CLAT: Mock Test (New Pattern) - 8


150 Questions MCQ Test Mock Test Series for CLAT 2020 | CLAT: Mock Test (New Pattern) - 8


Description
This mock test of CLAT: Mock Test (New Pattern) - 8 for CLAT helps you for every CLAT entrance exam. This contains 150 Multiple Choice Questions for CLAT CLAT: Mock Test (New Pattern) - 8 (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this CLAT: Mock Test (New Pattern) - 8 quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. CLAT students definitely take this CLAT: Mock Test (New Pattern) - 8 exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other CLAT: Mock Test (New Pattern) - 8 extra questions, long questions & short questions for CLAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

Read the passage and answer the question that follows.

I was eleven when the Taliban started bombing girls' schools throughout the Swat Valley. The attacks happened at night, so at least no one was hurt, but imagine arriving at school in the morning to find it a pile of rubble. It felt beyond cruel. They had begun cutting our electricity and targeting local politicians. They even banned children's games. We had been told stories of Taliban fighters who heard children laughing in their homes and burst in to destroy the game. They also bombed police stations and attacked individuals.
If the Taliban heard that someone had spoken out against them, they would announce those names on their radio station. And then the next morning, those people might be found dead in Green Square, our city centre, often with notes pinned to the bodies explaining their so-called sins. It got so bad that each morning, several bodies would be lined up in the town centre, which people started calling Bloody Square.
This was all part of their extremist propaganda. It was working: they were asserting control over the Swat Valley.
My father had been cautioned to stop speaking out on behalf of girls' education and peace. He didn't. But he did start varying his routes home in case he was being followed. And I started a new habit: I would check the locks on the doors and windows before I went to sleep each night.
We felt hopeful when the army sent troops to Swat to protect us. But it meant the fighting had come closer. They had a base in Mingora near our home, so I would hear the whirring of helicopter blades cutting the thick air and then look up to see metal hunks filled with soldiers in uniform. Those images, just like Taliban fighters holding machine guns in the streets, became such a big part of our daily lives that my brothers and their friends started playing Taliban versus army instead of hide-and-seek. They would make guns from paper and stage battles and 'shoot' at one another. Rather than share idle gossip and talk about our favourite movie stars, my friends and I shared information about death threats and wondered if we'd ever feel safe again.
This was our life now. It was nothing any of us could have ever imagined.
Scary things became normal. We'd hear the big, booming sounds of bombs and feel the ground tremble. The stronger the tremor, the closer the bomb. If we didn't hear a bomb blast for an entire day, we'd say, 'Today was a good day.' If we didn't hear firearms being shot at night, like firecrackers, then we might even get a good night's sleep.

Q. Which of the following most accurately expresses the author's main idea in the passage?

Solution:

The author describes how the attacks of Taliban in the Swat valley continued to disrupt the normal life of people. She describes the several experiences and real life incidents that she came across in the entire passage. The only option that covers most of what is stated in the passage is option 3.

QUESTION: 2

Read the passage and answer the question that follows.

I was eleven when the Taliban started bombing girls' schools throughout the Swat Valley. The attacks happened at night, so at least no one was hurt, but imagine arriving at school in the morning to find it a pile of rubble. It felt beyond cruel. They had begun cutting our electricity and targeting local politicians. They even banned children's games. We had been told stories of Taliban fighters who heard children laughing in their homes and burst in to destroy the game. They also bombed police stations and attacked individuals.
If the Taliban heard that someone had spoken out against them, they would announce those names on their radio station. And then the next morning, those people might be found dead in Green Square, our city centre, often with notes pinned to the bodies explaining their so-called sins. It got so bad that each morning, several bodies would be lined up in the town centre, which people started calling Bloody Square.
This was all part of their extremist propaganda. It was working: they were asserting control over the Swat Valley.
My father had been cautioned to stop speaking out on behalf of girls' education and peace. He didn't. But he did start varying his routes home in case he was being followed. And I started a new habit: I would check the locks on the doors and windows before I went to sleep each night.
We felt hopeful when the army sent troops to Swat to protect us. But it meant the fighting had come closer. They had a base in Mingora near our home, so I would hear the whirring of helicopter blades cutting the thick air and then look up to see metal hunks filled with soldiers in uniform. Those images, just like Taliban fighters holding machine guns in the streets, became such a big part of our daily lives that my brothers and their friends started playing Taliban versus army instead of hide-and-seek. They would make guns from paper and stage battles and 'shoot' at one another. Rather than share idle gossip and talk about our favourite movie stars, my friends and I shared information about death threats and wondered if we'd ever feel safe again.
This was our life now. It was nothing any of us could have ever imagined.
Scary things became normal. We'd hear the big, booming sounds of bombs and feel the ground tremble. The stronger the tremor, the closer the bomb. If we didn't hear a bomb blast for an entire day, we'd say, 'Today was a good day.' If we didn't hear firearms being shot at night, like firecrackers, then we might even get a good night's sleep.

Q. What, according to the author, would the Taliban do if they heard someone had spoken against them?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 4. The author states in the passage: "If the Taliban heard that someone had spoken out against them, they would announce those names on their radio station. And then the next morning, those people might be found dead in Green Square, our city centre, often with notes pinned to the bodies explaining their so-called sins. "

QUESTION: 3

Read the passage and answer the question that follows.

I was eleven when the Taliban started bombing girls' schools throughout the Swat Valley. The attacks happened at night, so at least no one was hurt, but imagine arriving at school in the morning to find it a pile of rubble. It felt beyond cruel. They had begun cutting our electricity and targeting local politicians. They even banned children's games. We had been told stories of Taliban fighters who heard children laughing in their homes and burst in to destroy the game. They also bombed police stations and attacked individuals.
If the Taliban heard that someone had spoken out against them, they would announce those names on their radio station. And then the next morning, those people might be found dead in Green Square, our city centre, often with notes pinned to the bodies explaining their so-called sins. It got so bad that each morning, several bodies would be lined up in the town centre, which people started calling Bloody Square.
This was all part of their extremist propaganda. It was working: they were asserting control over the Swat Valley.
My father had been cautioned to stop speaking out on behalf of girls' education and peace. He didn't. But he did start varying his routes home in case he was being followed. And I started a new habit: I would check the locks on the doors and windows before I went to sleep each night.
We felt hopeful when the army sent troops to Swat to protect us. But it meant the fighting had come closer. They had a base in Mingora near our home, so I would hear the whirring of helicopter blades cutting the thick air and then look up to see metal hunks filled with soldiers in uniform. Those images, just like Taliban fighters holding machine guns in the streets, became such a big part of our daily lives that my brothers and their friends started playing Taliban versus army instead of hide-and-seek. They would make guns from paper and stage battles and 'shoot' at one another. Rather than share idle gossip and talk about our favourite movie stars, my friends and I shared information about death threats and wondered if we'd ever feel safe again.
This was our life now. It was nothing any of us could have ever imagined.
Scary things became normal. We'd hear the big, booming sounds of bombs and feel the ground tremble. The stronger the tremor, the closer the bomb. If we didn't hear a bomb blast for an entire day, we'd say, 'Today was a good day.' If we didn't hear firearms being shot at night, like firecrackers, then we might even get a good night's sleep.

Q. Based on the information provided in the passage, which of the following can rightly be inferred?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 1. It can be inferred from the author's statement: "My father had been cautioned to stop speaking out on behalf of girls' education and peace. He didn't." Other options cannot be inferred from the passage.

QUESTION: 4

Read the passage and answer the question that follows.

I was eleven when the Taliban started bombing girls' schools throughout the Swat Valley. The attacks happened at night, so at least no one was hurt, but imagine arriving at school in the morning to find it a pile of rubble. It felt beyond cruel. They had begun cutting our electricity and targeting local politicians. They even banned children's games. We had been told stories of Taliban fighters who heard children laughing in their homes and burst in to destroy the game. They also bombed police stations and attacked individuals.
If the Taliban heard that someone had spoken out against them, they would announce those names on their radio station. And then the next morning, those people might be found dead in Green Square, our city centre, often with notes pinned to the bodies explaining their so-called sins. It got so bad that each morning, several bodies would be lined up in the town centre, which people started calling Bloody Square.
This was all part of their extremist propaganda. It was working: they were asserting control over the Swat Valley.
My father had been cautioned to stop speaking out on behalf of girls' education and peace. He didn't. But he did start varying his routes home in case he was being followed. And I started a new habit: I would check the locks on the doors and windows before I went to sleep each night.
We felt hopeful when the army sent troops to Swat to protect us. But it meant the fighting had come closer. They had a base in Mingora near our home, so I would hear the whirring of helicopter blades cutting the thick air and then look up to see metal hunks filled with soldiers in uniform. Those images, just like Taliban fighters holding machine guns in the streets, became such a big part of our daily lives that my brothers and their friends started playing Taliban versus army instead of hide-and-seek. They would make guns from paper and stage battles and 'shoot' at one another. Rather than share idle gossip and talk about our favourite movie stars, my friends and I shared information about death threats and wondered if we'd ever feel safe again.
This was our life now. It was nothing any of us could have ever imagined.
Scary things became normal. We'd hear the big, booming sounds of bombs and feel the ground tremble. The stronger the tremor, the closer the bomb. If we didn't hear a bomb blast for an entire day, we'd say, 'Today was a good day.' If we didn't hear firearms being shot at night, like firecrackers, then we might even get a good night's sleep.

Q. What, according to the passage, is suggested by the author's statement that children "started playing Taliban versus army instead of hide-and-seek"?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2 - Children were mimicking what was going on around them. This is apparent from the fifth paragraph which states; 'Those images, just like Taliban fighters holding machine guns in the streets, became such a big part of our daily lives' and is supported in the sixth paragraph which states; 'This was our life now.' There is nothing to support that children were expressing rage in this manner, so option 1 cannot be correct. There is nothing in the passage to support either option 3 or 4, so these also cannot be correct.

QUESTION: 5

Read the passage and answer the question that follows.

I was eleven when the Taliban started bombing girls' schools throughout the Swat Valley. The attacks happened at night, so at least no one was hurt, but imagine arriving at school in the morning to find it a pile of rubble. It felt beyond cruel. They had begun cutting our electricity and targeting local politicians. They even banned children's games. We had been told stories of Taliban fighters who heard children laughing in their homes and burst in to destroy the game. They also bombed police stations and attacked individuals.
If the Taliban heard that someone had spoken out against them, they would announce those names on their radio station. And then the next morning, those people might be found dead in Green Square, our city centre, often with notes pinned to the bodies explaining their so-called sins. It got so bad that each morning, several bodies would be lined up in the town centre, which people started calling Bloody Square.
This was all part of their extremist propaganda. It was working: they were asserting control over the Swat Valley.
My father had been cautioned to stop speaking out on behalf of girls' education and peace. He didn't. But he did start varying his routes home in case he was being followed. And I started a new habit: I would check the locks on the doors and windows before I went to sleep each night.
We felt hopeful when the army sent troops to Swat to protect us. But it meant the fighting had come closer. They had a base in Mingora near our home, so I would hear the whirring of helicopter blades cutting the thick air and then look up to see metal hunks filled with soldiers in uniform. Those images, just like Taliban fighters holding machine guns in the streets, became such a big part of our daily lives that my brothers and their friends started playing Taliban versus army instead of hide-and-seek. They would make guns from paper and stage battles and 'shoot' at one another. Rather than share idle gossip and talk about our favourite movie stars, my friends and I shared information about death threats and wondered if we'd ever feel safe again.
This was our life now. It was nothing any of us could have ever imagined.
Scary things became normal. We'd hear the big, booming sounds of bombs and feel the ground tremble. The stronger the tremor, the closer the bomb. If we didn't hear a bomb blast for an entire day, we'd say, 'Today was a good day.' If we didn't hear firearms being shot at night, like firecrackers, then we might even get a good night's sleep.

Q. What does the word 'extremist' as used in the passage mean?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 3. It is evident from the author's description of the activities of Taliban in the passage. Their bombing of the girls' school and hanging of people who disagreed with their views are some examples of their extremist activities. Hence, the correct answer is option 3 which describes the nature of these activities.

QUESTION: 6

Read the passage and answer the following question.

When I was in class eight, Anna and I started buying magazines like Rani, Ananda Vikadan and Kumudam. Amma thought this was an unnecessary expenditure. Once we got hold of these magazines, Anna and I couldn't do anything else until we finished reading them. Sometimes we bought a copy each. Amma hated it; besides the money being wasted, work was also getting affected. These magazines also occasionally carried glamorous pictures of actresses. 'Are you spending money to buy and read these kind of books?' Amma would ask furiously. Soon, she gave up the habit of collecting paper because she could now tear pages from our magazines when she needed to.
Presently, she had to face another issue. When I was in class nine, I started buying literary books. None of the shops in our village sold them, so I ordered them through VPP (Value Payable Post) after seeing advertisements in magazines. The postman would deliver the books and collect the money. Amma would silently watch me hand the money over. The loathing and anger on her face could scorch.
As soon as the postman left, she would begin ranting, going on and on, and there was no way I could read the book then. I would go and sit somewhere in a field and not return for a long time. Though Amma would call out loudly enough, I would pretend not to hear and return home only after dark.
'He forgets everything around him when he has a book in his hand. At this rate, is he going to have the time to study well, become a district collector and give all his money to me? I graze goats and cows, sell milk diluted with water and save every paisa. This dog throws all our money at paper! I don't know how he is going to survive!' and so on and on she grumbled.
I used to buy a book every month. Amma's tirade would begin the day the book arrived, and by the time it subsided, the next one would come. Her cycle of rants would start up again. To avoid this, I told the postman not to deliver the books to our home and picked them up from the post office instead. However, Amma would find me reading the book, and know what I had done. She remembered the covers of all my books and recognised a new one instantly.
Though I also had a membership in the public library, it did not have the books I needed, nor did it stock any new ones. It was tiring to search for books there. I was deeply interested in poetry around this time. There was an unwritten rule that the public library could not purchase contemporary poetry.

Q. From the given passage, which of the following can be inferred about the author?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 3. This is evident throughout the passage in the author's description of purchasing magazines and books and reading them despite his mother's criticism about the same. Options 1 is not supported in the passage and cannot be correct. That Amma stopped buying paper and used the magazines is stated in the passage, but purchasing magazines for this purpose is not supported, so option 2 is also incorrect. There is nothing to support that the author gave money to help the postman, so option 4 is incorrect.

QUESTION: 7

Read the passage and answer the following question.

When I was in class eight, Anna and I started buying magazines like Rani, Ananda Vikadan and Kumudam. Amma thought this was an unnecessary expenditure. Once we got hold of these magazines, Anna and I couldn't do anything else until we finished reading them. Sometimes we bought a copy each. Amma hated it; besides the money being wasted, work was also getting affected. These magazines also occasionally carried glamorous pictures of actresses. 'Are you spending money to buy and read these kind of books?' Amma would ask furiously. Soon, she gave up the habit of collecting paper because she could now tear pages from our magazines when she needed to.
Presently, she had to face another issue. When I was in class nine, I started buying literary books. None of the shops in our village sold them, so I ordered them through VPP (Value Payable Post) after seeing advertisements in magazines. The postman would deliver the books and collect the money. Amma would silently watch me hand the money over. The loathing and anger on her face could scorch.
As soon as the postman left, she would begin ranting, going on and on, and there was no way I could read the book then. I would go and sit somewhere in a field and not return for a long time. Though Amma would call out loudly enough, I would pretend not to hear and return home only after dark.
'He forgets everything around him when he has a book in his hand. At this rate, is he going to have the time to study well, become a district collector and give all his money to me? I graze goats and cows, sell milk diluted with water and save every paisa. This dog throws all our money at paper! I don't know how he is going to survive!' and so on and on she grumbled.
I used to buy a book every month. Amma's tirade would begin the day the book arrived, and by the time it subsided, the next one would come. Her cycle of rants would start up again. To avoid this, I told the postman not to deliver the books to our home and picked them up from the post office instead. However, Amma would find me reading the book, and know what I had done. She remembered the covers of all my books and recognised a new one instantly.
Though I also had a membership in the public library, it did not have the books I needed, nor did it stock any new ones. It was tiring to search for books there. I was deeply interested in poetry around this time. There was an unwritten rule that the public library could not purchase contemporary poetry.

Q. What does the word 'tirade' as used in the passage mean?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 3. The author states this even in the next line: "Her cycle of rants would start up again." The author's mother criticizes his reading habit.

QUESTION: 8

Read the passage and answer the following question.

When I was in class eight, Anna and I started buying magazines like Rani, Ananda Vikadan and Kumudam. Amma thought this was an unnecessary expenditure. Once we got hold of these magazines, Anna and I couldn't do anything else until we finished reading them. Sometimes we bought a copy each. Amma hated it; besides the money being wasted, work was also getting affected. These magazines also occasionally carried glamorous pictures of actresses. 'Are you spending money to buy and read these kind of books?' Amma would ask furiously. Soon, she gave up the habit of collecting paper because she could now tear pages from our magazines when she needed to.
Presently, she had to face another issue. When I was in class nine, I started buying literary books. None of the shops in our village sold them, so I ordered them through VPP (Value Payable Post) after seeing advertisements in magazines. The postman would deliver the books and collect the money. Amma would silently watch me hand the money over. The loathing and anger on her face could scorch.
As soon as the postman left, she would begin ranting, going on and on, and there was no way I could read the book then. I would go and sit somewhere in a field and not return for a long time. Though Amma would call out loudly enough, I would pretend not to hear and return home only after dark.
'He forgets everything around him when he has a book in his hand. At this rate, is he going to have the time to study well, become a district collector and give all his money to me? I graze goats and cows, sell milk diluted with water and save every paisa. This dog throws all our money at paper! I don't know how he is going to survive!' and so on and on she grumbled.
I used to buy a book every month. Amma's tirade would begin the day the book arrived, and by the time it subsided, the next one would come. Her cycle of rants would start up again. To avoid this, I told the postman not to deliver the books to our home and picked them up from the post office instead. However, Amma would find me reading the book, and know what I had done. She remembered the covers of all my books and recognised a new one instantly.
Though I also had a membership in the public library, it did not have the books I needed, nor did it stock any new ones. It was tiring to search for books there. I was deeply interested in poetry around this time. There was an unwritten rule that the public library could not purchase contemporary poetry.

Q. Why, according to the author, did he have to order the books through VPP?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 1. This is apparent in the author's description: "None of the shops in our village sold them, so I ordered them through VPP (Value Payable Post) after seeing advertisements in magazines." Option 4 is incorrect because regardless of whether he ordered the books through VPP or purchased them from anywhere, his mother always criticised him.

QUESTION: 9

Read the passage and answer the following question.

When I was in class eight, Anna and I started buying magazines like Rani, Ananda Vikadan and Kumudam. Amma thought this was an unnecessary expenditure. Once we got hold of these magazines, Anna and I couldn't do anything else until we finished reading them. Sometimes we bought a copy each. Amma hated it; besides the money being wasted, work was also getting affected. These magazines also occasionally carried glamorous pictures of actresses. 'Are you spending money to buy and read these kind of books?' Amma would ask furiously. Soon, she gave up the habit of collecting paper because she could now tear pages from our magazines when she needed to.
Presently, she had to face another issue. When I was in class nine, I started buying literary books. None of the shops in our village sold them, so I ordered them through VPP (Value Payable Post) after seeing advertisements in magazines. The postman would deliver the books and collect the money. Amma would silently watch me hand the money over. The loathing and anger on her face could scorch.
As soon as the postman left, she would begin ranting, going on and on, and there was no way I could read the book then. I would go and sit somewhere in a field and not return for a long time. Though Amma would call out loudly enough, I would pretend not to hear and return home only after dark.
'He forgets everything around him when he has a book in his hand. At this rate, is he going to have the time to study well, become a district collector and give all his money to me? I graze goats and cows, sell milk diluted with water and save every paisa. This dog throws all our money at paper! I don't know how he is going to survive!' and so on and on she grumbled.
I used to buy a book every month. Amma's tirade would begin the day the book arrived, and by the time it subsided, the next one would come. Her cycle of rants would start up again. To avoid this, I told the postman not to deliver the books to our home and picked them up from the post office instead. However, Amma would find me reading the book, and know what I had done. She remembered the covers of all my books and recognised a new one instantly.
Though I also had a membership in the public library, it did not have the books I needed, nor did it stock any new ones. It was tiring to search for books there. I was deeply interested in poetry around this time. There was an unwritten rule that the public library could not purchase contemporary poetry.

Q. Why, according to the passage, was the author more inclined to purchase books even though he had a library membership?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. This is apparent from the final paragraph: 'Though I also had a membership in the public library, it did not have the books I needed, nor did it stock any new ones. It was tiring to search for books there.'

QUESTION: 10

Read the passage and answer the question that follows.

When her grandmother learned of Ashima's pregnancy, she was particularly thrilled at the prospect of naming the family's first sahib. And so Ashima and Ashoke have agreed to put off the decision of what to name the baby until a letter comes, ignoring the forms from the hospital about filing for a birth certificate. Ashima's grandmother has mailed the letter herself, walking with her cane to the post office, her first trip out of the house in a decade. The letter contains one name for a girl, one for a boy. Ashima's grandmother has revealed them to no one.
Though the letter was sent a month ago, in July, it has yet to arrive. Ashima and Ashoke are not terribly concerned. After all, they both know, an infant doesn't really need a name. He needs to be fed and blessed, to be given some gold and silver, to be patted on the back after feedings and held carefully behind the neck. Names can wait. In India parents take their time. It wasn't unusual for years to pass before the right name, the best possible name, was determined. Ashima and Ashoke can both cite examples of cousins who were not officially named until they were registered, at six or seven, in school. The Nandis and Dr. Gupta understand perfectly. Of course you must wait, they agree, wait for the name in his great-grandmother's letter.
Besides, there are always pet names to tide one over: a practice of Bengali nomenclature grants, to every single person, two names. In Bengali the word for pet name is daknam, meaning, literally, the name by which one is called, by friends, family, and other intimates, at home and in other private, unguarded moments. Pet names are a persistent remnant of childhood, a reminder that life is not always so serious, so formal, so complicated. They are a reminder, too, that one is not all things to all people. They all have pet names. Ashima's pet name is Monu, Ashoke's is Mithu, and even as adults, these are the names by which they are known in their respective families, the names by which they are adored and scolded and missed and loved.
Every pet name is paired with a good name, a bhalonam, for identification in the outside world. Consequently, good names appear on envelopes, on diplomas, in telephone directories, and in all other public places. (For this reason, letters from Ashima's mother say "Ashima" on the outside, "Monu" on the inside.) Good names tend to represent dignified and enlightened qualities. Ashima means "she who is limitless, without borders." Ashoke, the name of an emperor, means "he who transcends grief." Pet names have no such aspirations. Pet names are never recorded officially, only uttered and remembered. Unlike good names, pet names are frequently meaningless, deliberately silly, ironic, even onomatopoetic. Often in one's infancy, one answers unwittingly to dozens of pet names, until one eventually sticks.

Q. Why, according the passage, does Ashima's grandmother leave the house after 10 years?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 4. This is suggested in this sentence: "When her grandmother learned of Ashima's pregnancy, she was particularly thrilled at the prospect of naming the family's first sahib ... Ashima's grandmother has mailed the letter herself, walking with her cane to the post office, her first trip out of the house in a decade. The letter contains one name for a girl, one for a boy. Ashima's grandmother has revealed them to no one."

QUESTION: 11

Read the passage and answer the question that follows.

When her grandmother learned of Ashima's pregnancy, she was particularly thrilled at the prospect of naming the family's first sahib. And so Ashima and Ashoke have agreed to put off the decision of what to name the baby until a letter comes, ignoring the forms from the hospital about filing for a birth certificate. Ashima's grandmother has mailed the letter herself, walking with her cane to the post office, her first trip out of the house in a decade. The letter contains one name for a girl, one for a boy. Ashima's grandmother has revealed them to no one.
Though the letter was sent a month ago, in July, it has yet to arrive. Ashima and Ashoke are not terribly concerned. After all, they both know, an infant doesn't really need a name. He needs to be fed and blessed, to be given some gold and silver, to be patted on the back after feedings and held carefully behind the neck. Names can wait. In India parents take their time. It wasn't unusual for years to pass before the right name, the best possible name, was determined. Ashima and Ashoke can both cite examples of cousins who were not officially named until they were registered, at six or seven, in school. The Nandis and Dr. Gupta understand perfectly. Of course you must wait, they agree, wait for the name in his great-grandmother's letter.
Besides, there are always pet names to tide one over: a practice of Bengali nomenclature grants, to every single person, two names. In Bengali the word for pet name is daknam, meaning, literally, the name by which one is called, by friends, family, and other intimates, at home and in other private, unguarded moments. Pet names are a persistent remnant of childhood, a reminder that life is not always so serious, so formal, so complicated. They are a reminder, too, that one is not all things to all people. They all have pet names. Ashima's pet name is Monu, Ashoke's is Mithu, and even as adults, these are the names by which they are known in their respective families, the names by which they are adored and scolded and missed and loved.
Every pet name is paired with a good name, a bhalonam, for identification in the outside world. Consequently, good names appear on envelopes, on diplomas, in telephone directories, and in all other public places. (For this reason, letters from Ashima's mother say "Ashima" on the outside, "Monu" on the inside.) Good names tend to represent dignified and enlightened qualities. Ashima means "she who is limitless, without borders." Ashoke, the name of an emperor, means "he who transcends grief." Pet names have no such aspirations. Pet names are never recorded officially, only uttered and remembered. Unlike good names, pet names are frequently meaningless, deliberately silly, ironic, even onomatopoetic. Often in one's infancy, one answers unwittingly to dozens of pet names, until one eventually sticks.

Q. Why, according to the passage, does Ashima and Ashoke believe an infant doesn't need a name immediately?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 3. The author states this in the following line: "Ashima and Ashoke are not terribly concerned. After all, they both know, an infant doesn't really need a name. He needs to be fed and blessed, to be given some gold and silver, to be patted on the back after feedings and held carefully behind the neck. Names can wait."

QUESTION: 12

Read the passage and answer the question that follows.

When her grandmother learned of Ashima's pregnancy, she was particularly thrilled at the prospect of naming the family's first sahib. And so Ashima and Ashoke have agreed to put off the decision of what to name the baby until a letter comes, ignoring the forms from the hospital about filing for a birth certificate. Ashima's grandmother has mailed the letter herself, walking with her cane to the post office, her first trip out of the house in a decade. The letter contains one name for a girl, one for a boy. Ashima's grandmother has revealed them to no one.
Though the letter was sent a month ago, in July, it has yet to arrive. Ashima and Ashoke are not terribly concerned. After all, they both know, an infant doesn't really need a name. He needs to be fed and blessed, to be given some gold and silver, to be patted on the back after feedings and held carefully behind the neck. Names can wait. In India parents take their time. It wasn't unusual for years to pass before the right name, the best possible name, was determined. Ashima and Ashoke can both cite examples of cousins who were not officially named until they were registered, at six or seven, in school. The Nandis and Dr. Gupta understand perfectly. Of course you must wait, they agree, wait for the name in his great-grandmother's letter.
Besides, there are always pet names to tide one over: a practice of Bengali nomenclature grants, to every single person, two names. In Bengali the word for pet name is daknam, meaning, literally, the name by which one is called, by friends, family, and other intimates, at home and in other private, unguarded moments. Pet names are a persistent remnant of childhood, a reminder that life is not always so serious, so formal, so complicated. They are a reminder, too, that one is not all things to all people. They all have pet names. Ashima's pet name is Monu, Ashoke's is Mithu, and even as adults, these are the names by which they are known in their respective families, the names by which they are adored and scolded and missed and loved.
Every pet name is paired with a good name, a bhalonam, for identification in the outside world. Consequently, good names appear on envelopes, on diplomas, in telephone directories, and in all other public places. (For this reason, letters from Ashima's mother say "Ashima" on the outside, "Monu" on the inside.) Good names tend to represent dignified and enlightened qualities. Ashima means "she who is limitless, without borders." Ashoke, the name of an emperor, means "he who transcends grief." Pet names have no such aspirations. Pet names are never recorded officially, only uttered and remembered. Unlike good names, pet names are frequently meaningless, deliberately silly, ironic, even onomatopoetic. Often in one's infancy, one answers unwittingly to dozens of pet names, until one eventually sticks.

Q. Which of the following is not a reason for the significance of a pet name that the author states in the passage?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 3. All except option 3 are stated as reasons why pet names are significant in the following lines: "Pet names are a persistent remnant of childhood, a reminder that life is not always so serious, so formal, so complicated. They are a reminder, too, that one is not all things to all people. They all have pet names."

QUESTION: 13

Read the passage and answer the question that follows.

When her grandmother learned of Ashima's pregnancy, she was particularly thrilled at the prospect of naming the family's first sahib. And so Ashima and Ashoke have agreed to put off the decision of what to name the baby until a letter comes, ignoring the forms from the hospital about filing for a birth certificate. Ashima's grandmother has mailed the letter herself, walking with her cane to the post office, her first trip out of the house in a decade. The letter contains one name for a girl, one for a boy. Ashima's grandmother has revealed them to no one.
Though the letter was sent a month ago, in July, it has yet to arrive. Ashima and Ashoke are not terribly concerned. After all, they both know, an infant doesn't really need a name. He needs to be fed and blessed, to be given some gold and silver, to be patted on the back after feedings and held carefully behind the neck. Names can wait. In India parents take their time. It wasn't unusual for years to pass before the right name, the best possible name, was determined. Ashima and Ashoke can both cite examples of cousins who were not officially named until they were registered, at six or seven, in school. The Nandis and Dr. Gupta understand perfectly. Of course you must wait, they agree, wait for the name in his great-grandmother's letter.
Besides, there are always pet names to tide one over: a practice of Bengali nomenclature grants, to every single person, two names. In Bengali the word for pet name is daknam, meaning, literally, the name by which one is called, by friends, family, and other intimates, at home and in other private, unguarded moments. Pet names are a persistent remnant of childhood, a reminder that life is not always so serious, so formal, so complicated. They are a reminder, too, that one is not all things to all people. They all have pet names. Ashima's pet name is Monu, Ashoke's is Mithu, and even as adults, these are the names by which they are known in their respective families, the names by which they are adored and scolded and missed and loved.
Every pet name is paired with a good name, a bhalonam, for identification in the outside world. Consequently, good names appear on envelopes, on diplomas, in telephone directories, and in all other public places. (For this reason, letters from Ashima's mother say "Ashima" on the outside, "Monu" on the inside.) Good names tend to represent dignified and enlightened qualities. Ashima means "she who is limitless, without borders." Ashoke, the name of an emperor, means "he who transcends grief." Pet names have no such aspirations. Pet names are never recorded officially, only uttered and remembered. Unlike good names, pet names are frequently meaningless, deliberately silly, ironic, even onomatopoetic. Often in one's infancy, one answers unwittingly to dozens of pet names, until one eventually sticks.

Q. What does the phrase 'unguarded moments' as used in the passage mean?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. Unguarded moments are times when you are not paying attention to what you are doing or saying. This is even evident from the author's description of the use of pet names by which "one is called, by friends, family, and other intimates, at home and in other private".

QUESTION: 14

Read the passage and answer the question that follows.

When her grandmother learned of Ashima's pregnancy, she was particularly thrilled at the prospect of naming the family's first sahib. And so Ashima and Ashoke have agreed to put off the decision of what to name the baby until a letter comes, ignoring the forms from the hospital about filing for a birth certificate. Ashima's grandmother has mailed the letter herself, walking with her cane to the post office, her first trip out of the house in a decade. The letter contains one name for a girl, one for a boy. Ashima's grandmother has revealed them to no one.
Though the letter was sent a month ago, in July, it has yet to arrive. Ashima and Ashoke are not terribly concerned. After all, they both know, an infant doesn't really need a name. He needs to be fed and blessed, to be given some gold and silver, to be patted on the back after feedings and held carefully behind the neck. Names can wait. In India parents take their time. It wasn't unusual for years to pass before the right name, the best possible name, was determined. Ashima and Ashoke can both cite examples of cousins who were not officially named until they were registered, at six or seven, in school. The Nandis and Dr. Gupta understand perfectly. Of course you must wait, they agree, wait for the name in his great-grandmother's letter.
Besides, there are always pet names to tide one over: a practice of Bengali nomenclature grants, to every single person, two names. In Bengali the word for pet name is daknam, meaning, literally, the name by which one is called, by friends, family, and other intimates, at home and in other private, unguarded moments. Pet names are a persistent remnant of childhood, a reminder that life is not always so serious, so formal, so complicated. They are a reminder, too, that one is not all things to all people. They all have pet names. Ashima's pet name is Monu, Ashoke's is Mithu, and even as adults, these are the names by which they are known in their respective families, the names by which they are adored and scolded and missed and loved.
Every pet name is paired with a good name, a bhalonam, for identification in the outside world. Consequently, good names appear on envelopes, on diplomas, in telephone directories, and in all other public places. (For this reason, letters from Ashima's mother say "Ashima" on the outside, "Monu" on the inside.) Good names tend to represent dignified and enlightened qualities. Ashima means "she who is limitless, without borders." Ashoke, the name of an emperor, means "he who transcends grief." Pet names have no such aspirations. Pet names are never recorded officially, only uttered and remembered. Unlike good names, pet names are frequently meaningless, deliberately silly, ironic, even onomatopoetic. Often in one's infancy, one answers unwittingly to dozens of pet names, until one eventually sticks.

Q. Which of the following statements is the author most likely to agree with?

Solution:

The author will only agree with what is stated in option 4. From the author's description: "Names can wait. In India parents take their time. It wasn't unusual for years to pass before the right name, the best possible name, was determined. Ashima and Ashoke can both cite examples of cousins who were not officially named until they were registered, at six or seven, in school", only option 4 appears to be correct.

QUESTION: 15

Read the passage and answer the following question.

The main problem with getting Poonachi's ear pierced was the set of questions it would provoke. "Where was she born? What was her mother's name? Who raised her mother? How much was she bought for?" The couple who owned Poonachi would have to respond to such questions. If they replied that they had received the newborn as a gift, that a man who looked like Bakasuran, the gluttonous demon, had given her away, the authorities might register a case of false testimony.
"Bring that Bakasuran here," they would say. "Has he got his ear pierced? He could be a spy from a foreign country; are you his accomplice?"
Accusations would be flung at the couple like arrows. "If he was in possession of a kid whose ears were not pierced, he might be an enemy of the regime," the authorities would declare. If they were to ask, "How did you come into contact with him? What else have you received from him?" the couple would have no answer.
The regime had the power to turn its own people, at any moment, into adversaries, enemies and traitors.
After taking everything into account, they decided to wait for ten or fifteen days. In that time, the pregnant goat in their yard would have delivered her litter. Her first pregnancy had yielded just one kid; the next few uniformly yielded two kids each. They could easily club Poonachi with two newborns and claim a litter of three. Her puny shape would support that claim.
Her black colour was a problem, however. Most of the goats in the state were white. A few were brown, but black ones were rare. Once upon a time, so the lore went, the state teemed with black goats. Since they could not be recognised in the dark when engaged in any criminal activity, the regime had, it was rumoured, deliberately wiped them out. Even so, black goats could still be spotted here and there. Their colour provoked instant hostility. When they saw Poonachi, the officials would go on the alert immediately.
From that day on, Poonachi got a reduced quantity of even the thin gruel she had to live on. The old woman was intent on not letting her grow fat. They would take the kids to the authorities four or five days after the pregnant goat delivered her litter. At that time, there should be no visible difference between Poonachi and the other two newborn kids.

Q. What, according to the passage, was the main issue the couple faced concerning the goat?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. This is apparent in the first paragraph: 'The main problem with getting Poonachi's ear pierced was the set of questions it would provoke.' It is further supported by the questions that are raised in the first paragraph.

QUESTION: 16

Read the passage and answer the following question.

The main problem with getting Poonachi's ear pierced was the set of questions it would provoke. "Where was she born? What was her mother's name? Who raised her mother? How much was she bought for?" The couple who owned Poonachi would have to respond to such questions. If they replied that they had received the newborn as a gift, that a man who looked like Bakasuran, the gluttonous demon, had given her away, the authorities might register a case of false testimony.
"Bring that Bakasuran here," they would say. "Has he got his ear pierced? He could be a spy from a foreign country; are you his accomplice?"
Accusations would be flung at the couple like arrows. "If he was in possession of a kid whose ears were not pierced, he might be an enemy of the regime," the authorities would declare. If they were to ask, "How did you come into contact with him? What else have you received from him?" the couple would have no answer.
The regime had the power to turn its own people, at any moment, into adversaries, enemies and traitors.
After taking everything into account, they decided to wait for ten or fifteen days. In that time, the pregnant goat in their yard would have delivered her litter. Her first pregnancy had yielded just one kid; the next few uniformly yielded two kids each. They could easily club Poonachi with two newborns and claim a litter of three. Her puny shape would support that claim.
Her black colour was a problem, however. Most of the goats in the state were white. A few were brown, but black ones were rare. Once upon a time, so the lore went, the state teemed with black goats. Since they could not be recognised in the dark when engaged in any criminal activity, the regime had, it was rumoured, deliberately wiped them out. Even so, black goats could still be spotted here and there. Their colour provoked instant hostility. When they saw Poonachi, the officials would go on the alert immediately.
From that day on, Poonachi got a reduced quantity of even the thin gruel she had to live on. The old woman was intent on not letting her grow fat. They would take the kids to the authorities four or five days after the pregnant goat delivered her litter. At that time, there should be no visible difference between Poonachi and the other two newborn kids.

Q. Which of the following can be correctly inferred from the given passage?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 1. This can be inferred from the statements in paragraph 1 which describes the questions the couple must answer regarding the goat, such as how they acquired it, the mother's name, etc. Moreover, the paragraph ends with the statement that the authorities might register a case against them. Based on this, it can be reasonably inferred that the law requires all goats to have their ears pierced.

QUESTION: 17

Read the passage and answer the following question.

The main problem with getting Poonachi's ear pierced was the set of questions it would provoke. "Where was she born? What was her mother's name? Who raised her mother? How much was she bought for?" The couple who owned Poonachi would have to respond to such questions. If they replied that they had received the newborn as a gift, that a man who looked like Bakasuran, the gluttonous demon, had given her away, the authorities might register a case of false testimony.
"Bring that Bakasuran here," they would say. "Has he got his ear pierced? He could be a spy from a foreign country; are you his accomplice?"
Accusations would be flung at the couple like arrows. "If he was in possession of a kid whose ears were not pierced, he might be an enemy of the regime," the authorities would declare. If they were to ask, "How did you come into contact with him? What else have you received from him?" the couple would have no answer.
The regime had the power to turn its own people, at any moment, into adversaries, enemies and traitors.
After taking everything into account, they decided to wait for ten or fifteen days. In that time, the pregnant goat in their yard would have delivered her litter. Her first pregnancy had yielded just one kid; the next few uniformly yielded two kids each. They could easily club Poonachi with two newborns and claim a litter of three. Her puny shape would support that claim.
Her black colour was a problem, however. Most of the goats in the state were white. A few were brown, but black ones were rare. Once upon a time, so the lore went, the state teemed with black goats. Since they could not be recognised in the dark when engaged in any criminal activity, the regime had, it was rumoured, deliberately wiped them out. Even so, black goats could still be spotted here and there. Their colour provoked instant hostility. When they saw Poonachi, the officials would go on the alert immediately.
From that day on, Poonachi got a reduced quantity of even the thin gruel she had to live on. The old woman was intent on not letting her grow fat. They would take the kids to the authorities four or five days after the pregnant goat delivered her litter. At that time, there should be no visible difference between Poonachi and the other two newborn kids.

Q. What does the word 'puny' as used in the passage mean?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 3. This can even be inferred from the passage: "They could easily club Poonachi with two newborns and claim a litter of three." As the litter would even be small and weak, clubbing Poonachi with the litter was one solution that the couple came up with to make Poonachi less recognisable.

QUESTION: 18

Read the passage and answer the following question.

The main problem with getting Poonachi's ear pierced was the set of questions it would provoke. "Where was she born? What was her mother's name? Who raised her mother? How much was she bought for?" The couple who owned Poonachi would have to respond to such questions. If they replied that they had received the newborn as a gift, that a man who looked like Bakasuran, the gluttonous demon, had given her away, the authorities might register a case of false testimony.
"Bring that Bakasuran here," they would say. "Has he got his ear pierced? He could be a spy from a foreign country; are you his accomplice?"
Accusations would be flung at the couple like arrows. "If he was in possession of a kid whose ears were not pierced, he might be an enemy of the regime," the authorities would declare. If they were to ask, "How did you come into contact with him? What else have you received from him?" the couple would have no answer.
The regime had the power to turn its own people, at any moment, into adversaries, enemies and traitors.
After taking everything into account, they decided to wait for ten or fifteen days. In that time, the pregnant goat in their yard would have delivered her litter. Her first pregnancy had yielded just one kid; the next few uniformly yielded two kids each. They could easily club Poonachi with two newborns and claim a litter of three. Her puny shape would support that claim.
Her black colour was a problem, however. Most of the goats in the state were white. A few were brown, but black ones were rare. Once upon a time, so the lore went, the state teemed with black goats. Since they could not be recognised in the dark when engaged in any criminal activity, the regime had, it was rumoured, deliberately wiped them out. Even so, black goats could still be spotted here and there. Their colour provoked instant hostility. When they saw Poonachi, the officials would go on the alert immediately.
From that day on, Poonachi got a reduced quantity of even the thin gruel she had to live on. The old woman was intent on not letting her grow fat. They would take the kids to the authorities four or five days after the pregnant goat delivered her litter. At that time, there should be no visible difference between Poonachi and the other two newborn kids.

Q. What, according to the passage, can be inferred about the couple?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 4. This is apparent in the description in the first three paragraphs in which they feared being questioned about how they acquired Panoochi and the person who gave it to them.

QUESTION: 19

Read the passage and answer the following question.

The main problem with getting Poonachi's ear pierced was the set of questions it would provoke. "Where was she born? What was her mother's name? Who raised her mother? How much was she bought for?" The couple who owned Poonachi would have to respond to such questions. If they replied that they had received the newborn as a gift, that a man who looked like Bakasuran, the gluttonous demon, had given her away, the authorities might register a case of false testimony.
"Bring that Bakasuran here," they would say. "Has he got his ear pierced? He could be a spy from a foreign country; are you his accomplice?"
Accusations would be flung at the couple like arrows. "If he was in possession of a kid whose ears were not pierced, he might be an enemy of the regime," the authorities would declare. If they were to ask, "How did you come into contact with him? What else have you received from him?" the couple would have no answer.
The regime had the power to turn its own people, at any moment, into adversaries, enemies and traitors.
After taking everything into account, they decided to wait for ten or fifteen days. In that time, the pregnant goat in their yard would have delivered her litter. Her first pregnancy had yielded just one kid; the next few uniformly yielded two kids each. They could easily club Poonachi with two newborns and claim a litter of three. Her puny shape would support that claim.
Her black colour was a problem, however. Most of the goats in the state were white. A few were brown, but black ones were rare. Once upon a time, so the lore went, the state teemed with black goats. Since they could not be recognised in the dark when engaged in any criminal activity, the regime had, it was rumoured, deliberately wiped them out. Even so, black goats could still be spotted here and there. Their colour provoked instant hostility. When they saw Poonachi, the officials would go on the alert immediately.
From that day on, Poonachi got a reduced quantity of even the thin gruel she had to live on. The old woman was intent on not letting her grow fat. They would take the kids to the authorities four or five days after the pregnant goat delivered her litter. At that time, there should be no visible difference between Poonachi and the other two newborn kids.

Q. How, according to the passage, has the couple decided to solve their problem?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 3. This is apparent in the fifth paragraph: 'They could easily club Poonachi with two newborns and claim a litter of three. Her puny shape would support that claim.'

QUESTION: 20

Read the passage and answer the question that follows.

While packing my luggage for the boarding school at Sophia, Mum had slipped in a bag of the dry powder I was supposed to mix with milk or water and use during my bath. Before leaving me at the dormitory, she also left unnecessarily detailed instructions on how that was to be done with the seventeen-year-old caretaker who managed the "junior girls" in that wing. I knew the caretaker did not appreciate Mum's directive because she repeatedly reminded me of it for the two years I lived there, often humiliating me in front of my hostel mates. During the common bath time, she would loudly enquire about that powder my mum left for me to become fair. Of all the times my ubtan embarrassed me, those were the worst.
My seven years so far had taught me nothing about standing up for myself, or defending what I thought was right. I also lacked the entitlement that a combination of wealth and caste pride allow many, even at that young age, to take on much older, more influential bullies with fortitude. I was poor and pretending to be upper caste in a hostel filled with mostly older girls; I had to fit in.
So I joined the raucous laughter in the room or smiled like I was in on the joke she was making at my expense and about Mum, even as a part of me cringed. The caretaker must have sensed that I was hiding something, for she soon added a new element to her weekly routine: asking me if I thought my mother was a bad person. She wasn't content with just mocking me, she also needed me to assure her that she was right.
I didn't tell Mum about this. I knew she would want to intervene or report it to the administration. And I thought that would only make things worse for me. The caretaker might be reprimanded. But after that, living at the hostel could get a lot worse. Pretending to dislike my own mother while blaming myself for not defending her didn't take long to turn into deep self-disgust. That plastic bag of ubtan became its centre and source. I would shove it deep into the belly of my locker so no one, not even I, could see it.
The bag would sit there unopened during the semester and I would bring it home with me during the break. Even though Mum had half-expected that I wouldn't actually use it, she would still be disappointed. During the weeks I spent at home, she would go through old magazines looking for the least messy ubtan recipes. She'd spend hours searching for the ingredients, and painstakingly blend them either by hand or in an old mixer.

Q. Which of the following can be rightly inferred about the author?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 1. This is supported in the second paragraph in which she states: 'I also lacked the entitlement that a combination of wealth and caste pride allow many' and 'I was poor and pretending to be upper caste.'

QUESTION: 21

Read the passage and answer the question that follows.

While packing my luggage for the boarding school at Sophia, Mum had slipped in a bag of the dry powder I was supposed to mix with milk or water and use during my bath. Before leaving me at the dormitory, she also left unnecessarily detailed instructions on how that was to be done with the seventeen-year-old caretaker who managed the "junior girls" in that wing. I knew the caretaker did not appreciate Mum's directive because she repeatedly reminded me of it for the two years I lived there, often humiliating me in front of my hostel mates. During the common bath time, she would loudly enquire about that powder my mum left for me to become fair. Of all the times my ubtan embarrassed me, those were the worst.
My seven years so far had taught me nothing about standing up for myself, or defending what I thought was right. I also lacked the entitlement that a combination of wealth and caste pride allow many, even at that young age, to take on much older, more influential bullies with fortitude. I was poor and pretending to be upper caste in a hostel filled with mostly older girls; I had to fit in.
So I joined the raucous laughter in the room or smiled like I was in on the joke she was making at my expense and about Mum, even as a part of me cringed. The caretaker must have sensed that I was hiding something, for she soon added a new element to her weekly routine: asking me if I thought my mother was a bad person. She wasn't content with just mocking me, she also needed me to assure her that she was right.
I didn't tell Mum about this. I knew she would want to intervene or report it to the administration. And I thought that would only make things worse for me. The caretaker might be reprimanded. But after that, living at the hostel could get a lot worse. Pretending to dislike my own mother while blaming myself for not defending her didn't take long to turn into deep self-disgust. That plastic bag of ubtan became its centre and source. I would shove it deep into the belly of my locker so no one, not even I, could see it.
The bag would sit there unopened during the semester and I would bring it home with me during the break. Even though Mum had half-expected that I wouldn't actually use it, she would still be disappointed. During the weeks I spent at home, she would go through old magazines looking for the least messy ubtan recipes. She'd spend hours searching for the ingredients, and painstakingly blend them either by hand or in an old mixer.

Q. What, according to the passage, is the reason why the author's mother asked her to use ubtan?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 3. This is supported in paragraph 1: 'she would loudly enquire about that powder my mum left for me to become fair' which suggests that the author had a darker complexion. For options 1 and 4, there is nothing to support that she had rashes or sores, so these are incorrect. There is nothing to support that her skin was too pale, so option 2 cannot be correct.

QUESTION: 22

Read the passage and answer the question that follows.

While packing my luggage for the boarding school at Sophia, Mum had slipped in a bag of the dry powder I was supposed to mix with milk or water and use during my bath. Before leaving me at the dormitory, she also left unnecessarily detailed instructions on how that was to be done with the seventeen-year-old caretaker who managed the "junior girls" in that wing. I knew the caretaker did not appreciate Mum's directive because she repeatedly reminded me of it for the two years I lived there, often humiliating me in front of my hostel mates. During the common bath time, she would loudly enquire about that powder my mum left for me to become fair. Of all the times my ubtan embarrassed me, those were the worst.
My seven years so far had taught me nothing about standing up for myself, or defending what I thought was right. I also lacked the entitlement that a combination of wealth and caste pride allow many, even at that young age, to take on much older, more influential bullies with fortitude. I was poor and pretending to be upper caste in a hostel filled with mostly older girls; I had to fit in.
So I joined the raucous laughter in the room or smiled like I was in on the joke she was making at my expense and about Mum, even as a part of me cringed. The caretaker must have sensed that I was hiding something, for she soon added a new element to her weekly routine: asking me if I thought my mother was a bad person. She wasn't content with just mocking me, she also needed me to assure her that she was right.
I didn't tell Mum about this. I knew she would want to intervene or report it to the administration. And I thought that would only make things worse for me. The caretaker might be reprimanded. But after that, living at the hostel could get a lot worse. Pretending to dislike my own mother while blaming myself for not defending her didn't take long to turn into deep self-disgust. That plastic bag of ubtan became its centre and source. I would shove it deep into the belly of my locker so no one, not even I, could see it.
The bag would sit there unopened during the semester and I would bring it home with me during the break. Even though Mum had half-expected that I wouldn't actually use it, she would still be disappointed. During the weeks I spent at home, she would go through old magazines looking for the least messy ubtan recipes. She'd spend hours searching for the ingredients, and painstakingly blend them either by hand or in an old mixer.

Q. What does the word 'raucous' as used in the passage mean?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. From the author's description of the way she was being treated at the hostel, we can only assume that the warden harassed the author in front of her friends by asking her questions which she wasn't comfortable with. When the author states a 'part of me cringed' we can only understand that her friends who heard what the warden said burst out in laughter that was loud and harsh.

QUESTION: 23

Read the passage and answer the question that follows.

While packing my luggage for the boarding school at Sophia, Mum had slipped in a bag of the dry powder I was supposed to mix with milk or water and use during my bath. Before leaving me at the dormitory, she also left unnecessarily detailed instructions on how that was to be done with the seventeen-year-old caretaker who managed the "junior girls" in that wing. I knew the caretaker did not appreciate Mum's directive because she repeatedly reminded me of it for the two years I lived there, often humiliating me in front of my hostel mates. During the common bath time, she would loudly enquire about that powder my mum left for me to become fair. Of all the times my ubtan embarrassed me, those were the worst.
My seven years so far had taught me nothing about standing up for myself, or defending what I thought was right. I also lacked the entitlement that a combination of wealth and caste pride allow many, even at that young age, to take on much older, more influential bullies with fortitude. I was poor and pretending to be upper caste in a hostel filled with mostly older girls; I had to fit in.
So I joined the raucous laughter in the room or smiled like I was in on the joke she was making at my expense and about Mum, even as a part of me cringed. The caretaker must have sensed that I was hiding something, for she soon added a new element to her weekly routine: asking me if I thought my mother was a bad person. She wasn't content with just mocking me, she also needed me to assure her that she was right.
I didn't tell Mum about this. I knew she would want to intervene or report it to the administration. And I thought that would only make things worse for me. The caretaker might be reprimanded. But after that, living at the hostel could get a lot worse. Pretending to dislike my own mother while blaming myself for not defending her didn't take long to turn into deep self-disgust. That plastic bag of ubtan became its centre and source. I would shove it deep into the belly of my locker so no one, not even I, could see it.
The bag would sit there unopened during the semester and I would bring it home with me during the break. Even though Mum had half-expected that I wouldn't actually use it, she would still be disappointed. During the weeks I spent at home, she would go through old magazines looking for the least messy ubtan recipes. She'd spend hours searching for the ingredients, and painstakingly blend them either by hand or in an old mixer.

Q. What, according to the author, does the bag of ubtan represent?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 3. This is apparent in the fourth paragraph which states; 'Pretending to dislike my own mother while blaming myself for not defending her didn't take long to turn into deep self-disgust. That plastic bag of ubtan became its centre and source.' Because the author uses the phrase 'deep self-disgust', we can infer that the bag of ubtan represents shame and derision, which are synonymous to 'self-disgust'.

QUESTION: 24

Read the passage and answer the question that follows.

While packing my luggage for the boarding school at Sophia, Mum had slipped in a bag of the dry powder I was supposed to mix with milk or water and use during my bath. Before leaving me at the dormitory, she also left unnecessarily detailed instructions on how that was to be done with the seventeen-year-old caretaker who managed the "junior girls" in that wing. I knew the caretaker did not appreciate Mum's directive because she repeatedly reminded me of it for the two years I lived there, often humiliating me in front of my hostel mates. During the common bath time, she would loudly enquire about that powder my mum left for me to become fair. Of all the times my ubtan embarrassed me, those were the worst.
My seven years so far had taught me nothing about standing up for myself, or defending what I thought was right. I also lacked the entitlement that a combination of wealth and caste pride allow many, even at that young age, to take on much older, more influential bullies with fortitude. I was poor and pretending to be upper caste in a hostel filled with mostly older girls; I had to fit in.
So I joined the raucous laughter in the room or smiled like I was in on the joke she was making at my expense and about Mum, even as a part of me cringed. The caretaker must have sensed that I was hiding something, for she soon added a new element to her weekly routine: asking me if I thought my mother was a bad person. She wasn't content with just mocking me, she also needed me to assure her that she was right.
I didn't tell Mum about this. I knew she would want to intervene or report it to the administration. And I thought that would only make things worse for me. The caretaker might be reprimanded. But after that, living at the hostel could get a lot worse. Pretending to dislike my own mother while blaming myself for not defending her didn't take long to turn into deep self-disgust. That plastic bag of ubtan became its centre and source. I would shove it deep into the belly of my locker so no one, not even I, could see it.
The bag would sit there unopened during the semester and I would bring it home with me during the break. Even though Mum had half-expected that I wouldn't actually use it, she would still be disappointed. During the weeks I spent at home, she would go through old magazines looking for the least messy ubtan recipes. She'd spend hours searching for the ingredients, and painstakingly blend them either by hand or in an old mixer.

Q. From the given passage, which of the following can be rightly inferred about the author's mother?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 1. This is supported in the final paragraph of the author's description of her mother's attempt to find recipes and make ubtan for the author to use. From the author's description, we can understand that the author's mother cared for the author's appearance.

QUESTION: 25

Read the passage and answer the following question.

As a young adult, I was not immune to these social upheavals. With my tendency to stand up for the underdog, my internal volcano seemed to bubble up at the slightest hint of injustice. At St John's, I was known to be an unapologetic leftist who stood for values. I was just over sixteen years old, the youngest in my class. I do understand that sixteen years was very young to get into medical college. Fortunately, I was able to get several double promotions in my primary and middle school due to new educational rules. I used to sit in the second bench and was very nervous, since it was my first year at university. All the other students in my class were adults, street-smart and hostel boarders.
One incident that transpired among the hallowed portals of St John's changed things considerably. The physics teacher had a bit of an accent and used to pronounce 'cc' (cubic centimetres) as 'sheeshee'. One day, unable to control myself, I ended up covering my mouth and laughing. Face contorted with anger, the lecturer strode up to me.
'Take your books and get out!'
I sat there in silence, without moving.
'I said take your books and get out,' he repeated.
Finally I found my voice. 'I've done nothing wrong. When I'm not guilty, I won't go out.'
Anger turning to mortification, the lecturer blurted, 'I will report you to the Father, who is the head of the department of physics!'
'Please do.' I felt strangely calm.
I was reported to the head of the department and summoned by the Father. This was a matter of principle for me. I was ready to stand up for it.
I told the principal, 'Father, I will not leave the classroom when I've done nothing wrong.'
I was able to hold my ground, and no action was taken against me. My older classmates began to treat me with respect after this incident. It crystallized for me the importance of standing like a rock by one's principles. Coupled with my internal volcano of tenacity and my hunger for challenges, this gave my emerging personality multiple dimensions. I would no longer stand with my head bowed when injustice slapped me in the face. I would not take indignities lying down. I would not shy away from taking someone on when they threw down the gauntlet to me. In the coming years, it would be one or more of this triad of personality traits that would come to the fore when it came to life decisions or whenever I found myself at a crossroads.

Q. Which of the following, according to the passage, can be inferred about the author?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. This is apparent throughout the passage in which the author states that he stood up for the underdog in the first paragraph and is apparent in the description of the author's encounter with his teacher. Moreover, it is also apparent in the final paragraph which states; 'It crystallized for me the importance of standing like a rock by one's principles.'

QUESTION: 26

Read the passage and answer the following question.

As a young adult, I was not immune to these social upheavals. With my tendency to stand up for the underdog, my internal volcano seemed to bubble up at the slightest hint of injustice. At St John's, I was known to be an unapologetic leftist who stood for values. I was just over sixteen years old, the youngest in my class. I do understand that sixteen years was very young to get into medical college. Fortunately, I was able to get several double promotions in my primary and middle school due to new educational rules. I used to sit in the second bench and was very nervous, since it was my first year at university. All the other students in my class were adults, street-smart and hostel boarders.
One incident that transpired among the hallowed portals of St John's changed things considerably. The physics teacher had a bit of an accent and used to pronounce 'cc' (cubic centimetres) as 'sheeshee'. One day, unable to control myself, I ended up covering my mouth and laughing. Face contorted with anger, the lecturer strode up to me.
'Take your books and get out!'
I sat there in silence, without moving.
'I said take your books and get out,' he repeated.
Finally I found my voice. 'I've done nothing wrong. When I'm not guilty, I won't go out.'
Anger turning to mortification, the lecturer blurted, 'I will report you to the Father, who is the head of the department of physics!'
'Please do.' I felt strangely calm.
I was reported to the head of the department and summoned by the Father. This was a matter of principle for me. I was ready to stand up for it.
I told the principal, 'Father, I will not leave the classroom when I've done nothing wrong.'
I was able to hold my ground, and no action was taken against me. My older classmates began to treat me with respect after this incident. It crystallized for me the importance of standing like a rock by one's principles. Coupled with my internal volcano of tenacity and my hunger for challenges, this gave my emerging personality multiple dimensions. I would no longer stand with my head bowed when injustice slapped me in the face. I would not take indignities lying down. I would not shy away from taking someone on when they threw down the gauntlet to me. In the coming years, it would be one or more of this triad of personality traits that would come to the fore when it came to life decisions or whenever I found myself at a crossroads.

Q. Why did the author feel nervous in the class during his first year at the university?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 1. This is apparent from the first paragraph: 'All the other students in my class were adults, street-smart and hostel boarders.' Option 2 is implied, but this does not explain why he was nervous, so this cannot be correct. There is nothing in the passage to support options 3 and 4, so these also are incorrect.

QUESTION: 27

Read the passage and answer the following question.

As a young adult, I was not immune to these social upheavals. With my tendency to stand up for the underdog, my internal volcano seemed to bubble up at the slightest hint of injustice. At St John's, I was known to be an unapologetic leftist who stood for values. I was just over sixteen years old, the youngest in my class. I do understand that sixteen years was very young to get into medical college. Fortunately, I was able to get several double promotions in my primary and middle school due to new educational rules. I used to sit in the second bench and was very nervous, since it was my first year at university. All the other students in my class were adults, street-smart and hostel boarders.
One incident that transpired among the hallowed portals of St John's changed things considerably. The physics teacher had a bit of an accent and used to pronounce 'cc' (cubic centimetres) as 'sheeshee'. One day, unable to control myself, I ended up covering my mouth and laughing. Face contorted with anger, the lecturer strode up to me.
'Take your books and get out!'
I sat there in silence, without moving.
'I said take your books and get out,' he repeated.
Finally I found my voice. 'I've done nothing wrong. When I'm not guilty, I won't go out.'
Anger turning to mortification, the lecturer blurted, 'I will report you to the Father, who is the head of the department of physics!'
'Please do.' I felt strangely calm.
I was reported to the head of the department and summoned by the Father. This was a matter of principle for me. I was ready to stand up for it.
I told the principal, 'Father, I will not leave the classroom when I've done nothing wrong.'
I was able to hold my ground, and no action was taken against me. My older classmates began to treat me with respect after this incident. It crystallized for me the importance of standing like a rock by one's principles. Coupled with my internal volcano of tenacity and my hunger for challenges, this gave my emerging personality multiple dimensions. I would no longer stand with my head bowed when injustice slapped me in the face. I would not take indignities lying down. I would not shy away from taking someone on when they threw down the gauntlet to me. In the coming years, it would be one or more of this triad of personality traits that would come to the fore when it came to life decisions or whenever I found myself at a crossroads.

Q. What does the word 'tenacity' as used in the passage mean?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. 'Tenacity' means persistence and determination that the author described as one of his qualities that came to him through his exchange with his Physics teacher.

QUESTION: 28

Read the passage and answer the following question.

As a young adult, I was not immune to these social upheavals. With my tendency to stand up for the underdog, my internal volcano seemed to bubble up at the slightest hint of injustice. At St John's, I was known to be an unapologetic leftist who stood for values. I was just over sixteen years old, the youngest in my class. I do understand that sixteen years was very young to get into medical college. Fortunately, I was able to get several double promotions in my primary and middle school due to new educational rules. I used to sit in the second bench and was very nervous, since it was my first year at university. All the other students in my class were adults, street-smart and hostel boarders.
One incident that transpired among the hallowed portals of St John's changed things considerably. The physics teacher had a bit of an accent and used to pronounce 'cc' (cubic centimetres) as 'sheeshee'. One day, unable to control myself, I ended up covering my mouth and laughing. Face contorted with anger, the lecturer strode up to me.
'Take your books and get out!'
I sat there in silence, without moving.
'I said take your books and get out,' he repeated.
Finally I found my voice. 'I've done nothing wrong. When I'm not guilty, I won't go out.'
Anger turning to mortification, the lecturer blurted, 'I will report you to the Father, who is the head of the department of physics!'
'Please do.' I felt strangely calm.
I was reported to the head of the department and summoned by the Father. This was a matter of principle for me. I was ready to stand up for it.
I told the principal, 'Father, I will not leave the classroom when I've done nothing wrong.'
I was able to hold my ground, and no action was taken against me. My older classmates began to treat me with respect after this incident. It crystallized for me the importance of standing like a rock by one's principles. Coupled with my internal volcano of tenacity and my hunger for challenges, this gave my emerging personality multiple dimensions. I would no longer stand with my head bowed when injustice slapped me in the face. I would not take indignities lying down. I would not shy away from taking someone on when they threw down the gauntlet to me. In the coming years, it would be one or more of this triad of personality traits that would come to the fore when it came to life decisions or whenever I found myself at a crossroads.

Q. Which of the following can be inferred about the lecturer?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. This is suggested in the following dialogue; 'Finally I found my voice. 'I've done nothing wrong. When I'm not guilty, I won't go out.'; It can be inferred that the lecturer viewed the author's refusal to leave as an attempt to openly defy him.
Anger turning to mortification, the lecturer blurted, 'I will report you to the Father, who is the head of the department of physics!'' There is nothing to support the options 1, 3 and 4 in the passage, so these cannot be correct.

QUESTION: 29

Read the passage and answer the following question.

As a young adult, I was not immune to these social upheavals. With my tendency to stand up for the underdog, my internal volcano seemed to bubble up at the slightest hint of injustice. At St John's, I was known to be an unapologetic leftist who stood for values. I was just over sixteen years old, the youngest in my class. I do understand that sixteen years was very young to get into medical college. Fortunately, I was able to get several double promotions in my primary and middle school due to new educational rules. I used to sit in the second bench and was very nervous, since it was my first year at university. All the other students in my class were adults, street-smart and hostel boarders.
One incident that transpired among the hallowed portals of St John's changed things considerably. The physics teacher had a bit of an accent and used to pronounce 'cc' (cubic centimetres) as 'sheeshee'. One day, unable to control myself, I ended up covering my mouth and laughing. Face contorted with anger, the lecturer strode up to me.
'Take your books and get out!'
I sat there in silence, without moving.
'I said take your books and get out,' he repeated.
Finally I found my voice. 'I've done nothing wrong. When I'm not guilty, I won't go out.'
Anger turning to mortification, the lecturer blurted, 'I will report you to the Father, who is the head of the department of physics!'
'Please do.' I felt strangely calm.
I was reported to the head of the department and summoned by the Father. This was a matter of principle for me. I was ready to stand up for it.
I told the principal, 'Father, I will not leave the classroom when I've done nothing wrong.'
I was able to hold my ground, and no action was taken against me. My older classmates began to treat me with respect after this incident. It crystallized for me the importance of standing like a rock by one's principles. Coupled with my internal volcano of tenacity and my hunger for challenges, this gave my emerging personality multiple dimensions. I would no longer stand with my head bowed when injustice slapped me in the face. I would not take indignities lying down. I would not shy away from taking someone on when they threw down the gauntlet to me. In the coming years, it would be one or more of this triad of personality traits that would come to the fore when it came to life decisions or whenever I found myself at a crossroads.

Q. Based on the information set out in the passage, which of the following is most accurate?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 4. The author states this in the final paragraph: "In the coming years, it would be one or more of this triad of personality traits that would come to the fore when it came to life decisions or whenever I found myself at a crossroads."

QUESTION: 30

Read the passage and answer the question that follows.

In our current age, finding an accurate map of the Ganga River system in India is almost as difficult as in Columbus's time. In 2017, the Survey of India started operating according to a new law. Any maps of India published in India must first be sent there. Often, the maps languish in their office for several months. Nine out of ten times, they send the map back with corrections and changes.
Often, they look like the kind of simplistic maps used when we were schoolchildren. Showing Tibet is a no-no, as is showing the borders. Violators risk forty-five days in jail and a fine. Children are growing up with distorted maps of the country. This is an incredible paradox at a time when Google Maps offers such exquisite detail.
Traditionally, Gangaji was the one who did not honour boundaries – she was the place where bodies disappeared, the place where a rigidly bound society slipped off its boundaries. Today we violate her boundaries, half-disappeared and sewage-choked, strapped up with barrages and dams. In the old days, sages would learn how Gangaji changed during the monsoon season. Now, the river's personality is determined more by the opening and shutting of the barrage gates.
Time and water are both flowing faster. For millennia, most of the rain in the subcontinent has fallen within one hundred stormy hours during the three-month monsoon season in northern India. With each passing year, more rain falls within a shorter time span. According to the World Economic Forum, out of sixty-seven surveyed countries, India is the most vulnerable to climate change.
As peak rainfall becomes more intense, landslides – already an existential threat to thousands of mountain villages – will become more common. The monsoon crops, chief among them rice, will be alternately drowned and starved, and the summer crops will die if more irrigation cannot be drawn from the limited water table. But a lot of solutions exist.
Through this troubled landscape winds the mighty river, now glimmering, now dull, now out of sight. Each day, with our excreta, our disavowal of balance and responsibility and our acceptance of the legacy of industrialisation, we are writing a dark chapter in the biography of this ancient goddess, the eternal life force, the Ganga River.

Q. Which of the following is most similar to the 'incredible paradox' that the author discusses in the given passage?

Solution:

The author presents a paradox in the passage about what children are taught at school. A paradox is something that starts with something apparently true and that leads to unacceptable conclusions. The passage describes that children are exposed to distorted maps at school but if students find the map online that offers a lot of detail, what they have read about in school would be proved to be untrue. A similar paradox is presented in option 2 with a similar situation about news. Other options are not parallel to what is presented in the passage.

QUESTION: 31

Read the passage and answer the question that follows.

In our current age, finding an accurate map of the Ganga River system in India is almost as difficult as in Columbus's time. In 2017, the Survey of India started operating according to a new law. Any maps of India published in India must first be sent there. Often, the maps languish in their office for several months. Nine out of ten times, they send the map back with corrections and changes.
Often, they look like the kind of simplistic maps used when we were schoolchildren. Showing Tibet is a no-no, as is showing the borders. Violators risk forty-five days in jail and a fine. Children are growing up with distorted maps of the country. This is an incredible paradox at a time when Google Maps offers such exquisite detail.
Traditionally, Gangaji was the one who did not honour boundaries – she was the place where bodies disappeared, the place where a rigidly bound society slipped off its boundaries. Today we violate her boundaries, half-disappeared and sewage-choked, strapped up with barrages and dams. In the old days, sages would learn how Gangaji changed during the monsoon season. Now, the river's personality is determined more by the opening and shutting of the barrage gates.
Time and water are both flowing faster. For millennia, most of the rain in the subcontinent has fallen within one hundred stormy hours during the three-month monsoon season in northern India. With each passing year, more rain falls within a shorter time span. According to the World Economic Forum, out of sixty-seven surveyed countries, India is the most vulnerable to climate change.
As peak rainfall becomes more intense, landslides – already an existential threat to thousands of mountain villages – will become more common. The monsoon crops, chief among them rice, will be alternately drowned and starved, and the summer crops will die if more irrigation cannot be drawn from the limited water table. But a lot of solutions exist.
Through this troubled landscape winds the mighty river, now glimmering, now dull, now out of sight. Each day, with our excreta, our disavowal of balance and responsibility and our acceptance of the legacy of industrialisation, we are writing a dark chapter in the biography of this ancient goddess, the eternal life force, the Ganga River.

Q. Based on the information in the given passage, which of the following can we ascribe to the river Ganga?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 4. These are described in the passage in these lines: "Traditionally, Gangaji was the one who did not honour boundaries – she was the place where bodies disappeared, the place where a rigidly bound society slipped off its boundaries. Today we violate her boundaries, half-disappeared and sewage-choked, strapped up with barrages and dams."

QUESTION: 32

Read the passage and answer the question that follows.

In our current age, finding an accurate map of the Ganga River system in India is almost as difficult as in Columbus's time. In 2017, the Survey of India started operating according to a new law. Any maps of India published in India must first be sent there. Often, the maps languish in their office for several months. Nine out of ten times, they send the map back with corrections and changes.
Often, they look like the kind of simplistic maps used when we were schoolchildren. Showing Tibet is a no-no, as is showing the borders. Violators risk forty-five days in jail and a fine. Children are growing up with distorted maps of the country. This is an incredible paradox at a time when Google Maps offers such exquisite detail.
Traditionally, Gangaji was the one who did not honour boundaries – she was the place where bodies disappeared, the place where a rigidly bound society slipped off its boundaries. Today we violate her boundaries, half-disappeared and sewage-choked, strapped up with barrages and dams. In the old days, sages would learn how Gangaji changed during the monsoon season. Now, the river's personality is determined more by the opening and shutting of the barrage gates.
Time and water are both flowing faster. For millennia, most of the rain in the subcontinent has fallen within one hundred stormy hours during the three-month monsoon season in northern India. With each passing year, more rain falls within a shorter time span. According to the World Economic Forum, out of sixty-seven surveyed countries, India is the most vulnerable to climate change.
As peak rainfall becomes more intense, landslides – already an existential threat to thousands of mountain villages – will become more common. The monsoon crops, chief among them rice, will be alternately drowned and starved, and the summer crops will die if more irrigation cannot be drawn from the limited water table. But a lot of solutions exist.
Through this troubled landscape winds the mighty river, now glimmering, now dull, now out of sight. Each day, with our excreta, our disavowal of balance and responsibility and our acceptance of the legacy of industrialisation, we are writing a dark chapter in the biography of this ancient goddess, the eternal life force, the Ganga River.

Q. What does the phrase 'strapped up' as used in the passage mean?

Solution:

The correct answer is option 2. The author is using the phrase 'strapped up' to suggest that the river is constrained to flow in a predetermined manner as suggested by 'barrages and dams'. Given this meaning, the options 1, 3 and 4 cannot be correct.

QUESTION: 33

Read the passage given below and mark the correct option.

At least two billion new polymer £20 notes will replace the paper £20 note featuring economist Adam Smith. It has been hailed by the {Y} as its most secure banknote yet and includes two see-through windows and a two colour foil to help thwart counterfeiters. The {Y} expects half of all ATMs across the country to be dispensing polymer £20 banknotes in just two weeks' time.
The son of a barber and a wig maker, {X}(1775-1851) became renowned as one of the great masters of painting. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1790, aged just 15. {X} produced more than 550 oil paintings, 2,000 watercolours and 30,000 sketches and drawings. {X} became known as "the painter of light" and had a keen interest in depicting nature, such as extreme weather conditions and the violent power of the sea.
Laid end to end, two billion polymer £20 notes would stretch around the world almost seven times and weigh the equivalent of more than 141 double decker buses. The note will join the Sir Winston Churchill £5 and the Jane Austen £10 in the {Y} first series of polymer notes. A new polymer £50 featuring Bletchley Park code breaker Alan Turing will be issued next year. The Royal National Institute of Blind People (RNIB) has been working with the {Y} to make money accessible for people with sight loss. The new note has tactile markings on it with three separate clusters of dots along the short edge to differentiate it from the £10 note, which has two clusters of dots. It is larger than both the £10 and £5 notes. The {Y} has said that polymer notes last longer than paper notes and remain in better condition. But, a previous freedom of information request by the PA news agency found that nearly 50 million plastic £5 and £10 notes have had to be replaced since they were launched by the {Y} due to wear and damage.

Q. In the above passage, who among the following has been redacted with {X}?

Solution:

The son of a barber and a wig maker, Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775 - 1851) became renowned as one of the great masters of painting.
Turner first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1790, aged just 15.
Turner produced more than 550 oil paintings, 2,000 watercolours and 30,000 sketches and drawings.
Turner became known as the painter of light and had a keen interest in depicting nature, such as extreme weather conditions and the violent power of the sea.
Joseph Mallord William Turner RA, known contemporarily as William Turner, was an English Romantic painter, print maker and water colourist.

QUESTION: 34

Read the passage given below and mark the correct option.

At least two billion new polymer £20 notes will replace the paper £20 note featuring economist Adam Smith. It has been hailed by the {Y} as its most secure banknote yet and includes two see-through windows and a two colour foil to help thwart counterfeiters. The {Y} expects half of all ATMs across the country to be dispensing polymer £20 banknotes in just two weeks' time.
The son of a barber and a wig maker, {X}(1775-1851) became renowned as one of the great masters of painting. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1790, aged just 15. {X} produced more than 550 oil paintings, 2,000 watercolours and 30,000 sketches and drawings. {X} became known as "the painter of light" and had a keen interest in depicting nature, such as extreme weather conditions and the violent power of the sea.
Laid end to end, two billion polymer £20 notes would stretch around the world almost seven times and weigh the equivalent of more than 141 double decker buses. The note will join the Sir Winston Churchill £5 and the Jane Austen £10 in the {Y} first series of polymer notes. A new polymer £50 featuring Bletchley Park code breaker Alan Turing will be issued next year. The Royal National Institute of Blind People (RNIB) has been working with the {Y} to make money accessible for people with sight loss. The new note has tactile markings on it with three separate clusters of dots along the short edge to differentiate it from the £10 note, which has two clusters of dots. It is larger than both the £10 and £5 notes. The {Y} has said that polymer notes last longer than paper notes and remain in better condition. But, a previous freedom of information request by the PA news agency found that nearly 50 million plastic £5 and £10 notes have had to be replaced since they were launched by the {Y} due to wear and damage.

Q. How many languages appear on the Indian rupee note?

Solution:

Currently, there are 22 scheduled languages in India. Out of these 22 languages, that have been accorded official language status as per the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India, only 16 languages have found a place on the Indian currency notes. The other additional official language to have found a place on the currency notes is English. So, total 17 languages.

QUESTION: 35

Read the passage given below and mark the correct option.

At least two billion new polymer £20 notes will replace the paper £20 note featuring economist Adam Smith. It has been hailed by the {Y} as its most secure banknote yet and includes two see-through windows and a two colour foil to help thwart counterfeiters. The {Y} expects half of all ATMs across the country to be dispensing polymer £20 banknotes in just two weeks' time.
The son of a barber and a wig maker, {X}(1775-1851) became renowned as one of the great masters of painting. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1790, aged just 15. {X} produced more than 550 oil paintings, 2,000 watercolours and 30,000 sketches and drawings. {X} became known as "the painter of light" and had a keen interest in depicting nature, such as extreme weather conditions and the violent power of the sea.
Laid end to end, two billion polymer £20 notes would stretch around the world almost seven times and weigh the equivalent of more than 141 double decker buses. The note will join the Sir Winston Churchill £5 and the Jane Austen £10 in the {Y} first series of polymer notes. A new polymer £50 featuring Bletchley Park code breaker Alan Turing will be issued next year. The Royal National Institute of Blind People (RNIB) has been working with the {Y} to make money accessible for people with sight loss. The new note has tactile markings on it with three separate clusters of dots along the short edge to differentiate it from the £10 note, which has two clusters of dots. It is larger than both the £10 and £5 notes. The {Y} has said that polymer notes last longer than paper notes and remain in better condition. But, a previous freedom of information request by the PA news agency found that nearly 50 million plastic £5 and £10 notes have had to be replaced since they were launched by the {Y} due to wear and damage.

Q. What has been redacted with {Y}?

Solution:

New polymer £20 notes will replace the paper £20 note featuring economist Adam Smith, has been hailed by the Bank of England as its most secure banknote yet and includes two see-through windows and a two colour foil to help thwart counterfeiters. The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based. It was established in 1694 to act as the English Government's banker and is still one of the bankers for the Government of the United Kingdom. It is the world's eighth-oldest bank.

QUESTION: 36

Read the passage given below and mark the correct option.

At least two billion new polymer £20 notes will replace the paper £20 note featuring economist Adam Smith. It has been hailed by the {Y} as its most secure banknote yet and includes two see-through windows and a two colour foil to help thwart counterfeiters. The {Y} expects half of all ATMs across the country to be dispensing polymer £20 banknotes in just two weeks' time.
The son of a barber and a wig maker, {X}(1775-1851) became renowned as one of the great masters of painting. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1790, aged just 15. {X} produced more than 550 oil paintings, 2,000 watercolours and 30,000 sketches and drawings. {X} became known as "the painter of light" and had a keen interest in depicting nature, such as extreme weather conditions and the violent power of the sea.
Laid end to end, two billion polymer £20 notes would stretch around the world almost seven times and weigh the equivalent of more than 141 double decker buses. The note will join the Sir Winston Churchill £5 and the Jane Austen £10 in the {Y} first series of polymer notes. A new polymer £50 featuring Bletchley Park code breaker Alan Turing will be issued next year. The Royal National Institute of Blind People (RNIB) has been working with the {Y} to make money accessible for people with sight loss. The new note has tactile markings on it with three separate clusters of dots along the short edge to differentiate it from the £10 note, which has two clusters of dots. It is larger than both the £10 and £5 notes. The {Y} has said that polymer notes last longer than paper notes and remain in better condition. But, a previous freedom of information request by the PA news agency found that nearly 50 million plastic £5 and £10 notes have had to be replaced since they were launched by the {Y} due to wear and damage.

Q. In India, the coins are minted through SPMCIL mints located in four cities. Which of the following cities is not one of them?

Solution:

In India, coins are minted through SPMCIL mints. The India Government Mint operates four mints in the country for the production of coins.

  • Mumbai, Maharashtra
  • Kolkata, West Bengal
  • Hyderabad, Telangana
  • Noida, Uttar Pradesh

Under the Coinage Act, 1906, the Government of India is charged with the production and supply of coins to the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).

QUESTION: 37

Read the passage given below and mark the correct option.

At least two billion new polymer £20 notes will replace the paper £20 note featuring economist Adam Smith. It has been hailed by the {Y} as its most secure banknote yet and includes two see-through windows and a two colour foil to help thwart counterfeiters. The {Y} expects half of all ATMs across the country to be dispensing polymer £20 banknotes in just two weeks' time.
The son of a barber and a wig maker, {X}(1775-1851) became renowned as one of the great masters of painting. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1790, aged just 15. {X} produced more than 550 oil paintings, 2,000 watercolours and 30,000 sketches and drawings. {X} became known as "the painter of light" and had a keen interest in depicting nature, such as extreme weather conditions and the violent power of the sea.
Laid end to end, two billion polymer £20 notes would stretch around the world almost seven times and weigh the equivalent of more than 141 double decker buses. The note will join the Sir Winston Churchill £5 and the Jane Austen £10 in the {Y} first series of polymer notes. A new polymer £50 featuring Bletchley Park code breaker Alan Turing will be issued next year. The Royal National Institute of Blind People (RNIB) has been working with the {Y} to make money accessible for people with sight loss. The new note has tactile markings on it with three separate clusters of dots along the short edge to differentiate it from the £10 note, which has two clusters of dots. It is larger than both the £10 and £5 notes. The {Y} has said that polymer notes last longer than paper notes and remain in better condition. But, a previous freedom of information request by the PA news agency found that nearly 50 million plastic £5 and £10 notes have had to be replaced since they were launched by the {Y} due to wear and damage.

Q. The Reserve Bank of India has issued ₹10 denomination bank notes in the Mahatma Gandhi (new) Series with the motif of which of the following temples​?

Solution:

The Reserve Bank of India has issued ₹10 denomination bank notes in the Mahatma Gandhi (new) Series with the motif of Sun Temple, Konark on the reverse, depicting the country's cultural heritage. The base colour of the note is chocolate brown. Dimensions of the bank note are 123 mm × 63 mm.

QUESTION: 38

Read the passage given below and mark the correct option.

At least two billion new polymer £20 notes will replace the paper £20 note featuring economist Adam Smith. It has been hailed by the {Y} as its most secure banknote yet and includes two see-through windows and a two colour foil to help thwart counterfeiters. The {Y} expects half of all ATMs across the country to be dispensing polymer £20 banknotes in just two weeks' time.
The son of a barber and a wig maker, {X}(1775-1851) became renowned as one of the great masters of painting. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1790, aged just 15. {X} produced more than 550 oil paintings, 2,000 watercolours and 30,000 sketches and drawings. {X} became known as "the painter of light" and had a keen interest in depicting nature, such as extreme weather conditions and the violent power of the sea.
Laid end to end, two billion polymer £20 notes would stretch around the world almost seven times and weigh the equivalent of more than 141 double decker buses. The note will join the Sir Winston Churchill £5 and the Jane Austen £10 in the {Y} first series of polymer notes. A new polymer £50 featuring Bletchley Park code breaker Alan Turing will be issued next year. The Royal National Institute of Blind People (RNIB) has been working with the {Y} to make money accessible for people with sight loss. The new note has tactile markings on it with three separate clusters of dots along the short edge to differentiate it from the £10 note, which has two clusters of dots. It is larger than both the £10 and £5 notes. The {Y} has said that polymer notes last longer than paper notes and remain in better condition. But, a previous freedom of information request by the PA news agency found that nearly 50 million plastic £5 and £10 notes have had to be replaced since they were launched by the {Y} due to wear and damage.

Q. Reserve Bank of India has sole right to issue currency notes of various denominations, except one rupee notes. Name the Governor of the Reserve Bank of India as in 2020.

Solution:

Shaktikanta Das (born 26 February, 1957) is an Indian (retired) 1980 batch Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer of Tamil Nadu cadre. As in 2020, he is the 25th Governor of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). He was earlier a member of the Fifteenth Finance Commission and India's Sherpa to the G20.

QUESTION: 39

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

{X}, in collaboration with Niti Aayog's Atal Innovation Mission (AIM), launched an artificial intelligence (AI) based module for students of Indian schools.
The AI-based module will be implemented across 5,000 Atal Tinkering Labs (ATL), empowering 2.5 million students. The module is likely to be introduced to ATL students on 27th February, 2020.
The module contains activities, videos and experiments that enable students to work through and learn the various concepts of AI.
Niti Aayog CEO {Y} said the AI module was critical since it was targeted at young children. "This is path breaking, it combines playing and academics and our job is to make things very interesting. We want to make artificial intelligence a great fun, so that children can enjoy it, they can evolve and learn and take India forward", said {Y}.
"This is the first ever industry government academia initiative on such a scale to keep the school students abreast of latest technologies", said Mission Director Atal Innovation Mission, Niti Aayog {Z}.
It has been estimated that by 2030, the global AI market is likely to be in the range of $15-15.5 trillion, out of which India's share will be close to $1 trillion.
Thus, AI has become a strategic lever for economic growth across nations and will continue to be one of the most crucial technologies of the future. Learning AI will create the right foundations for students to onboard future technologies and prepare them fully for the digital and AI era.
The partnership is a crucial step in building citizens and a workforce that is aware of AI and can work with AI. In this curriculum, students will get benefit from technologies of some of the partner companies including Microsoft, Adobe, SAP Labs, Wipro and {X} among others.
An AI Step-up Module is also under development that will take the curriculum to the next level.
Atal Innovation Mission housed at NITI Aayog is the Government of India's flagship initiative to promote a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship. At the school level, AIM is establishing ATLs in all districts across India.

Q. Which of the following institutions/associations has been redacted with {X}?

Solution:

The National Association of Software and Services Companies is a trade association of Indian Information Technology and Business Process Outsourcing industry. Established in 1988, NASSCOM is a non-profit organisation. The National Association of Software and Services Companies (Nasscom), in collaboration with Niti Aayog's Atal Innovation Mission (AIM), launched an artificial intelligence (AI) based module for students of Indian schools.

QUESTION: 40

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

{X}, in collaboration with Niti Aayog's Atal Innovation Mission (AIM), launched an artificial intelligence (AI) based module for students of Indian schools.
The AI-based module will be implemented across 5,000 Atal Tinkering Labs (ATL), empowering 2.5 million students. The module is likely to be introduced to ATL students on 27th February, 2020.
The module contains activities, videos and experiments that enable students to work through and learn the various concepts of AI.
Niti Aayog CEO {Y} said the AI module was critical since it was targeted at young children. "This is path breaking, it combines playing and academics and our job is to make things very interesting. We want to make artificial intelligence a great fun, so that children can enjoy it, they can evolve and learn and take India forward", said {Y}.
"This is the first ever industry government academia initiative on such a scale to keep the school students abreast of latest technologies", said Mission Director Atal Innovation Mission, Niti Aayog {Z}.
It has been estimated that by 2030, the global AI market is likely to be in the range of $15-15.5 trillion, out of which India's share will be close to $1 trillion.
Thus, AI has become a strategic lever for economic growth across nations and will continue to be one of the most crucial technologies of the future. Learning AI will create the right foundations for students to onboard future technologies and prepare them fully for the digital and AI era.
The partnership is a crucial step in building citizens and a workforce that is aware of AI and can work with AI. In this curriculum, students will get benefit from technologies of some of the partner companies including Microsoft, Adobe, SAP Labs, Wipro and {X} among others.
An AI Step-up Module is also under development that will take the curriculum to the next level.
Atal Innovation Mission housed at NITI Aayog is the Government of India's flagship initiative to promote a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship. At the school level, AIM is establishing ATLs in all districts across India.

Q. Who among the following has been redacted with {Y}?

Solution:

Niti Aayog CEO Amitabh Kant said the AI module was critical since it was targeted at young children. Amitabh Kant is an IAS officer of the 1980 batch. As of June 2019, he is the CEO of NITI Aayog. NITI is a government institution for catalysing economic development.

QUESTION: 41

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

{X}, in collaboration with Niti Aayog's Atal Innovation Mission (AIM), launched an artificial intelligence (AI) based module for students of Indian schools.
The AI-based module will be implemented across 5,000 Atal Tinkering Labs (ATL), empowering 2.5 million students. The module is likely to be introduced to ATL students on 27th February, 2020.
The module contains activities, videos and experiments that enable students to work through and learn the various concepts of AI.
Niti Aayog CEO {Y} said the AI module was critical since it was targeted at young children. "This is path breaking, it combines playing and academics and our job is to make things very interesting. We want to make artificial intelligence a great fun, so that children can enjoy it, they can evolve and learn and take India forward", said {Y}.
"This is the first ever industry government academia initiative on such a scale to keep the school students abreast of latest technologies", said Mission Director Atal Innovation Mission, Niti Aayog {Z}.
It has been estimated that by 2030, the global AI market is likely to be in the range of $15-15.5 trillion, out of which India's share will be close to $1 trillion.
Thus, AI has become a strategic lever for economic growth across nations and will continue to be one of the most crucial technologies of the future. Learning AI will create the right foundations for students to onboard future technologies and prepare them fully for the digital and AI era.
The partnership is a crucial step in building citizens and a workforce that is aware of AI and can work with AI. In this curriculum, students will get benefit from technologies of some of the partner companies including Microsoft, Adobe, SAP Labs, Wipro and {X} among others.
An AI Step-up Module is also under development that will take the curriculum to the next level.
Atal Innovation Mission housed at NITI Aayog is the Government of India's flagship initiative to promote a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship. At the school level, AIM is establishing ATLs in all districts across India.

Q. Who among the following has been redacted with {Z}?

Solution:

"This is the first ever industry government academia initiative on such a scale to keep the school students abreast of latest technologies," said Mission Director Atal Innovation Mission, NITI Aayog R. Ramanan.
Ramanan Ramanathan, Mission Director, AIM announced the selection of additional 1500 schools for establishment of Atal Tinkering Labs across India.

QUESTION: 42

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

{X}, in collaboration with Niti Aayog's Atal Innovation Mission (AIM), launched an artificial intelligence (AI) based module for students of Indian schools.
The AI-based module will be implemented across 5,000 Atal Tinkering Labs (ATL), empowering 2.5 million students. The module is likely to be introduced to ATL students on 27th February, 2020.
The module contains activities, videos and experiments that enable students to work through and learn the various concepts of AI.
Niti Aayog CEO {Y} said the AI module was critical since it was targeted at young children. "This is path breaking, it combines playing and academics and our job is to make things very interesting. We want to make artificial intelligence a great fun, so that children can enjoy it, they can evolve and learn and take India forward", said {Y}.
"This is the first ever industry government academia initiative on such a scale to keep the school students abreast of latest technologies", said Mission Director Atal Innovation Mission, Niti Aayog {Z}.
It has been estimated that by 2030, the global AI market is likely to be in the range of $15-15.5 trillion, out of which India's share will be close to $1 trillion.
Thus, AI has become a strategic lever for economic growth across nations and will continue to be one of the most crucial technologies of the future. Learning AI will create the right foundations for students to onboard future technologies and prepare them fully for the digital and AI era.
The partnership is a crucial step in building citizens and a workforce that is aware of AI and can work with AI. In this curriculum, students will get benefit from technologies of some of the partner companies including Microsoft, Adobe, SAP Labs, Wipro and {X} among others.
An AI Step-up Module is also under development that will take the curriculum to the next level.
Atal Innovation Mission housed at NITI Aayog is the Government of India's flagship initiative to promote a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship. At the school level, AIM is establishing ATLs in all districts across India.

Q. What is full form of NITI in NITI Aayog?

Solution:

The NITI Aayog (Hindi for Policy Commission) (abbreviation for National Institution for Transforming India) is a policy think tank of the Government of India, established with the aim to achieve sustainable development goals with cooperative federalism by fostering the involvement of State Governments of India in the economic policy-making process using a bottom-up approach.

QUESTION: 43

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

{X}, in collaboration with Niti Aayog's Atal Innovation Mission (AIM), launched an artificial intelligence (AI) based module for students of Indian schools.
The AI-based module will be implemented across 5,000 Atal Tinkering Labs (ATL), empowering 2.5 million students. The module is likely to be introduced to ATL students on 27th February, 2020.
The module contains activities, videos and experiments that enable students to work through and learn the various concepts of AI.
Niti Aayog CEO {Y} said the AI module was critical since it was targeted at young children. "This is path breaking, it combines playing and academics and our job is to make things very interesting. We want to make artificial intelligence a great fun, so that children can enjoy it, they can evolve and learn and take India forward", said {Y}.
"This is the first ever industry government academia initiative on such a scale to keep the school students abreast of latest technologies", said Mission Director Atal Innovation Mission, Niti Aayog {Z}.
It has been estimated that by 2030, the global AI market is likely to be in the range of $15-15.5 trillion, out of which India's share will be close to $1 trillion.
Thus, AI has become a strategic lever for economic growth across nations and will continue to be one of the most crucial technologies of the future. Learning AI will create the right foundations for students to onboard future technologies and prepare them fully for the digital and AI era.
The partnership is a crucial step in building citizens and a workforce that is aware of AI and can work with AI. In this curriculum, students will get benefit from technologies of some of the partner companies including Microsoft, Adobe, SAP Labs, Wipro and {X} among others.
An AI Step-up Module is also under development that will take the curriculum to the next level.
Atal Innovation Mission housed at NITI Aayog is the Government of India's flagship initiative to promote a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship. At the school level, AIM is establishing ATLs in all districts across India.

Q. Which country in 2019 announced to become the first country to deploy artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) in the tax assessment process?

Solution:

India announced in 2019 to become the first country to adopt and deploy artificial intelligence and machine learning in the faceless tax assessment process. Nirmala Sitharaman, the Union Finance Minister, made the announcement.

QUESTION: 44

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

{X}, in collaboration with Niti Aayog's Atal Innovation Mission (AIM), launched an artificial intelligence (AI) based module for students of Indian schools.
The AI-based module will be implemented across 5,000 Atal Tinkering Labs (ATL), empowering 2.5 million students. The module is likely to be introduced to ATL students on 27th February, 2020.
The module contains activities, videos and experiments that enable students to work through and learn the various concepts of AI.
Niti Aayog CEO {Y} said the AI module was critical since it was targeted at young children. "This is path breaking, it combines playing and academics and our job is to make things very interesting. We want to make artificial intelligence a great fun, so that children can enjoy it, they can evolve and learn and take India forward", said {Y}.
"This is the first ever industry government academia initiative on such a scale to keep the school students abreast of latest technologies", said Mission Director Atal Innovation Mission, Niti Aayog {Z}.
It has been estimated that by 2030, the global AI market is likely to be in the range of $15-15.5 trillion, out of which India's share will be close to $1 trillion.
Thus, AI has become a strategic lever for economic growth across nations and will continue to be one of the most crucial technologies of the future. Learning AI will create the right foundations for students to onboard future technologies and prepare them fully for the digital and AI era.
The partnership is a crucial step in building citizens and a workforce that is aware of AI and can work with AI. In this curriculum, students will get benefit from technologies of some of the partner companies including Microsoft, Adobe, SAP Labs, Wipro and {X} among others.
An AI Step-up Module is also under development that will take the curriculum to the next level.
Atal Innovation Mission housed at NITI Aayog is the Government of India's flagship initiative to promote a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship. At the school level, AIM is establishing ATLs in all districts across India.

Q. Read the statements below and mark the correct option.
Statement I: NITI Aayog's initiatives include "15-year road map" and "7-year vision, strategy, and action plan".
Statement II: NITI Aayog was established in 2015 by the INC government.

Solution:

Statement I is true. NITI Aayog initiatives include "15-year road map", "7-year vision, strategy, and action plan", AMRUT, Digital India, Atal Innovation Mission, Medical Education Reform, Agriculture Reforms, Indices Measuring States' Performance in Health, Education and Water Management, Sub-Group of Chief Ministers on Rationalisation of Centrally Sponsored Schemes, Sub-Group of Chief Ministers on Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, Sub-Group of Chief Ministers on Skill Development, Task Forces on Agriculture and up of Poverty, and Transforming India Lecture Series.
Statement II is false. It was established in 2015, by the NDA government, to replace the Planning Commission which followed a top-down model.

QUESTION: 45

Read the following passage and mark the correct option.

The Union Cabinet has approved a historic bill for the welfare of women in the country – {X}. This follows the introduction in Parliament of the Surrogacy Regulation Bill, 2020, and the approval of the {Y}. These legislative measures are path-breaking steps to protect women's reproductive rights, according to officials in the government.
Once the {X} is enacted by the Parliament, the Central Government shall notify the date of the commencement of the Act. Consequently, the National Board will be constituted. The National Board shall lay down code of conduct to be observed by persons working at clinics, to set the minimum standards of physical infrastructure, laboratory and diagnostic equipment, and expert manpower to be employed by clinics and banks.
The States and Union Territories shall constitute the State Boards and State Authorities within three months of the notification by the Central Government. The State Board shall have the responsibility to follow the policies and plans laid by the National Board for clinics and banks in the State. The {X} also provides for National Registry and Registration Authority to maintain a Central database and assist the National Board in its functioning. The {X} also proposes for stringent punishment for those practising sex selection, sale of human embryos or gametes, running agencies/rackets/organisations for such unlawful practices. The major benefit of the Act would be that it will regulate the services in the country. Consequently, infertile couples will be more ensured/confident of the ethical practices in ARTs. {X} is the most recent, in a series of legislation approved by the Union Cabinet to protect and safeguard the reproductive rights of women. The {X} makes provisions for the safe and ethical practice of assisted reproductive technology services in the country. Through the {X}, the National Board, the State Boards, the National Registry and the State Registration Authorities respectively will regulate and supervise assisted reproductive technology clinics and assisted reproductive technology banks.

Q. Which of the following bills has been redacted with '{X}'?

Solution:

The Union Cabinet has approved a historic bill for the welfare of Women in the Country – the Assisted Reproductive Technology Regulation Bill, 2020. This follows the introduction in Parliament of the Surrogacy Regulation Bill, 2020 and the approval of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Amendment Bill, 2020.

QUESTION: 46

Read the following passage and mark the correct option.

The Union Cabinet has approved a historic bill for the welfare of women in the country – {X}. This follows the introduction in Parliament of the Surrogacy Regulation Bill, 2020, and the approval of the {Y}. These legislative measures are path-breaking steps to protect women's reproductive rights, according to officials in the government.
Once the {X} is enacted by the Parliament, the Central Government shall notify the date of the commencement of the Act. Consequently, the National Board will be constituted. The National Board shall lay down code of conduct to be observed by persons working at clinics, to set the minimum standards of physical infrastructure, laboratory and diagnostic equipment, and expert manpower to be employed by clinics and banks.
The States and Union Territories shall constitute the State Boards and State Authorities within three months of the notification by the Central Government. The State Board shall have the responsibility to follow the policies and plans laid by the National Board for clinics and banks in the State. The {X} also provides for National Registry and Registration Authority to maintain a Central database and assist the National Board in its functioning. The {X} also proposes for stringent punishment for those practising sex selection, sale of human embryos or gametes, running agencies/rackets/organisations for such unlawful practices. The major benefit of the Act would be that it will regulate the services in the country. Consequently, infertile couples will be more ensured/confident of the ethical practices in ARTs. {X} is the most recent, in a series of legislation approved by the Union Cabinet to protect and safeguard the reproductive rights of women. The {X} makes provisions for the safe and ethical practice of assisted reproductive technology services in the country. Through the {X}, the National Board, the State Boards, the National Registry and the State Registration Authorities respectively will regulate and supervise assisted reproductive technology clinics and assisted reproductive technology banks.

Q. Which of the following has been redacted with '{Y}'?

Solution:

The Union Cabinet has approved a historic bill for the welfare of Women in the Country – the Assisted Reproductive Technology Regulation Bill, 2020. This follows the introduction in Parliament of the Surrogacy Regulation Bill, 2020 and the approval of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Amendment Bill, 2020. Minister for Health and Family Welfare Harsh Vardhan introduced the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Amendment Bill, 2020 in the Lok Sabha. The bill seeks to amend the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971 and aims to expand access of women to safe and legal abortion services on therapeutic, eugenic, humanitarian or social grounds.

QUESTION: 47

Read the following passage and mark the correct option.

The Union Cabinet has approved a historic bill for the welfare of women in the country – {X}. This follows the introduction in Parliament of the Surrogacy Regulation Bill, 2020, and the approval of the {Y}. These legislative measures are path-breaking steps to protect women's reproductive rights, according to officials in the government.
Once the {X} is enacted by the Parliament, the Central Government shall notify the date of the commencement of the Act. Consequently, the National Board will be constituted. The National Board shall lay down code of conduct to be observed by persons working at clinics, to set the minimum standards of physical infrastructure, laboratory and diagnostic equipment, and expert manpower to be employed by clinics and banks.
The States and Union Territories shall constitute the State Boards and State Authorities within three months of the notification by the Central Government. The State Board shall have the responsibility to follow the policies and plans laid by the National Board for clinics and banks in the State. The {X} also provides for National Registry and Registration Authority to maintain a Central database and assist the National Board in its functioning. The {X} also proposes for stringent punishment for those practising sex selection, sale of human embryos or gametes, running agencies/rackets/organisations for such unlawful practices. The major benefit of the Act would be that it will regulate the services in the country. Consequently, infertile couples will be more ensured/confident of the ethical practices in ARTs. {X} is the most recent, in a series of legislation approved by the Union Cabinet to protect and safeguard the reproductive rights of women. The {X} makes provisions for the safe and ethical practice of assisted reproductive technology services in the country. Through the {X}, the National Board, the State Boards, the National Registry and the State Registration Authorities respectively will regulate and supervise assisted reproductive technology clinics and assisted reproductive technology banks.

Q. The Medical Council of India is a ______ body.

Solution:

The Medical Council of India (MCI) is a statutory body for establishing uniform and high standards of medical education in India till formation of National Medical Commission from 14th October, 2019. The Council grants recognition of medical qualifications, gives accreditation to medical schools, grants registration to medical practitioners, and monitors medical practice in India. The President of MCI is Dr. Jayshreeben Mehta as in 2020.

QUESTION: 48

Read the following passage and mark the correct option.

The Union Cabinet has approved a historic bill for the welfare of women in the country – {X}. This follows the introduction in Parliament of the Surrogacy Regulation Bill, 2020, and the approval of the {Y}. These legislative measures are path-breaking steps to protect women's reproductive rights, according to officials in the government.
Once the {X} is enacted by the Parliament, the Central Government shall notify the date of the commencement of the Act. Consequently, the National Board will be constituted. The National Board shall lay down code of conduct to be observed by persons working at clinics, to set the minimum standards of physical infrastructure, laboratory and diagnostic equipment, and expert manpower to be employed by clinics and banks.
The States and Union Territories shall constitute the State Boards and State Authorities within three months of the notification by the Central Government. The State Board shall have the responsibility to follow the policies and plans laid by the National Board for clinics and banks in the State. The {X} also provides for National Registry and Registration Authority to maintain a Central database and assist the National Board in its functioning. The {X} also proposes for stringent punishment for those practising sex selection, sale of human embryos or gametes, running agencies/rackets/organisations for such unlawful practices. The major benefit of the Act would be that it will regulate the services in the country. Consequently, infertile couples will be more ensured/confident of the ethical practices in ARTs. {X} is the most recent, in a series of legislation approved by the Union Cabinet to protect and safeguard the reproductive rights of women. The {X} makes provisions for the safe and ethical practice of assisted reproductive technology services in the country. Through the {X}, the National Board, the State Boards, the National Registry and the State Registration Authorities respectively will regulate and supervise assisted reproductive technology clinics and assisted reproductive technology banks.

Q. What age is required to be the member of Rajya Sabha?

Solution:

According to Article 84 of the Constitution, a person needs to be 30 years old to be the member of Rajya Sabha. Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of India. As in 2020, it has a maximum membership of 245, of which 233 are elected by the legislatures of the States and Union Territories using single transferable votes through Open Ballot while the President can appoint 12 members for their contributions to art, literature, science, and social services.

QUESTION: 49

Read the following passage and mark the correct option.

The Union Cabinet has approved a historic bill for the welfare of women in the country – {X}. This follows the introduction in Parliament of the Surrogacy Regulation Bill, 2020, and the approval of the {Y}. These legislative measures are path-breaking steps to protect women's reproductive rights, according to officials in the government.
Once the {X} is enacted by the Parliament, the Central Government shall notify the date of the commencement of the Act. Consequently, the National Board will be constituted. The National Board shall lay down code of conduct to be observed by persons working at clinics, to set the minimum standards of physical infrastructure, laboratory and diagnostic equipment, and expert manpower to be employed by clinics and banks.
The States and Union Territories shall constitute the State Boards and State Authorities within three months of the notification by the Central Government. The State Board shall have the responsibility to follow the policies and plans laid by the National Board for clinics and banks in the State. The {X} also provides for National Registry and Registration Authority to maintain a Central database and assist the National Board in its functioning. The {X} also proposes for stringent punishment for those practising sex selection, sale of human embryos or gametes, running agencies/rackets/organisations for such unlawful practices. The major benefit of the Act would be that it will regulate the services in the country. Consequently, infertile couples will be more ensured/confident of the ethical practices in ARTs. {X} is the most recent, in a series of legislation approved by the Union Cabinet to protect and safeguard the reproductive rights of women. The {X} makes provisions for the safe and ethical practice of assisted reproductive technology services in the country. Through the {X}, the National Board, the State Boards, the National Registry and the State Registration Authorities respectively will regulate and supervise assisted reproductive technology clinics and assisted reproductive technology banks.

Q. From which country did India borrow the feature of ''Election of members of the Rajya Sabha''?

Solution:

With 448 articles in 25 parts, 12 schedules, 5 appendices, and 98 amendments, the Constitution of India is the longest written constitution of any independent country in the world. It was adopted on November 26, 1949, while it came into force on January 26, 1950, when all the members of the Constituent Assembly signed the documents.
The following features of the Indian Constitution are borrowed from the South African Constitution:
1. Procedure for amendment of the Constitution
2. Election of members of the Rajya Sabha

QUESTION: 50

Read the following passage and mark the correct option.

The Union Cabinet has approved a historic bill for the welfare of women in the country – {X}. This follows the introduction in Parliament of the Surrogacy Regulation Bill, 2020, and the approval of the {Y}. These legislative measures are path-breaking steps to protect women's reproductive rights, according to officials in the government.
Once the {X} is enacted by the Parliament, the Central Government shall notify the date of the commencement of the Act. Consequently, the National Board will be constituted. The National Board shall lay down code of conduct to be observed by persons working at clinics, to set the minimum standards of physical infrastructure, laboratory and diagnostic equipment, and expert manpower to be employed by clinics and banks.
The States and Union Territories shall constitute the State Boards and State Authorities within three months of the notification by the Central Government. The State Board shall have the responsibility to follow the policies and plans laid by the National Board for clinics and banks in the State. The {X} also provides for National Registry and Registration Authority to maintain a Central database and assist the National Board in its functioning. The {X} also proposes for stringent punishment for those practising sex selection, sale of human embryos or gametes, running agencies/rackets/organisations for such unlawful practices. The major benefit of the Act would be that it will regulate the services in the country. Consequently, infertile couples will be more ensured/confident of the ethical practices in ARTs. {X} is the most recent, in a series of legislation approved by the Union Cabinet to protect and safeguard the reproductive rights of women. The {X} makes provisions for the safe and ethical practice of assisted reproductive technology services in the country. Through the {X}, the National Board, the State Boards, the National Registry and the State Registration Authorities respectively will regulate and supervise assisted reproductive technology clinics and assisted reproductive technology banks.

Q. Which Article deals with the assent of the President for a bill?

Solution:

Article 111 of the Indian Constitution stipulates that the President shall give assent to a bill passed by both houses of the Parliament or return the bill as soon as possible for reconsideration with his recommendation. The Indian Constitution does not give a specific time limit for presidential action on a bill sent by the Parliament. Thus, by indefinitely postponing action on a bill, the President effectively vetoes it.

QUESTION: 51

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

Sanjay Kothari, the Secretary to the President, has been selected as the new {X} by a high-powered committee headed by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, an official said.
Committee has also chosen former Information and Broadcasting Secretary Bimal Julka, currently serving as an Information Commissioner, as the new Chief Information Commissioner in the Central Information Commission.
Sources said the recommendation for the appointment of Kothari and Julka, who are retired Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officers, by a majority decision was opposed by Congress leader in the Lok Sabha Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury. The selection panel also included Union Home Minister Amit Shah.
"Kothari and Julka have been selected as the next {X} and CIC," said a senior government official, who did not want to be named.
The three-member panel also decided by majority the appointment of Suresh Patel as Vigilance Commissioner and Anita Pandove as Information Commissioner.
Congress spokesperson Manish Tewari said government should initiate a fresh process for appointing the next {X} by inviting applications again.
"We demand that the entire process be scrapped in its entirety and a de novo process started by inviting applications afresh. There needs to be proper application of mind," he told reporters.
Manish Tewari claimed that it is clear that government has a lot to hide and wants the {X} to be a "rubber stamp".
Congress chief spokesperson Randeep Surjewala also attacked government over the appointment of {X} and CIC and alleged there is no place for transparency, accountability and constitutional processes in Prime Minister Narendra Modi's 'New India', which was fatal for democracy.
He alleged that the appointments of {X} and CIC are being made arbitrarily on the lines of "khul ja sim sim" (open sesame).
"Arbitrariness in top judicial institutions is fatal for democracy," he said.
"The appointments of {X} and CIC are being made on the lines of 'open sesame'. Bring out names from the pocket and make appointments, that's it. There is no place left for transparency, accountability, constitutional processes and compliance of law in Modi ji's 'New India'," he charged on Twitter.
It is free of control from any executive authority and has the responsibility of monitoring all vigilance activities in the Central Government, besides advising various authorities in planning, executing, reviewing and reforming their vigilance work.
The Central Information Commission was constituted under the {Y} Act and has the jurisdiction over all central public authorities.

Q. What has been redacted with {X}?

Solution:

Sanjay Kothari, the Secretary to the President, has been selected as the new Chief Vigilance Commissioner by a high-powered committee headed by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. The Central Vigilance Commission is anti-corruption watchdog with autonomous status.

QUESTION: 52

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

Sanjay Kothari, the Secretary to the President, has been selected as the new {X} by a high-powered committee headed by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, an official said.
Committee has also chosen former Information and Broadcasting Secretary Bimal Julka, currently serving as an Information Commissioner, as the new Chief Information Commissioner in the Central Information Commission.
Sources said the recommendation for the appointment of Kothari and Julka, who are retired Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officers, by a majority decision was opposed by Congress leader in the Lok Sabha Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury. The selection panel also included Union Home Minister Amit Shah.
"Kothari and Julka have been selected as the next {X} and CIC," said a senior government official, who did not want to be named.
The three-member panel also decided by majority the appointment of Suresh Patel as Vigilance Commissioner and Anita Pandove as Information Commissioner.
Congress spokesperson Manish Tewari said government should initiate a fresh process for appointing the next {X} by inviting applications again.
"We demand that the entire process be scrapped in its entirety and a de novo process started by inviting applications afresh. There needs to be proper application of mind," he told reporters.
Manish Tewari claimed that it is clear that government has a lot to hide and wants the {X} to be a "rubber stamp".
Congress chief spokesperson Randeep Surjewala also attacked government over the appointment of {X} and CIC and alleged there is no place for transparency, accountability and constitutional processes in Prime Minister Narendra Modi's 'New India', which was fatal for democracy.
He alleged that the appointments of {X} and CIC are being made arbitrarily on the lines of "khul ja sim sim" (open sesame).
"Arbitrariness in top judicial institutions is fatal for democracy," he said.
"The appointments of {X} and CIC are being made on the lines of 'open sesame'. Bring out names from the pocket and make appointments, that's it. There is no place left for transparency, accountability, constitutional processes and compliance of law in Modi ji's 'New India'," he charged on Twitter.
It is free of control from any executive authority and has the responsibility of monitoring all vigilance activities in the Central Government, besides advising various authorities in planning, executing, reviewing and reforming their vigilance work.
The Central Information Commission was constituted under the {Y} Act and has the jurisdiction over all central public authorities.

Q. Which of the following acts has been redacted with {Y}?

Solution:

The Central Information Commission was established in 2005 by the Government of India under the provisions of the Right to Information Act (2005). It plays an important role in maintaining transparency in the system of the governance, which is essential in the democracy.

QUESTION: 53

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

Sanjay Kothari, the Secretary to the President, has been selected as the new {X} by a high-powered committee headed by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, an official said.
Committee has also chosen former Information and Broadcasting Secretary Bimal Julka, currently serving as an Information Commissioner, as the new Chief Information Commissioner in the Central Information Commission.
Sources said the recommendation for the appointment of Kothari and Julka, who are retired Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officers, by a majority decision was opposed by Congress leader in the Lok Sabha Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury. The selection panel also included Union Home Minister Amit Shah.
"Kothari and Julka have been selected as the next {X} and CIC," said a senior government official, who did not want to be named.
The three-member panel also decided by majority the appointment of Suresh Patel as Vigilance Commissioner and Anita Pandove as Information Commissioner.
Congress spokesperson Manish Tewari said government should initiate a fresh process for appointing the next {X} by inviting applications again.
"We demand that the entire process be scrapped in its entirety and a de novo process started by inviting applications afresh. There needs to be proper application of mind," he told reporters.
Manish Tewari claimed that it is clear that government has a lot to hide and wants the {X} to be a "rubber stamp".
Congress chief spokesperson Randeep Surjewala also attacked government over the appointment of {X} and CIC and alleged there is no place for transparency, accountability and constitutional processes in Prime Minister Narendra Modi's 'New India', which was fatal for democracy.
He alleged that the appointments of {X} and CIC are being made arbitrarily on the lines of "khul ja sim sim" (open sesame).
"Arbitrariness in top judicial institutions is fatal for democracy," he said.
"The appointments of {X} and CIC are being made on the lines of 'open sesame'. Bring out names from the pocket and make appointments, that's it. There is no place left for transparency, accountability, constitutional processes and compliance of law in Modi ji's 'New India'," he charged on Twitter.
It is free of control from any executive authority and has the responsibility of monitoring all vigilance activities in the Central Government, besides advising various authorities in planning, executing, reviewing and reforming their vigilance work.
The Central Information Commission was constituted under the {Y} Act and has the jurisdiction over all central public authorities.

Q. Read the statements below and mark the correct option.
Statement I: The Central Information Commission is a constitutional body.
Statement II: Its members are appointed by the President of India.

Solution:

Statement I is false because the Central Information Commission is a statutory body, set up under the Right to Information Act in 2005 under the Government of India to act upon complaints from those individuals who have not been able to submit information requests to a Central Public Information officer.
Statement II is true because the Commission includes one Chief Information Commissioner and not more than ten information commissioners, who are appointed by the President of India on the recommendation of a committee consisting of the Prime Minister as Chairperson, the Leader of Opposition in the Lok Sabha and a Union Cabinet Minister to be nominated by the Prime Minister.

QUESTION: 54

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

Sanjay Kothari, the Secretary to the President, has been selected as the new {X} by a high-powered committee headed by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, an official said.
Committee has also chosen former Information and Broadcasting Secretary Bimal Julka, currently serving as an Information Commissioner, as the new Chief Information Commissioner in the Central Information Commission.
Sources said the recommendation for the appointment of Kothari and Julka, who are retired Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officers, by a majority decision was opposed by Congress leader in the Lok Sabha Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury. The selection panel also included Union Home Minister Amit Shah.
"Kothari and Julka have been selected as the next {X} and CIC," said a senior government official, who did not want to be named.
The three-member panel also decided by majority the appointment of Suresh Patel as Vigilance Commissioner and Anita Pandove as Information Commissioner.
Congress spokesperson Manish Tewari said government should initiate a fresh process for appointing the next {X} by inviting applications again.
"We demand that the entire process be scrapped in its entirety and a de novo process started by inviting applications afresh. There needs to be proper application of mind," he told reporters.
Manish Tewari claimed that it is clear that government has a lot to hide and wants the {X} to be a "rubber stamp".
Congress chief spokesperson Randeep Surjewala also attacked government over the appointment of {X} and CIC and alleged there is no place for transparency, accountability and constitutional processes in Prime Minister Narendra Modi's 'New India', which was fatal for democracy.
He alleged that the appointments of {X} and CIC are being made arbitrarily on the lines of "khul ja sim sim" (open sesame).
"Arbitrariness in top judicial institutions is fatal for democracy," he said.
"The appointments of {X} and CIC are being made on the lines of 'open sesame'. Bring out names from the pocket and make appointments, that's it. There is no place left for transparency, accountability, constitutional processes and compliance of law in Modi ji's 'New India'," he charged on Twitter.
It is free of control from any executive authority and has the responsibility of monitoring all vigilance activities in the Central Government, besides advising various authorities in planning, executing, reviewing and reforming their vigilance work.
The Central Information Commission was constituted under the {Y} Act and has the jurisdiction over all central public authorities.

Q. Federalism in India describes the distribution of legal authority across national, state and local governments in India. It is taken from

Solution:

India's Constitution has been borrowed from the United States (fundamental rights), Ireland (directive principles), the Soviet Union (fundamental duties), France (liberty, equality and fraternity), Japan (procedure established by law), Canada (power allocation between state and central governments) and Germany (suspension of rights).

QUESTION: 55

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

Sanjay Kothari, the Secretary to the President, has been selected as the new {X} by a high-powered committee headed by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, an official said.
Committee has also chosen former Information and Broadcasting Secretary Bimal Julka, currently serving as an Information Commissioner, as the new Chief Information Commissioner in the Central Information Commission.
Sources said the recommendation for the appointment of Kothari and Julka, who are retired Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officers, by a majority decision was opposed by Congress leader in the Lok Sabha Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury. The selection panel also included Union Home Minister Amit Shah.
"Kothari and Julka have been selected as the next {X} and CIC," said a senior government official, who did not want to be named.
The three-member panel also decided by majority the appointment of Suresh Patel as Vigilance Commissioner and Anita Pandove as Information Commissioner.
Congress spokesperson Manish Tewari said government should initiate a fresh process for appointing the next {X} by inviting applications again.
"We demand that the entire process be scrapped in its entirety and a de novo process started by inviting applications afresh. There needs to be proper application of mind," he told reporters.
Manish Tewari claimed that it is clear that government has a lot to hide and wants the {X} to be a "rubber stamp".
Congress chief spokesperson Randeep Surjewala also attacked government over the appointment of {X} and CIC and alleged there is no place for transparency, accountability and constitutional processes in Prime Minister Narendra Modi's 'New India', which was fatal for democracy.
He alleged that the appointments of {X} and CIC are being made arbitrarily on the lines of "khul ja sim sim" (open sesame).
"Arbitrariness in top judicial institutions is fatal for democracy," he said.
"The appointments of {X} and CIC are being made on the lines of 'open sesame'. Bring out names from the pocket and make appointments, that's it. There is no place left for transparency, accountability, constitutional processes and compliance of law in Modi ji's 'New India'," he charged on Twitter.
It is free of control from any executive authority and has the responsibility of monitoring all vigilance activities in the Central Government, besides advising various authorities in planning, executing, reviewing and reforming their vigilance work.
The Central Information Commission was constituted under the {Y} Act and has the jurisdiction over all central public authorities.

Q. What should be the maximum gap between two parliamentary sessions?

Solution:

The period during which the House of the Parliament meets to conduct its business is called a session. A session lasts from the beginning of the normal term of house sitting to its end. The maximum gap between two sittings should not be more than six months. This means the Parliament should meet at least twice a year. In India, the Parliament conducts three sessions each year: Budget session: February to May, Monsoon session: July to September and Winter session: November to December.

QUESTION: 56

Study the following passage and answer the question.

The 13th Conference of Parties (COP) of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), an environmental treaty under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme, was hosted by India from 17th to 22nd February, 2020.

The theme of CMS COP13 was [1]. The CMS COP13 logo was inspired by 'Kolam', a traditional art form from southern India. In the logo of CMS COP13, Kolam art form was used to depict key migratory species in India like Amur falcon, humpback whale and marine turtles.

The mascot for CMS COP13 [2] was a critically endangered species that has been accorded the highest protection status. The Indian sub-continent is also part of the major bird flyway network, i.e. the Central Asian Flyway (CAF) that covers areas between the Arctic and Indian Oceans, and covers at least 279 populations of 182 migratory water bird species, including 29 globally threatened species.

India has also signed a non-legally binding MOU with CMS on the conservation and management of Siberian cranes (1998), marine turtles (2007), dugongs (2008) and raptors (2016).

India is a temporary home to several migratory animals and birds. The important among these include Amur falcons, bar-headed geese, black-necked cranes, marine turtles, dugongs, humpback whales, etc. India has also launched the National Action Plan for the conservation of migratory species under the Central Asian Flyway.

In order to protect the migratory species throughout their range countries, a Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS) has been in force. Also referred to as the Bonn Convention, it provides a global platform for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory animals and their habitats and brings together the States through which migratory animals pass, the Range States, and lays the legal foundation for internationally coordinated conservation measures throughout a migratory range.

Q. In which of the following States/UT's was the 13th Conference of Parties (COP) of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) held?

Solution:

The 13th Conference of Parties (COP) of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) was held at Gandhinagar, Gujarat in India. It was an environmental treaty under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme.

QUESTION: 57

Study the following passage and answer the question.

The 13th Conference of Parties (COP) of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), an environmental treaty under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme, was hosted by India from 17th to 22nd February, 2020.

The theme of CMS COP13 was [1]. The CMS COP13 logo was inspired by 'Kolam', a traditional art form from southern India. In the logo of CMS COP13, Kolam art form was used to depict key migratory species in India like Amur falcon, humpback whale and marine turtles.

The mascot for CMS COP13 [2] was a critically endangered species that has been accorded the highest protection status. The Indian sub-continent is also part of the major bird flyway network, i.e. the Central Asian Flyway (CAF) that covers areas between the Arctic and Indian Oceans, and covers at least 279 populations of 182 migratory water bird species, including 29 globally threatened species.

India has also signed a non-legally binding MOU with CMS on the conservation and management of Siberian cranes (1998), marine turtles (2007), dugongs (2008) and raptors (2016).

India is a temporary home to several migratory animals and birds. The important among these include Amur falcons, bar-headed geese, black-necked cranes, marine turtles, dugongs, humpback whales, etc. India has also launched the National Action Plan for the conservation of migratory species under the Central Asian Flyway.

In order to protect the migratory species throughout their range countries, a Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS) has been in force. Also referred to as the Bonn Convention, it provides a global platform for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory animals and their habitats and brings together the States through which migratory animals pass, the Range States, and lays the legal foundation for internationally coordinated conservation measures throughout a migratory range.

Q. In the passage, with reference to the CMS COP13, what has been redacted with [1]?

Solution:

The 13th Conference of Parties (COP) of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) was held in Gandhinagar, Gujarat. It was an environmental treaty under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme. The Conference was hosted by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. The theme of the event was "Migratory Species Connect the Planet and We Welcome Them Home".

QUESTION: 58

Study the following passage and answer the question.

The 13th Conference of Parties (COP) of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), an environmental treaty under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme, was hosted by India from 17th to 22nd February, 2020.

The theme of CMS COP13 was [1]. The CMS COP13 logo was inspired by 'Kolam', a traditional art form from southern India. In the logo of CMS COP13, Kolam art form was used to depict key migratory species in India like Amur falcon, humpback whale and marine turtles.

The mascot for CMS COP13 [2] was a critically endangered species that has been accorded the highest protection status. The Indian sub-continent is also part of the major bird flyway network, i.e. the Central Asian Flyway (CAF) that covers areas between the Arctic and Indian Oceans, and covers at least 279 populations of 182 migratory water bird species, including 29 globally threatened species.

India has also signed a non-legally binding MOU with CMS on the conservation and management of Siberian cranes (1998), marine turtles (2007), dugongs (2008) and raptors (2016).

India is a temporary home to several migratory animals and birds. The important among these include Amur falcons, bar-headed geese, black-necked cranes, marine turtles, dugongs, humpback whales, etc. India has also launched the National Action Plan for the conservation of migratory species under the Central Asian Flyway.

In order to protect the migratory species throughout their range countries, a Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS) has been in force. Also referred to as the Bonn Convention, it provides a global platform for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory animals and their habitats and brings together the States through which migratory animals pass, the Range States, and lays the legal foundation for internationally coordinated conservation measures throughout a migratory range.

Q. In the passage, with reference to the CMS COP13, what was redacted with [2]?

Solution:

The mascot for CMS COP13 was Gibi - The Great Indian Bustard. It is a critically endangered species that has been accorded the highest protection status under the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.

QUESTION: 59

Study the following passage and answer the question.

The 13th Conference of Parties (COP) of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), an environmental treaty under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme, was hosted by India from 17th to 22nd February, 2020.

The theme of CMS COP13 was [1]. The CMS COP13 logo was inspired by 'Kolam', a traditional art form from southern India. In the logo of CMS COP13, Kolam art form was used to depict key migratory species in India like Amur falcon, humpback whale and marine turtles.

The mascot for CMS COP13 [2] was a critically endangered species that has been accorded the highest protection status. The Indian sub-continent is also part of the major bird flyway network, i.e. the Central Asian Flyway (CAF) that covers areas between the Arctic and Indian Oceans, and covers at least 279 populations of 182 migratory water bird species, including 29 globally threatened species.

India has also signed a non-legally binding MOU with CMS on the conservation and management of Siberian cranes (1998), marine turtles (2007), dugongs (2008) and raptors (2016).

India is a temporary home to several migratory animals and birds. The important among these include Amur falcons, bar-headed geese, black-necked cranes, marine turtles, dugongs, humpback whales, etc. India has also launched the National Action Plan for the conservation of migratory species under the Central Asian Flyway.

In order to protect the migratory species throughout their range countries, a Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS) has been in force. Also referred to as the Bonn Convention, it provides a global platform for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory animals and their habitats and brings together the States through which migratory animals pass, the Range States, and lays the legal foundation for internationally coordinated conservation measures throughout a migratory range.

Q. Which of the following acts was enacted for the protection of plants and animal species?

Solution:

The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 is an act enacted for protection of plants and animal species.
The act prohibits hunting of wild animals and birds, and has provisions of punishment for violating the same.
The act contains 60 sections and 6 schedules which are divided into eight chapters.

QUESTION: 60

Study the following passage and answer the question.

The 13th Conference of Parties (COP) of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), an environmental treaty under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme, was hosted by India from 17th to 22nd February, 2020.

The theme of CMS COP13 was [1]. The CMS COP13 logo was inspired by 'Kolam', a traditional art form from southern India. In the logo of CMS COP13, Kolam art form was used to depict key migratory species in India like Amur falcon, humpback whale and marine turtles.

The mascot for CMS COP13 [2] was a critically endangered species that has been accorded the highest protection status. The Indian sub-continent is also part of the major bird flyway network, i.e. the Central Asian Flyway (CAF) that covers areas between the Arctic and Indian Oceans, and covers at least 279 populations of 182 migratory water bird species, including 29 globally threatened species.

India has also signed a non-legally binding MOU with CMS on the conservation and management of Siberian cranes (1998), marine turtles (2007), dugongs (2008) and raptors (2016).

India is a temporary home to several migratory animals and birds. The important among these include Amur falcons, bar-headed geese, black-necked cranes, marine turtles, dugongs, humpback whales, etc. India has also launched the National Action Plan for the conservation of migratory species under the Central Asian Flyway.

In order to protect the migratory species throughout their range countries, a Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS) has been in force. Also referred to as the Bonn Convention, it provides a global platform for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory animals and their habitats and brings together the States through which migratory animals pass, the Range States, and lays the legal foundation for internationally coordinated conservation measures throughout a migratory range.

Q. Who was appointed as the Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme in 2019?

Solution:

The United Nations Environment Programme is a programme of the United Nations that coordinates the organization's environmental activities and assists developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices. Its headquarter is in Nairobi, KenyaInger. Inger Andersen is a Danish economist and environmentalist. In February 2019, she was appointed as the Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

QUESTION: 61

Study the following passage and answer the question.

The 13th Conference of Parties (COP) of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), an environmental treaty under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme, was hosted by India from 17th to 22nd February, 2020.

The theme of CMS COP13 was [1]. The CMS COP13 logo was inspired by 'Kolam', a traditional art form from southern India. In the logo of CMS COP13, Kolam art form was used to depict key migratory species in India like Amur falcon, humpback whale and marine turtles.

The mascot for CMS COP13 [2] was a critically endangered species that has been accorded the highest protection status. The Indian sub-continent is also part of the major bird flyway network, i.e. the Central Asian Flyway (CAF) that covers areas between the Arctic and Indian Oceans, and covers at least 279 populations of 182 migratory water bird species, including 29 globally threatened species.

India has also signed a non-legally binding MOU with CMS on the conservation and management of Siberian cranes (1998), marine turtles (2007), dugongs (2008) and raptors (2016).

India is a temporary home to several migratory animals and birds. The important among these include Amur falcons, bar-headed geese, black-necked cranes, marine turtles, dugongs, humpback whales, etc. India has also launched the National Action Plan for the conservation of migratory species under the Central Asian Flyway.

In order to protect the migratory species throughout their range countries, a Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS) has been in force. Also referred to as the Bonn Convention, it provides a global platform for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory animals and their habitats and brings together the States through which migratory animals pass, the Range States, and lays the legal foundation for internationally coordinated conservation measures throughout a migratory range.

Q. World Environment Day is celebrated on

Solution:

World Environment Day (WED) is celebrated on 5 June every year and is the United Nations' principal vehicle for encouraging awareness and action for the protection of our environment. First held in 1974, it has been a flagship campaign for raising awareness on emerging from environmental issues to marine pollution, human overpopulation and global warming, to sustainable consumption and wildlife crime. World Environment Day has grown to become a global platform for public outreach, with participation from over 143 countries annually.

QUESTION: 62

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

{X}, for a while, threatened to dethrone Novak Djokovic at the Australian Open, but the Serbian overcame a two sets to one deficit in a Grand Slam final for the first time to win a record-extending eighth title at {Z} on February 02, 2020.
With 17 major titles, Djokovic, who will return to the top when the new rankings are released on Monday, moved to within two majors of Rafael Nadal and three of Roger Federer, amid a raging debate over which of the three is the greatest of all time.
With the 6-4, 4-6, 2-6, 6-3, 6-4 win on February 02, 2020, Djokovic continued the stranglehold of the Big Three on the Grand Slams. No one else has won a major since {Y} at the 2016 US Open.
It was also Djokovic's fifth consecutive Grand Slam final win against five different opponents.
For {X}, who moves to No. 4 in the world for the first time in his career, it was a third loss in Grand Slam finals. He was runner-up to Nadal at the French Open in 2018 and 2019.
The 26-year-old Austrian, long touted as the successor to the King of Clay, is still playing second fiddle on the surface to Nadal, who is seven years his senior. But, {X} has shown a marked improvement in his hard court abilities in the last couple of years. He reached the quarterfinals of the 2018 US Open, where also he was beaten by Nadal. But, his run to the final at {Z} reflects one major change in his tactics – he is playing far closer to the baseline now, giving his opponents less time to counter his massive forehand and backhand and the topspin he generates on both.
The Austrian broke in the second game of the match for an early lead, but Djokovic immediately broke back. The first set then went on serve till the Serb broke {X} to winning the opener 6-4.
{X}, the 2018 and 2019 French Open runner-up to Rafael Nadal, held his nerve in the second set for a 4-2 lead and then, served it out at 6-4. The world No. 5 looked far the better player in the third set, which he won 6-2 after taking a 4-0 lead over the faltering Djokovic.
Djokovic broke {X} in the fourth for a 5-3 lead and then, held serve to win the set.
Djokovic took an early lead in the deciding set with a break for 2-1 and then, saved multiple break points on his own serve to hold for 3-1. The Serb then held his serve to close out the fifth set 6-4.

Q. Who has been redacted with {X}?

Solution:

For a while, Dominic Thiem threatened to dethrone Novak Djokovic at the Australian Open, but the Serbian overcame a two sets to one deficit in a Grand Slam final for the first time to win a record-extending eighth title at Melbourne Park on February 02, 2020.

QUESTION: 63

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

{X}, for a while, threatened to dethrone Novak Djokovic at the Australian Open, but the Serbian overcame a two sets to one deficit in a Grand Slam final for the first time to win a record-extending eighth title at {Z} on February 02, 2020.
With 17 major titles, Djokovic, who will return to the top when the new rankings are released on Monday, moved to within two majors of Rafael Nadal and three of Roger Federer, amid a raging debate over which of the three is the greatest of all time.
With the 6-4, 4-6, 2-6, 6-3, 6-4 win on February 02, 2020, Djokovic continued the stranglehold of the Big Three on the Grand Slams. No one else has won a major since {Y} at the 2016 US Open.
It was also Djokovic's fifth consecutive Grand Slam final win against five different opponents.
For {X}, who moves to No. 4 in the world for the first time in his career, it was a third loss in Grand Slam finals. He was runner-up to Nadal at the French Open in 2018 and 2019.
The 26-year-old Austrian, long touted as the successor to the King of Clay, is still playing second fiddle on the surface to Nadal, who is seven years his senior. But, {X} has shown a marked improvement in his hard court abilities in the last couple of years. He reached the quarterfinals of the 2018 US Open, where also he was beaten by Nadal. But, his run to the final at {Z} reflects one major change in his tactics – he is playing far closer to the baseline now, giving his opponents less time to counter his massive forehand and backhand and the topspin he generates on both.
The Austrian broke in the second game of the match for an early lead, but Djokovic immediately broke back. The first set then went on serve till the Serb broke {X} to winning the opener 6-4.
{X}, the 2018 and 2019 French Open runner-up to Rafael Nadal, held his nerve in the second set for a 4-2 lead and then, served it out at 6-4. The world No. 5 looked far the better player in the third set, which he won 6-2 after taking a 4-0 lead over the faltering Djokovic.
Djokovic broke {X} in the fourth for a 5-3 lead and then, held serve to win the set.
Djokovic took an early lead in the deciding set with a break for 2-1 and then, saved multiple break points on his own serve to hold for 3-1. The Serb then held his serve to close out the fifth set 6-4.

Q. Who has been redacted with {Y}?

Solution:

Djokovic continued the stranglehold of the Big Three on the Grand Slams. No one else has won a major since Stan Wawrinka at the 2016 US Open. Stanislas Wawrinka is a Swiss professional tennis player. He reached a career-high Association of Tennis Professionals world No. 3 singles ranking for the first time on 27 January, 2014.

QUESTION: 64

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

{X}, for a while, threatened to dethrone Novak Djokovic at the Australian Open, but the Serbian overcame a two sets to one deficit in a Grand Slam final for the first time to win a record-extending eighth title at {Z} on February 02, 2020.
With 17 major titles, Djokovic, who will return to the top when the new rankings are released on Monday, moved to within two majors of Rafael Nadal and three of Roger Federer, amid a raging debate over which of the three is the greatest of all time.
With the 6-4, 4-6, 2-6, 6-3, 6-4 win on February 02, 2020, Djokovic continued the stranglehold of the Big Three on the Grand Slams. No one else has won a major since {Y} at the 2016 US Open.
It was also Djokovic's fifth consecutive Grand Slam final win against five different opponents.
For {X}, who moves to No. 4 in the world for the first time in his career, it was a third loss in Grand Slam finals. He was runner-up to Nadal at the French Open in 2018 and 2019.
The 26-year-old Austrian, long touted as the successor to the King of Clay, is still playing second fiddle on the surface to Nadal, who is seven years his senior. But, {X} has shown a marked improvement in his hard court abilities in the last couple of years. He reached the quarterfinals of the 2018 US Open, where also he was beaten by Nadal. But, his run to the final at {Z} reflects one major change in his tactics – he is playing far closer to the baseline now, giving his opponents less time to counter his massive forehand and backhand and the topspin he generates on both.
The Austrian broke in the second game of the match for an early lead, but Djokovic immediately broke back. The first set then went on serve till the Serb broke {X} to winning the opener 6-4.
{X}, the 2018 and 2019 French Open runner-up to Rafael Nadal, held his nerve in the second set for a 4-2 lead and then, served it out at 6-4. The world No. 5 looked far the better player in the third set, which he won 6-2 after taking a 4-0 lead over the faltering Djokovic.
Djokovic broke {X} in the fourth for a 5-3 lead and then, held serve to win the set.
Djokovic took an early lead in the deciding set with a break for 2-1 and then, saved multiple break points on his own serve to hold for 3-1. The Serb then held his serve to close out the fifth set 6-4.

Q. Which of the following has been redacted with {Z}?

Solution:

For a while, Dominic Thiem threatened to dethrone Novak Djokovic at the Australian Open, but the Serbian overcame a two sets to one deficit in a Grand Slam final for the first time to win a record-extending eighth title at Melbourne Park on February 02, 2020. Melbourne Park is a sports venue in the Melbourne Sports and Entertainment Precinct in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

QUESTION: 65

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

{X}, for a while, threatened to dethrone Novak Djokovic at the Australian Open, but the Serbian overcame a two sets to one deficit in a Grand Slam final for the first time to win a record-extending eighth title at {Z} on February 02, 2020.
With 17 major titles, Djokovic, who will return to the top when the new rankings are released on Monday, moved to within two majors of Rafael Nadal and three of Roger Federer, amid a raging debate over which of the three is the greatest of all time.
With the 6-4, 4-6, 2-6, 6-3, 6-4 win on February 02, 2020, Djokovic continued the stranglehold of the Big Three on the Grand Slams. No one else has won a major since {Y} at the 2016 US Open.
It was also Djokovic's fifth consecutive Grand Slam final win against five different opponents.
For {X}, who moves to No. 4 in the world for the first time in his career, it was a third loss in Grand Slam finals. He was runner-up to Nadal at the French Open in 2018 and 2019.
The 26-year-old Austrian, long touted as the successor to the King of Clay, is still playing second fiddle on the surface to Nadal, who is seven years his senior. But, {X} has shown a marked improvement in his hard court abilities in the last couple of years. He reached the quarterfinals of the 2018 US Open, where also he was beaten by Nadal. But, his run to the final at {Z} reflects one major change in his tactics – he is playing far closer to the baseline now, giving his opponents less time to counter his massive forehand and backhand and the topspin he generates on both.
The Austrian broke in the second game of the match for an early lead, but Djokovic immediately broke back. The first set then went on serve till the Serb broke {X} to winning the opener 6-4.
{X}, the 2018 and 2019 French Open runner-up to Rafael Nadal, held his nerve in the second set for a 4-2 lead and then, served it out at 6-4. The world No. 5 looked far the better player in the third set, which he won 6-2 after taking a 4-0 lead over the faltering Djokovic.
Djokovic broke {X} in the fourth for a 5-3 lead and then, held serve to win the set.
Djokovic took an early lead in the deciding set with a break for 2-1 and then, saved multiple break points on his own serve to hold for 3-1. The Serb then held his serve to close out the fifth set 6-4.

Q. Which of the following awards is associated with tennis?

Solution:

The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) is a main men's tennis governing body. It was formed in September, 1972 by Donald Dell, Jack Kramer and Cliff Drysdale to protect the interests of professional tennis players and Drysdale became its first President. ATP awards are given by the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) to players and others of particular distinction during a given season.

QUESTION: 66

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.

{X}, for a while, threatened to dethrone Novak Djokovic at the Australian Open, but the Serbian overcame a two sets to one deficit in a Grand Slam final for the first time to win a record-extending eighth title at {Z} on February 02, 2020.
With 17 major titles, Djokovic, who will return to the top when the new rankings are released on Monday, moved to within two majors of Rafael Nadal and three of Roger Federer, amid a raging debate over which of the three is the greatest of all time.
With the 6-4, 4-6, 2-6, 6-3, 6-4 win on February 02, 2020, Djokovic continued the stranglehold of the Big Three on the Grand Slams. No one else has won a major since {Y} at the 2016 US Open.
It was also Djokovic's fifth consecutive Grand Slam final win against five different opponents.
For {X}, who moves to No. 4 in the world for the first time in his career, it was a third loss in Grand Slam finals. He was runner-up to Nadal at the French Open in 2018 and 2019.
The 26-year-old Austrian, long touted as the successor to the King of Clay, is still playing second fiddle on the surface to Nadal, who is seven years his senior. But, {X} has shown a marked improvement in his hard court abilities in the last couple of years. He reached the quarterfinals of the 2018 US Open, where also he was beaten by Nadal. But, his run to the final at {Z} reflects one major change in his tactics – he is playing far closer to the baseline now, giving his opponents less time to counter his massive forehand and backhand and the topspin he generates on both.
The Austrian broke in the second game of the match for an early lead, but Djokovic immediately broke back. The first set then went on serve till the Serb broke {X} to winning the opener 6-4.
{X}, the 2018 and 2019 French Open runner-up to Rafael Nadal, held his nerve in the second set for a 4-2 lead and then, served it out at 6-4. The world No. 5 looked far the better player in the third set, which he won 6-2 after taking a 4-0 lead over the faltering Djokovic.
Djokovic broke {X} in the fourth for a 5-3 lead and then, held serve to win the set.
Djokovic took an early lead in the deciding set with a break for 2-1 and then, saved multiple break points on his own serve to hold for 3-1. The Serb then held his serve to close out the fifth set 6-4.

Q. Who is the first Indian ever to win a Grand Slam tournament?

Solution:

Mahesh Shrinivas Bhupathi is a retired Indian professional tennis player. In 1997, he became the first Indian to win a Grand Slam tournament. With his win at the Australian Open mixed doubles in 2006, he joined the elite group of eight tennis players who have achieved a career Grand Slam in mixed doubles.

QUESTION: 67

Study the following passage and answer the question.

The International Year of Soils was celebrated in 2015, the same year India's unique programme of Soil Health Card was launched on February 19 to assess the nutrient status of every farm holding in the country. The objective of the Soil Health Card Scheme is to issue soil health cards to farmers every [1] years so as to provide a basis to address nutritional deficiencies in fertilisation practices.
Soil testing is developed to promote soil test based on nutrient management. Soil testing reduces cultivation cost by application of right quantity of fertiliser. It ensures additional income to farmers by increase in yields and it also promotes sustainable farming. The Soil Health Card Scheme was launched by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi on February 19, 2015.
The scheme was introduced to assist State Governments to issue soil health cards to all farmers in the country. Soil health card provides information to farmers on nutrient status of their soil along with recommendation on appropriate dosage of nutrients to be applied for improving soil health and its fertility. Soil health card provides two sets of fertiliser recommendations for six crops including recommendations of organic manures.
Farmers can also get recommendations for additional crops on demand. They can also print the card as their own from SHC portal. SHC portal has farmer database of both the cycles and is available in [2] languages for the benefit of the farmers. During 2019-20, a pilot project 'Development of Model Villages' was undertaken up where soil samples collection was done at individual farm holding with farmer's participation instead of sample collection at grids. Under the pilot project, one village per block is adopted for land holding based soil sampling, testing and organisation of larger number of demonstrations up to a maximum number of 50 demonstrations (1 ha each) for each adopted village.
This will result in acceptance of soil health card by farmers. So far 6,954 villages have been identified by the States/UTs in which against the target of 26.83 lakh samples, 20.18 lakh samples have been collected, 14.65 lakh samples have been analysed and 13.54 lakh cards have been distributed to farmers. Apart from this, 2,46,968 demonstrations and 6,951 farmer melas have been approved for States/UTs.

Q. The Soil Health Card Scheme comes under which of the following ministries?

Solution:

Soil Health Card is a Government of India's scheme which is promoted by the Department of Agriculture and Co-operation under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers' Welfare. It was implemented through the Department of Agriculture of all the State and Union Territory Governments. It was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2015.

QUESTION: 68

Study the following passage and answer the question.

The International Year of Soils was celebrated in 2015, the same year India's unique programme of Soil Health Card was launched on February 19 to assess the nutrient status of every farm holding in the country. The objective of the Soil Health Card Scheme is to issue soil health cards to farmers every [1] years so as to provide a basis to address nutritional deficiencies in fertilisation practices.
Soil testing is developed to promote soil test based on nutrient management. Soil testing reduces cultivation cost by application of right quantity of fertiliser. It ensures additional income to farmers by increase in yields and it also promotes sustainable farming. The Soil Health Card Scheme was launched by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi on February 19, 2015.
The scheme was introduced to assist State Governments to issue soil health cards to all farmers in the country. Soil health card provides information to farmers on nutrient status of their soil along with recommendation on appropriate dosage of nutrients to be applied for improving soil health and its fertility. Soil health card provides two sets of fertiliser recommendations for six crops including recommendations of organic manures.
Farmers can also get recommendations for additional crops on demand. They can also print the card as their own from SHC portal. SHC portal has farmer database of both the cycles and is available in [2] languages for the benefit of the farmers. During 2019-20, a pilot project 'Development of Model Villages' was undertaken up where soil samples collection was done at individual farm holding with farmer's participation instead of sample collection at grids. Under the pilot project, one village per block is adopted for land holding based soil sampling, testing and organisation of larger number of demonstrations up to a maximum number of 50 demonstrations (1 ha each) for each adopted village.
This will result in acceptance of soil health card by farmers. So far 6,954 villages have been identified by the States/UTs in which against the target of 26.83 lakh samples, 20.18 lakh samples have been collected, 14.65 lakh samples have been analysed and 13.54 lakh cards have been distributed to farmers. Apart from this, 2,46,968 demonstrations and 6,951 farmer melas have been approved for States/UTs.

Q. In the passage, with reference to the Soil Health Card Scheme, what time period has been redacted with [1]?

Solution:

Soil Health Card is a Government of India's scheme promoted by the Department of Agriculture and Co-operation under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers' Welfare. It was implemented through the Department of Agriculture of all the State and Union Territory Governments. The objective of the Soil Health Card Scheme is to issue soil health cards to farmers every 2 years so as to provide a basis to address nutritional deficiencies in fertilisation practises. It contains the status of their soil with respect to 12 parameters, namely N, P, K (macro-nutrients); S (secondary nutrient); Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Bo (micro-nutrients); and pH, EC, OC (physical parameters).

QUESTION: 69

Read the text and answer the following question.

Once a batch of a drug is detected to be hazardous to the health and lives of potential patients, it becomes absolutely essential to trace — on a priority — every pill or potion out on the market. Ever since the death of 12 infants last month in the Ramnagar area of Udhampur district in Jammu and Kashmir has been traced to an impurity detected in the September 2019 batch of 5,500 bottles of Coldbest-PC Syrup, the drug regulatory authorities have pulled out all stops to reach out to its buyers and to recall the unsold stock. Given that the spurious product has found its way into not only J&K but also across Haryana, Tripura, UP and Himachal Pradesh, the hurdles that the drug inspectors are facing in withdrawing the dangerous medicine once again exposes the loopholes in our system of regulatory checks. Even as stringent action against the erring firms has been rightly initiated, protection of the potential consumer from a harmful syrup is compromised in the absence of an integrated regulatory framework for product recalls.
India is the largest provider of generic drugs worldwide and the expanding industry is bound to throw up safety concerns. Stringent quality standard regulations and consumer protection laws are in place to deal with them. The remedy lies in strong enforcement of rules aided by hi-tech mapping of data. The offenders must be administered the bitter pill.

Q. What is the role played by the second paragraph in the passage?

Solution:

The second passage states "Stringent quality standard regulations and consumer protection laws are in place to deal with them." The remedy lies in strong enforcement of rules aided by hi-tech mapping of data. The offenders must be administered the bitter pill as steps which must be taken. So the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 70

Read the text and answer the following question.

Once a batch of a drug is detected to be hazardous to the health and lives of potential patients, it becomes absolutely essential to trace — on a priority — every pill or potion out on the market. Ever since the death of 12 infants last month in the Ramnagar area of Udhampur district in Jammu and Kashmir has been traced to an impurity detected in the September 2019 batch of 5,500 bottles of Coldbest-PC Syrup, the drug regulatory authorities have pulled out all stops to reach out to its buyers and to recall the unsold stock. Given that the spurious product has found its way into not only J&K but also across Haryana, Tripura, UP and Himachal Pradesh, the hurdles that the drug inspectors are facing in withdrawing the dangerous medicine once again exposes the loopholes in our system of regulatory checks. Even as stringent action against the erring firms has been rightly initiated, protection of the potential consumer from a harmful syrup is compromised in the absence of an integrated regulatory framework for product recalls.
India is the largest provider of generic drugs worldwide and the expanding industry is bound to throw up safety concerns. Stringent quality standard regulations and consumer protection laws are in place to deal with them. The remedy lies in strong enforcement of rules aided by hi-tech mapping of data. The offenders must be administered the bitter pill.

Q. The statement that the spurious product from a firm in J&K has made its ways beyond the state plays which of the following roles in the argument?

Solution:

Option 1 is the correct answer as the author's statement about the spread of the spurious product beyond the borders of J&K shows the need for action at the end of the authorities. As it provides support to the author's conclusion. So it is a premise.

QUESTION: 71

Read the text and answer the following question.

Once a batch of a drug is detected to be hazardous to the health and lives of potential patients, it becomes absolutely essential to trace — on a priority — every pill or potion out on the market. Ever since the death of 12 infants last month in the Ramnagar area of Udhampur district in Jammu and Kashmir has been traced to an impurity detected in the September 2019 batch of 5,500 bottles of Coldbest-PC Syrup, the drug regulatory authorities have pulled out all stops to reach out to its buyers and to recall the unsold stock. Given that the spurious product has found its way into not only J&K but also across Haryana, Tripura, UP and Himachal Pradesh, the hurdles that the drug inspectors are facing in withdrawing the dangerous medicine once again exposes the loopholes in our system of regulatory checks. Even as stringent action against the erring firms has been rightly initiated, protection of the potential consumer from a harmful syrup is compromised in the absence of an integrated regulatory framework for product recalls.
India is the largest provider of generic drugs worldwide and the expanding industry is bound to throw up safety concerns. Stringent quality standard regulations and consumer protection laws are in place to deal with them. The remedy lies in strong enforcement of rules aided by hi-tech mapping of data. The offenders must be administered the bitter pill.

Q. Which of the following is most similar to the case referred to in the text?

Solution:

The passage mentions that the authorities realized that some impurity had gotten away without any check after 12 infants died in a certain region. They later realized that there were loopholes in the routine checking process which led to this incident. A similar case is presented in option 2 where a teacher grades all of her students A (ignoring her duty) and the students later fail in the finals (negative consequence). Other options don't highlight such a relationship where an authority's misstep leads to damaging consequences and are hence incorrect.

QUESTION: 72

Read the text and answer the following question.

Once a batch of a drug is detected to be hazardous to the health and lives of potential patients, it becomes absolutely essential to trace — on a priority — every pill or potion out on the market. Ever since the death of 12 infants last month in the Ramnagar area of Udhampur district in Jammu and Kashmir has been traced to an impurity detected in the September 2019 batch of 5,500 bottles of Coldbest-PC Syrup, the drug regulatory authorities have pulled out all stops to reach out to its buyers and to recall the unsold stock. Given that the spurious product has found its way into not only J&K but also across Haryana, Tripura, UP and Himachal Pradesh, the hurdles that the drug inspectors are facing in withdrawing the dangerous medicine once again exposes the loopholes in our system of regulatory checks. Even as stringent action against the erring firms has been rightly initiated, protection of the potential consumer from a harmful syrup is compromised in the absence of an integrated regulatory framework for product recalls.
India is the largest provider of generic drugs worldwide and the expanding industry is bound to throw up safety concerns. Stringent quality standard regulations and consumer protection laws are in place to deal with them. The remedy lies in strong enforcement of rules aided by hi-tech mapping of data. The offenders must be administered the bitter pill.

Q. Which of the following describes an assumption that the health authorities are making while removing the contaminated products from the market?

Solution:

Both the options are implicit in the authority's move to remove products from the market. It couldn't have just issued an advisory against the use of the medicine, but because they feel that it wouldn't be fruitful, they are making all the effort to remove the products from the market. Had it not been the duty of the authorities to remove the products from the market, they wouldn't have done it in the first place. So, both the assumptions are implicit in the health authorities' move.

QUESTION: 73

Read the text and answer the following question.

Once a batch of a drug is detected to be hazardous to the health and lives of potential patients, it becomes absolutely essential to trace — on a priority — every pill or potion out on the market. Ever since the death of 12 infants last month in the Ramnagar area of Udhampur district in Jammu and Kashmir has been traced to an impurity detected in the September 2019 batch of 5,500 bottles of Coldbest-PC Syrup, the drug regulatory authorities have pulled out all stops to reach out to its buyers and to recall the unsold stock. Given that the spurious product has found its way into not only J&K but also across Haryana, Tripura, UP and Himachal Pradesh, the hurdles that the drug inspectors are facing in withdrawing the dangerous medicine once again exposes the loopholes in our system of regulatory checks. Even as stringent action against the erring firms has been rightly initiated, protection of the potential consumer from a harmful syrup is compromised in the absence of an integrated regulatory framework for product recalls.
India is the largest provider of generic drugs worldwide and the expanding industry is bound to throw up safety concerns. Stringent quality standard regulations and consumer protection laws are in place to deal with them. The remedy lies in strong enforcement of rules aided by hi-tech mapping of data. The offenders must be administered the bitter pill.

Q. Which of the following could be the hurdles faced while withdrawing the hazardous products from the market?

Solution:

The passage states 'the spurious product has found its way into not only J&K but also across Haryana, Tripura, UP and Himachal Pradesh ...' Option 2 is not correct as stringent rules cannot be the obstacle in withdrawing the products from the market. Other options are not implied in the argument. Therefore, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 74

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Rapid, unplanned urbanisation as hordes of villagers shift to cities, coupled with climate change, has made the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region a hotspot of water mismanagement. Aridity stares in the face of the region — spanning Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Nepal to Myanmar, among others — that is called the 'third pole' as it has more ice than anywhere else after the Arctic and Antarctica. With little check on unsustainable practices, water resources are depleting alarmingly in the mountain area. Over two billion Asians are doomed to suffer the disastrous consequence of this calamity if urgent steps are not taken to arrest the meltdown.
The chilling projections of the environment study on the HKH region underscore repeated indications of India sitting on a water scarcity bomb — frequent floods and famines and extreme temperatures, springing from the inequitable distribution and overuse of the precious resource. To keep pace with the rising populations and their demands for better living, fatter funds are needed to strengthen the mechanisms for rainwater harvesting, groundwater replenishment, and stormwater and sewage management. The water governance policies of the mountain states need to particularly ensure that springs are adequately recharged. Himachal Pradesh's Giri barrage project, to ostensibly augment the water supply to Shimla, would serve as a lesson to all to not rush into unviable populist schemes. Thankfully, the HP government has now scrapped the project and cut its losses.

Q. Which of the following can be inferred regarding the Arctic and Antarctica from the passage?

Solution:

The text states that the HKH region is named 'third pole' because of huge availability of ice. It is further stated clearly that it has 'more ice than anywhere else after the Arctic and Antarctica'. The most appropriate answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 75

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Rapid, unplanned urbanisation as hordes of villagers shift to cities, coupled with climate change, has made the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region a hotspot of water mismanagement. Aridity stares in the face of the region — spanning Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Nepal to Myanmar, among others — that is called the 'third pole' as it has more ice than anywhere else after the Arctic and Antarctica. With little check on unsustainable practices, water resources are depleting alarmingly in the mountain area. Over two billion Asians are doomed to suffer the disastrous consequence of this calamity if urgent steps are not taken to arrest the meltdown.
The chilling projections of the environment study on the HKH region underscore repeated indications of India sitting on a water scarcity bomb — frequent floods and famines and extreme temperatures, springing from the inequitable distribution and overuse of the precious resource. To keep pace with the rising populations and their demands for better living, fatter funds are needed to strengthen the mechanisms for rainwater harvesting, groundwater replenishment, and stormwater and sewage management. The water governance policies of the mountain states need to particularly ensure that springs are adequately recharged. Himachal Pradesh's Giri barrage project, to ostensibly augment the water supply to Shimla, would serve as a lesson to all to not rush into unviable populist schemes. Thankfully, the HP government has now scrapped the project and cut its losses.

Q. Why does the author mention about the chilling projections of the environment study on the HKH region?

Solution:

The writer mentions 'projections of the environment study on the HKH region' to point out the criticality of the issue. It supports his point by stating that the 'environmental study' undermines the actual results. Thus, the most appropriate answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 76

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Rapid, unplanned urbanisation as hordes of villagers shift to cities, coupled with climate change, has made the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region a hotspot of water mismanagement. Aridity stares in the face of the region — spanning Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Nepal to Myanmar, among others — that is called the 'third pole' as it has more ice than anywhere else after the Arctic and Antarctica. With little check on unsustainable practices, water resources are depleting alarmingly in the mountain area. Over two billion Asians are doomed to suffer the disastrous consequence of this calamity if urgent steps are not taken to arrest the meltdown.
The chilling projections of the environment study on the HKH region underscore repeated indications of India sitting on a water scarcity bomb — frequent floods and famines and extreme temperatures, springing from the inequitable distribution and overuse of the precious resource. To keep pace with the rising populations and their demands for better living, fatter funds are needed to strengthen the mechanisms for rainwater harvesting, groundwater replenishment, and stormwater and sewage management. The water governance policies of the mountain states need to particularly ensure that springs are adequately recharged. Himachal Pradesh's Giri barrage project, to ostensibly augment the water supply to Shimla, would serve as a lesson to all to not rush into unviable populist schemes. Thankfully, the HP government has now scrapped the project and cut its losses.

Q. Which of the following strengthens the statement that over two billion Asians are doomed to suffer the disastrous consequence of this calamity if urgent steps are not taken?

Solution:

Option 1 relates to the regions outside Asia, which is not related to the text. Option 2 talks about specifically India, which cannot be inferred. Option 4 is the contradictory statement. The most appropriate answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 77

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Rapid, unplanned urbanisation as hordes of villagers shift to cities, coupled with climate change, has made the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region a hotspot of water mismanagement. Aridity stares in the face of the region — spanning Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Nepal to Myanmar, among others — that is called the 'third pole' as it has more ice than anywhere else after the Arctic and Antarctica. With little check on unsustainable practices, water resources are depleting alarmingly in the mountain area. Over two billion Asians are doomed to suffer the disastrous consequence of this calamity if urgent steps are not taken to arrest the meltdown.
The chilling projections of the environment study on the HKH region underscore repeated indications of India sitting on a water scarcity bomb — frequent floods and famines and extreme temperatures, springing from the inequitable distribution and overuse of the precious resource. To keep pace with the rising populations and their demands for better living, fatter funds are needed to strengthen the mechanisms for rainwater harvesting, groundwater replenishment, and stormwater and sewage management. The water governance policies of the mountain states need to particularly ensure that springs are adequately recharged. Himachal Pradesh's Giri barrage project, to ostensibly augment the water supply to Shimla, would serve as a lesson to all to not rush into unviable populist schemes. Thankfully, the HP government has now scrapped the project and cut its losses.

Q. If the author's arguments in the given passage are true, all of the following must also be true EXCEPT:

Solution:

Option 1 mentions about data collection which is not stated in the text. So it does not follow from the author's description in the text. All options logically follow from the author's description of water mismanagement in the region.

QUESTION: 78

Read the passage and answer the following question.

Rapid, unplanned urbanisation as hordes of villagers shift to cities, coupled with climate change, has made the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region a hotspot of water mismanagement. Aridity stares in the face of the region — spanning Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Nepal to Myanmar, among others — that is called the 'third pole' as it has more ice than anywhere else after the Arctic and Antarctica. With little check on unsustainable practices, water resources are depleting alarmingly in the mountain area. Over two billion Asians are doomed to suffer the disastrous consequence of this calamity if urgent steps are not taken to arrest the meltdown.
The chilling projections of the environment study on the HKH region underscore repeated indications of India sitting on a water scarcity bomb — frequent floods and famines and extreme temperatures, springing from the inequitable distribution and overuse of the precious resource. To keep pace with the rising populations and their demands for better living, fatter funds are needed to strengthen the mechanisms for rainwater harvesting, groundwater replenishment, and stormwater and sewage management. The water governance policies of the mountain states need to particularly ensure that springs are adequately recharged. Himachal Pradesh's Giri barrage project, to ostensibly augment the water supply to Shimla, would serve as a lesson to all to not rush into unviable populist schemes. Thankfully, the HP government has now scrapped the project and cut its losses.

Q. Which of the following is true for the Himachal Pradesh's Giri barrage project?

Solution:

The passage mentions 'Thankfully, the HP government has now scrapped the project and cut its losses'. This statement is enough to infer that option 2 is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 79

Read the text and answer the following questions.

Indicating the need for a rethink, the Supreme Court has asked Parliament to reconsider if the Speaker should continue to decide disqualification petitions of legislators under the anti-defection law (which provides disqualification of members from the Parliament and Assembly in case of defection or giving up one's commitment to a party and moving from one party to the other). The court asked for an independent mechanism to decide such cases, besides fixing a time limit of three months. The fractured nature of mandates has given rise to coalition politics, where disagreements arise between alliance partners. The quest for power along with money and muscle makes governments an unseemly spectacle, jeopardising political stability. That political stability is paramount has never been in doubt, more so when it is cobbled on the basis of shared beliefs. While the issue concerns their jurisdiction, charges of misuse of authority have always put presiding officers under a cloud.
Earlier, too, it was suggested that the President or the Governor should decide on the advice of the Election Commission. It should be ensured that the assignment does not become another sinecure for the judiciary. The court interprets and upholds the Constitution while the legislature enacts laws. The decision of the Speaker on disqualification is already subject to judicial review. While the SC does ask for introspection, the legislature should not abdicate its responsibility. Parliament represents the people and it should have a self-correcting mechanism. What better affirmation of it than the Preamble getting recited at agitations. Presiding officers should conform to the highest standards of conduct.

Q. Which of the following is not true as per the passage?

Solution:

Option 1 is true as the passage mentions 'The decision of the Speaker on disqualification is already subject to judicial review. While the SC does ask for introspection, the legislature should not abdicate its responsibility.'
Option 2 can be inferred from the line 'The quest for power along with money and muscle makes governments an unseemly spectacle, jeopardising political stability'.
Option 3 is true as per '... the legislature enacts laws'.
Option 4 cannot be derived from the passage and is hence the correct answer.

QUESTION: 80

Read the text and answer the following questions.

Indicating the need for a rethink, the Supreme Court has asked Parliament to reconsider if the Speaker should continue to decide disqualification petitions of legislators under the anti-defection law (which provides disqualification of members from the Parliament and Assembly in case of defection or giving up one's commitment to a party and moving from one party to the other). The court asked for an independent mechanism to decide such cases, besides fixing a time limit of three months. The fractured nature of mandates has given rise to coalition politics, where disagreements arise between alliance partners. The quest for power along with money and muscle makes governments an unseemly spectacle, jeopardising political stability. That political stability is paramount has never been in doubt, more so when it is cobbled on the basis of shared beliefs. While the issue concerns their jurisdiction, charges of misuse of authority have always put presiding officers under a cloud.
Earlier, too, it was suggested that the President or the Governor should decide on the advice of the Election Commission. It should be ensured that the assignment does not become another sinecure for the judiciary. The court interprets and upholds the Constitution while the legislature enacts laws. The decision of the Speaker on disqualification is already subject to judicial review. While the SC does ask for introspection, the legislature should not abdicate its responsibility. Parliament represents the people and it should have a self-correcting mechanism. What better affirmation of it than the Preamble getting recited at agitations. Presiding officers should conform to the highest standards of conduct.

Q. Which of the following is an assumption made in the text about why the Speaker should not preside over antidefection cases?

Solution:

The passage states about reviewing the Speaker's power in matters of disqualification petitions of legislators under the anti-defection law. Even the Supreme Court believes that there should be an independent body to preside over such cases. The only assumption that is implied in this case is that the decision of the Speaker might not be impartial because he is also affiliated to a certain political group and that may even be the one to which the government or minister has switched.

QUESTION: 81

Read the text and answer the following questions.

Indicating the need for a rethink, the Supreme Court has asked Parliament to reconsider if the Speaker should continue to decide disqualification petitions of legislators under the anti-defection law (which provides disqualification of members from the Parliament and Assembly in case of defection or giving up one's commitment to a party and moving from one party to the other). The court asked for an independent mechanism to decide such cases, besides fixing a time limit of three months. The fractured nature of mandates has given rise to coalition politics, where disagreements arise between alliance partners. The quest for power along with money and muscle makes governments an unseemly spectacle, jeopardising political stability. That political stability is paramount has never been in doubt, more so when it is cobbled on the basis of shared beliefs. While the issue concerns their jurisdiction, charges of misuse of authority have always put presiding officers under a cloud.
Earlier, too, it was suggested that the President or the Governor should decide on the advice of the Election Commission. It should be ensured that the assignment does not become another sinecure for the judiciary. The court interprets and upholds the Constitution while the legislature enacts laws. The decision of the Speaker on disqualification is already subject to judicial review. While the SC does ask for introspection, the legislature should not abdicate its responsibility. Parliament represents the people and it should have a self-correcting mechanism. What better affirmation of it than the Preamble getting recited at agitations. Presiding officers should conform to the highest standards of conduct.

Q. Which of the following can be inferred regarding the role of the presiding officer from the text?

Solution:

It is mentioned that 'Presiding officers should conform to the highest standards of conduct'. Thus, it could be inferred that such officers hold a reputed position and it is expected from them to strictly conform to the conduct. They must also be impartial in making their decision. Option 2 is the best possible answer.

QUESTION: 82

Read the text and answer the following questions.

Indicating the need for a rethink, the Supreme Court has asked Parliament to reconsider if the Speaker should continue to decide disqualification petitions of legislators under the anti-defection law (which provides disqualification of members from the Parliament and Assembly in case of defection or giving up one's commitment to a party and moving from one party to the other). The court asked for an independent mechanism to decide such cases, besides fixing a time limit of three months. The fractured nature of mandates has given rise to coalition politics, where disagreements arise between alliance partners. The quest for power along with money and muscle makes governments an unseemly spectacle, jeopardising political stability. That political stability is paramount has never been in doubt, more so when it is cobbled on the basis of shared beliefs. While the issue concerns their jurisdiction, charges of misuse of authority have always put presiding officers under a cloud.
Earlier, too, it was suggested that the President or the Governor should decide on the advice of the Election Commission. It should be ensured that the assignment does not become another sinecure for the judiciary. The court interprets and upholds the Constitution while the legislature enacts laws. The decision of the Speaker on disqualification is already subject to judicial review. While the SC does ask for introspection, the legislature should not abdicate its responsibility. Parliament represents the people and it should have a self-correcting mechanism. What better affirmation of it than the Preamble getting recited at agitations. Presiding officers should conform to the highest standards of conduct.

Q. Which of the following best supports the statement that parliament should have a self-correcting mechanism and should not pass on the onus to the judiciary in presiding over antidefection cases?

Solution:

Option 1 mentions that self-correcting mechanism is required in the Parliament to decide on such cases because there are too many of such cases and the judiciary is already overburdened to deal with such cases. This statement supports the requirement of self correcting mechanisms in place.

QUESTION: 83

Read the text and answer the following questions.

Indicating the need for a rethink, the Supreme Court has asked Parliament to reconsider if the Speaker should continue to decide disqualification petitions of legislators under the anti-defection law (which provides disqualification of members from the Parliament and Assembly in case of defection or giving up one's commitment to a party and moving from one party to the other). The court asked for an independent mechanism to decide such cases, besides fixing a time limit of three months. The fractured nature of mandates has given rise to coalition politics, where disagreements arise between alliance partners. The quest for power along with money and muscle makes governments an unseemly spectacle, jeopardising political stability. That political stability is paramount has never been in doubt, more so when it is cobbled on the basis of shared beliefs. While the issue concerns their jurisdiction, charges of misuse of authority have always put presiding officers under a cloud.
Earlier, too, it was suggested that the President or the Governor should decide on the advice of the Election Commission. It should be ensured that the assignment does not become another sinecure for the judiciary. The court interprets and upholds the Constitution while the legislature enacts laws. The decision of the Speaker on disqualification is already subject to judicial review. While the SC does ask for introspection, the legislature should not abdicate its responsibility. Parliament represents the people and it should have a self-correcting mechanism. What better affirmation of it than the Preamble getting recited at agitations. Presiding officers should conform to the highest standards of conduct.

Q. Which of the following is consistent with what is stated in the passage?

Solution:

The text mentions 'That political stability is paramount ...' which means that option 1 is true. Option 2 is also true as is mentioned '... should continue to decide disqualification petitions of legislators under the anti-defection law. The court asked for an independent mechanism to decide such cases, besides fixing a time limit of three months.'

QUESTION: 84

Read the passage and answer the following question.

A report tabled in Parliament by the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) has highlighted the grave financial situation of the Railways. The net revenue surplus dropped alarmingly by 66.1 per cent from Rs 4,913 crore in 2016-17 to Rs 1,665.61 crore in 2017-18. The CAG noted that the decline in generation of internal resources resulted in the Railways' greater dependence on gross budgetary support and extra budgetary resources for meeting its capital expenditure.
The 'Give Up' scheme, started in 2017 to encourage senior citizens to forgo their train fare concession, has flattered to deceive. The dismal numbers show that the Railways has failed to generate awareness among senior citizens about the initiative aimed at enhancing revenue. The sorry state of affairs is a far cry from the days of Lalu Prasad Yadav as Rail Mantri in the UPA-I government. His tenure was not controversy-free, courtesy the IRCTC hotels' tender allotment scam, but he is credited with turning around the Railways' fortunes. Lalu's homespun management model even attracted Harvard and Wharton business schools, though the CAG was unimpressed by his 'cash and investible surplus' claim. He took the populist route by neither hiking passenger fares nor retrenching workers, while allowing overloading of freight wagons and simplifying the freight tariff.
Even as an empowered group set up by the NDA government is looking into the feasibility of upgrading 50 railway stations to world-class standards and allowing private players to operate 150 trains, the Railways needs to walk a tightrope — rationalise its workforce on the one hand and scale up services to meet passengers' expectations on the other. Timely replacement of old assets and curtailing wasteful expenditure would be in order too. The nation's lifeline awaits a new lease of life.

Q. Which of the following could have increased awareness about 'The Give Up' scheme?

Solution:

Only option 3 includes a step that can be taken by the Railway Ministry to popularise the Give Up scheme asking senior citizens to give up the concessions that they are provided for the benefit of the Indian Railways. The text also states that there is lack of awareness among the senior citizens among them which has not yielded any results. In order to improve awareness, option 3 which talks about launching a nationwide campaign to create awareness could bring about the result. Option 1 is for youngsters, while the scheme is for senior citizens. Option 2 is a forced measure which is not consistent with the efforts to be taken by the Ministry in the text. Option 4 is incorrect since it is something that can be done for those who give up the concession - how they will be made aware about it has nothing to do with providing them a letter from the Railway Minister.

QUESTION: 85

Read the passage and answer the following question.

A report tabled in Parliament by the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) has highlighted the grave financial situation of the Railways. The net revenue surplus dropped alarmingly by 66.1 per cent from Rs 4,913 crore in 2016-17 to Rs 1,665.61 crore in 2017-18. The CAG noted that the decline in generation of internal resources resulted in the Railways' greater dependence on gross budgetary support and extra budgetary resources for meeting its capital expenditure.
The 'Give Up' scheme, started in 2017 to encourage senior citizens to forgo their train fare concession, has flattered to deceive. The dismal numbers show that the Railways has failed to generate awareness among senior citizens about the initiative aimed at enhancing revenue. The sorry state of affairs is a far cry from the days of Lalu Prasad Yadav as Rail Mantri in the UPA-I government. His tenure was not controversy-free, courtesy the IRCTC hotels' tender allotment scam, but he is credited with turning around the Railways' fortunes. Lalu's homespun management model even attracted Harvard and Wharton business schools, though the CAG was unimpressed by his 'cash and investible surplus' claim. He took the populist route by neither hiking passenger fares nor retrenching workers, while allowing overloading of freight wagons and simplifying the freight tariff.
Even as an empowered group set up by the NDA government is looking into the feasibility of upgrading 50 railway stations to world-class standards and allowing private players to operate 150 trains, the Railways needs to walk a tightrope — rationalise its workforce on the one hand and scale up services to meet passengers' expectations on the other. Timely replacement of old assets and curtailing wasteful expenditure would be in order too. The nation's lifeline awaits a new lease of life.

Q. Which of the following further suggests that the railways need to walk a tightrope?

Solution:

Option 4 is the correct answer which suggests that the Indian Railways has to walk a tightrope, which means to deal with a difficult situation, especially one involving making a decision between two opposing plans of action. Here, the Indian Railways has to "rationalise its workforce on the one hand and scale up services to meet passengers' expectations on the other" in order to recover its losses in the current scenario.

QUESTION: 86

Read the passage and answer the following question.

A report tabled in Parliament by the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) has highlighted the grave financial situation of the Railways. The net revenue surplus dropped alarmingly by 66.1 per cent from Rs 4,913 crore in 2016-17 to Rs 1,665.61 crore in 2017-18. The CAG noted that the decline in generation of internal resources resulted in the Railways' greater dependence on gross budgetary support and extra budgetary resources for meeting its capital expenditure.
The 'Give Up' scheme, started in 2017 to encourage senior citizens to forgo their train fare concession, has flattered to deceive. The dismal numbers show that the Railways has failed to generate awareness among senior citizens about the initiative aimed at enhancing revenue. The sorry state of affairs is a far cry from the days of Lalu Prasad Yadav as Rail Mantri in the UPA-I government. His tenure was not controversy-free, courtesy the IRCTC hotels' tender allotment scam, but he is credited with turning around the Railways' fortunes. Lalu's homespun management model even attracted Harvard and Wharton business schools, though the CAG was unimpressed by his 'cash and investible surplus' claim. He took the populist route by neither hiking passenger fares nor retrenching workers, while allowing overloading of freight wagons and simplifying the freight tariff.
Even as an empowered group set up by the NDA government is looking into the feasibility of upgrading 50 railway stations to world-class standards and allowing private players to operate 150 trains, the Railways needs to walk a tightrope — rationalise its workforce on the one hand and scale up services to meet passengers' expectations on the other. Timely replacement of old assets and curtailing wasteful expenditure would be in order too. The nation's lifeline awaits a new lease of life.

Q. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

Solution:

From the line 'The nation's lifeline awaits a new lease of life', it could be inferred that option 1 is true. Option 2 is incorrect since the passage states that the surplus is in decline, not the sector's financial state as a whole. Option 3 is incorrect because it cannot be inferred that Lalu was the best Railway Minister as there is no such information provided about him.

QUESTION: 87

Read the passage and answer the following question.

A report tabled in Parliament by the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) has highlighted the grave financial situation of the Railways. The net revenue surplus dropped alarmingly by 66.1 per cent from Rs 4,913 crore in 2016-17 to Rs 1,665.61 crore in 2017-18. The CAG noted that the decline in generation of internal resources resulted in the Railways' greater dependence on gross budgetary support and extra budgetary resources for meeting its capital expenditure.
The 'Give Up' scheme, started in 2017 to encourage senior citizens to forgo their train fare concession, has flattered to deceive. The dismal numbers show that the Railways has failed to generate awareness among senior citizens about the initiative aimed at enhancing revenue. The sorry state of affairs is a far cry from the days of Lalu Prasad Yadav as Rail Mantri in the UPA-I government. His tenure was not controversy-free, courtesy the IRCTC hotels' tender allotment scam, but he is credited with turning around the Railways' fortunes. Lalu's homespun management model even attracted Harvard and Wharton business schools, though the CAG was unimpressed by his 'cash and investible surplus' claim. He took the populist route by neither hiking passenger fares nor retrenching workers, while allowing overloading of freight wagons and simplifying the freight tariff.
Even as an empowered group set up by the NDA government is looking into the feasibility of upgrading 50 railway stations to world-class standards and allowing private players to operate 150 trains, the Railways needs to walk a tightrope — rationalise its workforce on the one hand and scale up services to meet passengers' expectations on the other. Timely replacement of old assets and curtailing wasteful expenditure would be in order too. The nation's lifeline awaits a new lease of life.

Q. Which of the following describes the grave financial situation that the Indian Railways is in?

Solution:

Option 1 is neutral and it is insufficient to infer whether the situation is worsening or improving. Option 2 states about the worsening financial condition of the Indian Railways. Option 3 relates to the 'Give Up' scheme which is not consistent with the question. Option 4 is the contradictory statement.

QUESTION: 88

Read the passage and answer the following question.

A report tabled in Parliament by the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) has highlighted the grave financial situation of the Railways. The net revenue surplus dropped alarmingly by 66.1 per cent from Rs 4,913 crore in 2016-17 to Rs 1,665.61 crore in 2017-18. The CAG noted that the decline in generation of internal resources resulted in the Railways' greater dependence on gross budgetary support and extra budgetary resources for meeting its capital expenditure.
The 'Give Up' scheme, started in 2017 to encourage senior citizens to forgo their train fare concession, has flattered to deceive. The dismal numbers show that the Railways has failed to generate awareness among senior citizens about the initiative aimed at enhancing revenue. The sorry state of affairs is a far cry from the days of Lalu Prasad Yadav as Rail Mantri in the UPA-I government. His tenure was not controversy-free, courtesy the IRCTC hotels' tender allotment scam, but he is credited with turning around the Railways' fortunes. Lalu's homespun management model even attracted Harvard and Wharton business schools, though the CAG was unimpressed by his 'cash and investible surplus' claim. He took the populist route by neither hiking passenger fares nor retrenching workers, while allowing overloading of freight wagons and simplifying the freight tariff.
Even as an empowered group set up by the NDA government is looking into the feasibility of upgrading 50 railway stations to world-class standards and allowing private players to operate 150 trains, the Railways needs to walk a tightrope — rationalise its workforce on the one hand and scale up services to meet passengers' expectations on the other. Timely replacement of old assets and curtailing wasteful expenditure would be in order too. The nation's lifeline awaits a new lease of life.

Q. Which of the following most accurately describes the role played by the statement that the sorry state of affairs is a far cry from the days of Lalu Prasad Yadav as Rail Mantri in the UPA-I government?

Solution:

It is not the overall essence of the passage; thus, option 1 cannot be the answer. It is consistent with the passage as well, which makes option 2 incorrect. It is not refuted by the author in the text. So, option 4 is incorrect. Option 3 is correct as it further leads to draw that the situation of the Railways is very bad.

QUESTION: 89

Read the text and answer the following questions.

Literacy brings with it an awakened and more aware citizenry; people cognisant of their rights; and the aggrieved knocking the doors of the courts for justice and legal redress. But are they really getting justice? Inordinate delays and adjournments remain the order of the day. Orders and verdicts ordinarily take up to a decade. Some cases are even pending for over four decades, defeating the very purpose of providing relief to the litigants. That is, if they are still alive. It is a matter of concern that the judicial delivery mechanism has failed to keep pace with the mounting number of cases. Statistics of the Punjab and Haryana High Court reveal a staggeringly worrisome scenario. According to the National Judicial Data Grid, the Punjab and Haryana High Court accounts for the second highest number of pending cases in the country, after the Allahabad High Court. The HC steps into 2020 with a distressing backlog of over five lakh cases.
The Economic Survey 2018-19 pins the blame for the clogged courts on the acute shortage of judges in the country. As per Law Ministry data, India has just 19 judges per 10 lakh people. The Law Commission's recommendation to increase the ratio to 50 judges is gathering dust. Meanwhile, poor administrative infrastructure has been contributing to the rising legislation, frequent adjournments and inadequate arrangement to monitor, track and bunch cases for hearing. Administrative support to the judges is critical to fast-tracking cases.

Q. Which of the following is an example of the statement 'Literacy brings with it an awakened and more aware citizenry' that is mentioned in the text?

Solution:

The text states the essence of the sentence in another line in the passage: '... people cognisant of their rights'. This is best expressed in option 3.

QUESTION: 90

Read the text and answer the following questions.

Literacy brings with it an awakened and more aware citizenry; people cognisant of their rights; and the aggrieved knocking the doors of the courts for justice and legal redress. But are they really getting justice? Inordinate delays and adjournments remain the order of the day. Orders and verdicts ordinarily take up to a decade. Some cases are even pending for over four decades, defeating the very purpose of providing relief to the litigants. That is, if they are still alive. It is a matter of concern that the judicial delivery mechanism has failed to keep pace with the mounting number of cases. Statistics of the Punjab and Haryana High Court reveal a staggeringly worrisome scenario. According to the National Judicial Data Grid, the Punjab and Haryana High Court accounts for the second highest number of pending cases in the country, after the Allahabad High Court. The HC steps into 2020 with a distressing backlog of over five lakh cases.
The Economic Survey 2018-19 pins the blame for the clogged courts on the acute shortage of judges in the country. As per Law Ministry data, India has just 19 judges per 10 lakh people. The Law Commission's recommendation to increase the ratio to 50 judges is gathering dust. Meanwhile, poor administrative infrastructure has been contributing to the rising legislation, frequent adjournments and inadequate arrangement to monitor, track and bunch cases for hearing. Administrative support to the judges is critical to fast-tracking cases.

Q. Which of the following is the reason behind increasing number of pending cases in the country, as per the passage?

Solution:

The main reason that is mentioned in the passage for the mounting number of pending cases is the shortage of judges. This is stated in the lines 'The Economic Survey 2018-19 pins the blame for the clogged courts on the acute shortage of judges in the country. As per Law Ministry data, India has just 19 judges per 10 lakh people.'

QUESTION: 91

Read the text and answer the following questions.

Literacy brings with it an awakened and more aware citizenry; people cognisant of their rights; and the aggrieved knocking the doors of the courts for justice and legal redress. But are they really getting justice? Inordinate delays and adjournments remain the order of the day. Orders and verdicts ordinarily take up to a decade. Some cases are even pending for over four decades, defeating the very purpose of providing relief to the litigants. That is, if they are still alive. It is a matter of concern that the judicial delivery mechanism has failed to keep pace with the mounting number of cases. Statistics of the Punjab and Haryana High Court reveal a staggeringly worrisome scenario. According to the National Judicial Data Grid, the Punjab and Haryana High Court accounts for the second highest number of pending cases in the country, after the Allahabad High Court. The HC steps into 2020 with a distressing backlog of over five lakh cases.
The Economic Survey 2018-19 pins the blame for the clogged courts on the acute shortage of judges in the country. As per Law Ministry data, India has just 19 judges per 10 lakh people. The Law Commission's recommendation to increase the ratio to 50 judges is gathering dust. Meanwhile, poor administrative infrastructure has been contributing to the rising legislation, frequent adjournments and inadequate arrangement to monitor, track and bunch cases for hearing. Administrative support to the judges is critical to fast-tracking cases.

Q. Which of the following can be inferred from the above text?

Solution:

The text mentions 'Punjab and Haryana High Court accounts for the second highest number of pending cases ...' which means that option 1 is incorrect.
Options 3 and 4 are not referred to in the passage.
Option 2 can be inferred from the lines 'The Law Commission's recommendation to increase the ratio to 50 judges is gathering dust ...'

QUESTION: 92

Read the text and answer the following questions.

Literacy brings with it an awakened and more aware citizenry; people cognisant of their rights; and the aggrieved knocking the doors of the courts for justice and legal redress. But are they really getting justice? Inordinate delays and adjournments remain the order of the day. Orders and verdicts ordinarily take up to a decade. Some cases are even pending for over four decades, defeating the very purpose of providing relief to the litigants. That is, if they are still alive. It is a matter of concern that the judicial delivery mechanism has failed to keep pace with the mounting number of cases. Statistics of the Punjab and Haryana High Court reveal a staggeringly worrisome scenario. According to the National Judicial Data Grid, the Punjab and Haryana High Court accounts for the second highest number of pending cases in the country, after the Allahabad High Court. The HC steps into 2020 with a distressing backlog of over five lakh cases.
The Economic Survey 2018-19 pins the blame for the clogged courts on the acute shortage of judges in the country. As per Law Ministry data, India has just 19 judges per 10 lakh people. The Law Commission's recommendation to increase the ratio to 50 judges is gathering dust. Meanwhile, poor administrative infrastructure has been contributing to the rising legislation, frequent adjournments and inadequate arrangement to monitor, track and bunch cases for hearing. Administrative support to the judges is critical to fast-tracking cases.

Q. Which of the following best explains why the results of the survey mentioned in the text cannot be relied upon?

Solution:

If option 2 is considered true, it would cast doubt upon the conclusion made by the author in the passage. Option 2 states that flaws have been detected in the survey which were later removed. If there are flaws in the survey, it won't be reliable.

QUESTION: 93

Read the text and answer the following questions.

Literacy brings with it an awakened and more aware citizenry; people cognisant of their rights; and the aggrieved knocking the doors of the courts for justice and legal redress. But are they really getting justice? Inordinate delays and adjournments remain the order of the day. Orders and verdicts ordinarily take up to a decade. Some cases are even pending for over four decades, defeating the very purpose of providing relief to the litigants. That is, if they are still alive. It is a matter of concern that the judicial delivery mechanism has failed to keep pace with the mounting number of cases. Statistics of the Punjab and Haryana High Court reveal a staggeringly worrisome scenario. According to the National Judicial Data Grid, the Punjab and Haryana High Court accounts for the second highest number of pending cases in the country, after the Allahabad High Court. The HC steps into 2020 with a distressing backlog of over five lakh cases.
The Economic Survey 2018-19 pins the blame for the clogged courts on the acute shortage of judges in the country. As per Law Ministry data, India has just 19 judges per 10 lakh people. The Law Commission's recommendation to increase the ratio to 50 judges is gathering dust. Meanwhile, poor administrative infrastructure has been contributing to the rising legislation, frequent adjournments and inadequate arrangement to monitor, track and bunch cases for hearing. Administrative support to the judges is critical to fast-tracking cases.

Q. Which of the following roles does the statistics of Punjab and Haryana High Courts play in the argument to provide administrative support to the judges as critical to fast-tracking cases?

Solution:

Statistics of the number of cases pending and the number of judges in office to deal with them in Punjab and Haryana High Courts is presented by the author as evidence of the worrisome scenario. So it offers one of the premises of the argument. So the correct answer is 1.

QUESTION: 94

In the question below, you are provided a statement, and two assumptions, numbered 'I' and 'II'. Read the statement, and determine which assumption or assumptions is/are implicit in the statement.

Q. Statement: The dog chases a cat.
Assumption I: The cat cannot chase the dog.
Assumption II: The dog is free all day.

Solution:

I is not a valid assumption. It may not be assumed that a dog chases a cat since a cat cannot chase a dog.
II is not a valid assumption. It may not be assumed that a dog chases a cat as it has nothing else to do all day.

QUESTION: 95

In the question below, you are provided a statement, and two assumptions, numbered 'I' and 'II'. Read the statement, and determine which assumption or assumptions is/are implicit in the statement.

Q. Statement: Stereoscopic 3D technology tricks the brain into believing it is viewing a real scene rather than a flat image on a screen.
Assumption I: Images on the screen can be more than just flat.
Assumption II: A real image is a 3D image, unlike a flat image.

Solution:

Assumption I is not a valid assumption. The assumption that an image on a screen can be nothing more than flat would be a valid one.
Assumption II is a valid assumption, as is clear from the author's statement. A real image was formed using 3D technology.

QUESTION: 96

In the question below, you are provided a statement, and two assumptions, numbered 'I' and 'II'. Read the statement, and determine which assumption or assumptions is/are implicit in the statement.

Q. Statement: "Cut the crap and come straight to the point," A tells B.
Assumption I: B has a lot of time on hand and assumes the same for others.
Assumption II: A neither has time, nor patience for long-winded conversations.

Solution:

I is a valid assumption, as A assumes B to have a lot of time on hand and B assumes the same for others.
II is a valid assumption, as this is the reason A says so to B.

QUESTION: 97

Read the text and answer the following questions.

Chandigarh will host the shooting and archery competitions of the 2022 Commonwealth Games, six months before the actual Games begin in Birmingham. This might sound slightly mad, but there's method to this: The medals from the two competitions in India will be counted in the official CWG 2022 table. This will definitely push India up the medal table — and help inflate India's vanity. In the last three CWG, 63 out of the 231 medals won by India across all sports were earned by the shooters. That amounts to a staggeringly high 27.27%; the share of gold medals won by the shooters, 25 out of 79 in three CWG, is even more impressive at 31.64%. This is the reason the Indian Olympic Association (IOA) will use the country's money and resources to organise the events in Chandigarh.
Birmingham dropped shooting from the programme because the nearest shooting range appropriate to hold the event is 210 km away; further, the range needed to be revamped to bring it up to the requisite standard. The organisers deemed this a waste of public money. However, Indian sports administrators believe it is acceptable to spend the taxpayers' money on hosting shooting and archery events in India in order to earn bragging rights. As Sports Minister Kiren Rijiju said, 'If you are getting medals, whatever the way it has to be, I think it is justified…' Thus, we will have the absurdity of two CWG events in Chandigarh, six months and 6,600 km away from the Birmingham CWG.

Q. Which of the following is true as per the passage?

Solution:

The passage mentions about the organizing of CWG events in two parts. One of the parts will be held in Chandigarh; this is what the passage focuses on. Thus, option 4 is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 98

Read the text and answer the following questions.

Chandigarh will host the shooting and archery competitions of the 2022 Commonwealth Games, six months before the actual Games begin in Birmingham. This might sound slightly mad, but there's method to this: The medals from the two competitions in India will be counted in the official CWG 2022 table. This will definitely push India up the medal table — and help inflate India's vanity. In the last three CWG, 63 out of the 231 medals won by India across all sports were earned by the shooters. That amounts to a staggeringly high 27.27%; the share of gold medals won by the shooters, 25 out of 79 in three CWG, is even more impressive at 31.64%. This is the reason the Indian Olympic Association (IOA) will use the country's money and resources to organise the events in Chandigarh.
Birmingham dropped shooting from the programme because the nearest shooting range appropriate to hold the event is 210 km away; further, the range needed to be revamped to bring it up to the requisite standard. The organisers deemed this a waste of public money. However, Indian sports administrators believe it is acceptable to spend the taxpayers' money on hosting shooting and archery events in India in order to earn bragging rights. As Sports Minister Kiren Rijiju said, 'If you are getting medals, whatever the way it has to be, I think it is justified…' Thus, we will have the absurdity of two CWG events in Chandigarh, six months and 6,600 km away from the Birmingham CWG.

Q. Which of the following, apart from what is stated in the passage, also undermines the belief that it is acceptable to use public money on hosting international sports events?

Solution:

Option 2 is neither a strengthening not a weakening statement. Options 3 and 4 strengthen the statement, so they cannot be answers. Option 1 is correct as it states that hosting of international events causes disruption in the daily lives of the people.

QUESTION: 99

Read the text and answer the following questions.

Chandigarh will host the shooting and archery competitions of the 2022 Commonwealth Games, six months before the actual Games begin in Birmingham. This might sound slightly mad, but there's method to this: The medals from the two competitions in India will be counted in the official CWG 2022 table. This will definitely push India up the medal table — and help inflate India's vanity. In the last three CWG, 63 out of the 231 medals won by India across all sports were earned by the shooters. That amounts to a staggeringly high 27.27%; the share of gold medals won by the shooters, 25 out of 79 in three CWG, is even more impressive at 31.64%. This is the reason the Indian Olympic Association (IOA) will use the country's money and resources to organise the events in Chandigarh.
Birmingham dropped shooting from the programme because the nearest shooting range appropriate to hold the event is 210 km away; further, the range needed to be revamped to bring it up to the requisite standard. The organisers deemed this a waste of public money. However, Indian sports administrators believe it is acceptable to spend the taxpayers' money on hosting shooting and archery events in India in order to earn bragging rights. As Sports Minister Kiren Rijiju said, 'If you are getting medals, whatever the way it has to be, I think it is justified…' Thus, we will have the absurdity of two CWG events in Chandigarh, six months and 6,600 km away from the Birmingham CWG.

Q. Why does the author call the organizing of two CWG events as 'absurd'?

Solution:

Options 1 and 3 do not have any reference in the text. Option 4 mentions the statement that could not be the reason for its 'absurdity'. Option 2 is the most appropriate answer as the writer talks about spending public money in the same context.

QUESTION: 100

Read the text and answer the following questions.

Chandigarh will host the shooting and archery competitions of the 2022 Commonwealth Games, six months before the actual Games begin in Birmingham. This might sound slightly mad, but there's method to this: The medals from the two competitions in India will be counted in the official CWG 2022 table. This will definitely push India up the medal table — and help inflate India's vanity. In the last three CWG, 63 out of the 231 medals won by India across all sports were earned by the shooters. That amounts to a staggeringly high 27.27%; the share of gold medals won by the shooters, 25 out of 79 in three CWG, is even more impressive at 31.64%. This is the reason the Indian Olympic Association (IOA) will use the country's money and resources to organise the events in Chandigarh.
Birmingham dropped shooting from the programme because the nearest shooting range appropriate to hold the event is 210 km away; further, the range needed to be revamped to bring it up to the requisite standard. The organisers deemed this a waste of public money. However, Indian sports administrators believe it is acceptable to spend the taxpayers' money on hosting shooting and archery events in India in order to earn bragging rights. As Sports Minister Kiren Rijiju said, 'If you are getting medals, whatever the way it has to be, I think it is justified…' Thus, we will have the absurdity of two CWG events in Chandigarh, six months and 6,600 km away from the Birmingham CWG.

Q. What, as could be inferred, is the main purpose of India undertaking to host the shooting and archery events?

Solution:

The answer could be derived from the line '... it is acceptable to spend the taxpayers' money on hosting shooting and archery events in India in order to earn bragging rights ...' This point is best presented in option 3.

QUESTION: 101

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

Sir William Anson defines 'wager' as a promise to give money or money's worth upon the determination or ascertainment of an uncertain event. The word 'wager' means 'a bet' something stated to be lost or won on the result of an uncertain issue; hence, wagering agreements are ordinary betting agreements. The Indian Contract Act, 1872 does not define wager or a wagering agreement. It only states that agreements by way of the wager will be void and no action can lie to contracting parties to recover anything or claim performance of the wagering agreements. A wagering agreement has the characteristic of a contingent contract but is not enforceable by Section 30. A wagering agreement depends upon an uncertain event. The parties to the agreement have uncertainty in the minds about the determination of the event in one way or another. A wager may be based on a future event or even relate to a past event and the parties are not aware of the outcome of its happening. In a wagering agreement, two parties must have mutual chances of gain and loss, i.e. one party will win and the other will lose depending on the outcome of the event. Each party should stand to win or lose upon the determination of the contemplated event in reference to which the chance or risk is taken. It is not a wager where one party may win but cannot lose, or it may lose but cannot win, or if it can neither win nor lose. If one of the parties has the event in his own hands, the transaction lacks an essential ingredient of a wager. Neither party should have any interest in happening or non-happening of the event other than the sum he will win or lose. If either party has some other interest other than the sum he will win or lose, it will not be a wager. The parties to the contract should not have any control over the happening of the event one way or the other. The wagering agreement must contain a promise to pay money or money's worth. Insurance contracts are contracts of indemnity. They are entered into, to safeguard the interest of one party to the contract. In this contract, the insured has insurable interest in the property or life. Hence, it is not a wager. Skill competitions are not said to be wagers since the winning of such events requires a substantial amount of skill and is not dependent on the probability of an uncertain event.

Q. An inter-college football match was to be held in Indore between St. Martin's College and St. Jones College. If St. Martin's wins the match, Jo agrees to pay Rs. 5,000, whereas if St. Jones wins, Nia will pay 5,000 to Jo. Decide.

Solution:

In a wagering agreement, two parties must have mutual chances of gain and loss, i.e. one party will win and the other will lose depending on the outcome of the event. Each party should stand to win or lose upon the determination of the contemplated event in reference to which the chance or risk is taken.
Therefore, this is a wagering agreement as both have agreed to it for the chance to win and lose and the agreement is void.

QUESTION: 102

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

Sir William Anson defines 'wager' as a promise to give money or money's worth upon the determination or ascertainment of an uncertain event. The word 'wager' means 'a bet' something stated to be lost or won on the result of an uncertain issue; hence, wagering agreements are ordinary betting agreements. The Indian Contract Act, 1872 does not define wager or a wagering agreement. It only states that agreements by way of the wager will be void and no action can lie to contracting parties to recover anything or claim performance of the wagering agreements. A wagering agreement has the characteristic of a contingent contract but is not enforceable by Section 30. A wagering agreement depends upon an uncertain event. The parties to the agreement have uncertainty in the minds about the determination of the event in one way or another. A wager may be based on a future event or even relate to a past event and the parties are not aware of the outcome of its happening. In a wagering agreement, two parties must have mutual chances of gain and loss, i.e. one party will win and the other will lose depending on the outcome of the event. Each party should stand to win or lose upon the determination of the contemplated event in reference to which the chance or risk is taken. It is not a wager where one party may win but cannot lose, or it may lose but cannot win, or if it can neither win nor lose. If one of the parties has the event in his own hands, the transaction lacks an essential ingredient of a wager. Neither party should have any interest in happening or non-happening of the event other than the sum he will win or lose. If either party has some other interest other than the sum he will win or lose, it will not be a wager. The parties to the contract should not have any control over the happening of the event one way or the other. The wagering agreement must contain a promise to pay money or money's worth. Insurance contracts are contracts of indemnity. They are entered into, to safeguard the interest of one party to the contract. In this contract, the insured has insurable interest in the property or life. Hence, it is not a wager. Skill competitions are not said to be wagers since the winning of such events requires a substantial amount of skill and is not dependent on the probability of an uncertain event.

Q. Aman and Shiv entered into an agreement stating that if Aman resigns from his job, Shiv will pay Rs. 600 to Aman, and Aman will pay Rs. 600 if Shiv doesn't resign from his job. Decide

Solution:

Here, Aman has the event under his control. Hence, it is not a wager. Thus, 'None of the above' is the correct answer option.

QUESTION: 103

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

Sir William Anson defines 'wager' as a promise to give money or money's worth upon the determination or ascertainment of an uncertain event. The word 'wager' means 'a bet' something stated to be lost or won on the result of an uncertain issue; hence, wagering agreements are ordinary betting agreements. The Indian Contract Act, 1872 does not define wager or a wagering agreement. It only states that agreements by way of the wager will be void and no action can lie to contracting parties to recover anything or claim performance of the wagering agreements. A wagering agreement has the characteristic of a contingent contract but is not enforceable by Section 30. A wagering agreement depends upon an uncertain event. The parties to the agreement have uncertainty in the minds about the determination of the event in one way or another. A wager may be based on a future event or even relate to a past event and the parties are not aware of the outcome of its happening. In a wagering agreement, two parties must have mutual chances of gain and loss, i.e. one party will win and the other will lose depending on the outcome of the event. Each party should stand to win or lose upon the determination of the contemplated event in reference to which the chance or risk is taken. It is not a wager where one party may win but cannot lose, or it may lose but cannot win, or if it can neither win nor lose. If one of the parties has the event in his own hands, the transaction lacks an essential ingredient of a wager. Neither party should have any interest in happening or non-happening of the event other than the sum he will win or lose. If either party has some other interest other than the sum he will win or lose, it will not be a wager. The parties to the contract should not have any control over the happening of the event one way or the other. The wagering agreement must contain a promise to pay money or money's worth. Insurance contracts are contracts of indemnity. They are entered into, to safeguard the interest of one party to the contract. In this contract, the insured has insurable interest in the property or life. Hence, it is not a wager. Skill competitions are not said to be wagers since the winning of such events requires a substantial amount of skill and is not dependent on the probability of an uncertain event.

Q. XYZ newspaper has a daily SUDOKU section. It is stated in the newspaper that the winner will be given the first prize. The solutions are to be sent by post to the editor of the newspaper who will choose the winner among the correct entries.

Solution:

This is a wagering agreement as there is an equal chance to win or lose.
This is a game of chance and is therefore a lottery. Thus, it is a wager.

QUESTION: 104

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

Sir William Anson defines 'wager' as a promise to give money or money's worth upon the determination or ascertainment of an uncertain event. The word 'wager' means 'a bet' something stated to be lost or won on the result of an uncertain issue; hence, wagering agreements are ordinary betting agreements. The Indian Contract Act, 1872 does not define wager or a wagering agreement. It only states that agreements by way of the wager will be void and no action can lie to contracting parties to recover anything or claim performance of the wagering agreements. A wagering agreement has the characteristic of a contingent contract but is not enforceable by Section 30. A wagering agreement depends upon an uncertain event. The parties to the agreement have uncertainty in the minds about the determination of the event in one way or another. A wager may be based on a future event or even relate to a past event and the parties are not aware of the outcome of its happening. In a wagering agreement, two parties must have mutual chances of gain and loss, i.e. one party will win and the other will lose depending on the outcome of the event. Each party should stand to win or lose upon the determination of the contemplated event in reference to which the chance or risk is taken. It is not a wager where one party may win but cannot lose, or it may lose but cannot win, or if it can neither win nor lose. If one of the parties has the event in his own hands, the transaction lacks an essential ingredient of a wager. Neither party should have any interest in happening or non-happening of the event other than the sum he will win or lose. If either party has some other interest other than the sum he will win or lose, it will not be a wager. The parties to the contract should not have any control over the happening of the event one way or the other. The wagering agreement must contain a promise to pay money or money's worth. Insurance contracts are contracts of indemnity. They are entered into, to safeguard the interest of one party to the contract. In this contract, the insured has insurable interest in the property or life. Hence, it is not a wager. Skill competitions are not said to be wagers since the winning of such events requires a substantial amount of skill and is not dependent on the probability of an uncertain event.

Q. Abhi insures his factory against fire with XYZ insurance company. Abhi has to pay an insurance premium of Rs. 100 per month as per the terms of the contract. If the factory is destroyed by fire, XYZ will pay the actual amount of loss suffered by him. Decide.

Solution:

According to the passage, 'It is not a wager where one party may win but cannot lose, or it may lose but cannot win, or if it can neither win nor lose.' Therefore, this is not a wagering agreement as Abhi won't gain anything of this agreement.

QUESTION: 105

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

Sir William Anson defines 'wager' as a promise to give money or money's worth upon the determination or ascertainment of an uncertain event. The word 'wager' means 'a bet' something stated to be lost or won on the result of an uncertain issue; hence, wagering agreements are ordinary betting agreements. The Indian Contract Act, 1872 does not define wager or a wagering agreement. It only states that agreements by way of the wager will be void and no action can lie to contracting parties to recover anything or claim performance of the wagering agreements. A wagering agreement has the characteristic of a contingent contract but is not enforceable by Section 30. A wagering agreement depends upon an uncertain event. The parties to the agreement have uncertainty in the minds about the determination of the event in one way or another. A wager may be based on a future event or even relate to a past event and the parties are not aware of the outcome of its happening. In a wagering agreement, two parties must have mutual chances of gain and loss, i.e. one party will win and the other will lose depending on the outcome of the event. Each party should stand to win or lose upon the determination of the contemplated event in reference to which the chance or risk is taken. It is not a wager where one party may win but cannot lose, or it may lose but cannot win, or if it can neither win nor lose. If one of the parties has the event in his own hands, the transaction lacks an essential ingredient of a wager. Neither party should have any interest in happening or non-happening of the event other than the sum he will win or lose. If either party has some other interest other than the sum he will win or lose, it will not be a wager. The parties to the contract should not have any control over the happening of the event one way or the other. The wagering agreement must contain a promise to pay money or money's worth. Insurance contracts are contracts of indemnity. They are entered into, to safeguard the interest of one party to the contract. In this contract, the insured has insurable interest in the property or life. Hence, it is not a wager. Skill competitions are not said to be wagers since the winning of such events requires a substantial amount of skill and is not dependent on the probability of an uncertain event.

Q. X invested in a mutual fund company in Kolkata. Does a mutual fund company come under the ambit of wagering contracts?

Solution:

This is not a wagering agreement as in mutual funds, there are no mutual benefits. Mutual fund cannot be called a wager because although some members have a chance to gain, none of them has a chance to lose as the recovery of the amount contributed is assured even if the time period is unknown.

QUESTION: 106

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law, other than the ones supplied to you and do not assume any facts, other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

Criminal liability has been defined as being responsible for a criminal act. It is an established principle of criminal law that no one should be convicted or held liable for a crime, unless some measure of subjective fault can be attributed to him.
This invariably means that such a person must not only actively perform the act (actus anus), but also possess the guilty intention (mens rea) required for the commission of such offence. These two elements are a sine qua non to the commission of any offence as failure to establish those elements leads to an acquittal.
However, it is not all acts that are to be punished. There are certain defences that the law provides which exculpate criminal liability. It is provided for in sections 76 to 106 of Indian Penal Code (IPC), 1860.
These defences are based on the fact that although the person committed an offence, he cannot be held criminally liable because as at the time the offence was committed, he was justified of his acts or he had no intention to commit such an offence.
Mistake of fact: This exception excludes a person from criminal liability where the person was mistaken as to the existence of some facts or ignorant of the existence of such facts.
Accident: This exception excludes a person from criminal liability where such acts occur as a result of an accident. This means that although the person performed the act, such act was devoid of an intention.
Essential elements: The act must be an accident or misfortune. The act was done without criminal intention or knowledge. It must be in the performance of a lawful act. It must be exercised in a lawful manner and by lawful means. Such an act must have been done with care and caution.
Infancy: According to Section 82 of IPC, nothing is an offence which is done by a child under seven years of age.
By virtue of Section 83 of IPC, a person under the age of twelve, but above the age of seven is not criminally liable for any offence committed, provided such child has not attained maturity of understanding to know that he ought not to do the act or make the omission.
When the child has attained maturity of understanding that he ought not to perform such an act, he becomes criminally liable.
Insanity: This exception excludes a person from criminal liability as a result of unsoundness of mind if, at the time of the commission of the offence, the person was incapable of knowing the nature of his acts and that his actions were wrong or contrary to law.
Intoxication: The provision for intoxication is stipulated under sections 85 and 86 of the IPC. The difference between these sections is that in the former, a person is intoxicated involuntarily. In the latter, a person is intoxicated voluntarily and he would be held liable for the tort.

Q. Rajiv, an environmentalist, went to Aravalli Hills for sprinkling a pesticide on a specific type of tree which was breeding a dangerous bacteria. He was doing the same during the afternoon. Bhola, a villager, was fetching woods from the forest. Rajiv was sprinkling pesticide with a pesticide gun. Unfortunately, the pesticide infused bullet reflected from a tree and caused harm to Bhola. Rajiv was held liable. Decide.

Solution:

Accident committed while doing a lawful act. Nothing is an offence which is done by accident or misfortune, without any criminal intention or knowledge in the doing of a lawful act in a lawful manner by lawful means and with proper care and caution. There is no criminal element i.e. the person must not only actively perform the act (actus anus), but also possess the guilty intention (mens rea) required for the commission of such offence. Thus, none of the above is the correct answer option.

QUESTION: 107

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law, other than the ones supplied to you and do not assume any facts, other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

Criminal liability has been defined as being responsible for a criminal act. It is an established principle of criminal law that no one should be convicted or held liable for a crime, unless some measure of subjective fault can be attributed to him.
This invariably means that such a person must not only actively perform the act (actus anus), but also possess the guilty intention (mens rea) required for the commission of such offence. These two elements are a sine qua non to the commission of any offence as failure to establish those elements leads to an acquittal.
However, it is not all acts that are to be punished. There are certain defences that the law provides which exculpate criminal liability. It is provided for in sections 76 to 106 of Indian Penal Code (IPC), 1860.
These defences are based on the fact that although the person committed an offence, he cannot be held criminally liable because as at the time the offence was committed, he was justified of his acts or he had no intention to commit such an offence.
Mistake of fact: This exception excludes a person from criminal liability where the person was mistaken as to the existence of some facts or ignorant of the existence of such facts.
Accident: This exception excludes a person from criminal liability where such acts occur as a result of an accident. This means that although the person performed the act, such act was devoid of an intention.
Essential elements: The act must be an accident or misfortune. The act was done without criminal intention or knowledge. It must be in the performance of a lawful act. It must be exercised in a lawful manner and by lawful means. Such an act must have been done with care and caution.
Infancy: According to Section 82 of IPC, nothing is an offence which is done by a child under seven years of age.
By virtue of Section 83 of IPC, a person under the age of twelve, but above the age of seven is not criminally liable for any offence committed, provided such child has not attained maturity of understanding to know that he ought not to do the act or make the omission.
When the child has attained maturity of understanding that he ought not to perform such an act, he becomes criminally liable.
Insanity: This exception excludes a person from criminal liability as a result of unsoundness of mind if, at the time of the commission of the offence, the person was incapable of knowing the nature of his acts and that his actions were wrong or contrary to law.
Intoxication: The provision for intoxication is stipulated under sections 85 and 86 of the IPC. The difference between these sections is that in the former, a person is intoxicated involuntarily. In the latter, a person is intoxicated voluntarily and he would be held liable for the tort.

Q. Arya, an eleven year old girl, had a 15 year old sibling. Arya had always been a stubborn kid. One day, she demanded a toy from his brother. He refused to give her the same. Arya, in rage, stabbed her brother with a knife and he was badly injured. She was held by the court of law. Decide.

Solution:

By virtue of Section 83 of IPC, a person under the age of twelve, but above the age of seven is not criminally liable for any offence committed, provided such child has not attained maturity of understanding to know that he ought not to do the act or make the omission. Therefore, Arya would be exempted under the general exceptions.

QUESTION: 108

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law, other than the ones supplied to you and do not assume any facts, other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

Criminal liability has been defined as being responsible for a criminal act. It is an established principle of criminal law that no one should be convicted or held liable for a crime, unless some measure of subjective fault can be attributed to him.
This invariably means that such a person must not only actively perform the act (actus anus), but also possess the guilty intention (mens rea) required for the commission of such offence. These two elements are a sine qua non to the commission of any offence as failure to establish those elements leads to an acquittal.
However, it is not all acts that are to be punished. There are certain defences that the law provides which exculpate criminal liability. It is provided for in sections 76 to 106 of Indian Penal Code (IPC), 1860.
These defences are based on the fact that although the person committed an offence, he cannot be held criminally liable because as at the time the offence was committed, he was justified of his acts or he had no intention to commit such an offence.
Mistake of fact: This exception excludes a person from criminal liability where the person was mistaken as to the existence of some facts or ignorant of the existence of such facts.
Accident: This exception excludes a person from criminal liability where such acts occur as a result of an accident. This means that although the person performed the act, such act was devoid of an intention.
Essential elements: The act must be an accident or misfortune. The act was done without criminal intention or knowledge. It must be in the performance of a lawful act. It must be exercised in a lawful manner and by lawful means. Such an act must have been done with care and caution.
Infancy: According to Section 82 of IPC, nothing is an offence which is done by a child under seven years of age.
By virtue of Section 83 of IPC, a person under the age of twelve, but above the age of seven is not criminally liable for any offence committed, provided such child has not attained maturity of understanding to know that he ought not to do the act or make the omission.
When the child has attained maturity of understanding that he ought not to perform such an act, he becomes criminally liable.
Insanity: This exception excludes a person from criminal liability as a result of unsoundness of mind if, at the time of the commission of the offence, the person was incapable of knowing the nature of his acts and that his actions were wrong or contrary to law.
Intoxication: The provision for intoxication is stipulated under sections 85 and 86 of the IPC. The difference between these sections is that in the former, a person is intoxicated involuntarily. In the latter, a person is intoxicated voluntarily and he would be held liable for the tort.

Q. Abhi, a patient, was under observation under a psychiatrist. Abhi is, at intervals, of sound mind. He killed Ashi during such an interval. Abhi was held liable for the murder. Decide.

Solution:

Exception of insanity excludes a person from criminal liability as a result of unsoundness of mind if, at the time of the commission of the offence, the person was incapable of knowing the nature of his acts and that his actions were wrong or contrary to law. Therefore, Abhi would be held liable under mens rea, as he was sane while performing the tort.

QUESTION: 109

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law, other than the ones supplied to you and do not assume any facts, other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

Criminal liability has been defined as being responsible for a criminal act. It is an established principle of criminal law that no one should be convicted or held liable for a crime, unless some measure of subjective fault can be attributed to him.
This invariably means that such a person must not only actively perform the act (actus anus), but also possess the guilty intention (mens rea) required for the commission of such offence. These two elements are a sine qua non to the commission of any offence as failure to establish those elements leads to an acquittal.
However, it is not all acts that are to be punished. There are certain defences that the law provides which exculpate criminal liability. It is provided for in sections 76 to 106 of Indian Penal Code (IPC), 1860.
These defences are based on the fact that although the person committed an offence, he cannot be held criminally liable because as at the time the offence was committed, he was justified of his acts or he had no intention to commit such an offence.
Mistake of fact: This exception excludes a person from criminal liability where the person was mistaken as to the existence of some facts or ignorant of the existence of such facts.
Accident: This exception excludes a person from criminal liability where such acts occur as a result of an accident. This means that although the person performed the act, such act was devoid of an intention.
Essential elements: The act must be an accident or misfortune. The act was done without criminal intention or knowledge. It must be in the performance of a lawful act. It must be exercised in a lawful manner and by lawful means. Such an act must have been done with care and caution.
Infancy: According to Section 82 of IPC, nothing is an offence which is done by a child under seven years of age.
By virtue of Section 83 of IPC, a person under the age of twelve, but above the age of seven is not criminally liable for any offence committed, provided such child has not attained maturity of understanding to know that he ought not to do the act or make the omission.
When the child has attained maturity of understanding that he ought not to perform such an act, he becomes criminally liable.
Insanity: This exception excludes a person from criminal liability as a result of unsoundness of mind if, at the time of the commission of the offence, the person was incapable of knowing the nature of his acts and that his actions were wrong or contrary to law.
Intoxication: The provision for intoxication is stipulated under sections 85 and 86 of the IPC. The difference between these sections is that in the former, a person is intoxicated involuntarily. In the latter, a person is intoxicated voluntarily and he would be held liable for the tort.

Q. Gurjot drank alcohol given by a friend, thinking it to be a cold drink. He became intoxicated and hit a person while driving his car back home. He was held liable for the tort done. Decide.

Solution:

He will not be liable as alcohol was administered to him without his will and knowledge.
The provision for intoxication is stipulated under sections 85 and 86 of the IPC. The difference between these sections is that in the former, a person is intoxicated involuntarily. In the latter, a person is intoxicated voluntarily.

QUESTION: 110

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law, other than the ones supplied to you and do not assume any facts, other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

Criminal liability has been defined as being responsible for a criminal act. It is an established principle of criminal law that no one should be convicted or held liable for a crime, unless some measure of subjective fault can be attributed to him.
This invariably means that such a person must not only actively perform the act (actus anus), but also possess the guilty intention (mens rea) required for the commission of such offence. These two elements are a sine qua non to the commission of any offence as failure to establish those elements leads to an acquittal.
However, it is not all acts that are to be punished. There are certain defences that the law provides which exculpate criminal liability. It is provided for in sections 76 to 106 of Indian Penal Code (IPC), 1860.
These defences are based on the fact that although the person committed an offence, he cannot be held criminally liable because as at the time the offence was committed, he was justified of his acts or he had no intention to commit such an offence.
Mistake of fact: This exception excludes a person from criminal liability where the person was mistaken as to the existence of some facts or ignorant of the existence of such facts.
Accident: This exception excludes a person from criminal liability where such acts occur as a result of an accident. This means that although the person performed the act, such act was devoid of an intention.
Essential elements: The act must be an accident or misfortune. The act was done without criminal intention or knowledge. It must be in the performance of a lawful act. It must be exercised in a lawful manner and by lawful means. Such an act must have been done with care and caution.
Infancy: According to Section 82 of IPC, nothing is an offence which is done by a child under seven years of age.
By virtue of Section 83 of IPC, a person under the age of twelve, but above the age of seven is not criminally liable for any offence committed, provided such child has not attained maturity of understanding to know that he ought not to do the act or make the omission.
When the child has attained maturity of understanding that he ought not to perform such an act, he becomes criminally liable.
Insanity: This exception excludes a person from criminal liability as a result of unsoundness of mind if, at the time of the commission of the offence, the person was incapable of knowing the nature of his acts and that his actions were wrong or contrary to law.
Intoxication: The provision for intoxication is stipulated under sections 85 and 86 of the IPC. The difference between these sections is that in the former, a person is intoxicated involuntarily. In the latter, a person is intoxicated voluntarily and he would be held liable for the tort.

Q. Ajit was drunk and fought with the wife. In anger, he poured petrol on her and set her on fire and later, started extinguishing the fire. He was held under the court of law. Decide.

Solution:

The provision for intoxication is stipulated under sections 85 and 86 of the IPC. The difference between these sections is that in the former, a person is intoxicated involuntarily. In the latter, a person is intoxicated voluntarily and he would be held liable for it under Section 86.

QUESTION: 111

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

A breach of contract is a violation of any of the agreed-upon terms and conditions of a binding contract. The breach could be anything from a late payment to a more serious violation such as the failure to deliver a promised asset. A contract is binding and will hold weight if taken to court. To successfully claim a breach of contract, it is imperative to be able to prove that the breach occurred.
One may think of a contract breach as either minor or material. A "minor breach" happens when you don't receive an item or service by the due date. A "material breach" is when you receive something that is different from what was stated in the agreement. Further, a breach of contract generally falls under one of two categories: an "actual breach"—when one party refuses to fully perform the terms of the contract, or an "anticipatory breach"—when a party states in advance that it will not be delivering on the terms of the contract.
There are many types of damages for breach of contract that you may receive should a breach occur, these being meted out both to deter parties from breaking contracts and to compensate parties should a contract be broken. The main types of damages are compensatory, liquidation, punitive, nominal, and ordinary damages.
Compensatory damages are monetary damages that are awarded with the intent of compensating the non-breaching party for any losses suffered as a result of a contract breach. They are not designed to punish the breaching party, but merely make the party that was breached against "whole again", as it is commonly phrased.
In the realm of compensatory damages, there are two sub-types of damages, and they are: Expectation damages, these are meant to cover whatever the injured party expected to obtain from the contract. Calculating this is usually straightforward, as it is usually based on the terms of the contract or market values. Consequential damages, these are meant to reimburse an injured party for any indirect damages outside of what was covered in the contract; it includes the loss of business profits stemming from an undelivered or unperformed task. Liquidation damages are damages that are stated specifically in the contract. They can be put in a contract when damages are difficult to foresee, and an estimate is necessary for damages should there be a breach. Thus, such damages are agreed upon by both parties during the contract negotiation. Punitive damages are damages designed to punish a breaching party and deter parties from committing breaches. Such damages are rarely awarded for contract breaches, however, although they may be awarded in some tort or fraud cases that overlap contract case. Ordinary damages are the damages that stem from the ordinary, natural, and probable course of events in the breach of contract.
In some cases, monetary damages may be judged insufficient to compensate the aggrieved party. In this case, equitable remedies may be awarded.

Q. A contract was signed between Nitro Ltd. and Jeevan for consulting services on the production process. Jeevan agreed to pay Rs. 50,000 for the services to be provided. Jeevan grabbed a Rs. 5,00,000 project, the delivery date to be one month from the date of signing of contract. Jeevan approached Nitro Ltd. for the consultation. Nitro Ltd. delayed the consultation and Jeevan suffered loss due to the same. Decide.

Solution:

Consequential damages are meant to reimburse an injured party for any indirect damages outside of what was covered in the contract; it includes the loss of business profits stemming from an undelivered or unperformed task.

QUESTION: 112

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

A breach of contract is a violation of any of the agreed-upon terms and conditions of a binding contract. The breach could be anything from a late payment to a more serious violation such as the failure to deliver a promised asset. A contract is binding and will hold weight if taken to court. To successfully claim a breach of contract, it is imperative to be able to prove that the breach occurred.
One may think of a contract breach as either minor or material. A "minor breach" happens when you don't receive an item or service by the due date. A "material breach" is when you receive something that is different from what was stated in the agreement. Further, a breach of contract generally falls under one of two categories: an "actual breach"—when one party refuses to fully perform the terms of the contract, or an "anticipatory breach"—when a party states in advance that it will not be delivering on the terms of the contract.
There are many types of damages for breach of contract that you may receive should a breach occur, these being meted out both to deter parties from breaking contracts and to compensate parties should a contract be broken. The main types of damages are compensatory, liquidation, punitive, nominal, and ordinary damages.
Compensatory damages are monetary damages that are awarded with the intent of compensating the non-breaching party for any losses suffered as a result of a contract breach. They are not designed to punish the breaching party, but merely make the party that was breached against "whole again", as it is commonly phrased.
In the realm of compensatory damages, there are two sub-types of damages, and they are: Expectation damages, these are meant to cover whatever the injured party expected to obtain from the contract. Calculating this is usually straightforward, as it is usually based on the terms of the contract or market values. Consequential damages, these are meant to reimburse an injured party for any indirect damages outside of what was covered in the contract; it includes the loss of business profits stemming from an undelivered or unperformed task. Liquidation damages are damages that are stated specifically in the contract. They can be put in a contract when damages are difficult to foresee, and an estimate is necessary for damages should there be a breach. Thus, such damages are agreed upon by both parties during the contract negotiation. Punitive damages are damages designed to punish a breaching party and deter parties from committing breaches. Such damages are rarely awarded for contract breaches, however, although they may be awarded in some tort or fraud cases that overlap contract case. Ordinary damages are the damages that stem from the ordinary, natural, and probable course of events in the breach of contract.
In some cases, monetary damages may be judged insufficient to compensate the aggrieved party. In this case, equitable remedies may be awarded.

Q. Y Ltd. contracts with X Ltd. to build a housing complex to be ready to be used by its customers within 6 months and the delay would lead to a penalty of Rs. 2000 per week on Y Ltd. Y Ltd. delayed the construction by 4 weeks. Y Ltd. refused to pay the damages. Decide.

Solution:

Liquidation damages are damages that are stated specifically in the contract. They can be put in a contract when damages are difficult to foresee, and an estimate is necessary for damages should there be a breach. Thus, such damages are agreed upon by both parties during the contract negotiation.

QUESTION: 113

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

A breach of contract is a violation of any of the agreed-upon terms and conditions of a binding contract. The breach could be anything from a late payment to a more serious violation such as the failure to deliver a promised asset. A contract is binding and will hold weight if taken to court. To successfully claim a breach of contract, it is imperative to be able to prove that the breach occurred.
One may think of a contract breach as either minor or material. A "minor breach" happens when you don't receive an item or service by the due date. A "material breach" is when you receive something that is different from what was stated in the agreement. Further, a breach of contract generally falls under one of two categories: an "actual breach"—when one party refuses to fully perform the terms of the contract, or an "anticipatory breach"—when a party states in advance that it will not be delivering on the terms of the contract.
There are many types of damages for breach of contract that you may receive should a breach occur, these being meted out both to deter parties from breaking contracts and to compensate parties should a contract be broken. The main types of damages are compensatory, liquidation, punitive, nominal, and ordinary damages.
Compensatory damages are monetary damages that are awarded with the intent of compensating the non-breaching party for any losses suffered as a result of a contract breach. They are not designed to punish the breaching party, but merely make the party that was breached against "whole again", as it is commonly phrased.
In the realm of compensatory damages, there are two sub-types of damages, and they are: Expectation damages, these are meant to cover whatever the injured party expected to obtain from the contract. Calculating this is usually straightforward, as it is usually based on the terms of the contract or market values. Consequential damages, these are meant to reimburse an injured party for any indirect damages outside of what was covered in the contract; it includes the loss of business profits stemming from an undelivered or unperformed task. Liquidation damages are damages that are stated specifically in the contract. They can be put in a contract when damages are difficult to foresee, and an estimate is necessary for damages should there be a breach. Thus, such damages are agreed upon by both parties during the contract negotiation. Punitive damages are damages designed to punish a breaching party and deter parties from committing breaches. Such damages are rarely awarded for contract breaches, however, although they may be awarded in some tort or fraud cases that overlap contract case. Ordinary damages are the damages that stem from the ordinary, natural, and probable course of events in the breach of contract.
In some cases, monetary damages may be judged insufficient to compensate the aggrieved party. In this case, equitable remedies may be awarded.

Q. Ramu agreed to sell cotton to Ajay at Rs. 50 per bag with the payment to be made at the time of delivery, but the market price rose to Rs. 60 per bag at the time of delivery. Ramu refused to sell them not less than Rs. 55 per bag to Ajay. Decide

Solution:

These are damages that stem from the ordinary, natural, and probable course of events in the breach of contract. Therefore, Ajay is entitled to the damages.

QUESTION: 114

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''

A breach of contract is a violation of any of the agreed-upon terms and conditions of a binding contract. The breach could be anything from a late payment to a more serious violation such as the failure to deliver a promised asset. A contract is binding and will hold weight if taken to court. To successfully claim a breach of contract, it is imperative to be able to prove that the breach occurred.
One may think of a contract breach as either minor or material. A "minor breach" happens when you don't receive an item or service by the due date. A "material breach" is when you receive something that is different from what was stated in the agreement. Further, a breach of contract generally falls under one of two categories: an "actual breach"—when one party refuses to fully perform the terms of the contract, or an "anticipatory breach"—when a party states in advance that it will not be delivering on the terms of the contract.
There are many types of damages for breach of contract that you may receive should a breach occur, these being meted out both to deter parties from breaking contracts and to compensate parties should a contract be broken. The main types of damages are compensatory, liquidation, punitive, nominal, and ordinary damages.
Compensatory damages are monetary damages that are awarded with the intent of compensating the non-breaching party for any losses suffered as a result of a contract breach. They are not designed to punish the breaching party, but merely make the party that was breached against "whole again", as it is commonly phrased.
In the realm of compensatory damages, there are two sub-types of damages, and they are: Expectation damages, these are meant to cover whatever the injured party expected to obtain from the contract. Calculating this is usually straightforward, as it is usually based on the terms of the contract or market values. Consequential damages, these are meant to reimburse an injured party for any indirect damages outside of what was covered in the contract; it includes the loss of business profits stemming from an undelivered or unperformed task. Liquidation damages are damages that are stated specifically in the contract. They can be put in a contract when damages are difficult to foresee, and an estimate is necessary for damages should there be a breach. Thus, such damages are agreed upon by both parties during the contract negotiation. Punitive damages are damages designed to punish a breaching party and deter parties from committing breaches. Such damages are rarely awarded for contract breaches, however, although they may be awarded in some tort or fraud cases that overlap contract case. Ordinary damages are the damages that stem from the ordinary, natural, and probable course of events in the breach of contract.
In some cases, monetary damages may be judged insufficient to compensate the aggrieved party. In this case, equitable remedies may be awarded.

Q. AJ Ltd. contracts with Vineet to deliver 500 posters for its phone company promotions to be distributed in a conference; but when the boxes arrive at the conference site, they contain automobile posters instead. Decide.

Solution:

A "material breach" is when you receive something that is different from what was stated in the agreement. Thus, this is a material breach of contract.