), PTI reported, quoting unnamed government sources.
The Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act (PSA), which received the assent of the J&K Governor on April 8, 1978, is often referred to as a "{Y}" law.
The Act was introduced by the Government of Sheikh Abdullah as a tough law to prevent the smuggling of timber and keep the smugglers "out of circulation". However, right from the beginning, the law was misused widely and was repeatedly employed against political opponents by consecutive governments until 1990. After the emergence of militancy, the J&K government frequently invoked the PSA to crack down on separatists.
In the aftermath of the killing of Hizbul Mujahideen commander Burhan Wani in July 2016, hundreds of youths in the Valley were detained under PSA, with extendable detention periods. In August 2018, the Act was amended to allow individuals to be detained under the PSA outside the state as well.
The PSA allows for administrative detention "in the case of persons acting in any manner prejudicial to the security of the State" and for administrative detention up to one year where "any person is acting in any manner prejudicial to the maintenance of public order".
Detention orders under PSA can be issued by Divisional Commissioners or District Magistrates. The detaining authority need not disclose any facts about the detention "which it considers to be against the public interest to disclose".
Section 22 of the Act provides protection for any action taken "in good faith". Under the Act, "No suit, prosecution or any other legal proceeding shall lie against any person for anything done or intended to be done in good faith in pursuance of the provisions of this Act."
Under Section 23 of the Act, the government is empowered to "make such rules consistent with the provisions of this Act as may be necessary for carrying out the objects of this Act".

Q. Article 370, which earlier gave special status to Jammu and Kashmir, existed in the Indian Constitution because of agreement between ____ and ____.

Solution:

Article 370 of the Constitution of India was a 'temporary provision' inserted on 17 October, 1949, which gave special powers to the State of Jammu and Kashmir, lawfully authorising it to have its own Constitution by an agreement between Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru and Maharaja Hari Singh. Hari Singh sought special privileges for his people on the lines of a 1927 law that denied outsiders the right to own property in the State. This Law restricted the right to own property in Jammu and Kashmir in line of inheritance only. The Jawaharlal Nehru Government agreed to Hari Singh's condition, subject to future final settlement.

QUESTION: 45

Read the following passage and answer the question.

National Conference leader and former Jammu and Kashmir Chief Minister {X} has been detained under the Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act.
"His house has been declared as Subsidiary Jail. He will continue to stay in his house though. There is no bar on him meeting relatives and friends who visit him," a Kashmir administration source said.
In October 2019, former IAS officer Shah Faesal was stopped at New Delhi airport and sent back to Kashmir, where he has been detained under the Public Safety Act (PSA), PTI reported, quoting unnamed government sources.
The Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act (PSA), which received the assent of the J&K Governor on April 8, 1978, is often referred to as a "{Y}" law.
The Act was introduced by the Government of Sheikh Abdullah as a tough law to prevent the smuggling of timber and keep the smugglers "out of circulation". However, right from the beginning, the law was misused widely and was repeatedly employed against political opponents by consecutive governments until 1990. After the emergence of militancy, the J&K government frequently invoked the PSA to crack down on separatists.
In the aftermath of the killing of Hizbul Mujahideen commander Burhan Wani in July 2016, hundreds of youths in the Valley were detained under PSA, with extendable detention periods. In August 2018, the Act was amended to allow individuals to be detained under the PSA outside the state as well.
The PSA allows for administrative detention "in the case of persons acting in any manner prejudicial to the security of the State" and for administrative detention up to one year where "any person is acting in any manner prejudicial to the maintenance of public order".
Detention orders under PSA can be issued by Divisional Commissioners or District Magistrates. The detaining authority need not disclose any facts about the detention "which it considers to be against the public interest to disclose".
Section 22 of the Act provides protection for any action taken "in good faith". Under the Act, "No suit, prosecution or any other legal proceeding shall lie against any person for anything done or intended to be done in good faith in pursuance of the provisions of this Act."
Under Section 23 of the Act, the government is empowered to "make such rules consistent with the provisions of this Act as may be necessary for carrying out the objects of this Act".

Q. The Article 370, which is now scrapped, was drafted in which of the following parts of the Indian Constitution?

Solution:

Article 370 of the Indian Constitution gave special status to Jammu and Kashmir — a region located in the northern part of Indian subcontinent which was administered by India as a state from 1954 to 31st October, 2019, and a part of the larger region of Kashmir, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan and China since 1947 — conferring it with the power to have a separate constitution, a state flag and autonomy over the internal administration of the State. The Article was drafted in Part XXI of the Constitution: Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions.

QUESTION: 46

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Government think-tank Niti Aayog will develop a {X} to make all government data accessible to stakeholders in a user-friendly manner.
Releasing the Vision Document for the {X}, Niti Aayog Vice-Chairman Rajiv Kumar said that the {X} will strive to ensure that the data is assured, consistent, coherent and credible.
"Given that data is the new oil, we at Niti Aayog feel the need to modernise our data system," Kumar said.
"The platform will be powered by a user friendly search engine, backed by seamless navigation, with a world class user interface. Data will be provided in a machine-readable format with customisable analytics," it said.
Stating that the {X} will provide access to data from multiple sectors in one place, the document said data will be sourced from different {Y} and departments.
The {X} will host multiple data sets, present them coherently and provide visualisation and analytics tools.
{X} will be a reliable platform for up-to-date data. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) will be developed to keep data updated, it said.
There will be a high powered steering committee under the chairmanship of Vice-Chairman, Niti Aayog to provide direction, oversee progress, guide on data sources and address various inter-ministerial issues on collating data.
The first version of {X} is proposed to be released in {Z}.

Q. Which of the following platforms has been redacted with {X}?

Solution:

Government think-tank Niti Aayog will develop a National Data and Analytics Platform (NDAP) to make all government data accessible to stakeholders in a user-friendly manner.
The NDAP will host numerous India data sets, provide them coherently with visualisation and analytics tools. The platform will be enabled by a user-friendly search engine, with easy navigation and user interface. Data will be given in a machine-readable format with customisable analytics, the document mentions. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) will be created to ensure data is updated regularly.

QUESTION: 47

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Government think-tank Niti Aayog will develop a {X} to make all government data accessible to stakeholders in a user-friendly manner.
Releasing the Vision Document for the {X}, Niti Aayog Vice-Chairman Rajiv Kumar said that the {X} will strive to ensure that the data is assured, consistent, coherent and credible.
"Given that data is the new oil, we at Niti Aayog feel the need to modernise our data system," Kumar said.
"The platform will be powered by a user friendly search engine, backed by seamless navigation, with a world class user interface. Data will be provided in a machine-readable format with customisable analytics," it said.
Stating that the {X} will provide access to data from multiple sectors in one place, the document said data will be sourced from different {Y} and departments.
The {X} will host multiple data sets, present them coherently and provide visualisation and analytics tools.
{X} will be a reliable platform for up-to-date data. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) will be developed to keep data updated, it said.
There will be a high powered steering committee under the chairmanship of Vice-Chairman, Niti Aayog to provide direction, oversee progress, guide on data sources and address various inter-ministerial issues on collating data.
The first version of {X} is proposed to be released in {Z}.

Q. Besides platform replaced by {X}, there will be a TAG. What is TAG?

Solution:

NDAP will be a reliable platform for up-to-date data. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) will be developed to keep data updated. Besides, there will be a Technical Advisory Group (TAG) consisting of sector and technology experts to provide guidance on the development of the platform, management of data and aligning the platform for user-needs. The first version of National Data and Analytics Platform is proposed to be released in 2021.

QUESTION: 48

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Government think-tank Niti Aayog will develop a {X} to make all government data accessible to stakeholders in a user-friendly manner.
Releasing the Vision Document for the {X}, Niti Aayog Vice-Chairman Rajiv Kumar said that the {X} will strive to ensure that the data is assured, consistent, coherent and credible.
"Given that data is the new oil, we at Niti Aayog feel the need to modernise our data system," Kumar said.
"The platform will be powered by a user friendly search engine, backed by seamless navigation, with a world class user interface. Data will be provided in a machine-readable format with customisable analytics," it said.
Stating that the {X} will provide access to data from multiple sectors in one place, the document said data will be sourced from different {Y} and departments.
The {X} will host multiple data sets, present them coherently and provide visualisation and analytics tools.
{X} will be a reliable platform for up-to-date data. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) will be developed to keep data updated, it said.
There will be a high powered steering committee under the chairmanship of Vice-Chairman, Niti Aayog to provide direction, oversee progress, guide on data sources and address various inter-ministerial issues on collating data.
The first version of {X} is proposed to be released in {Z}.

Q. Who is the Chairman of Niti Aayog as in 2020?

Solution:

With the Prime Minister as the Chairperson, Niti Aayog consists of Vice-Chairperson Rajiv Kumar. Ex-Officio members are Amit Shah, Rajnath Singh, Nirmala Sitaraman and Narendra Singh Tomar as in 2020.

QUESTION: 49

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Government think-tank Niti Aayog will develop a {X} to make all government data accessible to stakeholders in a user-friendly manner.
Releasing the Vision Document for the {X}, Niti Aayog Vice-Chairman Rajiv Kumar said that the {X} will strive to ensure that the data is assured, consistent, coherent and credible.
"Given that data is the new oil, we at Niti Aayog feel the need to modernise our data system," Kumar said.
"The platform will be powered by a user friendly search engine, backed by seamless navigation, with a world class user interface. Data will be provided in a machine-readable format with customisable analytics," it said.
Stating that the {X} will provide access to data from multiple sectors in one place, the document said data will be sourced from different {Y} and departments.
The {X} will host multiple data sets, present them coherently and provide visualisation and analytics tools.
{X} will be a reliable platform for up-to-date data. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) will be developed to keep data updated, it said.
There will be a high powered steering committee under the chairmanship of Vice-Chairman, Niti Aayog to provide direction, oversee progress, guide on data sources and address various inter-ministerial issues on collating data.
The first version of {X} is proposed to be released in {Z}.

Q. Which of the following years has been redacted with {Z}?

Solution:

The first version of National Data and Analytics Platform is proposed to be released in 2021. There will be a high powered steering committee under the chairmanship of Vice-Chairman, Niti Aayog to provide direction, oversee progress, guide on data sources and address various inter-ministerial issues on collating data.

QUESTION: 50

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Government think-tank Niti Aayog will develop a {X} to make all government data accessible to stakeholders in a user-friendly manner.
Releasing the Vision Document for the {X}, Niti Aayog Vice-Chairman Rajiv Kumar said that the {X} will strive to ensure that the data is assured, consistent, coherent and credible.
"Given that data is the new oil, we at Niti Aayog feel the need to modernise our data system," Kumar said.
"The platform will be powered by a user friendly search engine, backed by seamless navigation, with a world class user interface. Data will be provided in a machine-readable format with customisable analytics," it said.
Stating that the {X} will provide access to data from multiple sectors in one place, the document said data will be sourced from different {Y} and departments.
The {X} will host multiple data sets, present them coherently and provide visualisation and analytics tools.
{X} will be a reliable platform for up-to-date data. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) will be developed to keep data updated, it said.
There will be a high powered steering committee under the chairmanship of Vice-Chairman, Niti Aayog to provide direction, oversee progress, guide on data sources and address various inter-ministerial issues on collating data.
The first version of {X} is proposed to be released in {Z}.

Q. Which of the following is not an Indian Government think tank?

Solution:

The Centre for Strategic and International Studies is a think tank based in Washington, D.C. in the United States. CSIS was founded as the 'Centre for Strategic and International Studies' of Georgetown University in 1962.
Rest all are Indian Government think tanks.

QUESTION: 51

Read the following passage and answer the question.

If a person has been struggling for years to resolve his tax dispute and has made little headway, despite mounting legal charges and other allied expenses, the Government has thrown open a window for a limited period of five months to settle the tax issues.
A {X} scheme has been proposed. A taxpayer can get a waiver of interest and penalty added to the taxable amount payable for cases that have been under dispute.
A taxpayer, who opts for this Scheme, would not be questioned further on the dispute and will have to pay merely the disputed amount, if he opts to end the dispute by March 31, 2020. Between April 1 and June 30, 2020, the taxpayer would have to pay additional 10 per cent charge on the tax payable under dispute.
Those who challenged the fee, interest or penalty amount levied on the tax earlier would be able to pay 25 per cent of the disputed charges by March 31, 2020, or 30 per cent of the levies up to June 30, 2020, and get the cases resolved.
Ganesh Raj, National Leader, Business Tax Services, EY India, said, "This will also bring finality to litigation, which has been pending for a long time for the taxpayers."
There are 4.83 lakh cases, involving Rs. 9.41 lakh crore, which are pending at various forums, such as the office of the Income Tax Commissioner, Income Tax Appellate Tribunal, High Courts and Supreme Court, as stated by the FM.
These cases have been filed, challenging either the tax amount per se or the additional charges in the form of penalty, fee or interest on the tax amount payable. Disputes have also stemmed from erroneous tax collection and tax deduction at source.
Cases, for which appeals have been filed in these forums before January 31, 2020, would be able to claim a breather under the Scheme.

Q. Which of the following schemes in the above passage has been redacted with {X}?

Solution:

Vivad Se Vishwas scheme has been redacted with {X}. The scheme was announced by Union Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman during her budget speech on February 1, 2020. It aims to settle the huge number of pending direct tax cases.

QUESTION: 52

Read the following passage and answer the question.

If a person has been struggling for years to resolve his tax dispute and has made little headway, despite mounting legal charges and other allied expenses, the Government has thrown open a window for a limited period of five months to settle the tax issues.
A {X} scheme has been proposed. A taxpayer can get a waiver of interest and penalty added to the taxable amount payable for cases that have been under dispute.
A taxpayer, who opts for this Scheme, would not be questioned further on the dispute and will have to pay merely the disputed amount, if he opts to end the dispute by March 31, 2020. Between April 1 and June 30, 2020, the taxpayer would have to pay additional 10 per cent charge on the tax payable under dispute.
Those who challenged the fee, interest or penalty amount levied on the tax earlier would be able to pay 25 per cent of the disputed charges by March 31, 2020, or 30 per cent of the levies up to June 30, 2020, and get the cases resolved.
Ganesh Raj, National Leader, Business Tax Services, EY India, said, "This will also bring finality to litigation, which has been pending for a long time for the taxpayers."
There are 4.83 lakh cases, involving Rs. 9.41 lakh crore, which are pending at various forums, such as the office of the Income Tax Commissioner, Income Tax Appellate Tribunal, High Courts and Supreme Court, as stated by the FM.
These cases have been filed, challenging either the tax amount per se or the additional charges in the form of penalty, fee or interest on the tax amount payable. Disputes have also stemmed from erroneous tax collection and tax deduction at source.
Cases, for which appeals have been filed in these forums before January 31, 2020, would be able to claim a breather under the Scheme.

Q. The above mentioned scheme redacted with X aims at resolving which of the following tax disputes?

Solution:

The Scheme aims to settle the huge number of pending direct tax cases. The amnesty scheme, at present, covers disputes pending at the level of Commissioner (Appeals), Income Tax Appellate Tribunals (ITAT), High Courts, the Supreme Court and those in international arbitration. It offers a complete waiver on interest and penalty to the taxpayers, who pay their pending taxes by March 31.

QUESTION: 53

Read the following passage and answer the question.

If a person has been struggling for years to resolve his tax dispute and has made little headway, despite mounting legal charges and other allied expenses, the Government has thrown open a window for a limited period of five months to settle the tax issues.
A {X} scheme has been proposed. A taxpayer can get a waiver of interest and penalty added to the taxable amount payable for cases that have been under dispute.
A taxpayer, who opts for this Scheme, would not be questioned further on the dispute and will have to pay merely the disputed amount, if he opts to end the dispute by March 31, 2020. Between April 1 and June 30, 2020, the taxpayer would have to pay additional 10 per cent charge on the tax payable under dispute.
Those who challenged the fee, interest or penalty amount levied on the tax earlier would be able to pay 25 per cent of the disputed charges by March 31, 2020, or 30 per cent of the levies up to June 30, 2020, and get the cases resolved.
Ganesh Raj, National Leader, Business Tax Services, EY India, said, "This will also bring finality to litigation, which has been pending for a long time for the taxpayers."
There are 4.83 lakh cases, involving Rs. 9.41 lakh crore, which are pending at various forums, such as the office of the Income Tax Commissioner, Income Tax Appellate Tribunal, High Courts and Supreme Court, as stated by the FM.
These cases have been filed, challenging either the tax amount per se or the additional charges in the form of penalty, fee or interest on the tax amount payable. Disputes have also stemmed from erroneous tax collection and tax deduction at source.
Cases, for which appeals have been filed in these forums before January 31, 2020, would be able to claim a breather under the Scheme.

Q. Which of the following schemes was introduced in Budget 2019-20 to reduce the litigation in taxes?

Solution:

The Sabka Vishwas (Legacy Dispute Resolution) Scheme is a one-time measure for liquidation of past disputes of Central Excise and Service Tax as well as to ensure disclosure of unpaid taxes by a person eligible to make a declaration. It further provides for certain immunities, including penalty, interest or any other proceedings under the Central Excise Act, 1944 or Chapter V of the Finance Act, 1944 to those persons who pay the declared tax dues.

QUESTION: 54

Read the following passage and answer the question.

If a person has been struggling for years to resolve his tax dispute and has made little headway, despite mounting legal charges and other allied expenses, the Government has thrown open a window for a limited period of five months to settle the tax issues.
A {X} scheme has been proposed. A taxpayer can get a waiver of interest and penalty added to the taxable amount payable for cases that have been under dispute.
A taxpayer, who opts for this Scheme, would not be questioned further on the dispute and will have to pay merely the disputed amount, if he opts to end the dispute by March 31, 2020. Between April 1 and June 30, 2020, the taxpayer would have to pay additional 10 per cent charge on the tax payable under dispute.
Those who challenged the fee, interest or penalty amount levied on the tax earlier would be able to pay 25 per cent of the disputed charges by March 31, 2020, or 30 per cent of the levies up to June 30, 2020, and get the cases resolved.
Ganesh Raj, National Leader, Business Tax Services, EY India, said, "This will also bring finality to litigation, which has been pending for a long time for the taxpayers."
There are 4.83 lakh cases, involving Rs. 9.41 lakh crore, which are pending at various forums, such as the office of the Income Tax Commissioner, Income Tax Appellate Tribunal, High Courts and Supreme Court, as stated by the FM.
These cases have been filed, challenging either the tax amount per se or the additional charges in the form of penalty, fee or interest on the tax amount payable. Disputes have also stemmed from erroneous tax collection and tax deduction at source.
Cases, for which appeals have been filed in these forums before January 31, 2020, would be able to claim a breather under the Scheme.

Q. Who introduced First Union Budget of independent India in 1947?

Solution:

First Union Budget of independent India was presented by R. K. Shanmukham Chetty on 26th November, 1947. Sir Ramasamy Chetty Kandasamy Shanmukham (17th October, 1892 – 5th May, 1953) was an Indian lawyer, economist and politician who served as independent India's First Finance Minister from 1947 to 1949. He also served as President of India's Central Legislative Assembly from 1933 to 1935 and Diwan of Cochin Kingdom from 1935 to 1941.

QUESTION: 55

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Aaya Ram Gaya Ram was a phrase that became popular in Indian politics after a Haryana MLA Gaya Lal changed his party thrice within the same day in [1]. The {X} sought to prevent such political disturbance which may be due to reward of office or other similar considerations.
The {Y} was inserted in the Constitution in 1985. It lays down the process by which legislators may be disqualified on grounds by the Presiding Officer of a legislature based on a petition by any other member of the House.
Karnataka Assembly Speaker K. R. Ramesh Kumar announced disqualification of three MLAs — R. Shankar (Ranebennur), Ramesh Jharkiholi (Gokak) and Mahesh Kumthahalli (Athani) — under the provisions of the {X} law, setting off a new crisis for the BJP.
The Speaker said that the disqualified MLAs cannot contest elections, until the expiry of the term of the 15th Assembly. This means that they cannot contest polls until May 2023, unless the house is dissolved before that. The {Y}, he clarified, did not provide for contesting polls during the reminder of the Current Assembly.
The Speaker said that he would need some time to decide on the resignation of other rebel Congress and Janata Dal (S) MLAs. The rebel MLAs are currently camping in a Mumbai hotel and have been told by the BJP to arrive in Bengaluru only after the dust settles. The rebellion had caused a political crisis in Karnataka, leading to the collapse of the JD(S)-Congress Government. In response to a question, Ramesh Kumar said that he would remain the Speaker of the House till the expiry of its term. The Speaker disqualified Shankar on grounds that he pledged his support to the BJP after voluntarily merging his party, KPJP, with the Congress.
The legislators may change their party without the risk of disqualification in certain circumstances. Law allows a party to merge with or into another party, provided that at least [Z] of its legislators are in favour of the merger.

Q. What has been redacted with [1]?

Solution:

Aaya Ram Gaya Ram expression in politics of India means the frequent floor-crossing, turn coating, switching parties and political horse trading in the legislature by the elected politicians and political parties. The term originated in 1967 in Haryana where excessive political horse trading, counter horse trading and counter-counter horse trading took place, triggering several rounds of frequent political defections by the serial-turncoat politicians within a span of few weeks.

QUESTION: 56

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Aaya Ram Gaya Ram was a phrase that became popular in Indian politics after a Haryana MLA Gaya Lal changed his party thrice within the same day in [1]. The {X} sought to prevent such political disturbance which may be due to reward of office or other similar considerations.
The {Y} was inserted in the Constitution in 1985. It lays down the process by which legislators may be disqualified on grounds by the Presiding Officer of a legislature based on a petition by any other member of the House.
Karnataka Assembly Speaker K. R. Ramesh Kumar announced disqualification of three MLAs — R. Shankar (Ranebennur), Ramesh Jharkiholi (Gokak) and Mahesh Kumthahalli (Athani) — under the provisions of the {X} law, setting off a new crisis for the BJP.
The Speaker said that the disqualified MLAs cannot contest elections, until the expiry of the term of the 15th Assembly. This means that they cannot contest polls until May 2023, unless the house is dissolved before that. The {Y}, he clarified, did not provide for contesting polls during the reminder of the Current Assembly.
The Speaker said that he would need some time to decide on the resignation of other rebel Congress and Janata Dal (S) MLAs. The rebel MLAs are currently camping in a Mumbai hotel and have been told by the BJP to arrive in Bengaluru only after the dust settles. The rebellion had caused a political crisis in Karnataka, leading to the collapse of the JD(S)-Congress Government. In response to a question, Ramesh Kumar said that he would remain the Speaker of the House till the expiry of its term. The Speaker disqualified Shankar on grounds that he pledged his support to the BJP after voluntarily merging his party, KPJP, with the Congress.
The legislators may change their party without the risk of disqualification in certain circumstances. Law allows a party to merge with or into another party, provided that at least [Z] of its legislators are in favour of the merger.

Q. In the above passage, what has been redacted with {X}?

Solution:

The Anti-Defection Law sought to prevent such political defections which may be due to reward of office or other similar considerations. The Tenth Schedule was inserted in the Constitution in 1985. It lays down the process by which legislators may be disqualified on grounds of defection by the Presiding Officer of a legislature, based on a petition by any other member of the House. A legislator is deemed to have defected, if he either voluntarily gives up the membership of his party or disobeys the directives of the party leadership on a vote. This implies that a legislator defying (abstaining or voting against) the party whip on any issue can lose his membership of the House. Law applies to both Parliament and state assemblies.

QUESTION: 57

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Aaya Ram Gaya Ram was a phrase that became popular in Indian politics after a Haryana MLA Gaya Lal changed his party thrice within the same day in [1]. The {X} sought to prevent such political disturbance which may be due to reward of office or other similar considerations.
The {Y} was inserted in the Constitution in 1985. It lays down the process by which legislators may be disqualified on grounds by the Presiding Officer of a legislature based on a petition by any other member of the House.
Karnataka Assembly Speaker K. R. Ramesh Kumar announced disqualification of three MLAs — R. Shankar (Ranebennur), Ramesh Jharkiholi (Gokak) and Mahesh Kumthahalli (Athani) — under the provisions of the {X} law, setting off a new crisis for the BJP.
The Speaker said that the disqualified MLAs cannot contest elections, until the expiry of the term of the 15th Assembly. This means that they cannot contest polls until May 2023, unless the house is dissolved before that. The {Y}, he clarified, did not provide for contesting polls during the reminder of the Current Assembly.
The Speaker said that he would need some time to decide on the resignation of other rebel Congress and Janata Dal (S) MLAs. The rebel MLAs are currently camping in a Mumbai hotel and have been told by the BJP to arrive in Bengaluru only after the dust settles. The rebellion had caused a political crisis in Karnataka, leading to the collapse of the JD(S)-Congress Government. In response to a question, Ramesh Kumar said that he would remain the Speaker of the House till the expiry of its term. The Speaker disqualified Shankar on grounds that he pledged his support to the BJP after voluntarily merging his party, KPJP, with the Congress.
The legislators may change their party without the risk of disqualification in certain circumstances. Law allows a party to merge with or into another party, provided that at least [Z] of its legislators are in favour of the merger.

Q. In the above passage, which of the following schedules has been redacted with {Y}?

Solution:

The Tenth Schedule to the Indian Constitution, that is popularly referred to as the 'Anti-Defection Law', was inserted by the 1985 Amendment to the Constitution. 'Defection' has been defined as to abandon a position or association, often to join an opposing group.

QUESTION: 58

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Aaya Ram Gaya Ram was a phrase that became popular in Indian politics after a Haryana MLA Gaya Lal changed his party thrice within the same day in [1]. The {X} sought to prevent such political disturbance which may be due to reward of office or other similar considerations.
The {Y} was inserted in the Constitution in 1985. It lays down the process by which legislators may be disqualified on grounds by the Presiding Officer of a legislature based on a petition by any other member of the House.
Karnataka Assembly Speaker K. R. Ramesh Kumar announced disqualification of three MLAs — R. Shankar (Ranebennur), Ramesh Jharkiholi (Gokak) and Mahesh Kumthahalli (Athani) — under the provisions of the {X} law, setting off a new crisis for the BJP.
The Speaker said that the disqualified MLAs cannot contest elections, until the expiry of the term of the 15th Assembly. This means that they cannot contest polls until May 2023, unless the house is dissolved before that. The {Y}, he clarified, did not provide for contesting polls during the reminder of the Current Assembly.
The Speaker said that he would need some time to decide on the resignation of other rebel Congress and Janata Dal (S) MLAs. The rebel MLAs are currently camping in a Mumbai hotel and have been told by the BJP to arrive in Bengaluru only after the dust settles. The rebellion had caused a political crisis in Karnataka, leading to the collapse of the JD(S)-Congress Government. In response to a question, Ramesh Kumar said that he would remain the Speaker of the House till the expiry of its term. The Speaker disqualified Shankar on grounds that he pledged his support to the BJP after voluntarily merging his party, KPJP, with the Congress.
The legislators may change their party without the risk of disqualification in certain circumstances. Law allows a party to merge with or into another party, provided that at least [Z] of its legislators are in favour of the merger.

Q. What has been redacted with [Z]?

Solution:

The anti-defection law allows a party to merge with or into another party provided that at least two-thirds of its legislators are in favour of the merger. In such a scenario, neither the members who decide to merge nor the ones who stay with the original party will face disqualification.

QUESTION: 59

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Padma Awards, one of the highest civilian awards of the country, are conferred in three categories, namely, Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri. They are given in various disciplines/fields of activities, viz. art, social work, public affairs, science and engineering, trade and industry, medicine, literature and education, sports, civil service etc. 'Padma Vibhushan' is awarded for exceptional and distinguished service, 'Padma Bhushan' for distinguished service of high order and 'Padma Shri' for distinguished service in any field. They are announced on the occasion of {X} every year.
The Padma Awards have now become "people's awards", Prime Minister Narendra Modi said, adding earlier the decision was taken by a select few, but now it is completely people driven. In his monthly 'Mann ki Baat' address, the Prime Minister told that this year, over 46,000 nominations were received for the Padma Awards, which is more than 20 times the number of nominations received in 2014, when the Modi Government first came to power.
The President has approved conferment of 141 Padma Awards in 2020. "This statistics reveals the faith of every one of us and tells us that the Padma Awards have now become the Peoples' awards. The entire process of the Padma Awards is now completed online. Earlier, the decision was taken by a select few. Now, it is completely people driven," he said.
He said that there is now a "new found faith and respect" for these awards in the country.
''Many among the awardees are those who have risen from the bottom of the pyramid through dint of their hard work. They have overcome limitations of resources and a terrible atmosphere of despair around them and forged ahead'' he said.
He asked people to read about the awardees. "The extraordinary stories of their lives will inspire the society in the true spirit," he said.

Q. What has been redacted with {X} in the above passage?

Solution:

Republic Day has been redacted with {X} in the above passage. On the eve of Republic Day, the President of India distributes Padma Awards to the civilians of India every year. These are the second highest civilian awards in India, after Bharat Ratna. These are given in three categories, viz. Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri, in decreasing order of importance.

QUESTION: 60

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Aaya Ram Gaya Ram was a phrase that became popular in Indian politics after a Haryana MLA Gaya Lal changed his party thrice within the same day in [1]. The {X} sought to prevent such political disturbance which may be due to reward of office or other similar considerations.
The {Y} was inserted in the Constitution in 1985. It lays down the process by which legislators may be disqualified on grounds by the Presiding Officer of a legislature based on a petition by any other member of the House.
Karnataka Assembly Speaker K. R. Ramesh Kumar announced disqualification of three MLAs — R. Shankar (Ranebennur), Ramesh Jharkiholi (Gokak) and Mahesh Kumthahalli (Athani) — under the provisions of the {X} law, setting off a new crisis for the BJP.
The Speaker said that the disqualified MLAs cannot contest elections, until the expiry of the term of the 15th Assembly. This means that they cannot contest polls until May 2023, unless the house is dissolved before that. The {Y}, he clarified, did not provide for contesting polls during the reminder of the Current Assembly.
The Speaker said that he would need some time to decide on the resignation of other rebel Congress and Janata Dal (S) MLAs. The rebel MLAs are currently camping in a Mumbai hotel and have been told by the BJP to arrive in Bengaluru only after the dust settles. The rebellion had caused a political crisis in Karnataka, leading to the collapse of the JD(S)-Congress Government. In response to a question, Ramesh Kumar said that he would remain the Speaker of the House till the expiry of its term. The Speaker disqualified Shankar on grounds that he pledged his support to the BJP after voluntarily merging his party, KPJP, with the Congress.
The legislators may change their party without the risk of disqualification in certain circumstances. Law allows a party to merge with or into another party, provided that at least [Z] of its legislators are in favour of the merger.

Q. Who acts as the final deciding authority for judgement related to {X}?

Solution:

The Chairman of Rajya Sabha/Speaker of Lok Sabha has been given the final authority to decide questions of disqualification of a member of a House under the provisions of the Tenth Schedule to the Constitution. The Anti-defection Law does not apply to an independent member who joins a political party after his/her election.

QUESTION: 61

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Padma Awards, one of the highest civilian awards of the country, are conferred in three categories, namely, Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri. They are given in various disciplines/fields of activities, viz. art, social work, public affairs, science and engineering, trade and industry, medicine, literature and education, sports, civil service etc. 'Padma Vibhushan' is awarded for exceptional and distinguished service, 'Padma Bhushan' for distinguished service of high order and 'Padma Shri' for distinguished service in any field. They are announced on the occasion of {X} every year.
The Padma Awards have now become "people's awards", Prime Minister Narendra Modi said, adding earlier the decision was taken by a select few, but now it is completely people driven. In his monthly 'Mann ki Baat' address, the Prime Minister told that this year, over 46,000 nominations were received for the Padma Awards, which is more than 20 times the number of nominations received in 2014, when the Modi Government first came to power.
The President has approved conferment of 141 Padma Awards in 2020. "This statistics reveals the faith of every one of us and tells us that the Padma Awards have now become the Peoples' awards. The entire process of the Padma Awards is now completed online. Earlier, the decision was taken by a select few. Now, it is completely people driven," he said.
He said that there is now a "new found faith and respect" for these awards in the country.
''Many among the awardees are those who have risen from the bottom of the pyramid through dint of their hard work. They have overcome limitations of resources and a terrible atmosphere of despair around them and forged ahead'' he said.
He asked people to read about the awardees. "The extraordinary stories of their lives will inspire the society in the true spirit," he said.

Q. Who is the first woman sportsperson to win Padma Vibhushan?

Solution:

Six-time World Amateur Boxing Champion and Olympian bronze medalist (London, 2012), M. C. Mary Kom was announced as one of the recipients of the prestigious 'Padma Vibhushan' award on the occasion of Republic Day, 2020. Mary Kom became the first women sportsperson to win the Award.

QUESTION: 62

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Padma Awards, one of the highest civilian awards of the country, are conferred in three categories, namely, Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri. They are given in various disciplines/fields of activities, viz. art, social work, public affairs, science and engineering, trade and industry, medicine, literature and education, sports, civil service etc. 'Padma Vibhushan' is awarded for exceptional and distinguished service, 'Padma Bhushan' for distinguished service of high order and 'Padma Shri' for distinguished service in any field. They are announced on the occasion of {X} every year.
The Padma Awards have now become "people's awards", Prime Minister Narendra Modi said, adding earlier the decision was taken by a select few, but now it is completely people driven. In his monthly 'Mann ki Baat' address, the Prime Minister told that this year, over 46,000 nominations were received for the Padma Awards, which is more than 20 times the number of nominations received in 2014, when the Modi Government first came to power.
The President has approved conferment of 141 Padma Awards in 2020. "This statistics reveals the faith of every one of us and tells us that the Padma Awards have now become the Peoples' awards. The entire process of the Padma Awards is now completed online. Earlier, the decision was taken by a select few. Now, it is completely people driven," he said.
He said that there is now a "new found faith and respect" for these awards in the country.
''Many among the awardees are those who have risen from the bottom of the pyramid through dint of their hard work. They have overcome limitations of resources and a terrible atmosphere of despair around them and forged ahead'' he said.
He asked people to read about the awardees. "The extraordinary stories of their lives will inspire the society in the true spirit," he said.

Q. Who among the following has won Padma Vibhushan?

Solution:

Sachin Tendulkar won Padma Vibhushan in 2008. The Padma Vibhushan is the second highest civilian award of the Republic of India. Instituted on 2nd January, 1954, the Award is given for the "exceptional and distinguished service", without distinction of race, occupation, position or sex.

QUESTION: 63

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Padma Awards, one of the highest civilian awards of the country, are conferred in three categories, namely, Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri. They are given in various disciplines/fields of activities, viz. art, social work, public affairs, science and engineering, trade and industry, medicine, literature and education, sports, civil service etc. 'Padma Vibhushan' is awarded for exceptional and distinguished service, 'Padma Bhushan' for distinguished service of high order and 'Padma Shri' for distinguished service in any field. They are announced on the occasion of {X} every year.
The Padma Awards have now become "people's awards", Prime Minister Narendra Modi said, adding earlier the decision was taken by a select few, but now it is completely people driven. In his monthly 'Mann ki Baat' address, the Prime Minister told that this year, over 46,000 nominations were received for the Padma Awards, which is more than 20 times the number of nominations received in 2014, when the Modi Government first came to power.
The President has approved conferment of 141 Padma Awards in 2020. "This statistics reveals the faith of every one of us and tells us that the Padma Awards have now become the Peoples' awards. The entire process of the Padma Awards is now completed online. Earlier, the decision was taken by a select few. Now, it is completely people driven," he said.
He said that there is now a "new found faith and respect" for these awards in the country.
''Many among the awardees are those who have risen from the bottom of the pyramid through dint of their hard work. They have overcome limitations of resources and a terrible atmosphere of despair around them and forged ahead'' he said.
He asked people to read about the awardees. "The extraordinary stories of their lives will inspire the society in the true spirit," he said.

Q. Which of the following is the highest Civilian Award in India?

Solution:

The Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award of the country, was instituted in the year 1954. Any person, without distinction of race, occupation, position, gender or religion, is eligible for this Award. It is awarded in recognition of exceptional service/performance of the highest order in any field of human endeavour.

QUESTION: 64

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Padma Awards, one of the highest civilian awards of the country, are conferred in three categories, namely, Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri. They are given in various disciplines/fields of activities, viz. art, social work, public affairs, science and engineering, trade and industry, medicine, literature and education, sports, civil service etc. 'Padma Vibhushan' is awarded for exceptional and distinguished service, 'Padma Bhushan' for distinguished service of high order and 'Padma Shri' for distinguished service in any field. They are announced on the occasion of {X} every year.
The Padma Awards have now become "people's awards", Prime Minister Narendra Modi said, adding earlier the decision was taken by a select few, but now it is completely people driven. In his monthly 'Mann ki Baat' address, the Prime Minister told that this year, over 46,000 nominations were received for the Padma Awards, which is more than 20 times the number of nominations received in 2014, when the Modi Government first came to power.
The President has approved conferment of 141 Padma Awards in 2020. "This statistics reveals the faith of every one of us and tells us that the Padma Awards have now become the Peoples' awards. The entire process of the Padma Awards is now completed online. Earlier, the decision was taken by a select few. Now, it is completely people driven," he said.
He said that there is now a "new found faith and respect" for these awards in the country.
''Many among the awardees are those who have risen from the bottom of the pyramid through dint of their hard work. They have overcome limitations of resources and a terrible atmosphere of despair around them and forged ahead'' he said.
He asked people to read about the awardees. "The extraordinary stories of their lives will inspire the society in the true spirit," he said.

Q. Who is not a recipient of Bharat Ratna, 2019?

Solution:

Madan Mohan Malaviya won Bharat Ratan in 2015. He is a scholar and educational reformer. Malaviya was a founder of Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha (1906) and Banaras Hindu University and served as the university's Vice-Chancellor from 1919 till 1938.
On 25th January, 2019, the Government announced the award to social activist Nanaji Deshmukh, singer-music director Bhupen Hazarika and former President of India, Pranab Mukherjee.

QUESTION: 65

Read the following passage and answer the question.

The army is likely to sign a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for the procurement of over 7.5 lakh AK-203 assault rifles. "About 1 lakh rifles will come directly from Russia and the remaining will be manufactured by the JV in India. The MoU should be signed in a month," a defence official said.
The rifles will be manufactured by the {X} in Uttar Pradesh. The facility is being set up between the {Y} from the Indian side, and Rosoboron Exports and Kalashnikov on the Russian side. The {Y} owns 50.5% equity and Russian side holds the remaining 49.5%. The JV was formed following the Inter-governmental Agreement between India and Russia in February 2019.
To have oversight over the process and ensure timely deliveries, the Army has appointed Major General Sanjeev Senger as the Chief Executive Officer of {X}. Officials said the JV has obtained all the requisite licences for production and export. The Ministry of Defence has already floated a Request For Proposal (RFP) to the JV for the supply of 6.71 lakh rifles.
Reviewing the operationalisation of the project few months back, Defence Minister had stressed on the need for 100% indigenisation of the rifle as per the project understanding, and focusing on the export of the rifles from {X} to other friendly countries.
In addition to the AK-203, the Army recently began inducting the first batch of 10,000 SIG-716 assault rifles. Troops engaged in counter insurgency operations in the Army's Northern Command have started receiving these rifles, sources said. The rifles are being procured under a contract signed in February 2019 with Sig Sauer of the U.S. for 72,400 SIG-716 assault rifles worth over 700 crore.
"The initial idea was to equip the entire Army with the SIG-716", one officer said. He added that given the huge cost, it was decided that the rifles would be provided to frontline troops, while the remaining forces can be equipped with AK-203 rifles. "It was decided based on the requirement," he stated.
The Army has been looking to replace the indigenous INSAS rifles in use with a modern rifle. The MoD had approved the procurement in January 2018 through the Fast Track Procurement route. Of the 72,400 rifles, 66,400 are for the Army, 2,000 for the Navy and 4,000 for the Air Force. The entire quantity is expected to be delivered within 12 months from the date of signing the contract.

Q. In the above passage, what has been redacted with {X}?

Solution:

Indo-Russia Rifles Private Limited is a rifle-manufacturing facility in Korwa, Amethi district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The factory manufactures the AK-203 variant of the Kalashnikov family of rifles.

QUESTION: 66

Read the following passage and answer the question.

The army is likely to sign a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for the procurement of over 7.5 lakh AK-203 assault rifles. "About 1 lakh rifles will come directly from Russia and the remaining will be manufactured by the JV in India. The MoU should be signed in a month," a defence official said.
The rifles will be manufactured by the {X} in Uttar Pradesh. The facility is being set up between the {Y} from the Indian side, and Rosoboron Exports and Kalashnikov on the Russian side. The {Y} owns 50.5% equity and Russian side holds the remaining 49.5%. The JV was formed following the Inter-governmental Agreement between India and Russia in February 2019.
To have oversight over the process and ensure timely deliveries, the Army has appointed Major General Sanjeev Senger as the Chief Executive Officer of {X}. Officials said the JV has obtained all the requisite licences for production and export. The Ministry of Defence has already floated a Request For Proposal (RFP) to the JV for the supply of 6.71 lakh rifles.
Reviewing the operationalisation of the project few months back, Defence Minister had stressed on the need for 100% indigenisation of the rifle as per the project understanding, and focusing on the export of the rifles from {X} to other friendly countries.
In addition to the AK-203, the Army recently began inducting the first batch of 10,000 SIG-716 assault rifles. Troops engaged in counter insurgency operations in the Army's Northern Command have started receiving these rifles, sources said. The rifles are being procured under a contract signed in February 2019 with Sig Sauer of the U.S. for 72,400 SIG-716 assault rifles worth over 700 crore.
"The initial idea was to equip the entire Army with the SIG-716", one officer said. He added that given the huge cost, it was decided that the rifles would be provided to frontline troops, while the remaining forces can be equipped with AK-203 rifles. "It was decided based on the requirement," he stated.
The Army has been looking to replace the indigenous INSAS rifles in use with a modern rifle. The MoD had approved the procurement in January 2018 through the Fast Track Procurement route. Of the 72,400 rifles, 66,400 are for the Army, 2,000 for the Navy and 4,000 for the Air Force. The entire quantity is expected to be delivered within 12 months from the date of signing the contract.

Q. In the above passage, which organisation has been redacted with {Y}?

Solution:

Ordnance Factories Board, consisting of the Indian Ordnance Factories, is an industrial organisation functioning under the Department of Defence Production of Ministry of Defence, Government of India. It is engaged in research, development, production, testing, marketing and logistics of a comprehensive product range in the areas of air, land and sea systems.

QUESTION: 67

Read the following passage and answer the question.

The army is likely to sign a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for the procurement of over 7.5 lakh AK-203 assault rifles. "About 1 lakh rifles will come directly from Russia and the remaining will be manufactured by the JV in India. The MoU should be signed in a month," a defence official said.
The rifles will be manufactured by the {X} in Uttar Pradesh. The facility is being set up between the {Y} from the Indian side, and Rosoboron Exports and Kalashnikov on the Russian side. The {Y} owns 50.5% equity and Russian side holds the remaining 49.5%. The JV was formed following the Inter-governmental Agreement between India and Russia in February 2019.
To have oversight over the process and ensure timely deliveries, the Army has appointed Major General Sanjeev Senger as the Chief Executive Officer of {X}. Officials said the JV has obtained all the requisite licences for production and export. The Ministry of Defence has already floated a Request For Proposal (RFP) to the JV for the supply of 6.71 lakh rifles.
Reviewing the operationalisation of the project few months back, Defence Minister had stressed on the need for 100% indigenisation of the rifle as per the project understanding, and focusing on the export of the rifles from {X} to other friendly countries.
In addition to the AK-203, the Army recently began inducting the first batch of 10,000 SIG-716 assault rifles. Troops engaged in counter insurgency operations in the Army's Northern Command have started receiving these rifles, sources said. The rifles are being procured under a contract signed in February 2019 with Sig Sauer of the U.S. for 72,400 SIG-716 assault rifles worth over 700 crore.
"The initial idea was to equip the entire Army with the SIG-716", one officer said. He added that given the huge cost, it was decided that the rifles would be provided to frontline troops, while the remaining forces can be equipped with AK-203 rifles. "It was decided based on the requirement," he stated.
The Army has been looking to replace the indigenous INSAS rifles in use with a modern rifle. The MoD had approved the procurement in January 2018 through the Fast Track Procurement route. Of the 72,400 rifles, 66,400 are for the Army, 2,000 for the Navy and 4,000 for the Air Force. The entire quantity is expected to be delivered within 12 months from the date of signing the contract.

Q. Who is the Chief of the Army Staff as in 2020?

Solution:

The Chief of the Army Staff is the professional head, commander, and usually the highest-ranking military officer of the Indian Army. The position is abbreviated as COAS in Indian Army, and is always held by a full General. The COAS as in 2020 is General Manoj Mukund Naravane, who took office on 31st December, 2019.

QUESTION: 68

Read the following passage and answer the question.

The army is likely to sign a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for the procurement of over 7.5 lakh AK-203 assault rifles. "About 1 lakh rifles will come directly from Russia and the remaining will be manufactured by the JV in India. The MoU should be signed in a month," a defence official said.
The rifles will be manufactured by the {X} in Uttar Pradesh. The facility is being set up between the {Y} from the Indian side, and Rosoboron Exports and Kalashnikov on the Russian side. The {Y} owns 50.5% equity and Russian side holds the remaining 49.5%. The JV was formed following the Inter-governmental Agreement between India and Russia in February 2019.
To have oversight over the process and ensure timely deliveries, the Army has appointed Major General Sanjeev Senger as the Chief Executive Officer of {X}. Officials said the JV has obtained all the requisite licences for production and export. The Ministry of Defence has already floated a Request For Proposal (RFP) to the JV for the supply of 6.71 lakh rifles.
Reviewing the operationalisation of the project few months back, Defence Minister had stressed on the need for 100% indigenisation of the rifle as per the project understanding, and focusing on the export of the rifles from {X} to other friendly countries.
In addition to the AK-203, the Army recently began inducting the first batch of 10,000 SIG-716 assault rifles. Troops engaged in counter insurgency operations in the Army's Northern Command have started receiving these rifles, sources said. The rifles are being procured under a contract signed in February 2019 with Sig Sauer of the U.S. for 72,400 SIG-716 assault rifles worth over 700 crore.
"The initial idea was to equip the entire Army with the SIG-716", one officer said. He added that given the huge cost, it was decided that the rifles would be provided to frontline troops, while the remaining forces can be equipped with AK-203 rifles. "It was decided based on the requirement," he stated.
The Army has been looking to replace the indigenous INSAS rifles in use with a modern rifle. The MoD had approved the procurement in January 2018 through the Fast Track Procurement route. Of the 72,400 rifles, 66,400 are for the Army, 2,000 for the Navy and 4,000 for the Air Force. The entire quantity is expected to be delivered within 12 months from the date of signing the contract.

Q. What is the full form of INSAS rifle?

Solution:

INSAS (an abbreviation of Indian National Small Arms System) is a family of infantry arms consisting of an assault rifle and a light machine gun (LMG). It is manufactured by the Ordnance Factories Board at Ordnance Factory Tiruchirappalli, Small Arms Factory Kanpur and Ishapore Arsenal.

QUESTION: 69

Read the following passage and answer the question.

The army is likely to sign a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for the procurement of over 7.5 lakh AK-203 assault rifles. "About 1 lakh rifles will come directly from Russia and the remaining will be manufactured by the JV in India. The MoU should be signed in a month," a defence official said.
The rifles will be manufactured by the {X} in Uttar Pradesh. The facility is being set up between the {Y} from the Indian side, and Rosoboron Exports and Kalashnikov on the Russian side. The {Y} owns 50.5% equity and Russian side holds the remaining 49.5%. The JV was formed following the Inter-governmental Agreement between India and Russia in February 2019.
To have oversight over the process and ensure timely deliveries, the Army has appointed Major General Sanjeev Senger as the Chief Executive Officer of {X}. Officials said the JV has obtained all the requisite licences for production and export. The Ministry of Defence has already floated a Request For Proposal (RFP) to the JV for the supply of 6.71 lakh rifles.
Reviewing the operationalisation of the project few months back, Defence Minister had stressed on the need for 100% indigenisation of the rifle as per the project understanding, and focusing on the export of the rifles from {X} to other friendly countries.
In addition to the AK-203, the Army recently began inducting the first batch of 10,000 SIG-716 assault rifles. Troops engaged in counter insurgency operations in the Army's Northern Command have started receiving these rifles, sources said. The rifles are being procured under a contract signed in February 2019 with Sig Sauer of the U.S. for 72,400 SIG-716 assault rifles worth over 700 crore.
"The initial idea was to equip the entire Army with the SIG-716", one officer said. He added that given the huge cost, it was decided that the rifles would be provided to frontline troops, while the remaining forces can be equipped with AK-203 rifles. "It was decided based on the requirement," he stated.
The Army has been looking to replace the indigenous INSAS rifles in use with a modern rifle. The MoD had approved the procurement in January 2018 through the Fast Track Procurement route. Of the 72,400 rifles, 66,400 are for the Army, 2,000 for the Navy and 4,000 for the Air Force. The entire quantity is expected to be delivered within 12 months from the date of signing the contract.

Q. Where are AK-203 rifles by Indo-Russia joint venture (JV) being manufactured?

Solution:

Indo-Russia Rifles Private Limited is a rifle-manufacturing facility in Korwa, Amethi district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The factory manufactures the AK-203 variant of the Kalashnikov family of rifles.

QUESTION: 70

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Australia's catastrophic fire season that began in August last year is unprecedented, and has caused large scale destruction. Fire is no stranger to the dry continent's woodlands, but the inferno this time has devastated over 10 million hectares of land, killing at least 25 people and tens of millions of animals, besides forcing the evacuation of entire communities. Shocking images of kangaroos burnt in their tracks as they tried to flee and koalas desperately escaping the fire are indelibly imprinted in the consciousness of people around the world. This is a moment of reckoning for Australia. The government of Prime Minister Scott Morrison, who has sought to downplay the impact of changing climate, is struggling to pacify angry citizens who are calling for a reconsideration of the country's relationship with fossil fuels. Warnings have been sounded by scientists that even with a global average temperature rise of 1°C, the raging fires have engulfed an area the size of Switzerland. In a world set to warm at least half a degree more in coming decades, Australia's encounters with devastating fires could become more frequent, perhaps even once in eight years, making large parts of the continent uninhabitable.
The situation is bound to worsen without policy change, as temperatures are predicted to soar to 50°C. Long-term prosperity for Australians and a future for its charismatic animals can be secured only through policies that foster environmental protection.

Q. Which of the following statements could be inferred from the passage?

Solution:

The text mentions that 'Fire is no stranger to the dry continent's woodlands but the inferno this time has devastated ...' Thus, it could be easily inferred that Australia has faced fire incidents in the past as well. So, option 2 is correct.
It does not however mention that there is no policy in place to deal with climate change. The text states "The situation is bound to worsen without policy change" which indicates that there is a policy in place, but it is not effective enough. So, option 1 is incorrect.

QUESTION: 71

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Australia's catastrophic fire season that began in August last year is unprecedented, and has caused large scale destruction. Fire is no stranger to the dry continent's woodlands, but the inferno this time has devastated over 10 million hectares of land, killing at least 25 people and tens of millions of animals, besides forcing the evacuation of entire communities. Shocking images of kangaroos burnt in their tracks as they tried to flee and koalas desperately escaping the fire are indelibly imprinted in the consciousness of people around the world. This is a moment of reckoning for Australia. The government of Prime Minister Scott Morrison, who has sought to downplay the impact of changing climate, is struggling to pacify angry citizens who are calling for a reconsideration of the country's relationship with fossil fuels. Warnings have been sounded by scientists that even with a global average temperature rise of 1°C, the raging fires have engulfed an area the size of Switzerland. In a world set to warm at least half a degree more in coming decades, Australia's encounters with devastating fires could become more frequent, perhaps even once in eight years, making large parts of the continent uninhabitable.
The situation is bound to worsen without policy change, as temperatures are predicted to soar to 50°C. Long-term prosperity for Australians and a future for its charismatic animals can be secured only through policies that foster environmental protection.

Q. Which of the following is similar to the reaction of the Prime Minister?

Solution:

The text states that the Prime Minister first 'sought to downplay the impact' and later tried to 'to pacify angry citizens'. This point is illustrated by option 2 in which Rajiv lied about completing his homework, and later found it difficult to deal with the situation when the teacher asked to show the work.

QUESTION: 72

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Australia's catastrophic fire season that began in August last year is unprecedented, and has caused large scale destruction. Fire is no stranger to the dry continent's woodlands, but the inferno this time has devastated over 10 million hectares of land, killing at least 25 people and tens of millions of animals, besides forcing the evacuation of entire communities. Shocking images of kangaroos burnt in their tracks as they tried to flee and koalas desperately escaping the fire are indelibly imprinted in the consciousness of people around the world. This is a moment of reckoning for Australia. The government of Prime Minister Scott Morrison, who has sought to downplay the impact of changing climate, is struggling to pacify angry citizens who are calling for a reconsideration of the country's relationship with fossil fuels. Warnings have been sounded by scientists that even with a global average temperature rise of 1°C, the raging fires have engulfed an area the size of Switzerland. In a world set to warm at least half a degree more in coming decades, Australia's encounters with devastating fires could become more frequent, perhaps even once in eight years, making large parts of the continent uninhabitable.
The situation is bound to worsen without policy change, as temperatures are predicted to soar to 50°C. Long-term prosperity for Australians and a future for its charismatic animals can be secured only through policies that foster environmental protection.

Q. Why does the author mention 'Switzerland' while describing about the bushfires in Australia?

Solution:

The text mentions '... the raging fires have engulfed an area the size of Switzerland ...' Thus, it is mentioned to provide a basis of comparison to illustrate the extent of the bushfires. Thus, option 4 is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 73

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Australia's catastrophic fire season that began in August last year is unprecedented, and has caused large scale destruction. Fire is no stranger to the dry continent's woodlands, but the inferno this time has devastated over 10 million hectares of land, killing at least 25 people and tens of millions of animals, besides forcing the evacuation of entire communities. Shocking images of kangaroos burnt in their tracks as they tried to flee and koalas desperately escaping the fire are indelibly imprinted in the consciousness of people around the world. This is a moment of reckoning for Australia. The government of Prime Minister Scott Morrison, who has sought to downplay the impact of changing climate, is struggling to pacify angry citizens who are calling for a reconsideration of the country's relationship with fossil fuels. Warnings have been sounded by scientists that even with a global average temperature rise of 1°C, the raging fires have engulfed an area the size of Switzerland. In a world set to warm at least half a degree more in coming decades, Australia's encounters with devastating fires could become more frequent, perhaps even once in eight years, making large parts of the continent uninhabitable.
The situation is bound to worsen without policy change, as temperatures are predicted to soar to 50°C. Long-term prosperity for Australians and a future for its charismatic animals can be secured only through policies that foster environmental protection.

Q. Which of the following behaviours is unlike the moment of reckoning that the author describes?

Solution:

The author states in the passage that Australia is realising that there has been harm done to its lands primarily because they have ignored the need for a climate policy change. So in an effort to make his wrongs right, the Prime Minister is seen pacifying the angry citizens. A moment of recknoning is, therefore, a realisation that you've done something wrong and it is time to correct it. All other options can be such moments of recknoning similar to the one presented in the passage except option 3 where the party-member is satisfied with the party that he is currently working with. Had he felt betrayed and left the party to join another one, it would have been a moment of reckoning for him.

QUESTION: 74

Read the following passage and answer the question.

Australia's catastrophic fire season that began in August last year is unprecedented, and has caused large scale destruction. Fire is no stranger to the dry continent's woodlands, but the inferno this time has devastated over 10 million hectares of land, killing at least 25 people and tens of millions of animals, besides forcing the evacuation of entire communities. Shocking images of kangaroos burnt in their tracks as they tried to flee and koalas desperately escaping the fire are indelibly imprinted in the consciousness of people around the world. This is a moment of reckoning for Australia. The government of Prime Minister Scott Morrison, who has sought to downplay the impact of changing climate, is struggling to pacify angry citizens who are calling for a reconsideration of the country's relationship with fossil fuels. Warnings have been sounded by scientists that even with a global average temperature rise of 1°C, the raging fires have engulfed an area the size of Switzerland. In a world set to warm at least half a degree more in coming decades, Australia's encounters with devastating fires could become more frequent, perhaps even once in eight years, making large parts of the continent uninhabitable.
The situation is bound to worsen without policy change, as temperatures are predicted to soar to 50°C. Long-term prosperity for Australians and a future for its charismatic animals can be secured only through policies that foster environmental protection.

Q. Which of the following situations could possibly make the bushfires in Australia worse?

Solution:

The text mentions 'Warnings have been sounded by scientists that even with a global average temperature rise of 1°C, the raging fires have engulfed an area the size of Switzerland'. So, change in temperature could be one of the reasons that the situation of bushfires in Australia could become worse. Thus, option 3 is the most appropriate answer.

QUESTION: 75

Read the following passage and answer the question.

One of the clauses of the Punjab Government's ambitious smart school policy was making English compulsory as the medium of instruction. The step was intended to make school education more equitable for the poor by bridging the yawning socio-economic gap created by the mushrooming and much sought-after swanky 'English-medium' schools. However, in a step back, the state government has now decided to do away with this mandatory clause. It has given in to the pressure of teachers' unions which have been opposing the move, and saying that the pupils be taught in their mother tongue till Class V.
Rather, giving the government school students the option of choosing English or Punjabi/Hindi as a medium of instruction only complicates the situation. It is fraught with a set of perils that the Education Department is ill-equipped to handle. The paucity of teachers qualified to teach in the English medium makes it an uphill task.
Providing nearly 3,000 government schools with smart equipment worth crores of rupees — computers, WiFi, Internet, etc — is not enough to benefit the little ones in achieving the appropriate learning levels. Until complemented by investment in well-qualified staff, the underprivileged children cannot be expected to imbibe the lessons. It will only have the undesirable effect of promoting rote learning.

Q. Which of the following best represents the main point of the given passage?

Solution:

Only option 2 can be inferred as the main idea of the passage as the whole passage addresses the question that whether it is right for the Government of Punjab to make English compulsory in schools in an effort to give a head to smart school policy.

QUESTION: 76

Read the following passage and answer the question.

One of the clauses of the Punjab Government's ambitious smart school policy was making English compulsory as the medium of instruction. The step was intended to make school education more equitable for the poor by bridging the yawning socio-economic gap created by the mushrooming and much sought-after swanky 'English-medium' schools. However, in a step back, the state government has now decided to do away with this mandatory clause. It has given in to the pressure of teachers' unions which have been opposing the move, and saying that the pupils be taught in their mother tongue till Class V.
Rather, giving the government school students the option of choosing English or Punjabi/Hindi as a medium of instruction only complicates the situation. It is fraught with a set of perils that the Education Department is ill-equipped to handle. The paucity of teachers qualified to teach in the English medium makes it an uphill task.
Providing nearly 3,000 government schools with smart equipment worth crores of rupees — computers, WiFi, Internet, etc — is not enough to benefit the little ones in achieving the appropriate learning levels. Until complemented by investment in well-qualified staff, the underprivileged children cannot be expected to imbibe the lessons. It will only have the undesirable effect of promoting rote learning.

Q. Which of the following can be inferred from the text?

Solution:

Options 1 and 2 - There is no mention regarding the statements in the text.
Option 4 - Teaching English is not a complicated task, rather, making it compulsory in public schools is complicated due to lack of teachers.
Option 3 is the correct answer. It could be inferred from the lines 'Providing nearly 3,000 government schools with smart equipment worth crores of rupees - computers, WiFi, Internet, etc - is not enough'.

QUESTION: 77

Read the following passage and answer the question.

One of the clauses of the Punjab Government's ambitious smart school policy was making English compulsory as the medium of instruction. The step was intended to make school education more equitable for the poor by bridging the yawning socio-economic gap created by the mushrooming and much sought-after swanky 'English-medium' schools. However, in a step back, the state government has now decided to do away with this mandatory clause. It has given in to the pressure of teachers' unions which have been opposing the move, and saying that the pupils be taught in their mother tongue till Class V.
Rather, giving the government school students the option of choosing English or Punjabi/Hindi as a medium of instruction only complicates the situation. It is fraught with a set of perils that the Education Department is ill-equipped to handle. The paucity of teachers qualified to teach in the English medium makes it an uphill task.
Providing nearly 3,000 government schools with smart equipment worth crores of rupees — computers, WiFi, Internet, etc — is not enough to benefit the little ones in achieving the appropriate learning levels. Until complemented by investment in well-qualified staff, the underprivileged children cannot be expected to imbibe the lessons. It will only have the undesirable effect of promoting rote learning.

Q. Which of the following could possibly be the consequence of the government's decision of making English compulsory in public schools?

Solution:

The government's decision was not welcomed by teachers as stated in the lines 'It has given in to the pressure of teachers' unions which have been opposing the move'. This suggests when the government earlier tried to make it compulsory in the public schools, the teachers raised their voice in protest. Thus, the most probable consequence if a similar decision is taken is mentioned in option 1.

QUESTION: 78

Read the following passage and answer the question.

One of the clauses of the Punjab Government's ambitious smart school policy was making English compulsory as the medium of instruction. The step was intended to make school education more equitable for the poor by bridging the yawning socio-economic gap created by the mushrooming and much sought-after swanky 'English-medium' schools. However, in a step back, the state government has now decided to do away with this mandatory clause. It has given in to the pressure of teachers' unions which have been opposing the move, and saying that the pupils be taught in their mother tongue till Class V.
Rather, giving the government school students the option of choosing English or Punjabi/Hindi as a medium of instruction only complicates the situation. It is fraught with a set of perils that the Education Department is ill-equipped to handle. The paucity of teachers qualified to teach in the English medium makes it an uphill task.
Providing nearly 3,000 government schools with smart equipment worth crores of rupees — computers, WiFi, Internet, etc — is not enough to benefit the little ones in achieving the appropriate learning levels. Until complemented by investment in well-qualified staff, the underprivileged children cannot be expected to imbibe the lessons. It will only have the undesirable effect of promoting rote learning.

Q. Which of the following is similar to Punjab Government's plan of introducing English in public schools?

Solution:

The situation of Punjab Government is that it wants to make English compulsory in government schools; however, it does not have the staff for the same. This is illustrated by point 3 wherein a decision has been made by the municipal corporation; however, labour is not available to implement it.

QUESTION: 79

Read the following passage and answer the question.

One of the clauses of the Punjab Government's ambitious smart school policy was making English compulsory as the medium of instruction. The step was intended to make school education more equitable for the poor by bridging the yawning socio-economic gap created by the mushrooming and much sought-after swanky 'English-medium' schools. However, in a step back, the state government has now decided to do away with this mandatory clause. It has given in to the pressure of teachers' unions which have been opposing the move, and saying that the pupils be taught in their mother tongue till Class V.
Rather, giving the government school students the option of choosing English or Punjabi/Hindi as a medium of instruction only complicates the situation. It is fraught with a set of perils that the Education Department is ill-equipped to handle. The paucity of teachers qualified to teach in the English medium makes it an uphill task.
Providing nearly 3,000 government schools with smart equipment worth crores of rupees — computers, WiFi, Internet, etc — is not enough to benefit the little ones in achieving the appropriate learning levels. Until complemented by investment in well-qualified staff, the underprivileged children cannot be expected to imbibe the lessons. It will only have the undesirable effect of promoting rote learning.

Q. Which of the following weakens the statement that teaching students in English medium is an uphill task?

Solution:

Teaching students in English-medium is an uphill task due to lack of teachers. However, if option 4 is considered true, it implies that teachers are available. Thus, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 80

Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Indian Science Congress (ISC) has served as a reminder of the status accorded to science and technology in the early years of the Indian republic. Though the formation of the congress pre-dates the Indian republic, it was the intellectual nursery of modern science in the country. Early ideas of how science and technology could aid the development of the new nation were incubated at this coming together of scientists. The years since have seen the nature of the congress change: from one where scientists, in the era of postal communication, congregated to exchange scientific ideas to one today where it has become a 'science mela'. The prime purpose of the ISC now is to draw school and science college students to hear Nobel Laureates and Indian-origin scientists from abroad to lecture about their work and the future prospects of science.
But there is an unmistakable decay, a choreographed ennui, that has set in. In recent years, the congress often makes news for becoming a forum for pseudoscience and less for interesting scientific ideas or demonstrations. Speakers — some holding distinguished positions in leading universities — have tended to mix mythology and science and publicise far-fetched assertions. The exhibits at several scientific laboratories are re-runs from old congresses, or from similar and past science fairs. Many laboratories showcase their work as 'posters' rather than actually showing demonstrations or working inventions. It is inevitable that traditions change over time and the relative importance accorded to institutions wax and wane. However this must make way for inspiring new ideas, or new models of taking science to the public.

Q. Based on the author's arguments in the given passage, what would be the best way for ISC to stay true to its primary objective?

Solution:

The author states a problem in the passage that the ISC has strayed from its objective of being a platform of scientists and research bodies to disseminate information about new scientific ideas. In order to make it right, the author in the last paragraph suggests that the ISC "must make way for inspiring new ideas, or new models of taking science to the public." One step in this direction would be to make it mandatory for scientists and research bodies to come up with working models of their ideas, rather than displaying them as just 'posters'.

QUESTION: 81

Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Indian Science Congress (ISC) has served as a reminder of the status accorded to science and technology in the early years of the Indian republic. Though the formation of the congress pre-dates the Indian republic, it was the intellectual nursery of modern science in the country. Early ideas of how science and technology could aid the development of the new nation were incubated at this coming together of scientists. The years since have seen the nature of the congress change: from one where scientists, in the era of postal communication, congregated to exchange scientific ideas to one today where it has become a 'science mela'. The prime purpose of the ISC now is to draw school and science college students to hear Nobel Laureates and Indian-origin scientists from abroad to lecture about their work and the future prospects of science.
But there is an unmistakable decay, a choreographed ennui, that has set in. In recent years, the congress often makes news for becoming a forum for pseudoscience and less for interesting scientific ideas or demonstrations. Speakers — some holding distinguished positions in leading universities — have tended to mix mythology and science and publicise far-fetched assertions. The exhibits at several scientific laboratories are re-runs from old congresses, or from similar and past science fairs. Many laboratories showcase their work as 'posters' rather than actually showing demonstrations or working inventions. It is inevitable that traditions change over time and the relative importance accorded to institutions wax and wane. However this must make way for inspiring new ideas, or new models of taking science to the public.

Q. What is the role played by the two statements in boldface in the argument presented?

Solution:

The following firstly talks about what the ISC has turned into and the second mentions the instances ie. by putting up 'posters' of their yet-to-be materialised products.

QUESTION: 82

Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Indian Science Congress (ISC) has served as a reminder of the status accorded to science and technology in the early years of the Indian republic. Though the formation of the congress pre-dates the Indian republic, it was the intellectual nursery of modern science in the country. Early ideas of how science and technology could aid the development of the new nation were incubated at this coming together of scientists. The years since have seen the nature of the congress change: from one where scientists, in the era of postal communication, congregated to exchange scientific ideas to one today where it has become a 'science mela'. The prime purpose of the ISC now is to draw school and science college students to hear Nobel Laureates and Indian-origin scientists from abroad to lecture about their work and the future prospects of science.
But there is an unmistakable decay, a choreographed ennui, that has set in. In recent years, the congress often makes news for becoming a forum for pseudoscience and less for interesting scientific ideas or demonstrations. Speakers — some holding distinguished positions in leading universities — have tended to mix mythology and science and publicise far-fetched assertions. The exhibits at several scientific laboratories are re-runs from old congresses, or from similar and past science fairs. Many laboratories showcase their work as 'posters' rather than actually showing demonstrations or working inventions. It is inevitable that traditions change over time and the relative importance accorded to institutions wax and wane. However this must make way for inspiring new ideas, or new models of taking science to the public.

Q. Which of the following can we infer from the given passage?

Solution:

Only option 4 can be inferred from the passage. It is stated in the passage in these lines and emphasised throughout the passage: "The years since have seen the nature of the congress change: from one where scientists, in the era of postal communication, congregated to exchange scientific ideas ... ". Other options are either contrary to what is stated in the passage (option 1) or cannot be supported with the information from the passage (options 2 and 3).

QUESTION: 83

Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Indian Science Congress (ISC) has served as a reminder of the status accorded to science and technology in the early years of the Indian republic. Though the formation of the congress pre-dates the Indian republic, it was the intellectual nursery of modern science in the country. Early ideas of how science and technology could aid the development of the new nation were incubated at this coming together of scientists. The years since have seen the nature of the congress change: from one where scientists, in the era of postal communication, congregated to exchange scientific ideas to one today where it has become a 'science mela'. The prime purpose of the ISC now is to draw school and science college students to hear Nobel Laureates and Indian-origin scientists from abroad to lecture about their work and the future prospects of science.
But there is an unmistakable decay, a choreographed ennui, that has set in. In recent years, the congress often makes news for becoming a forum for pseudoscience and less for interesting scientific ideas or demonstrations. Speakers — some holding distinguished positions in leading universities — have tended to mix mythology and science and publicise far-fetched assertions. The exhibits at several scientific laboratories are re-runs from old congresses, or from similar and past science fairs. Many laboratories showcase their work as 'posters' rather than actually showing demonstrations or working inventions. It is inevitable that traditions change over time and the relative importance accorded to institutions wax and wane. However this must make way for inspiring new ideas, or new models of taking science to the public.

Q. Which of the following best describes the paradoxical situation presented in the passage?

Solution:

The paradoxical situation is that even the people who are experts in the field of science and technology 'have tended to mix mythology and science and publicise far-fetched assertions'. Thus, the most appropriate answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 84

Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Indian Science Congress (ISC) has served as a reminder of the status accorded to science and technology in the early years of the Indian republic. Though the formation of the congress pre-dates the Indian republic, it was the intellectual nursery of modern science in the country. Early ideas of how science and technology could aid the development of the new nation were incubated at this coming together of scientists. The years since have seen the nature of the congress change: from one where scientists, in the era of postal communication, congregated to exchange scientific ideas to one today where it has become a 'science mela'. The prime purpose of the ISC now is to draw school and science college students to hear Nobel Laureates and Indian-origin scientists from abroad to lecture about their work and the future prospects of science.
But there is an unmistakable decay, a choreographed ennui, that has set in. In recent years, the congress often makes news for becoming a forum for pseudoscience and less for interesting scientific ideas or demonstrations. Speakers — some holding distinguished positions in leading universities — have tended to mix mythology and science and publicise far-fetched assertions. The exhibits at several scientific laboratories are re-runs from old congresses, or from similar and past science fairs. Many laboratories showcase their work as 'posters' rather than actually showing demonstrations or working inventions. It is inevitable that traditions change over time and the relative importance accorded to institutions wax and wane. However this must make way for inspiring new ideas, or new models of taking science to the public.

Q. The author's statement that scientists are mixing mythology with science in their lectures plays which of the following roles in the author's argument that ISC has distracted from its prime purpose?

Solution:

The statement that scientists are mixing mythology and science together to come at questionable conclusions is one of the premises presented in the argument that the ISC has detracted from its original purpose. It is not a conclusion. So only option 2 is correct.

QUESTION: 85

Read the following passage and answer the question.

In an ideal country in which the government provides safe and secure drinking water to all its citizens, there will be no need for the inefficient reverse osmosis (RO) water purification technology. Unfortunately, we are living in a country which is far from ideal as far as quality and quantity of drinking water supply are concerned. Consequently, concerned citizens install RO-based water purifiers, in spite of the high capital and maintenance costs, perhaps erring on the side of health and safety. But realising the wastage involved, ecosensitive citizens have started using waste water from RO for cleaning, washing and gardening, among other purposes. The government can educate people about the productive uses of waste water from RO. Besides, it can fund research and development of other affordable and efficient water-purifying technologies so that RO technology is not required. Above all, the government can ensure safe drinking water for every citizen. Under the prevailing situation, any proposal to bar domestic users from installing and utilising RO systems cannot be considered an ingredient in good water management policy.

Q. Which of the following situations is similar to the usage of RO purifiers for domestic purposes as mentioned in the passage?

Solution:

The author states that people use RO water purification technology at home keeping their health and safety in mind even though it wastes water. None of the options talks about something being used despite its drawbacks; therefore, they can be rejected. In option 1, if less electricity is used, it is a positive point. The correct answer is therefore option 4.

QUESTION: 86

Read the following passage and answer the question.

In an ideal country in which the government provides safe and secure drinking water to all its citizens, there will be no need for the inefficient reverse osmosis (RO) water purification technology. Unfortunately, we are living in a country which is far from ideal as far as quality and quantity of drinking water supply are concerned. Consequently, concerned citizens install RO-based water purifiers, in spite of the high capital and maintenance costs, perhaps erring on the side of health and safety. But realising the wastage involved, ecosensitive citizens have started using waste water from RO for cleaning, washing and gardening, among other purposes. The government can educate people about the productive uses of waste water from RO. Besides, it can fund research and development of other affordable and efficient water-purifying technologies so that RO technology is not required. Above all, the government can ensure safe drinking water for every citizen. Under the prevailing situation, any proposal to bar domestic users from installing and utilising RO systems cannot be considered an ingredient in good water management policy.

Q. On which of the following assumptions is the author's argument based?

Solution:

The author is making arguments against not allowing domestic users to install RO water purification systems at homes. The author assumes that the government is not using RO or any other water curative mechanism in an effort to provide safe and secure drinking water to the citizens. If there is a proposal to ban domestic RO water purification system, it assumes that the government has some other measures in mind to improve water quality. This is stated in option 2.

QUESTION: 87

Read the following passage and answer the question.

In an ideal country in which the government provides safe and secure drinking water to all its citizens, there will be no need for the inefficient reverse osmosis (RO) water purification technology. Unfortunately, we are living in a country which is far from ideal as far as quality and quantity of drinking water supply are concerned. Consequently, concerned citizens install RO-based water purifiers, in spite of the high capital and maintenance costs, perhaps erring on the side of health and safety. But realising the wastage involved, ecosensitive citizens have started using waste water from RO for cleaning, washing and gardening, among other purposes. The government can educate people about the productive uses of waste water from RO. Besides, it can fund research and development of other affordable and efficient water-purifying technologies so that RO technology is not required. Above all, the government can ensure safe drinking water for every citizen. Under the prevailing situation, any proposal to bar domestic users from installing and utilising RO systems cannot be considered an ingredient in good water management policy.

Q. Which of the following best represents the main point of the given passage?

Solution:

The author talks about the inefficiency of RO water purification technology and how the government should take alternative measures to save water rather than banning the use of domestic RO water purification equipment. Among the given options, option 3 is closest to the author's view.

QUESTION: 88

Read the following passage and answer the question.

In an ideal country in which the government provides safe and secure drinking water to all its citizens, there will be no need for the inefficient reverse osmosis (RO) water purification technology. Unfortunately, we are living in a country which is far from ideal as far as quality and quantity of drinking water supply are concerned. Consequently, concerned citizens install RO-based water purifiers, in spite of the high capital and maintenance costs, perhaps erring on the side of health and safety. But realising the wastage involved, ecosensitive citizens have started using waste water from RO for cleaning, washing and gardening, among other purposes. The government can educate people about the productive uses of waste water from RO. Besides, it can fund research and development of other affordable and efficient water-purifying technologies so that RO technology is not required. Above all, the government can ensure safe drinking water for every citizen. Under the prevailing situation, any proposal to bar domestic users from installing and utilising RO systems cannot be considered an ingredient in good water management policy.

Q. The author's statement that the government's move to ban domestic RO water purification is not a good strategy plays which of the following roles in the author's argument?

Solution:

The author statement makes up the conclusion of the argument. This conclusion wraps the entire argument in the sense that it argues that the government should look towards some other measures to conserve the water that it believes is wasted by using domestic RO water purification systems. The correct answer is, therefore, option 2.

QUESTION: 89

Read the following passage and answer the question.

In an ideal country in which the government provides safe and secure drinking water to all its citizens, there will be no need for the inefficient reverse osmosis (RO) water purification technology. Unfortunately, we are living in a country which is far from ideal as far as quality and quantity of drinking water supply are concerned. Consequently, concerned citizens install RO-based water purifiers, in spite of the high capital and maintenance costs, perhaps erring on the side of health and safety. But realising the wastage involved, ecosensitive citizens have started using waste water from RO for cleaning, washing and gardening, among other purposes. The government can educate people about the productive uses of waste water from RO. Besides, it can fund research and development of other affordable and efficient water-purifying technologies so that RO technology is not required. Above all, the government can ensure safe drinking water for every citizen. Under the prevailing situation, any proposal to bar domestic users from installing and utilising RO systems cannot be considered an ingredient in good water management policy.

Q. Which of the following, if true, most weakens the author's argument in the given passage?

Solution:

The author states that it is not a good move to ban RO water purification systems because people install these systems because the government is not able to provide safe drinking water. If a report highlights the negative effect of the water that is purified through RO's, then the argument against banning of RO's will be weakened. One such statement is given in option 1 which states that the water from RO's is stripped of essential nutrients that are required by the human body. If these nutrients are not present it will not promote health, the reason for which the concerned citizens install RO's at their homes. Therefore the correct answer is 1.

QUESTION: 90

Read the following passage and answer the question.

As the novel coronavirus toll overtook the 774 deaths worldwide from the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2002-2003, which had been the biggest coronavirus outbreak to date, the World Health Organization (WHO) said the outbreak was stabilising, but warned that it was still too early to predict if the virus had peaked.
India is screening all passengers coming from China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Thailand at 21 airports and major sea and land ports. With Kerala quickly identifying and containing coronavirus importation cases among three students from Wuhan and everyone they had come in contact with since they got infected, India has, so far, escaped the worst of the virus. The WHO estimates that the incubation period of the virus — the time a person takes between getting infected and showing symptoms — is about two to 10 days, so everyone with symptoms will be retested on day 14 of the quarantine period to ensure that they are disease-free.
The big challenge for India is to maintain the urgency to stop the infection, and ensure patients and medical staff follow quarantine protocols and reject the rumors and magic remedies being widely shared on social media. For if that happens, India's high population density will lead to the infection spreading like wildfire. Trust in science and medicine is the only way to end the outbreak once and for all.

Q. Which of the following is an assumption, on which the argument that all passengers coming from China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Thailand are being screened in India, is based?

Solution:

If this were not the case, there would have been no reason to screen people travelling from these countries at all major routes to India. Not having the knowledge about the disease isn't a reason why the people from these countries need to be screened. So the correct option is 2.

QUESTION: 91

Read the following passage and answer the question.

As the novel coronavirus toll overtook the 774 deaths worldwide from the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2002-2003, which had been the biggest coronavirus outbreak to date, the World Health Organization (WHO) said the outbreak was stabilising, but warned that it was still too early to predict if the virus had peaked.
India is screening all passengers coming from China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Thailand at 21 airports and major sea and land ports. With Kerala quickly identifying and containing coronavirus importation cases among three students from Wuhan and everyone they had come in contact with since they got infected, India has, so far, escaped the worst of the virus. The WHO estimates that the incubation period of the virus — the time a person takes between getting infected and showing symptoms — is about two to 10 days, so everyone with symptoms will be retested on day 14 of the quarantine period to ensure that they are disease-free.
The big challenge for India is to maintain the urgency to stop the infection, and ensure patients and medical staff follow quarantine protocols and reject the rumors and magic remedies being widely shared on social media. For if that happens, India's high population density will lead to the infection spreading like wildfire. Trust in science and medicine is the only way to end the outbreak once and for all.

Q. Which of the following roles are played by the first paragraph and the third paragraph in the passge?

Solution:

The first paragraph mentions about the outbreak of coronavirus and the statement by World Health Organisation (WHO). The third paragraph states about the challenges faced by India specifically. The most appropriate answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 92

Read the following passage and answer the question.

As the novel coronavirus toll overtook the 774 deaths worldwide from the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2002-2003, which had been the biggest coronavirus outbreak to date, the World Health Organization (WHO) said the outbreak was stabilising, but warned that it was still too early to predict if the virus had peaked.
India is screening all passengers coming from China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Thailand at 21 airports and major sea and land ports. With Kerala quickly identifying and containing coronavirus importation cases among three students from Wuhan and everyone they had come in contact with since they got infected, India has, so far, escaped the worst of the virus. The WHO estimates that the incubation period of the virus — the time a person takes between getting infected and showing symptoms — is about two to 10 days, so everyone with symptoms will be retested on day 14 of the quarantine period to ensure that they are disease-free.
The big challenge for India is to maintain the urgency to stop the infection, and ensure patients and medical staff follow quarantine protocols and reject the rumors and magic remedies being widely shared on social media. For if that happens, India's high population density will lead to the infection spreading like wildfire. Trust in science and medicine is the only way to end the outbreak once and for all.

Q. Which of the following would be a desirable action in order to prevent rumours about coronavirus in India?

Solution:

As stated in the last paragraph, the major challenge is to tackle the disease by ensuring "patients and medical staff follow quarantine protocols". Besides, people must be made aware to "reject the rumors and magic remedies being widely shared on social media". As the second part of the challenge is being addressed through a step mentioned in option 3, it is the most desirable one. Options 1 and 4 are long-term steps which may or may not bring about change. Option 2 is too extreme a step.

QUESTION: 93

Read the following passage and answer the question.

As the novel coronavirus toll overtook the 774 deaths worldwide from the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2002-2003, which had been the biggest coronavirus outbreak to date, the World Health Organization (WHO) said the outbreak was stabilising, but warned that it was still too early to predict if the virus had peaked.
India is screening all passengers coming from China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Thailand at 21 airports and major sea and land ports. With Kerala quickly identifying and containing coronavirus importation cases among three students from Wuhan and everyone they had come in contact with since they got infected, India has, so far, escaped the worst of the virus. The WHO estimates that the incubation period of the virus — the time a person takes between getting infected and showing symptoms — is about two to 10 days, so everyone with symptoms will be retested on day 14 of the quarantine period to ensure that they are disease-free.
The big challenge for India is to maintain the urgency to stop the infection, and ensure patients and medical staff follow quarantine protocols and reject the rumors and magic remedies being widely shared on social media. For if that happens, India's high population density will lead to the infection spreading like wildfire. Trust in science and medicine is the only way to end the outbreak once and for all.

Q. Which of the following, if true, would undermine the statement that India has escaped the worst of the virus?

Solution:

The only option that undermines the statement is option 3. If the virus has spread to thousands of people, it has definitely not escaped the worst of the virus. So the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 94

Read the following passage and answer the question.

At the software giant's conference in 2018, Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella implored the industry to rethink the way its products worked because the dangers of how technology could be used to invade privacy had become so clear.
Big Tech has been facing increasing global scrutiny as it becomes all-pervasive, and governments struggle to keep pace. Configuring consumer choices, electoral decisions, the fake news factory, the power and reach of the data industry is exponential, and potentially hugely dangerous. Europe's new General Data Protection Regulation that sets stringent privacy standards for any company doing business in the EU has come in for praise, but there have been concerns raised over regulations elsewhere.
When Nadella passionately talks of putting in place ethical standards around Artificial Intelligence, his vision of 'data dignity' needs affirmation not only from his peers, but also nation-states. A regulatory consensus on what is allowed and what is not — much like the way the world deals with proliferation of nukes — seems like one way forward. Every Indian is a stakeholder, 'privacy as a human right' needs to become an issue of intense public debate.

Q. Which of the following best states that technology has become 'all-pervasive' in the lives of people?

Solution:

'All-pervasive' means occurring or having an effect through or into every part of something. Only option 4 provides this 'all-pervasive' characteristic that describes how technology even makes a note of our physical movement. Other options which talk about people searching themselves online and spending time on the internet are not similar to the argument of the 'all-pervasive' reach of technology.

QUESTION: 95

Read the following passage and answer the question.

At the software giant's conference in 2018, Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella implored the industry to rethink the way its products worked because the dangers of how technology could be used to invade privacy had become so clear.
Big Tech has been facing increasing global scrutiny as it becomes all-pervasive, and governments struggle to keep pace. Configuring consumer choices, electoral decisions, the fake news factory, the power and reach of the data industry is exponential, and potentially hugely dangerous. Europe's new General Data Protection Regulation that sets stringent privacy standards for any company doing business in the EU has come in for praise, but there have been concerns raised over regulations elsewhere.
When Nadella passionately talks of putting in place ethical standards around Artificial Intelligence, his vision of 'data dignity' needs affirmation not only from his peers, but also nation-states. A regulatory consensus on what is allowed and what is not — much like the way the world deals with proliferation of nukes — seems like one way forward. Every Indian is a stakeholder, 'privacy as a human right' needs to become an issue of intense public debate.

Q. Which of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the given passage?

Solution:

The passage is entirely about technology and the threat of privacy posed by it. The author concludes by stating that the right to privacy must be ensured and this must be stipulated by the enforcement of regulations preventing the encroachments into private life by the technology industries. Option 1 provides a more accurate conclusion.

QUESTION: 96

Read the following passage and answer the question.

At the software giant's conference in 2018, Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella implored the industry to rethink the way its products worked because the dangers of how technology could be used to invade privacy had become so clear.
Big Tech has been facing increasing global scrutiny as it becomes all-pervasive, and governments struggle to keep pace. Configuring consumer choices, electoral decisions, the fake news factory, the power and reach of the data industry is exponential, and potentially hugely dangerous. Europe's new General Data Protection Regulation that sets stringent privacy standards for any company doing business in the EU has come in for praise, but there have been concerns raised over regulations elsewhere.
When Nadella passionately talks of putting in place ethical standards around Artificial Intelligence, his vision of 'data dignity' needs affirmation not only from his peers, but also nation-states. A regulatory consensus on what is allowed and what is not — much like the way the world deals with proliferation of nukes — seems like one way forward. Every Indian is a stakeholder, 'privacy as a human right' needs to become an issue of intense public debate.

Q. Based on the information in the passage, which of the following is most probably a statement from the speech by Satya Nadella?

Solution:

Satya Nadella's speech in the context of the given passage made allusions to privacy threat. The option that clearly captures this and states a solution for the problem is presented in option 2.

QUESTION: 97

Read the following passage and answer the question.

At the software giant's conference in 2018, Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella implored the industry to rethink the way its products worked because the dangers of how technology could be used to invade privacy had become so clear.
Big Tech has been facing increasing global scrutiny as it becomes all-pervasive, and governments struggle to keep pace. Configuring consumer choices, electoral decisions, the fake news factory, the power and reach of the data industry is exponential, and potentially hugely dangerous. Europe's new General Data Protection Regulation that sets stringent privacy standards for any company doing business in the EU has come in for praise, but there have been concerns raised over regulations elsewhere.
When Nadella passionately talks of putting in place ethical standards around Artificial Intelligence, his vision of 'data dignity' needs affirmation not only from his peers, but also nation-states. A regulatory consensus on what is allowed and what is not — much like the way the world deals with proliferation of nukes — seems like one way forward. Every Indian is a stakeholder, 'privacy as a human right' needs to become an issue of intense public debate.

Q. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the author's conclusion?

Solution:

If it is true that the control of personal data has been reduced, then the argument that there is threat to privacy will be strengthened. Therefore the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 98

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

The most famous type of conspiracy is criminal conspiracy. Generally, the act of Criminal Conspiracy is defined as 'Two, or more than two people agreeing to do an illegal act or offense together'.
In India, historically the act of conspiracy was considered as a civil wrong but later on, it was brought under the purview of the Indian Penal Code. In the amendment to the Indian Penal Code, 1860, in the year 1913, Sections 120A and 120B were added to include the act of conspiracy as a criminal offence. Section 120A of the IPC states the definition of a criminal conspiracy. It states that when two or more than two people are involved and agree upon to do an illegal act or to do such an act which is legal by illegal means, i.e the legality of the means is the main issue are said to be involved in a criminal conspiracy.
While Section 120B of the IPC defines and establishes the punishments to be inflicted for the act of conspiracy. It states that: Persons who are involved in the conspiracy of such an act, which amounts to the punishment of a death sentence or life imprisonment, then the punishment for such an act of conspiracy would be given according to the punishment for abetment of the same act. Except for the aforesaid acts of conspiracy, every other act of conspiracy would be punishable for an imprisonment term of 6 months or fine or both.
There exist essential ingredients for an act to constitute Criminal Conspiracy. Firstly, the same should take place for an illegal end to be accomplished. There should be concrete planning for accomplishing that object. The conspirators shall make an agreement to cooperate with each other. However, one must not confuse between the degree of the conspiracy of an act and committing the act itself.
In the case of Leo Roy Frey v. Suppdt. Distt. Jail this distinction was clearly explained and defined, wherein court observed that 'The act of conspiring for a crime is totally different than committing the offense itself because the phase of conspiracy comes before the phase of committing a crime. The commission of conspiracy is completed before the crime is commissioned. That's why it should be treated differently as a distinct crime.
Another essential of conspiracy under torts is that some overt act must be done by the defendants which causes harm to some other person. It is not necessary that the whole conspiracy must be carried out in the form of action. A single step towards the commission of the conspiracy may amount to the offence. For the overt act to be considered as essential, it is necessary that one of the contributors have acted for the fulfillment of the intention behind the conspiracy.

Q. Three men planned to attack a school with guns and they also contacted their mutual friend for the same. It was planned and executed in such a manner that three men would wait outside while the fourth would go in alone and attack. Who all are liable for the conspiracy? Decide.

Solution:

All four men are liable due to the overt act done by the fourth man in executing the plan for the fulfillment of the illegal object.

QUESTION: 99

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

The most famous type of conspiracy is criminal conspiracy. Generally, the act of Criminal Conspiracy is defined as 'Two, or more than two people agreeing to do an illegal act or offense together'.
In India, historically the act of conspiracy was considered as a civil wrong but later on, it was brought under the purview of the Indian Penal Code. In the amendment to the Indian Penal Code, 1860, in the year 1913, Sections 120A and 120B were added to include the act of conspiracy as a criminal offence. Section 120A of the IPC states the definition of a criminal conspiracy. It states that when two or more than two people are involved and agree upon to do an illegal act or to do such an act which is legal by illegal means, i.e the legality of the means is the main issue are said to be involved in a criminal conspiracy.
While Section 120B of the IPC defines and establishes the punishments to be inflicted for the act of conspiracy. It states that: Persons who are involved in the conspiracy of such an act, which amounts to the punishment of a death sentence or life imprisonment, then the punishment for such an act of conspiracy would be given according to the punishment for abetment of the same act. Except for the aforesaid acts of conspiracy, every other act of conspiracy would be punishable for an imprisonment term of 6 months or fine or both.
There exist essential ingredients for an act to constitute Criminal Conspiracy. Firstly, the same should take place for an illegal end to be accomplished. There should be concrete planning for accomplishing that object. The conspirators shall make an agreement to cooperate with each other. However, one must not confuse between the degree of the conspiracy of an act and committing the act itself.
In the case of Leo Roy Frey v. Suppdt. Distt. Jail this distinction was clearly explained and defined, wherein court observed that 'The act of conspiring for a crime is totally different than committing the offense itself because the phase of conspiracy comes before the phase of committing a crime. The commission of conspiracy is completed before the crime is commissioned. That's why it should be treated differently as a distinct crime.
Another essential of conspiracy under torts is that some overt act must be done by the defendants which causes harm to some other person. It is not necessary that the whole conspiracy must be carried out in the form of action. A single step towards the commission of the conspiracy may amount to the offence. For the overt act to be considered as essential, it is necessary that one of the contributors have acted for the fulfillment of the intention behind the conspiracy.

Q. A few men planned to rob a bank. They knew each other very well and knew that they would rob on the same day but planned individually and alone. They executed it as per their planning. Is this a conspiracy?

Solution:

Planning is a crucial element to conspiracy which must be done together. Doing the same crime at the same place alone will not amount to a conspiracy if it was not planned together. However it must be noted that here, the friends had only a thought that all of them would rob the bank, it could have been possible that one backs off, so it would not be justified in making them liable for the offence.

QUESTION: 100

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

The most famous type of conspiracy is criminal conspiracy. Generally, the act of Criminal Conspiracy is defined as 'Two, or more than two people agreeing to do an illegal act or offense together'.
In India, historically the act of conspiracy was considered as a civil wrong but later on, it was brought under the purview of the Indian Penal Code. In the amendment to the Indian Penal Code, 1860, in the year 1913, Sections 120A and 120B were added to include the act of conspiracy as a criminal offence. Section 120A of the IPC states the definition of a criminal conspiracy. It states that when two or more than two people are involved and agree upon to do an illegal act or to do such an act which is legal by illegal means, i.e the legality of the means is the main issue are said to be involved in a criminal conspiracy.
While Section 120B of the IPC defines and establishes the punishments to be inflicted for the act of conspiracy. It states that: Persons who are involved in the conspiracy of such an act, which amounts to the punishment of a death sentence or life imprisonment, then the punishment for such an act of conspiracy would be given according to the punishment for abetment of the same act. Except for the aforesaid acts of conspiracy, every other act of conspiracy would be punishable for an imprisonment term of 6 months or fine or both.
There exist essential ingredients for an act to constitute Criminal Conspiracy. Firstly, the same should take place for an illegal end to be accomplished. There should be concrete planning for accomplishing that object. The conspirators shall make an agreement to cooperate with each other. However, one must not confuse between the degree of the conspiracy of an act and committing the act itself.
In the case of Leo Roy Frey v. Suppdt. Distt. Jail this distinction was clearly explained and defined, wherein court observed that 'The act of conspiring for a crime is totally different than committing the offense itself because the phase of conspiracy comes before the phase of committing a crime. The commission of conspiracy is completed before the crime is commissioned. That's why it should be treated differently as a distinct crime.
Another essential of conspiracy under torts is that some overt act must be done by the defendants which causes harm to some other person. It is not necessary that the whole conspiracy must be carried out in the form of action. A single step towards the commission of the conspiracy may amount to the offence. For the overt act to be considered as essential, it is necessary that one of the contributors have acted for the fulfillment of the intention behind the conspiracy.

Q. Three associates in a business company wished to plan together and overtake another associate in improving the financial status of their company to get promotions by hook or by crook. Will they be liable if they succeed?

Solution:

The illegal object is an essential element to constitute conspiracy. Their objective was not illegal as in the world of competition, everyone has the right to plan their own strategies to excel. Here mere fact that they wanted to cross the other association and made plans accordingly would not make the company liable for compensation.

QUESTION: 101

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

The most famous type of conspiracy is criminal conspiracy. Generally, the act of Criminal Conspiracy is defined as 'Two, or more than two people agreeing to do an illegal act or offense together'.
In India, historically the act of conspiracy was considered as a civil wrong but later on, it was brought under the purview of the Indian Penal Code. In the amendment to the Indian Penal Code, 1860, in the year 1913, Sections 120A and 120B were added to include the act of conspiracy as a criminal offence. Section 120A of the IPC states the definition of a criminal conspiracy. It states that when two or more than two people are involved and agree upon to do an illegal act or to do such an act which is legal by illegal means, i.e the legality of the means is the main issue are said to be involved in a criminal conspiracy.
While Section 120B of the IPC defines and establishes the punishments to be inflicted for the act of conspiracy. It states that: Persons who are involved in the conspiracy of such an act, which amounts to the punishment of a death sentence or life imprisonment, then the punishment for such an act of conspiracy would be given according to the punishment for abetment of the same act. Except for the aforesaid acts of conspiracy, every other act of conspiracy would be punishable for an imprisonment term of 6 months or fine or both.
There exist essential ingredients for an act to constitute Criminal Conspiracy. Firstly, the same should take place for an illegal end to be accomplished. There should be concrete planning for accomplishing that object. The conspirators shall make an agreement to cooperate with each other. However, one must not confuse between the degree of the conspiracy of an act and committing the act itself.
In the case of Leo Roy Frey v. Suppdt. Distt. Jail this distinction was clearly explained and defined, wherein court observed that 'The act of conspiring for a crime is totally different than committing the offense itself because the phase of conspiracy comes before the phase of committing a crime. The commission of conspiracy is completed before the crime is commissioned. That's why it should be treated differently as a distinct crime.
Another essential of conspiracy under torts is that some overt act must be done by the defendants which causes harm to some other person. It is not necessary that the whole conspiracy must be carried out in the form of action. A single step towards the commission of the conspiracy may amount to the offence. For the overt act to be considered as essential, it is necessary that one of the contributors have acted for the fulfillment of the intention behind the conspiracy.

Q. What would be the penalty awarded to the conspirators of murder, if murder is punishable with life imprisonment?

Solution:

Penalty given to conspirators who conspired to do an act punishable with life imprisonment will be awarded the penalty of abetment to the offence conspired to do.

QUESTION: 102

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

The most famous type of conspiracy is criminal conspiracy. Generally, the act of Criminal Conspiracy is defined as 'Two, or more than two people agreeing to do an illegal act or offense together'.
In India, historically the act of conspiracy was considered as a civil wrong but later on, it was brought under the purview of the Indian Penal Code. In the amendment to the Indian Penal Code, 1860, in the year 1913, Sections 120A and 120B were added to include the act of conspiracy as a criminal offence. Section 120A of the IPC states the definition of a criminal conspiracy. It states that when two or more than two people are involved and agree upon to do an illegal act or to do such an act which is legal by illegal means, i.e the legality of the means is the main issue are said to be involved in a criminal conspiracy.
While Section 120B of the IPC defines and establishes the punishments to be inflicted for the act of conspiracy. It states that: Persons who are involved in the conspiracy of such an act, which amounts to the punishment of a death sentence or life imprisonment, then the punishment for such an act of conspiracy would be given according to the punishment for abetment of the same act. Except for the aforesaid acts of conspiracy, every other act of conspiracy would be punishable for an imprisonment term of 6 months or fine or both.
There exist essential ingredients for an act to constitute Criminal Conspiracy. Firstly, the same should take place for an illegal end to be accomplished. There should be concrete planning for accomplishing that object. The conspirators shall make an agreement to cooperate with each other. However, one must not confuse between the degree of the conspiracy of an act and committing the act itself.
In the case of Leo Roy Frey v. Suppdt. Distt. Jail this distinction was clearly explained and defined, wherein court observed that 'The act of conspiring for a crime is totally different than committing the offense itself because the phase of conspiracy comes before the phase of committing a crime. The commission of conspiracy is completed before the crime is commissioned. That's why it should be treated differently as a distinct crime.
Another essential of conspiracy under torts is that some overt act must be done by the defendants which causes harm to some other person. It is not necessary that the whole conspiracy must be carried out in the form of action. A single step towards the commission of the conspiracy may amount to the offence. For the overt act to be considered as essential, it is necessary that one of the contributors have acted for the fulfillment of the intention behind the conspiracy.

Q. There were terrorist attacks in a city. After the same, a terrorist group came forward and claimed responsibility for it without any link to the same but to take credit. Will they be liable for conspiracy?

Solution:

Liability for conspiracy can only be valid if the planning was concrete and it took place before the crime was committed. If it cannot be shown that the terrorist group had planned the attack before the crime then it cannot be considered to be a conspiracy.

QUESTION: 103

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

On 8th March, 2018, the Supreme Court rendered its historic decision legalising, recognising and providing constitutional sanctity to Advance Medical Directives or Living Wills.
A Living Will is a written instrument executed during a person's lifetime under which instrument, the executor expresses his/her wishes in relation to the medical treatment he/she wishes to receive or not to receive in the event of a terminal illness or incapacitation. Say a young adult, otherwise healthy, today can pen down his or her wishes to be or not to be on life sustaining machines such as ventilators in the event of a terminal illness. The Supreme Court recognised the importance of such declaration of personal autonomy and consequently legalised the same. The constitutional victory was that of personal autonomy and the right to live and die with dignity.
The Supreme Court directed that Living Wills are necessarily to be honored by Hospitals, Doctors and even a terminally ill patient's family. The Supreme Court's decision came as a relief to various medical practitioners as also others who understood and propounded the requirement of legal recognition to personal autonomy and the right to die with dignity. Earlier, doctors were attempting to strike a balance between their ethical obligations in fulfilling the wishes of a terminally ill patient and his/her family on the one hand and a potential legal action against doctors on the other. This was despite the fact that these doctors were acting in the best interest of a terminally ill patient.
However, whilst legalising Living Wills, the Supreme Court went a step further and laid down certain 'Safeguards' to be followed whilst executing Living Wills so as to ensure that they are not misused. Illustratively, the Supreme Court laid down that a Living Will should be signed by the executor in the presence of two attesting witnesses and countersigned by the jurisdictional Judicial Magistrate First Class. The witnesses and jurisdictional Judicial Magistrate First Class are to then record their satisfaction that the document has been executed voluntarily and without any coercion and/or inducement and/or compulsion, and with full understanding of all the relevant information and consequences. The Judicial Magistrate First Class shall then cause to inform the immediate family members of the executor, if not present at the time of execution, and inform them about the execution of the Living Will. Whilst these safeguards are in the author's opinion wholly just and well thought through, they appear not to have been communicated to the various Judicial Magistrate(s) First Class across the country. Recently, a flock of eager executors of Living Wills approached their jurisdictional Judicial Magistrate First Class who when faced with a "Death Warrant" refused to validate a single Living Will.

Q. What would be the author's perspective on the developments on the legalisation of living wills?

Solution:

The author clearly mentions legalisation of living wills to be a victory for the Constitution and rights of a person.

QUESTION: 104

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

On 8th March, 2018, the Supreme Court rendered its historic decision legalising, recognising and providing constitutional sanctity to Advance Medical Directives or Living Wills.
A Living Will is a written instrument executed during a person's lifetime under which instrument, the executor expresses his/her wishes in relation to the medical treatment he/she wishes to receive or not to receive in the event of a terminal illness or incapacitation. Say a young adult, otherwise healthy, today can pen down his or her wishes to be or not to be on life sustaining machines such as ventilators in the event of a terminal illness. The Supreme Court recognised the importance of such declaration of personal autonomy and consequently legalised the same. The constitutional victory was that of personal autonomy and the right to live and die with dignity.
The Supreme Court directed that Living Wills are necessarily to be honored by Hospitals, Doctors and even a terminally ill patient's family. The Supreme Court's decision came as a relief to various medical practitioners as also others who understood and propounded the requirement of legal recognition to personal autonomy and the right to die with dignity. Earlier, doctors were attempting to strike a balance between their ethical obligations in fulfilling the wishes of a terminally ill patient and his/her family on the one hand and a potential legal action against doctors on the other. This was despite the fact that these doctors were acting in the best interest of a terminally ill patient.
However, whilst legalising Living Wills, the Supreme Court went a step further and laid down certain 'Safeguards' to be followed whilst executing Living Wills so as to ensure that they are not misused. Illustratively, the Supreme Court laid down that a Living Will should be signed by the executor in the presence of two attesting witnesses and countersigned by the jurisdictional Judicial Magistrate First Class. The witnesses and jurisdictional Judicial Magistrate First Class are to then record their satisfaction that the document has been executed voluntarily and without any coercion and/or inducement and/or compulsion, and with full understanding of all the relevant information and consequences. The Judicial Magistrate First Class shall then cause to inform the immediate family members of the executor, if not present at the time of execution, and inform them about the execution of the Living Will. Whilst these safeguards are in the author's opinion wholly just and well thought through, they appear not to have been communicated to the various Judicial Magistrate(s) First Class across the country. Recently, a flock of eager executors of Living Wills approached their jurisdictional Judicial Magistrate First Class who when faced with a "Death Warrant" refused to validate a single Living Will.

Q. According to the passage, what would be the reason for the rejection of applications for execution of Living Wills by the concerned Magistrate?

Solution:

The author mentions in the fourth paragraph that magistrates were found to be unaware of the developments as they refused to countersign and validate.

QUESTION: 105

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

On 8th March, 2018, the Supreme Court rendered its historic decision legalising, recognising and providing constitutional sanctity to Advance Medical Directives or Living Wills.
A Living Will is a written instrument executed during a person's lifetime under which instrument, the executor expresses his/her wishes in relation to the medical treatment he/she wishes to receive or not to receive in the event of a terminal illness or incapacitation. Say a young adult, otherwise healthy, today can pen down his or her wishes to be or not to be on life sustaining machines such as ventilators in the event of a terminal illness. The Supreme Court recognised the importance of such declaration of personal autonomy and consequently legalised the same. The constitutional victory was that of personal autonomy and the right to live and die with dignity.
The Supreme Court directed that Living Wills are necessarily to be honored by Hospitals, Doctors and even a terminally ill patient's family. The Supreme Court's decision came as a relief to various medical practitioners as also others who understood and propounded the requirement of legal recognition to personal autonomy and the right to die with dignity. Earlier, doctors were attempting to strike a balance between their ethical obligations in fulfilling the wishes of a terminally ill patient and his/her family on the one hand and a potential legal action against doctors on the other. This was despite the fact that these doctors were acting in the best interest of a terminally ill patient.
However, whilst legalising Living Wills, the Supreme Court went a step further and laid down certain 'Safeguards' to be followed whilst executing Living Wills so as to ensure that they are not misused. Illustratively, the Supreme Court laid down that a Living Will should be signed by the executor in the presence of two attesting witnesses and countersigned by the jurisdictional Judicial Magistrate First Class. The witnesses and jurisdictional Judicial Magistrate First Class are to then record their satisfaction that the document has been executed voluntarily and without any coercion and/or inducement and/or compulsion, and with full understanding of all the relevant information and consequences. The Judicial Magistrate First Class shall then cause to inform the immediate family members of the executor, if not present at the time of execution, and inform them about the execution of the Living Will. Whilst these safeguards are in the author's opinion wholly just and well thought through, they appear not to have been communicated to the various Judicial Magistrate(s) First Class across the country. Recently, a flock of eager executors of Living Wills approached their jurisdictional Judicial Magistrate First Class who when faced with a "Death Warrant" refused to validate a single Living Will.

Q. Whom does the judgement benefit and provide relief to?

Solution:

The right of the party to live and die with dignity is upheld and doctors are given relief so as to not be cornered by ethics & legal obligation.

QUESTION: 106

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

On 8th March, 2018, the Supreme Court rendered its historic decision legalising, recognising and providing constitutional sanctity to Advance Medical Directives or Living Wills.
A Living Will is a written instrument executed during a person's lifetime under which instrument, the executor expresses his/her wishes in relation to the medical treatment he/she wishes to receive or not to receive in the event of a terminal illness or incapacitation. Say a young adult, otherwise healthy, today can pen down his or her wishes to be or not to be on life sustaining machines such as ventilators in the event of a terminal illness. The Supreme Court recognised the importance of such declaration of personal autonomy and consequently legalised the same. The constitutional victory was that of personal autonomy and the right to live and die with dignity.
The Supreme Court directed that Living Wills are necessarily to be honored by Hospitals, Doctors and even a terminally ill patient's family. The Supreme Court's decision came as a relief to various medical practitioners as also others who understood and propounded the requirement of legal recognition to personal autonomy and the right to die with dignity. Earlier, doctors were attempting to strike a balance between their ethical obligations in fulfilling the wishes of a terminally ill patient and his/her family on the one hand and a potential legal action against doctors on the other. This was despite the fact that these doctors were acting in the best interest of a terminally ill patient.
However, whilst legalising Living Wills, the Supreme Court went a step further and laid down certain 'Safeguards' to be followed whilst executing Living Wills so as to ensure that they are not misused. Illustratively, the Supreme Court laid down that a Living Will should be signed by the executor in the presence of two attesting witnesses and countersigned by the jurisdictional Judicial Magistrate First Class. The witnesses and jurisdictional Judicial Magistrate First Class are to then record their satisfaction that the document has been executed voluntarily and without any coercion and/or inducement and/or compulsion, and with full understanding of all the relevant information and consequences. The Judicial Magistrate First Class shall then cause to inform the immediate family members of the executor, if not present at the time of execution, and inform them about the execution of the Living Will. Whilst these safeguards are in the author's opinion wholly just and well thought through, they appear not to have been communicated to the various Judicial Magistrate(s) First Class across the country. Recently, a flock of eager executors of Living Wills approached their jurisdictional Judicial Magistrate First Class who when faced with a "Death Warrant" refused to validate a single Living Will.

Q. Prior to the judgement, what would have been an unfortunate situation for a doctor to face after accepting the request of the patient not to sustain life support?

Solution:

The judgement came as a relief to medical practitioners as otherwise they would have been cornered while deciding how to balance ethics, the patient's wish & legal obligations. The unfortunate outcome would be a potential suit against the decision by the patient's family.

QUESTION: 107

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

On 8th March, 2018, the Supreme Court rendered its historic decision legalising, recognising and providing constitutional sanctity to Advance Medical Directives or Living Wills.
A Living Will is a written instrument executed during a person's lifetime under which instrument, the executor expresses his/her wishes in relation to the medical treatment he/she wishes to receive or not to receive in the event of a terminal illness or incapacitation. Say a young adult, otherwise healthy, today can pen down his or her wishes to be or not to be on life sustaining machines such as ventilators in the event of a terminal illness. The Supreme Court recognised the importance of such declaration of personal autonomy and consequently legalised the same. The constitutional victory was that of personal autonomy and the right to live and die with dignity.
The Supreme Court directed that Living Wills are necessarily to be honored by Hospitals, Doctors and even a terminally ill patient's family. The Supreme Court's decision came as a relief to various medical practitioners as also others who understood and propounded the requirement of legal recognition to personal autonomy and the right to die with dignity. Earlier, doctors were attempting to strike a balance between their ethical obligations in fulfilling the wishes of a terminally ill patient and his/her family on the one hand and a potential legal action against doctors on the other. This was despite the fact that these doctors were acting in the best interest of a terminally ill patient.
However, whilst legalising Living Wills, the Supreme Court went a step further and laid down certain 'Safeguards' to be followed whilst executing Living Wills so as to ensure that they are not misused. Illustratively, the Supreme Court laid down that a Living Will should be signed by the executor in the presence of two attesting witnesses and countersigned by the jurisdictional Judicial Magistrate First Class. The witnesses and jurisdictional Judicial Magistrate First Class are to then record their satisfaction that the document has been executed voluntarily and without any coercion and/or inducement and/or compulsion, and with full understanding of all the relevant information and consequences. The Judicial Magistrate First Class shall then cause to inform the immediate family members of the executor, if not present at the time of execution, and inform them about the execution of the Living Will. Whilst these safeguards are in the author's opinion wholly just and well thought through, they appear not to have been communicated to the various Judicial Magistrate(s) First Class across the country. Recently, a flock of eager executors of Living Wills approached their jurisdictional Judicial Magistrate First Class who when faced with a "Death Warrant" refused to validate a single Living Will.

Q. What is the main reason that safeguards are prescribed by the Supreme Court?

Solution:

Free consent would mean that the party was not coerced or wrongly made to create such a will. This would protect a person from such malice against them.

QUESTION: 108

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

The Transfer of Property Act (hereinafter mentioned as TOPA, 1882) was enacted in the year 1882 to regulate the process of transferring of property and various other conditions associated with it. Section 6 of the Act states that property of any kind may be transferred, except as otherwise provided by this Act or by any other law for the time being in force. Therefore, this provision of the Act deals with the demarcation between transferable and non-transferable property. This section has 9 sub clauses, each of which explains the different kinds of transfer of property that can be transferred. Everything else according to the Act can be legally transferred in various means and forms. Property here also means ownership.
The first of these, Section 6(a) titled Spes Succession clause provides that such a property cannot be transferred if there is chance of an heir-apparent succeeding to an estate, a chance of a relation obtaining a legacy on the death of kinsman or any other mere possibility of a like nature.
Section 6(b) provides that a mere right of re-entry for breach of a condition subsequent cannot be transferred to anyone except the owner of the property affected thereby. The right of re-entry being a mere incident of the rights of the owner in leased premises, its transfer is prohibited by Law.
Section 6(e) provides that a mere right to sue cannot be transferred. The word "mere" implies that the transferee acquires no interest in the subject of transfer other than the right to sue as an ostensible owner of the property claimed of which, it may be, the real owner is somebody else. However, property with an incidental right to sue for damages may be transferred.
Section 6(h) provides that transfer of any property that can lead to an act that is against the interest affected thereby, or for committing an act that is for an unlawful object or consideration, or when is transferred to someone who is legally disqualified to be a transferee, then such transfer shall be deemed to be invalid.

Q. X, as a lessor, leases his land to Y as long as Y pays the rent. Y fails to pay rent. X transfers the right to land to Z to enter his land. Is such a transfer to Z valid?

Solution:

It has been clearly stated in the passage that Section 6(b) of the Act provides that the right to re-enter for breach of condition subsequent cannot be transferred as it the right of the owner alone. Therefore, the transfer to Z is not valid.

QUESTION: 109

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

The Transfer of Property Act (hereinafter mentioned as TOPA, 1882) was enacted in the year 1882 to regulate the process of transferring of property and various other conditions associated with it. Section 6 of the Act states that property of any kind may be transferred, except as otherwise provided by this Act or by any other law for the time being in force. Therefore, this provision of the Act deals with the demarcation between transferable and non-transferable property. This section has 9 sub clauses, each of which explains the different kinds of transfer of property that can be transferred. Everything else according to the Act can be legally transferred in various means and forms. Property here also means ownership.
The first of these, Section 6(a) titled Spes Succession clause provides that such a property cannot be transferred if there is chance of an heir-apparent succeeding to an estate, a chance of a relation obtaining a legacy on the death of kinsman or any other mere possibility of a like nature.
Section 6(b) provides that a mere right of re-entry for breach of a condition subsequent cannot be transferred to anyone except the owner of the property affected thereby. The right of re-entry being a mere incident of the rights of the owner in leased premises, its transfer is prohibited by Law.
Section 6(e) provides that a mere right to sue cannot be transferred. The word "mere" implies that the transferee acquires no interest in the subject of transfer other than the right to sue as an ostensible owner of the property claimed of which, it may be, the real owner is somebody else. However, property with an incidental right to sue for damages may be transferred.
Section 6(h) provides that transfer of any property that can lead to an act that is against the interest affected thereby, or for committing an act that is for an unlawful object or consideration, or when is transferred to someone who is legally disqualified to be a transferee, then such transfer shall be deemed to be invalid.

Q. Three men obtained a huge sum of money after committing fraud through an insurance scheme. They enter into an agreement to divide it among themselves. The third man does not get his share. He claims that the property was transferred as soon as the amount was obtained. Decide.

Solution:

Section 6(h) provides that a transfer of property for committing an act that is for an unlawful object or consideration is invalid. He will have no right.

QUESTION: 110

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

The Transfer of Property Act (hereinafter mentioned as TOPA, 1882) was enacted in the year 1882 to regulate the process of transferring of property and various other conditions associated with it. Section 6 of the Act states that property of any kind may be transferred, except as otherwise provided by this Act or by any other law for the time being in force. Therefore, this provision of the Act deals with the demarcation between transferable and non-transferable property. This section has 9 sub clauses, each of which explains the different kinds of transfer of property that can be transferred. Everything else according to the Act can be legally transferred in various means and forms. Property here also means ownership.
The first of these, Section 6(a) titled Spes Succession clause provides that such a property cannot be transferred if there is chance of an heir-apparent succeeding to an estate, a chance of a relation obtaining a legacy on the death of kinsman or any other mere possibility of a like nature.
Section 6(b) provides that a mere right of re-entry for breach of a condition subsequent cannot be transferred to anyone except the owner of the property affected thereby. The right of re-entry being a mere incident of the rights of the owner in leased premises, its transfer is prohibited by Law.
Section 6(e) provides that a mere right to sue cannot be transferred. The word "mere" implies that the transferee acquires no interest in the subject of transfer other than the right to sue as an ostensible owner of the property claimed of which, it may be, the real owner is somebody else. However, property with an incidental right to sue for damages may be transferred.
Section 6(h) provides that transfer of any property that can lead to an act that is against the interest affected thereby, or for committing an act that is for an unlawful object or consideration, or when is transferred to someone who is legally disqualified to be a transferee, then such transfer shall be deemed to be invalid.

Q. Aman's grandfather gave 3 acres of land to Aman on his birth in 1998. After 3 years, his grandfather died, and when Aman was 11 years old, his father sold the land to Mahesh. When Aman became 19 years of age, he transferred the said land of 3 acres to other person Ramesh. Now, Ramesh sued the father of Aman for unauthorised transfer of land. Decide.

Solution:

Where a major person transfers property unauthorisedly which had been sold legitimately by his legal guardian during his minority and in his interest, such a transfer of property does not transfer the right to sue and the interest in the property. When no property was transferred to Ramesh, he won't have the right to sue as well. Therefore, his claim will not succeed.

QUESTION: 111

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

The Transfer of Property Act (hereinafter mentioned as TOPA, 1882) was enacted in the year 1882 to regulate the process of transferring of property and various other conditions associated with it. Section 6 of the Act states that property of any kind may be transferred, except as otherwise provided by this Act or by any other law for the time being in force. Therefore, this provision of the Act deals with the demarcation between transferable and non-transferable property. This section has 9 sub clauses, each of which explains the different kinds of transfer of property that can be transferred. Everything else according to the Act can be legally transferred in various means and forms. Property here also means ownership.
The first of these, Section 6(a) titled Spes Succession clause provides that such a property cannot be transferred if there is chance of an heir-apparent succeeding to an estate, a chance of a relation obtaining a legacy on the death of kinsman or any other mere possibility of a like nature.
Section 6(b) provides that a mere right of re-entry for breach of a condition subsequent cannot be transferred to anyone except the owner of the property affected thereby. The right of re-entry being a mere incident of the rights of the owner in leased premises, its transfer is prohibited by Law.
Section 6(e) provides that a mere right to sue cannot be transferred. The word "mere" implies that the transferee acquires no interest in the subject of transfer other than the right to sue as an ostensible owner of the property claimed of which, it may be, the real owner is somebody else. However, property with an incidental right to sue for damages may be transferred.
Section 6(h) provides that transfer of any property that can lead to an act that is against the interest affected thereby, or for committing an act that is for an unlawful object or consideration, or when is transferred to someone who is legally disqualified to be a transferee, then such transfer shall be deemed to be invalid.

Q. Tappar's land was being trespassed by Rappar. Tappar transferred the interest in his property fully to Mappar. Tappar now wishes to sue Rappar for the trespass that occured while he was the owner. How can Tappar succeed?

Solution:

It must be noted that Tappar has lost the right to sue once he transfers all interest to Mappar. In this case, being the owner, only Mappar can sue Rappar.

QUESTION: 112

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

The Transfer of Property Act (hereinafter mentioned as TOPA, 1882) was enacted in the year 1882 to regulate the process of transferring of property and various other conditions associated with it. Section 6 of the Act states that property of any kind may be transferred, except as otherwise provided by this Act or by any other law for the time being in force. Therefore, this provision of the Act deals with the demarcation between transferable and non-transferable property. This section has 9 sub clauses, each of which explains the different kinds of transfer of property that can be transferred. Everything else according to the Act can be legally transferred in various means and forms. Property here also means ownership.
The first of these, Section 6(a) titled Spes Succession clause provides that such a property cannot be transferred if there is chance of an heir-apparent succeeding to an estate, a chance of a relation obtaining a legacy on the death of kinsman or any other mere possibility of a like nature.
Section 6(b) provides that a mere right of re-entry for breach of a condition subsequent cannot be transferred to anyone except the owner of the property affected thereby. The right of re-entry being a mere incident of the rights of the owner in leased premises, its transfer is prohibited by Law.
Section 6(e) provides that a mere right to sue cannot be transferred. The word "mere" implies that the transferee acquires no interest in the subject of transfer other than the right to sue as an ostensible owner of the property claimed of which, it may be, the real owner is somebody else. However, property with an incidental right to sue for damages may be transferred.
Section 6(h) provides that transfer of any property that can lead to an act that is against the interest affected thereby, or for committing an act that is for an unlawful object or consideration, or when is transferred to someone who is legally disqualified to be a transferee, then such transfer shall be deemed to be invalid.

Q. X and Y are father and son. Y in all probability is to obtain his father's land on his death. But before he died, X transferred the land to Z, his neighbour. Who has the right to the property if X is still alive?

Solution:

X has the right to the property because such a transfer is invalid as per Section 6(a). Y has not inherited it yet, but because he is an heir apparent or through legacy, it cannot be be transferred.

QUESTION: 113

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

Under the Constitution of India, in Articles 19 and 21, every person throughout the territory of India is conferred with the right to freedom of movement and is guaranteed personal liberty. In furtherance of this objective set up by the Constitution, the Indian Penal Code lays down penal sanctions in case a person violates the freedom of movement or personal liberty of another. Sections 339 and 340 of Indian Penal Code define wrongful restraint and wrongful confinement, respectively. The Indian Penal Code, 1860, makes wrongful restraint and wrongful confinement punishable under Section 339 to 348.
According to Section 339 of the Indian Penal Code, "Whoever voluntarily obstructs any person so as to prevent that person from proceeding in any direction in which that person has a right to proceed, is said wrongfully to restrain that person." Further, the section also lays down an exception, which is that if a person in good faith believes himself to have a lawful right to obstruct and so obstructs a private way over land or water, then it does not amount to wrongful restraint. To establish the offence of wrongful restraint, the complainant must prove that there was an obstruction; the obstruction prevented the complainant from proceeding in any direction; the person/complainant so proceeding must have a right to proceed in the direction concerned.
Wrongful confinement is defined under Section 340 of the Indian Penal Code. Section 342 of the Indian Penal Code provides punishment for wrongful confinement. Wrongful confinement means that a person is wrongfully restrained from proceeding beyond certain circumscribing limits. Section 340 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860, defines wrongful confinement as: "Whoever wrongfully restrains any person in such a manner as to prevent that person from proceeding beyond certain circumscribing limits, is said "wrongfully to confine" that person." Section 342 of the Indian Penal Code says that whoever wrongfully confines any person shall be punished with simple imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both. The offence under Section 340 of the Code is cognizable, bailable compoundable and triable by any Magistrate. Section 343 of the Indian Penal Code says that whoever wrongfully confines any person for three days or more, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both. The offence under this section is cognizable, bailable, compoundable with the permission of the court and triable by any Magistrate.

Q. Zarin obstructs the path to Abhi's home which is through Zarin's parking space. Abhi has the right to pass from that path as it is the only way to his home. Zarin's obstruction is not done in food faith. Will this be considered wrongful restraint?

Solution:

Yes, obstruction by Zarin is wrongful restraint as the act of obstructing Abhi by her was not done in good faith.
According to Section 339 of the Indian Penal Code, "Whoever voluntarily obstructs any person so as to prevent that person from proceeding in any direction in which that person has a right to proceed, is said wrongfully to restrain that person." Further, the section also lays down an exception, which is that if a person in good faith believes himself to have a lawful right to obstruct and so obstruct a private way over land or water, then it does not amount to wrongful restraint.
But here in this given case, it is clear that Zarin has done this voluntarily.

QUESTION: 114

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

Under the Constitution of India, in Articles 19 and 21, every person throughout the territory of India is conferred with the right to freedom of movement and is guaranteed personal liberty. In furtherance of this objective set up by the Constitution, the Indian Penal Code lays down penal sanctions in case a person violates the freedom of movement or personal liberty of another. Sections 339 and 340 of Indian Penal Code define wrongful restraint and wrongful confinement, respectively. The Indian Penal Code, 1860, makes wrongful restraint and wrongful confinement punishable under Section 339 to 348.
According to Section 339 of the Indian Penal Code, "Whoever voluntarily obstructs any person so as to prevent that person from proceeding in any direction in which that person has a right to proceed, is said wrongfully to restrain that person." Further, the section also lays down an exception, which is that if a person in good faith believes himself to have a lawful right to obstruct and so obstructs a private way over land or water, then it does not amount to wrongful restraint. To establish the offence of wrongful restraint, the complainant must prove that there was an obstruction; the obstruction prevented the complainant from proceeding in any direction; the person/complainant so proceeding must have a right to proceed in the direction concerned.
Wrongful confinement is defined under Section 340 of the Indian Penal Code. Section 342 of the Indian Penal Code provides punishment for wrongful confinement. Wrongful confinement means that a person is wrongfully restrained from proceeding beyond certain circumscribing limits. Section 340 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860, defines wrongful confinement as: "Whoever wrongfully restrains any person in such a manner as to prevent that person from proceeding beyond certain circumscribing limits, is said "wrongfully to confine" that person." Section 342 of the Indian Penal Code says that whoever wrongfully confines any person shall be punished with simple imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both. The offence under Section 340 of the Code is cognizable, bailable compoundable and triable by any Magistrate. Section 343 of the Indian Penal Code says that whoever wrongfully confines any person for three days or more, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both. The offence under this section is cognizable, bailable, compoundable with the permission of the court and triable by any Magistrate.

Q. Ram and Sham jointly own a pond, where they both catch fishes. They sell it in the market to earn their living. The pond is located at Ram's premises. Ram, without any reason, denied Sham the access to the pond. Decide.

Solution:

This is a case of reasonable restriction as the pond is at located at Ram's premises. Hence, Ram has the right to deny the access to Sham. Therefore, he is justified in his action of restraining Sham.

QUESTION: 115

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

Under the Constitution of India, in Articles 19 and 21, every person throughout the territory of India is conferred with the right to freedom of movement and is guaranteed personal liberty. In furtherance of this objective set up by the Constitution, the Indian Penal Code lays down penal sanctions in case a person violates the freedom of movement or personal liberty of another. Sections 339 and 340 of Indian Penal Code define wrongful restraint and wrongful confinement, respectively. The Indian Penal Code, 1860, makes wrongful restraint and wrongful confinement punishable under Section 339 to 348.
According to Section 339 of the Indian Penal Code, "Whoever voluntarily obstructs any person so as to prevent that person from proceeding in any direction in which that person has a right to proceed, is said wrongfully to restrain that person." Further, the section also lays down an exception, which is that if a person in good faith believes himself to have a lawful right to obstruct and so obstructs a private way over land or water, then it does not amount to wrongful restraint. To establish the offence of wrongful restraint, the complainant must prove that there was an obstruction; the obstruction prevented the complainant from proceeding in any direction; the person/complainant so proceeding must have a right to proceed in the direction concerned.
Wrongful confinement is defined under Section 340 of the Indian Penal Code. Section 342 of the Indian Penal Code provides punishment for wrongful confinement. Wrongful confinement means that a person is wrongfully restrained from proceeding beyond certain circumscribing limits. Section 340 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860, defines wrongful confinement as: "Whoever wrongfully restrains any person in such a manner as to prevent that person from proceeding beyond certain circumscribing limits, is said "wrongfully to confine" that person." Section 342 of the Indian Penal Code says that whoever wrongfully confines any person shall be punished with simple imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both. The offence under Section 340 of the Code is cognizable, bailable compoundable and triable by any Magistrate. Section 343 of the Indian Penal Code says that whoever wrongfully confines any person for three days or more, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both. The offence under this section is cognizable, bailable, compoundable with the permission of the court and triable by any Magistrate.

Q. Deepa lives in ABC apartment on the 6th floor. Deepa being health conscious prefers taking the stairs rather than lift to her floor. Mr. Verma, who lives at the 3rd floor, has a dog which usually sleeps peacefully outside Verma's flat. Deepa being scared of dogs couldn't make it to her floor. Is this a case of wrongful restraint? Decide.

Solution:

According to Section 339 of the Indian Penal Code, "Whoever voluntarily obstructs any person so as to prevent that person from proceeding in any direction in which that person has a right to proceed, is said wrongfully to restrain that person."
Therefore, this is not a case of wrongful restraint as Mr. Verma has not specifically restrained Deepa from using the stairs.

QUESTION: 116

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.

Under the Constitution of India, in Articles 19 and 21, every person throughout the territory of India is conferred with the right to freedom of movement and is guaranteed personal liberty. In furtherance of this objective set up by the Constitution, the Indian Penal Code lays down penal sanctions in case a person violates the freedom of movement or personal liberty of another. Sections 339 and 340 of Indian Penal Code define wrongful restraint and wrongful confinement, respectively. The Indian Penal Code, 1860, makes wrongful restraint and wrongful confinement punishable under Section 339 to 348.
According to Section 339 of the Indian Penal Code, "Whoever voluntarily obstructs any person so as to prevent that person from proceeding in any direction in which that person has a right to proceed, is said wrongfully to restrain that person." Further, the section also lays down an exception, which is that if a person in good faith believes himself to have a lawful right to obstruct and so obstructs a private way over land or water, then it does not amount to wrongful restraint. To establish the offence of wrongful restraint, the complainant must prove that there was an obstruction; the obstruction prevented the complainant from proceeding in any direction; the person/complainant so proceeding must have a right to proceed in the direction concerned.
Wrongful confinement is defined under Section 340 of the Indian Penal Code. Section 342 of the Indian Penal Code provides punishment for wrongful confinement. Wrongful confinement means that a person is wrongfully restrained from proceeding beyond certain circumscribing limits. Section 340 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860, defines wrongful confinement as: "Whoever wrongfully restrains any person in such a manner as to prevent that person from proceeding beyond certain circumscribing limits, is said "wrongfully to confine" that person." Section 342 of the Indian Penal Code says that whoever wrongfully confines any person shall be punished with simple imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both. The offence under Section 340 of the Code is cognizable, bailable compoundable and triable by any Magistrate. Section 343 of the Indian P