English MOCK Test (New Pattern) - 9


30 Questions MCQ Test Mock Test Series for CLAT 2020 | English MOCK Test (New Pattern) - 9


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This mock test of English MOCK Test (New Pattern) - 9 for CLAT helps you for every CLAT entrance exam. This contains 30 Multiple Choice Questions for CLAT English MOCK Test (New Pattern) - 9 (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this English MOCK Test (New Pattern) - 9 quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. CLAT students definitely take this English MOCK Test (New Pattern) - 9 exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other English MOCK Test (New Pattern) - 9 extra questions, long questions & short questions for CLAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

Passage: A few weeks ago I ran into an old friend who currently one of t he mandarins deciding India‘s economic and financial policies. He asked, ―And so, how is IIT doing? As one can only indulge in friendly banter at such gatherings, I responded with, ―Not so well actually. Your market-friendly policies have forced us to raise the fee, so we have 50% fewer PhD applicants this year. Not batting an eyelid, he shot back: ―Obviously. Your PhD students don‘t have any market value. Taken aback, I shifted to a more serious tone and tried to start a discussion on the need for research in these globalised times. But he had already walked away. The last word on the imperatives of the ‘market ‘had been spoken. Actually, this view f higher education should not have surprised me. Worthies who look at everything as consumer products classify higher education as a ‘non-merit ‘good. Non-merit goods are those where only the individual benefits from acquiring them and not the society as a whole. Multilateral agencies like the World Bank have too been pushing countries like India to stop subsidies to higher education. When Ron Brown, former US commerce secretary visited India, a public meeting was organized at IIT Delhi. At that meeting I asked him: ―I understand that since the 19th century all the way up to the 1970s, most land grant and state universities in the US virtually provided free education to state citizens. Was that good for the economy, or should they have charged high fees in the early 20th century? He replied, ―It was great for the economy. It was one of the best things that the US government did at that particular time in American history building institutions of higher education which were accessible to the masses of the people. I think it is one of the reasons why our economy grew and prospered, one of the ways in which the US was able to close some of its social gaps. So people who lived in rural areas would have the same kind of access to higher education as people living in other parts of the country. It was one of the reasons for making America strong. Our policy-makers seem unaware that their mentors in the US did not follow policies at home which they now prescribe for other countries. Ron Brown‘s remarks summaries the importance of policy-makers in the US place on higher education as a vehicle for upward mobility, for the poorer sectors of their population. Even today, a majority of Americans study in state-run institutions. Some of these Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin and Texas, are among the best in world. The annual tuition charged from state residents (about $ 5000 a year) is about a month‘s salary paid to a lecturer. Even this fee is waived for most students. In addition, students receive stipends for books, food and hostel charges. The basic principle is that no student who gets admission to a university should have to depend on parental support if it is not available. Ron Brown‘s remarks went unnoticed in India. Every other day some luminary or the other opines that universities and technical education institutions should increase their charges and that such education should not be subsidized. Most editorials echo these sentiments. Eminent industrialists pontificate that we should run educational institutions like business houses. Visiting experts from the Bank and the IMF, in their newly emerging concern for the poor, advise us to divert funds from higher education to primary education. 

Q. The author of the passage seems to be a/an 

Solution:

According to the passage, this seems to be the perfect option.

QUESTION: 2

Passage: A few weeks ago I ran into an old friend who currently one of t he mandarins deciding India‘s economic and financial policies. He asked, ―And so, how is IIT doing? As one can only indulge in friendly banter at such gatherings, I responded with, ―Not so well actually. Your market-friendly policies have forced us to raise the fee, so we have 50% fewer PhD applicants this year. Not batting an eyelid, he shot back: ―Obviously. Your PhD students don‘t have any market value. Taken aback, I shifted to a more serious tone and tried to start a discussion on the need for research in these globalised times. But he had already walked away. The last word on the imperatives of the ‘market ‘had been spoken. Actually, this view f higher education should not have surprised me. Worthies who look at everything as consumer products classify higher education as a ‘non-merit ‘good. Non-merit goods are those where only the individual benefits from acquiring them and not the society as a whole. Multilateral agencies like the World Bank have too been pushing countries like India to stop subsidies to higher education. When Ron Brown, former US commerce secretary visited India, a public meeting was organized at IIT Delhi. At that meeting I asked him: ―I understand that since the 19th century all the way up to the 1970s, most land grant and state universities in the US virtually provided free education to state citizens. Was that good for the economy, or should they have charged high fees in the early 20th century? He replied, ―It was great for the economy. It was one of the best things that the US government did at that particular time in American history building institutions of higher education which were accessible to the masses of the people. I think it is one of the reasons why our economy grew and prospered, one of the ways in which the US was able to close some of its social gaps. So people who lived in rural areas would have the same kind of access to higher education as people living in other parts of the country. It was one of the reasons for making America strong. Our policy-makers seem unaware that their mentors in the US did not follow policies at home which they now prescribe for other countries. Ron Brown‘s remarks summaries the importance of policy-makers in the US place on higher education as a vehicle for upward mobility, for the poorer sectors of their population. Even today, a majority of Americans study in state-run institutions. Some of these Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin and Texas, are among the best in world. The annual tuition charged from state residents (about $ 5000 a year) is about a month‘s salary paid to a lecturer. Even this fee is waived for most students. In addition, students receive stipends for books, food and hostel charges. The basic principle is that no student who gets admission to a university should have to depend on parental support if it is not available. Ron Brown‘s remarks went unnoticed in India. Every other day some luminary or the other opines that universities and technical education institutions should increase their charges and that such education should not be subsidized. Most editorials echo these sentiments. Eminent industrialists pontificate that we should run educational institutions like business houses. Visiting experts from the Bank and the IMF, in their newly emerging concern for the poor, advise us to divert funds from higher education to primary education. 

Q. What was the net tangible impact of raising fees on the higher level of technological research? 

Solution:

After eliminating the not suited ones, this option seems the most appropriate.

QUESTION: 3

Passage: A few weeks ago I ran into an old friend who currently one of t he mandarins deciding India‘s economic and financial policies. He asked, ―And so, how is IIT doing? As one can only indulge in friendly banter at such gatherings, I responded with, ―Not so well actually. Your market-friendly policies have forced us to raise the fee, so we have 50% fewer PhD applicants this year. Not batting an eyelid, he shot back: ―Obviously. Your PhD students don‘t have any market value. Taken aback, I shifted to a more serious tone and tried to start a discussion on the need for research in these globalised times. But he had already walked away. The last word on the imperatives of the ‘market ‘had been spoken. Actually, this view f higher education should not have surprised me. Worthies who look at everything as consumer products classify higher education as a ‘non-merit ‘good. Non-merit goods are those where only the individual benefits from acquiring them and not the society as a whole. Multilateral agencies like the World Bank have too been pushing countries like India to stop subsidies to higher education. When Ron Brown, former US commerce secretary visited India, a public meeting was organized at IIT Delhi. At that meeting I asked him: ―I understand that since the 19th century all the way up to the 1970s, most land grant and state universities in the US virtually provided free education to state citizens. Was that good for the economy, or should they have charged high fees in the early 20th century? He replied, ―It was great for the economy. It was one of the best things that the US government did at that particular time in American history building institutions of higher education which were accessible to the masses of the people. I think it is one of the reasons why our economy grew and prospered, one of the ways in which the US was able to close some of its social gaps. So people who lived in rural areas would have the same kind of access to higher education as people living in other parts of the country. It was one of the reasons for making America strong. Our policy-makers seem unaware that their mentors in the US did not follow policies at home which they now prescribe for other countries. Ron Brown‘s remarks summaries the importance of policy-makers in the US place on higher education as a vehicle for upward mobility, for the poorer sectors of their population. Even today, a majority of Americans study in state-run institutions. Some of these Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin and Texas, are among the best in world. The annual tuition charged from state residents (about $ 5000 a year) is about a month‘s salary paid to a lecturer. Even this fee is waived for most students. In addition, students receive stipends for books, food and hostel charges. The basic principle is that no student who gets admission to a university should have to depend on parental support if it is not available. Ron Brown‘s remarks went unnoticed in India. Every other day some luminary or the other opines that universities and technical education institutions should increase their charges and that such education should not be subsidized. Most editorials echo these sentiments. Eminent industrialists pontificate that we should run educational institutions like business houses. Visiting experts from the Bank and the IMF, in their newly emerging concern for the poor, advise us to divert funds from higher education to primary education. 

Q. According to the author, the US policymakers consider education as a

Solution:

Consulting the passage, this option perfectly suits.

QUESTION: 4

Passage: A few weeks ago I ran into an old friend who currently one of t he mandarins deciding India‘s economic and financial policies. He asked, ―And so, how is IIT doing? As one can only indulge in friendly banter at such gatherings, I responded with, ―Not so well actually. Your market-friendly policies have forced us to raise the fee, so we have 50% fewer PhD applicants this year. Not batting an eyelid, he shot back: ―Obviously. Your PhD students don‘t have any market value. Taken aback, I shifted to a more serious tone and tried to start a discussion on the need for research in these globalised times. But he had already walked away. The last word on the imperatives of the ‘market ‘had been spoken. Actually, this view f higher education should not have surprised me. Worthies who look at everything as consumer products classify higher education as a ‘non-merit ‘good. Non-merit goods are those where only the individual benefits from acquiring them and not the society as a whole. Multilateral agencies like the World Bank have too been pushing countries like India to stop subsidies to higher education. When Ron Brown, former US commerce secretary visited India, a public meeting was organized at IIT Delhi. At that meeting I asked him: ―I understand that since the 19th century all the way up to the 1970s, most land grant and state universities in the US virtually provided free education to state citizens. Was that good for the economy, or should they have charged high fees in the early 20th century? He replied, ―It was great for the economy. It was one of the best things that the US government did at that particular time in American history building institutions of higher education which were accessible to the masses of the people. I think it is one of the reasons why our economy grew and prospered, one of the ways in which the US was able to close some of its social gaps. So people who lived in rural areas would have the same kind of access to higher education as people living in other parts of the country. It was one of the reasons for making America strong. Our policy-makers seem unaware that their mentors in the US did not follow policies at home which they now prescribe for other countries. Ron Brown‘s remarks summaries the importance of policy-makers in the US place on higher education as a vehicle for upward mobility, for the poorer sectors of their population. Even today, a majority of Americans study in state-run institutions. Some of these Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin and Texas, are among the best in world. The annual tuition charged from state residents (about $ 5000 a year) is about a month‘s salary paid to a lecturer. Even this fee is waived for most students. In addition, students receive stipends for books, food and hostel charges. The basic principle is that no student who gets admission to a university should have to depend on parental support if it is not available. Ron Brown‘s remarks went unnoticed in India. Every other day some luminary or the other opines that universities and technical education institutions should increase their charges and that such education should not be subsidized. Most editorials echo these sentiments. Eminent industrialists pontificate that we should run educational institutions like business houses. Visiting experts from the Bank and the IMF, in their newly emerging concern for the poor, advise us to divert funds from higher education to primary education. 

Q. Who among the following support the view that higher education should be free to everyone aspiring for it?
A) Editors and Journalists
B) Industrialists
C) Visiting Experts from the Bank and the IMF 

Solution:

This is directly explained in the passage hence it is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 5

Passage: A few weeks ago I ran into an old friend who currently one of t he mandarins deciding India‘s economic and financial policies. He asked, ―And so, how is IIT doing? As one can only indulge in friendly banter at such gatherings, I responded with, ―Not so well actually. Your market-friendly policies have forced us to raise the fee, so we have 50% fewer PhD applicants this year. Not batting an eyelid, he shot back: ―Obviously. Your PhD students don‘t have any market value. Taken aback, I shifted to a more serious tone and tried to start a discussion on the need for research in these globalised times. But he had already walked away. The last word on the imperatives of the ‘market ‘had been spoken. Actually, this view f higher education should not have surprised me. Worthies who look at everything as consumer products classify higher education as a ‘non-merit ‘good. Non-merit goods are those where only the individual benefits from acquiring them and not the society as a whole. Multilateral agencies like the World Bank have too been pushing countries like India to stop subsidies to higher education. When Ron Brown, former US commerce secretary visited India, a public meeting was organized at IIT Delhi. At that meeting I asked him: ―I understand that since the 19th century all the way up to the 1970s, most land grant and state universities in the US virtually provided free education to state citizens. Was that good for the economy, or should they have charged high fees in the early 20th century? He replied, ―It was great for the economy. It was one of the best things that the US government did at that particular time in American history building institutions of higher education which were accessible to the masses of the people. I think it is one of the reasons why our economy grew and prospered, one of the ways in which the US was able to close some of its social gaps. So people who lived in rural areas would have the same kind of access to higher education as people living in other parts of the country. It was one of the reasons for making America strong. Our policy-makers seem unaware that their mentors in the US did not follow policies at home which they now prescribe for other countries. Ron Brown‘s remarks summaries the importance of policy-makers in the US place on higher education as a vehicle for upward mobility, for the poorer sectors of their population. Even today, a majority of Americans study in state-run institutions. Some of these Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin and Texas, are among the best in world. The annual tuition charged from state residents (about $ 5000 a year) is about a month‘s salary paid to a lecturer. Even this fee is waived for most students. In addition, students receive stipends for books, food and hostel charges. The basic principle is that no student who gets admission to a university should have to depend on parental support if it is not available. Ron Brown‘s remarks went unnoticed in India. Every other day some luminary or the other opines that universities and technical education institutions should increase their charges and that such education should not be subsidized. Most editorials echo these sentiments. Eminent industrialists pontificate that we should run educational institutions like business houses. Visiting experts from the Bank and the IMF, in their newly emerging concern for the poor, advise us to divert funds from higher education to primary education. 

Q. Which of the following makes the policymakers classify education as ―non-merit‖ commodity? 

Solution:

According to the passage, this seems to be the perfect option.

QUESTION: 6

Passage: A few weeks ago I ran into an old friend who currently one of t he mandarins deciding India‘s economic and financial policies. He asked, ―And so, how is IIT doing? As one can only indulge in friendly banter at such gatherings, I responded with, ―Not so well actually. Your market-friendly policies have forced us to raise the fee, so we have 50% fewer PhD applicants this year. Not batting an eyelid, he shot back: ―Obviously. Your PhD students don‘t have any market value. Taken aback, I shifted to a more serious tone and tried to start a discussion on the need for research in these globalised times. But he had already walked away. The last word on the imperatives of the ‘market ‘had been spoken. Actually, this view f higher education should not have surprised me. Worthies who look at everything as consumer products classify higher education as a ‘non-merit ‘good. Non-merit goods are those where only the individual benefits from acquiring them and not the society as a whole. Multilateral agencies like the World Bank have too been pushing countries like India to stop subsidies to higher education. When Ron Brown, former US commerce secretary visited India, a public meeting was organized at IIT Delhi. At that meeting I asked him: ―I understand that since the 19th century all the way up to the 1970s, most land grant and state universities in the US virtually provided free education to state citizens. Was that good for the economy, or should they have charged high fees in the early 20th century? He replied, ―It was great for the economy. It was one of the best things that the US government did at that particular time in American history building institutions of higher education which were accessible to the masses of the people. I think it is one of the reasons why our economy grew and prospered, one of the ways in which the US was able to close some of its social gaps. So people who lived in rural areas would have the same kind of access to higher education as people living in other parts of the country. It was one of the reasons for making America strong. Our policy-makers seem unaware that their mentors in the US did not follow policies at home which they now prescribe for other countries. Ron Brown‘s remarks summaries the importance of policy-makers in the US place on higher education as a vehicle for upward mobility, for the poorer sectors of their population. Even today, a majority of Americans study in state-run institutions. Some of these Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin and Texas, are among the best in world. The annual tuition charged from state residents (about $ 5000 a year) is about a month‘s salary paid to a lecturer. Even this fee is waived for most students. In addition, students receive stipends for books, food and hostel charges. The basic principle is that no student who gets admission to a university should have to depend on parental support if it is not available. Ron Brown‘s remarks went unnoticed in India. Every other day some luminary or the other opines that universities and technical education institutions should increase their charges and that such education should not be subsidized. Most editorials echo these sentiments. Eminent industrialists pontificate that we should run educational institutions like business houses. Visiting experts from the Bank and the IMF, in their newly emerging concern for the poor, advise us to divert funds from higher education to primary education. 

Q. What was Ron Brown‘s reaction to the author‘s question on free education provided by US universities to their citizens? Ron Brown 

Solution:

After eliminating the not suited ones, this option seems the most appropriate.

QUESTION: 7

Passage: A few weeks ago I ran into an old friend who currently one of t he mandarins deciding India‘s economic and financial policies. He asked, ―And so, how is IIT doing? As one can only indulge in friendly banter at such gatherings, I responded with, ―Not so well actually. Your market-friendly policies have forced us to raise the fee, so we have 50% fewer PhD applicants this year. Not batting an eyelid, he shot back: ―Obviously. Your PhD students don‘t have any market value. Taken aback, I shifted to a more serious tone and tried to start a discussion on the need for research in these globalised times. But he had already walked away. The last word on the imperatives of the ‘market ‘had been spoken. Actually, this view f higher education should not have surprised me. Worthies who look at everything as consumer products classify higher education as a ‘non-merit ‘good. Non-merit goods are those where only the individual benefits from acquiring them and not the society as a whole. Multilateral agencies like the World Bank have too been pushing countries like India to stop subsidies to higher education. When Ron Brown, former US commerce secretary visited India, a public meeting was organized at IIT Delhi. At that meeting I asked him: ―I understand that since the 19th century all the way up to the 1970s, most land grant and state universities in the US virtually provided free education to state citizens. Was that good for the economy, or should they have charged high fees in the early 20th century? He replied, ―It was great for the economy. It was one of the best things that the US government did at that particular time in American history building institutions of higher education which were accessible to the masses of the people. I think it is one of the reasons why our economy grew and prospered, one of the ways in which the US was able to close some of its social gaps. So people who lived in rural areas would have the same kind of access to higher education as people living in other parts of the country. It was one of the reasons for making America strong. Our policy-makers seem unaware that their mentors in the US did not follow policies at home which they now prescribe for other countries. Ron Brown‘s remarks summaries the importance of policy-makers in the US place on higher education as a vehicle for upward mobility, for the poorer sectors of their population. Even today, a majority of Americans study in state-run institutions. Some of these Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin and Texas, are among the best in world. The annual tuition charged from state residents (about $ 5000 a year) is about a month‘s salary paid to a lecturer. Even this fee is waived for most students. In addition, students receive stipends for books, food and hostel charges. The basic principle is that no student who gets admission to a university should have to depend on parental support if it is not available. Ron Brown‘s remarks went unnoticed in India. Every other day some luminary or the other opines that universities and technical education institutions should increase their charges and that such education should not be subsidized. Most editorials echo these sentiments. Eminent industrialists pontificate that we should run educational institutions like business houses. Visiting experts from the Bank and the IMF, in their newly emerging concern for the poor, advise us to divert funds from higher education to primary education. 

Q. The basic principle adopted by the renowned State-run Universities in the US is that the students 

Solution:

Consulting the passage, this option perfectly suits.

QUESTION: 8

Passage: A few weeks ago I ran into an old friend who currently one of t he mandarins deciding India‘s economic and financial policies. He asked, ―And so, how is IIT doing? As one can only indulge in friendly banter at such gatherings, I responded with, ―Not so well actually. Your market-friendly policies have forced us to raise the fee, so we have 50% fewer PhD applicants this year. Not batting an eyelid, he shot back: ―Obviously. Your PhD students don‘t have any market value. Taken aback, I shifted to a more serious tone and tried to start a discussion on the need for research in these globalised times. But he had already walked away. The last word on the imperatives of the ‘market ‘had been spoken. Actually, this view f higher education should not have surprised me. Worthies who look at everything as consumer products classify higher education as a ‘non-merit ‘good. Non-merit goods are those where only the individual benefits from acquiring them and not the society as a whole. Multilateral agencies like the World Bank have too been pushing countries like India to stop subsidies to higher education. When Ron Brown, former US commerce secretary visited India, a public meeting was organized at IIT Delhi. At that meeting I asked him: ―I understand that since the 19th century all the way up to the 1970s, most land grant and state universities in the US virtually provided free education to state citizens. Was that good for the economy, or should they have charged high fees in the early 20th century? He replied, ―It was great for the economy. It was one of the best things that the US government did at that particular time in American history building institutions of higher education which were accessible to the masses of the people. I think it is one of the reasons why our economy grew and prospered, one of the ways in which the US was able to close some of its social gaps. So people who lived in rural areas would have the same kind of access to higher education as people living in other parts of the country. It was one of the reasons for making America strong. Our policy-makers seem unaware that their mentors in the US did not follow policies at home which they now prescribe for other countries. Ron Brown‘s remarks summaries the importance of policy-makers in the US place on higher education as a vehicle for upward mobility, for the poorer sectors of their population. Even today, a majority of Americans study in state-run institutions. Some of these Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin and Texas, are among the best in world. The annual tuition charged from state residents (about $ 5000 a year) is about a month‘s salary paid to a lecturer. Even this fee is waived for most students. In addition, students receive stipends for books, food and hostel charges. The basic principle is that no student who gets admission to a university should have to depend on parental support if it is not available. Ron Brown‘s remarks went unnoticed in India. Every other day some luminary or the other opines that universities and technical education institutions should increase their charges and that such education should not be subsidized. Most editorials echo these sentiments. Eminent industrialists pontificate that we should run educational institutions like business houses. Visiting experts from the Bank and the IMF, in their newly emerging concern for the poor, advise us to divert funds from higher education to primary education. 

Q. What was the outcome of the US strategy of imparting free university education to US citizens? 

Solution:

This is directly explained in the passage hence it is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 9

Passage: A few weeks ago I ran into an old friend who currently one of t he mandarins deciding India‘s economic and financial policies. He asked, ―And so, how is IIT doing? As one can only indulge in friendly banter at such gatherings, I responded with, ―Not so well actually. Your market-friendly policies have forced us to raise the fee, so we have 50% fewer PhD applicants this year. Not batting an eyelid, he shot back: ―Obviously. Your PhD students don‘t have any market value. Taken aback, I shifted to a more serious tone and tried to start a discussion on the need for research in these globalised times. But he had already walked away. The last word on the imperatives of the ‘market ‘had been spoken. Actually, this view f higher education should not have surprised me. Worthies who look at everything as consumer products classify higher education as a ‘non-merit ‘good. Non-merit goods are those where only the individual benefits from acquiring them and not the society as a whole. Multilateral agencies like the World Bank have too been pushing countries like India to stop subsidies to higher education. When Ron Brown, former US commerce secretary visited India, a public meeting was organized at IIT Delhi. At that meeting I asked him: ―I understand that since the 19th century all the way up to the 1970s, most land grant and state universities in the US virtually provided free education to state citizens. Was that good for the economy, or should they have charged high fees in the early 20th century? He replied, ―It was great for the economy. It was one of the best things that the US government did at that particular time in American history building institutions of higher education which were accessible to the masses of the people. I think it is one of the reasons why our economy grew and prospered, one of the ways in which the US was able to close some of its social gaps. So people who lived in rural areas would have the same kind of access to higher education as people living in other parts of the country. It was one of the reasons for making America strong. Our policy-makers seem unaware that their mentors in the US did not follow policies at home which they now prescribe for other countries. Ron Brown‘s remarks summaries the importance of policy-makers in the US place on higher education as a vehicle for upward mobility, for the poorer sectors of their population. Even today, a majority of Americans study in state-run institutions. Some of these Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin and Texas, are among the best in world. The annual tuition charged from state residents (about $ 5000 a year) is about a month‘s salary paid to a lecturer. Even this fee is waived for most students. In addition, students receive stipends for books, food and hostel charges. The basic principle is that no student who gets admission to a university should have to depend on parental support if it is not available. Ron Brown‘s remarks went unnoticed in India. Every other day some luminary or the other opines that universities and technical education institutions should increase their charges and that such education should not be subsidized. Most editorials echo these sentiments. Eminent industrialists pontificate that we should run educational institutions like business houses. Visiting experts from the Bank and the IMF, in their newly emerging concern for the poor, advise us to divert funds from higher education to primary education. 

Q. Multilateral agencies like The World Bank have been 

Solution:

According to the passage, this seems to be the perfect option.

QUESTION: 10

Which of the following is MOST NEARLY THE SAME in meaning as the word printed in Underline as used in the passage? 
Passage: A few weeks ago I ran into an old friend who currently one of t he mandarins deciding India‘s economic and financial policies. He asked, ―And so, how is IIT doing? As one can only indulge in friendly banter at such gatherings, I responded with, ―Not so well actually. Your market-friendly policies have forced us to raise the fee, so we have 50% fewer PhD applicants this year. Not batting an eyelid, he shot back: ―Obviously. Your PhD students don‘t have any market value. Taken aback, I shifted to a more serious tone and tried to start a discussion on the need for research in these globalised times. But he had already walked away. The last word on the imperatives of the ‘market ‘had been spoken. Actually, this view f higher education should not have surprised me. Worthies who look at everything as consumer products classify higher education as a ‘non-merit ‘good. Non-merit goods are those where only the individual benefits from acquiring them and not the society as a whole. Multilateral agencies like the World Bank have too been pushing countries like India to stop subsidies to higher education. When Ron Brown, former US commerce secretary visited India, a public meeting was organized at IIT Delhi. At that meeting I asked him: ―I understand that since the 19th century all the way up to the 1970s, most land grant and state universities in the US virtually provided free education to state citizens. Was that good for the economy, or should they have charged high fees in the early 20th century? He replied, ―It was great for the economy. It was one of the best things that the US government did at that particular time in American history building institutions of higher education which were accessible to the masses of the people. I think it is one of the reasons why our economy grew and prospered, one of the ways in which the US was able to close some of its social gaps. So people who lived in rural areas would have the same kind of access to higher education as people living in other parts of the country. It was one of the reasons for making America strong. Our policy-makers seem unaware that their mentors in the US did not follow policies at home which they now prescribe for other countries. Ron Brown‘s remarks summaries the importance of policy-makers in the US place on higher education as a vehicle for upward mobility, for the poorer sectors of their population. Even today, a majority of Americans study in state-run institutions. Some of these Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin and Texas, are among the best in world. The annual tuition charged from state residents (about $ 5000 a year) is about a month‘s salary paid to a lecturer. Even this fee is waived for most students. In addition, students receive stipends for books, food and hostel charges. The basic principle is that no student who gets admission to a university should have to depend on parental support if it is not available. Ron Brown‘s remarks went unnoticed in India. Every other day some luminary or the other opines that universities and technical education institutions should increase their charges and that such education should not be subsidized. Most editorials echo these sentiments. Eminent industrialists pontificate that we should run educational institutions like business houses. Visiting experts from the Bank and the IMF, in their newly emerging concern for the poor, advise us to divert funds from higher education to primary education.

Q. UNAWARE 

Solution:

After eliminating the not suited ones, this option seems the most appropriate.

QUESTION: 11

Which of the following is MOST NEARLY THE SAME in meaning as the word printed in Underline as used in the passage? 
Passage: A few weeks ago I ran into an old friend who currently one of t he mandarins deciding India‘s economic and financial policies. He asked, ―And so, how is IIT doing? As one can only indulge in friendly banter at such gatherings, I responded with, ―Not so well actually. Your market-friendly policies have forced us to raise the fee, so we have 50% fewer PhD applicants this year. Not batting an eyelid, he shot back: ―Obviously. Your PhD students don‘t have any market value. Taken aback, I shifted to a more serious tone and tried to start a discussion on the need for research in these globalised times. But he had already walked away. The last word on the imperatives of the ‘market ‘had been spoken. Actually, this view f higher education should not have surprised me. Worthies who look at everything as consumer products classify higher education as a ‘non-merit ‘good. Non-merit goods are those where only the individual benefits from acquiring them and not the society as a whole. Multilateral agencies like the World Bank have too been pushing countries like India to stop subsidies to higher education. When Ron Brown, former US commerce secretary visited India, a public meeting was organized at IIT Delhi. At that meeting I asked him: ―I understand that since the 19th century all the way up to the 1970s, most land grant and state universities in the US virtually provided free education to state citizens. Was that good for the economy, or should they have charged high fees in the early 20th century? He replied, ―It was great for the economy. It was one of the best things that the US government did at that particular time in American history building institutions of higher education which were accessible to the masses of the people. I think it is one of the reasons why our economy grew and prospered, one of the ways in which the US was able to close some of its social gaps. So people who lived in rural areas would have the same kind of access to higher education as people living in other parts of the country. It was one of the reasons for making America strong. Our policy-makers seem unaware that their mentors in the US did not follow policies at home which they now prescribe for other countries. Ron Brown‘s remarks summaries the importance of policy-makers in the US place on higher education as a vehicle for upward mobility, for the poorer sectors of their population. Even today, a majority of Americans study in state-run institutions. Some of these Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin and Texas, are among the best in world. The annual tuition charged from state residents (about $ 5000 a year) is about a month‘s salary paid to a lecturer. Even this fee is waived for most students. In addition, students receive stipends for books, food and hostel charges. The basic principle is that no student who gets admission to a university should have to depend on parental support if it is not available. Ron Brown‘s remarks went unnoticed in India. Every other day some luminary or the other opines that universities and technical education institutions should increase their charges and that such education should not be subsidized. Most editorials echo these sentiments. Eminent industrialists pontificate that we should run educational institutions like business houses. Visiting experts from the Bank and the IMF, in their newly emerging concern for the poor, advise us to divert funds from higher education to primary education.

Q. WAIVED 

Solution:

Consulting the passage, this option perfectly suits.

QUESTION: 12

Which of the following is MOST NEARLY THE SAME in meaning as the word printed in Underline as used in the passage? 
Passage: A few weeks ago I ran into an old friend who currently one of t he mandarins deciding India‘s economic and financial policies. He asked, ―And so, how is IIT doing? As one can only indulge in friendly banter at such gatherings, I responded with, ―Not so well actually. Your market-friendly policies have forced us to raise the fee, so we have 50% fewer PhD applicants this year. Not batting an eyelid, he shot back: ―Obviously. Your PhD students don‘t have any market value. Taken aback, I shifted to a more serious tone and tried to start a discussion on the need for research in these globalised times. But he had already walked away. The last word on the imperatives of the ‘market ‘had been spoken. Actually, this view f higher education should not have surprised me. Worthies who look at everything as consumer products classify higher education as a ‘non-merit ‘good. Non-merit goods are those where only the individual benefits from acquiring them and not the society as a whole. Multilateral agencies like the World Bank have too been pushing countries like India to stop subsidies to higher education. When Ron Brown, former US commerce secretary visited India, a public meeting was organized at IIT Delhi. At that meeting I asked him: ―I understand that since the 19th century all the way up to the 1970s, most land grant and state universities in the US virtually provided free education to state citizens. Was that good for the economy, or should they have charged high fees in the early 20th century? He replied, ―It was great for the economy. It was one of the best things that the US government did at that particular time in American history building institutions of higher education which were accessible to the masses of the people. I think it is one of the reasons why our economy grew and prospered, one of the ways in which the US was able to close some of its social gaps. So people who lived in rural areas would have the same kind of access to higher education as people living in other parts of the country. It was one of the reasons for making America strong. Our policy-makers seem unaware that their mentors in the US did not follow policies at home which they now prescribe for other countries. Ron Brown‘s remarks summaries the importance of policy-makers in the US place on higher education as a vehicle for upward mobility, for the poorer sectors of their population. Even today, a majority of Americans study in state-run institutions. Some of these Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin and Texas, are among the best in world. The annual tuition charged from state residents (about $ 5000 a year) is about a month‘s salary paid to a lecturer. Even this fee is waived for most students. In addition, students receive stipends for books, food and hostel charges. The basic principle is that no student who gets admission to a university should have to depend on parental support if it is not available. Ron Brown‘s remarks went unnoticed in India. Every other day some luminary or the other opines that universities and technical education institutions should increase their charges and that such education should not be subsidized. Most editorials echo these sentiments. Eminent industrialists pontificate that we should run educational institutions like business houses. Visiting experts from the Bank and the IMF, in their newly emerging concern for the poor, advise us to divert funds from higher education to primary education.

Q. MASSES 

Solution:

This is directly explained in the passage hence it is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 13

Which of the following is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage? Passage: A few weeks ago I ran into an old friend who currently one of t he mandarins deciding India‘s economic and financial policies. He asked, ―And so, how is IIT doing? As one can only indulge in friendly banter at such gatherings, I responded with, ―Not so well actually. Your market-friendly policies have forced us to raise the fee, so we have 50% fewer PhD applicants this year. Not batting an eyelid, he shot back: ―Obviously. Your PhD students don‘t have any market value. Taken aback, I shifted to a more serious tone and tried to start a discussion on the need for research in these globalised times. But he had already walked away. The last word on the imperatives of the ‘market ‘had been spoken. Actually, this view f higher education should not have surprised me. Worthies who look at everything as consumer products classify higher education as a ‘non-merit ‘good. Non-merit goods are those where only the individual benefits from acquiring them and not the society as a whole. Multilateral agencies like the World Bank have too been pushing countries like India to stop subsidies to higher education. When Ron Brown, former US commerce secretary visited India, a public meeting was organized at IIT Delhi. At that meeting I asked him: ―I understand that since the 19th century all the way up to the 1970s, most land grant and state universities in the US virtually provided free education to state citizens. Was that good for the economy, or should they have charged high fees in the early 20th century? He replied, ―It was great for the economy. It was one of the best things that the US government did at that particular time in American history building institutions of higher education which were accessible to the masses of the people. I think it is one of the reasons why our economy grew and prospered, one of the ways in which the US was able to close some of its social gaps. So people who lived in rural areas would have the same kind of access to higher education as people living in other parts of the country. It was one of the reasons for making America strong. Our policy-makers seem unaware that their mentors in the US did not follow policies at home which they now prescribe for other countries. Ron Brown‘s remarks summaries the importance of policy-makers in the US place on higher education as a vehicle for upward mobility, for the poorer sectors of their population. Even today, a majority of Americans study in state-run institutions. Some of these Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin and Texas, are among the best in world. The annual tuition charged from state residents (about $ 5000 a year) is about a month‘s salary paid to a lecturer. Even this fee is waived for most students. In addition, students receive stipends for books, food and hostel charges. The basic principle is that no student who gets admission to a university should have to depend on parental support if it is not available. Ron Brown‘s remarks went unnoticed in India. Every other day some luminary or the other opines that universities and technical education institutions should increase their charges and that such education should not be subsidized. Most editorials echo these sentiments. Eminent industrialists pontificate that we should run educational institutions like business houses. Visiting experts from the Bank and the IMF, in their newly emerging concern for the poor, advise us to divert funds from higher education to primary education. 

Q. GLOBALISED 

Solution:

According to the passage, this seems to be the perfect option.

QUESTION: 14

Which of the following is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage? Passage: A few weeks ago I ran into an old friend who currently one of t he mandarins deciding India‘s economic and financial policies. He asked, ―And so, how is IIT doing? As one can only indulge in friendly banter at such gatherings, I responded with, ―Not so well actually. Your market-friendly policies have forced us to raise the fee, so we have 50% fewer PhD applicants this year. Not batting an eyelid, he shot back: ―Obviously. Your PhD students don‘t have any market value. Taken aback, I shifted to a more serious tone and tried to start a discussion on the need for research in these globalised times. But he had already walked away. The last word on the imperatives of the ‘market ‘had been spoken. Actually, this view f higher education should not have surprised me. Worthies who look at everything as consumer products classify higher education as a ‘non-merit ‘good. Non-merit goods are those where only the individual benefits from acquiring them and not the society as a whole. Multilateral agencies like the World Bank have too been pushing countries like India to stop subsidies to higher education. When Ron Brown, former US commerce secretary visited India, a public meeting was organized at IIT Delhi. At that meeting I asked him: ―I understand that since the 19th century all the way up to the 1970s, most land grant and state universities in the US virtually provided free education to state citizens. Was that good for the economy, or should they have charged high fees in the early 20th century? He replied, ―It was great for the economy. It was one of the best things that the US government did at that particular time in American history building institutions of higher education which were accessible to the masses of the people. I think it is one of the reasons why our economy grew and prospered, one of the ways in which the US was able to close some of its social gaps. So people who lived in rural areas would have the same kind of access to higher education as people living in other parts of the country. It was one of the reasons for making America strong. Our policy-makers seem unaware that their mentors in the US did not follow policies at home which they now prescribe for other countries. Ron Brown‘s remarks summaries the importance of policy-makers in the US place on higher education as a vehicle for upward mobility, for the poorer sectors of their population. Even today, a majority of Americans study in state-run institutions. Some of these Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin and Texas, are among the best in world. The annual tuition charged from state residents (about $ 5000 a year) is about a month‘s salary paid to a lecturer. Even this fee is waived for most students. In addition, students receive stipends for books, food and hostel charges. The basic principle is that no student who gets admission to a university should have to depend on parental support if it is not available. Ron Brown‘s remarks went unnoticed in India. Every other day some luminary or the other opines that universities and technical education institutions should increase their charges and that such education should not be subsidized. Most editorials echo these sentiments. Eminent industrialists pontificate that we should run educational institutions like business houses. Visiting experts from the Bank and the IMF, in their newly emerging concern for the poor, advise us to divert funds from higher education to primary education.

Q. PROSPERED 

Solution:

After eliminating the not suited ones, this option seems the most appropriate.

QUESTION: 15

Which of the following is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage? Passage: A few weeks ago I ran into an old friend who currently one of t he mandarins deciding India‘s economic and financial policies. He asked, ―And so, how is IIT doing? As one can only indulge in friendly banter at such gatherings, I responded with, ―Not so well actually. Your market-friendly policies have forced us to raise the fee, so we have 50% fewer PhD applicants this year. Not batting an eyelid, he shot back: ―Obviously. Your PhD students don‘t have any market value. Taken aback, I shifted to a more serious tone and tried to start a discussion on the need for research in these globalised times. But he had already walked away. The last word on the imperatives of the ‘market ‘had been spoken. Actually, this view f higher education should not have surprised me. Worthies who look at everything as consumer products classify higher education as a ‘non-merit ‘good. Non-merit goods are those where only the individual benefits from acquiring them and not the society as a whole. Multilateral agencies like the World Bank have too been pushing countries like India to stop subsidies to higher education. When Ron Brown, former US commerce secretary visited India, a public meeting was organized at IIT Delhi. At that meeting I asked him: ―I understand that since the 19th century all the way up to the 1970s, most land grant and state universities in the US virtually provided free education to state citizens. Was that good for the economy, or should they have charged high fees in the early 20th century? He replied, ―It was great for the economy. It was one of the best things that the US government did at that particular time in American history building institutions of higher education which were accessible to the masses of the people. I think it is one of the reasons why our economy grew and prospered, one of the ways in which the US was able to close some of its social gaps. So people who lived in rural areas would have the same kind of access to higher education as people living in other parts of the country. It was one of the reasons for making America strong. Our policy-makers seem unaware that their mentors in the US did not follow policies at home which they now prescribe for other countries. Ron Brown‘s remarks summaries the importance of policy-makers in the US place on higher education as a vehicle for upward mobility, for the poorer sectors of their population. Even today, a majority of Americans study in state-run institutions. Some of these Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin and Texas, are among the best in world. The annual tuition charged from state residents (about $ 5000 a year) is about a month‘s salary paid to a lecturer. Even this fee is waived for most students. In addition, students receive stipends for books, food and hostel charges. The basic principle is that no student who gets admission to a university should have to depend on parental support if it is not available. Ron Brown‘s remarks went unnoticed in India. Every other day some luminary or the other opines that universities and technical education institutions should increase their charges and that such education should not be subsidized. Most editorials echo these sentiments. Eminent industrialists pontificate that we should run educational institutions like business houses. Visiting experts from the Bank and the IMF, in their newly emerging concern for the poor, advise us to divert funds from higher education to primary education.

Q. CONCERN 

Solution:

Consulting the passage, this option perfectly suits.

QUESTION: 16

Passage: The rapid and unprecedented changes in the external environment such as liberalization of the economy, globalization of international markets, and deregulation of the financial system and implications of various clauses under WTO exerted considerable pressure on the agricultural system. The inadequate levels of capital formation in the agricultural sector, distancing of farm technologies from requirements of the market, inadequate and untimely supply of credit and post-harvest losses are the worrying factors. Agricultural sector employs about 64% of the workforce, contributes 27.4% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and accounts for about 18% share of the value of the country‘s exports. It supplies bulk of wage goods required by non-agricultural sector and raw material for a large section of the industry. In terms of gross fertilizer consumption, India ranks 4th in the world after USA, Russia and China. The country has the largest area in the world under pulse crops while in the field of cotton; India is the first to evolve a cotton hybrid. In 1996-97, the per capital net availability of foodgrains touched 528.77gms, which was a mere 395gms at the time of India‘s independence. Therefore, it has a vital place in the economic development of the country. Significant strides have been made in agricultural production towards ensuring food security. There has been a significant improvement in agricultural productivity which has helped in reducing rural poverty. The trend in the growth of foodgrain production, particularly in high productivity areas like Haryana and Punjab, is on the decline. Agricultural productivity in the Eastern region, excepting West Bengal, is low, and it is mainly attributed to weak infrastructure. Indian agriculture is also on the threshold of becoming globally competitive and is in a position to make major gains in the export market. Foodgrains account for 63% of country‘s agricultural output and hence even a marginal production has ‘ripple effect‘on the rest of the economy. IN 1997, the foodgrains output was 199 million tones but in 1998 it was lowered by over 4 million tones owing to a fall in the pulse production. Initiatives for increasing the production and productivity of cereal crops on the basis of cropping systems approach continued during the year 1996-97. In 1997-98, 31.2 million tones of coarse cereals were produced. However, barring the record production of 69.3 million tonnes of wheat in 1996-97, the production of wheat at 66.5 million tonnes in 1997-98 and expected rice production at 83.5 million tones is said to be the highest ever. Procurement of wheat during the rabbi marketing season 1998-99 touched a record high of 10.61 million tonnes. Pulses production in the country has been stagnating around 8-14 million tonnes for the last 40 years. The production of pulses is expected to be about 13 million tonnes in 1997-98 compared to 13.19 million tonnes during 1995-96. The adverse agro-climatic conditions have had their impact on the production of commercial crops. The production of 9 major oilseeds in 1997-98 is expected to be 24 million tonnes, as compared to 25 million tonnes in 1996-97 and 22.4 million tonnes in ‘95-96. Among the nine oilseed crops grown in the country, groundnut and rasped/mustard together account for 62% of the total oilseeds production. The production of groundnut and rapeseed and mustard is expected to touch 8 million and 6 million tonnes compared to 9 million and 7 million tonnes in 1996-97. 

Q. The author has mentioned the following factors that influenced the agricultural system EXCEPT 

Solution:

According to the passage, this seems to be the perfect option.

QUESTION: 17

Passage: The rapid and unprecedented changes in the external environment such as liberalization of the economy, globalization of international markets, and deregulation of the financial system and implications of various clauses under WTO exerted considerable pressure on the agricultural system. The inadequate levels of capital formation in the agricultural sector, distancing of farm technologies from requirements of the market, inadequate and untimely supply of credit and post-harvest losses are the worrying factors. Agricultural sector employs about 64% of the workforce, contributes 27.4% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and accounts for about 18% share of the value of the country‘s exports. It supplies bulk of wage goods required by non-agricultural sector and raw material for a large section of the industry. In terms of gross fertilizer consumption, India ranks 4th in the world after USA, Russia and China. The country has the largest area in the world under pulse crops while in the field of cotton; India is the first to evolve a cotton hybrid. In 1996-97, the per capital net availability of foodgrains touched 528.77gms, which was a mere 395gms at the time of India‘s independence. Therefore, it has a vital place in the economic development of the country. Significant strides have been made in agricultural production towards ensuring food security. There has been a significant improvement in agricultural productivity which has helped in reducing rural poverty. The trend in the growth of foodgrain production, particularly in high productivity areas like Haryana and Punjab, is on the decline. Agricultural productivity in the Eastern region, excepting West Bengal, is low, and it is mainly attributed to weak infrastructure. Indian agriculture is also on the threshold of becoming globally competitive and is in a position to make major gains in the export market. Foodgrains account for 63% of country‘s agricultural output and hence even a marginal production has ‘ripple effect‘on the rest of the economy. IN 1997, the foodgrains output was 199 million tones but in 1998 it was lowered by over 4 million tones owing to a fall in the pulse production. Initiatives for increasing the production and productivity of cereal crops on the basis of cropping systems approach continued during the year 1996-97. In 1997-98, 31.2 million tones of coarse cereals were produced. However, barring the record production of 69.3 million tonnes of wheat in 1996-97, the production of wheat at 66.5 million tonnes in 1997-98 and expected rice production at 83.5 million tones is said to be the highest ever. Procurement of wheat during the rabbi marketing season 1998-99 touched a record high of 10.61 million tonnes. Pulses production in the country has been stagnating around 8-14 million tonnes for the last 40 years. The production of pulses is expected to be about 13 million tonnes in 1997-98 compared to 13.19 million tonnes during 1995-96. The adverse agro-climatic conditions have had their impact on the production of commercial crops. The production of 9 major oilseeds in 1997-98 is expected to be 24 million tonnes, as compared to 25 million tonnes in 1996-97 and 22.4 million tonnes in ‘95-96. Among the nine oilseed crops grown in the country, groundnut and rasped/mustard together account for 62% of the total oilseeds production. The production of groundnut and rapeseed and mustard is expected to touch 8 million and 6 million tonnes compared to 9 million and 7 million tonnes in 1996-97. 

Q. Which of the following is TRUE about China? 

Solution:

After eliminating the not suited ones, this option seems the most appropriate.

QUESTION: 18

Passage: The rapid and unprecedented changes in the external environment such as liberalization of the economy, globalization of international markets, and deregulation of the financial system and implications of various clauses under WTO exerted considerable pressure on the agricultural system. The inadequate levels of capital formation in the agricultural sector, distancing of farm technologies from requirements of the market, inadequate and untimely supply of credit and post-harvest losses are the worrying factors. Agricultural sector employs about 64% of the workforce, contributes 27.4% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and accounts for about 18% share of the value of the country‘s exports. It supplies bulk of wage goods required by non-agricultural sector and raw material for a large section of the industry. In terms of gross fertilizer consumption, India ranks 4th in the world after USA, Russia and China. The country has the largest area in the world under pulse crops while in the field of cotton; India is the first to evolve a cotton hybrid. In 1996-97, the per capital net availability of foodgrains touched 528.77gms, which was a mere 395gms at the time of India‘s independence. Therefore, it has a vital place in the economic development of the country. Significant strides have been made in agricultural production towards ensuring food security. There has been a significant improvement in agricultural productivity which has helped in reducing rural poverty. The trend in the growth of foodgrain production, particularly in high productivity areas like Haryana and Punjab, is on the decline. Agricultural productivity in the Eastern region, excepting West Bengal, is low, and it is mainly attributed to weak infrastructure. Indian agriculture is also on the threshold of becoming globally competitive and is in a position to make major gains in the export market. Foodgrains account for 63% of country‘s agricultural output and hence even a marginal production has ‘ripple effect‘on the rest of the economy. IN 1997, the foodgrains output was 199 million tones but in 1998 it was lowered by over 4 million tones owing to a fall in the pulse production. Initiatives for increasing the production and productivity of cereal crops on the basis of cropping systems approach continued during the year 1996-97. In 1997-98, 31.2 million tones of coarse cereals were produced. However, barring the record production of 69.3 million tonnes of wheat in 1996-97, the production of wheat at 66.5 million tonnes in 1997-98 and expected rice production at 83.5 million tones is said to be the highest ever. Procurement of wheat during the rabbi marketing season 1998-99 touched a record high of 10.61 million tonnes. Pulses production in the country has been stagnating around 8-14 million tonnes for the last 40 years. The production of pulses is expected to be about 13 million tonnes in 1997-98 compared to 13.19 million tonnes during 1995-96. The adverse agro-climatic conditions have had their impact on the production of commercial crops. The production of 9 major oilseeds in 1997-98 is expected to be 24 million tonnes, as compared to 25 million tonnes in 1996-97 and 22.4 million tonnes in ‘95-96. Among the nine oilseed crops grown in the country, groundnut and rasped/mustard together account for 62% of the total oilseeds production. The production of groundnut and rapeseed and mustard is expected to touch 8 million and 6 million tonnes compared to 9 million and 7 million tonnes in 1996-97. 

Q. Decline in production of commercial crops is mainly due to 

Solution:

Consulting the passage, this option perfectly suits.

QUESTION: 19

Passage: The rapid and unprecedented changes in the external environment such as liberalization of the economy, globalization of international markets, and deregulation of the financial system and implications of various clauses under WTO exerted considerable pressure on the agricultural system. The inadequate levels of capital formation in the agricultural sector, distancing of farm technologies from requirements of the market, inadequate and untimely supply of credit and post-harvest losses are the worrying factors. Agricultural sector employs about 64% of the workforce, contributes 27.4% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and accounts for about 18% share of the value of the country‘s exports. It supplies bulk of wage goods required by non-agricultural sector and raw material for a large section of the industry. In terms of gross fertilizer consumption, India ranks 4th in the world after USA, Russia and China. The country has the largest area in the world under pulse crops while in the field of cotton; India is the first to evolve a cotton hybrid. In 1996-97, the per capital net availability of foodgrains touched 528.77gms, which was a mere 395gms at the time of India‘s independence. Therefore, it has a vital place in the economic development of the country. Significant strides have been made in agricultural production towards ensuring food security. There has been a significant improvement in agricultural productivity which has helped in reducing rural poverty. The trend in the growth of foodgrain production, particularly in high productivity areas like Haryana and Punjab, is on the decline. Agricultural productivity in the Eastern region, excepting West Bengal, is low, and it is mainly attributed to weak infrastructure. Indian agriculture is also on the threshold of becoming globally competitive and is in a position to make major gains in the export market. Foodgrains account for 63% of country‘s agricultural output and hence even a marginal production has ‘ripple effect‘on the rest of the economy. IN 1997, the foodgrains output was 199 million tones but in 1998 it was lowered by over 4 million tones owing to a fall in the pulse production. Initiatives for increasing the production and productivity of cereal crops on the basis of cropping systems approach continued during the year 1996-97. In 1997-98, 31.2 million tones of coarse cereals were produced. However, barring the record production of 69.3 million tonnes of wheat in 1996-97, the production of wheat at 66.5 million tonnes in 1997-98 and expected rice production at 83.5 million tones is said to be the highest ever. Procurement of wheat during the rabbi marketing season 1998-99 touched a record high of 10.61 million tonnes. Pulses production in the country has been stagnating around 8-14 million tonnes for the last 40 years. The production of pulses is expected to be about 13 million tonnes in 1997-98 compared to 13.19 million tonnes during 1995-96. The adverse agro-climatic conditions have had their impact on the production of commercial crops. The production of 9 major oilseeds in 1997-98 is expected to be 24 million tonnes, as compared to 25 million tonnes in 1996-97 and 22.4 million tonnes in ‘95-96. Among the nine oilseed crops grown in the country, groundnut and rasped/mustard together account for 62% of the total oilseeds production. The production of groundnut and rapeseed and mustard is expected to touch 8 million and 6 million tonnes compared to 9 million and 7 million tonnes in 1996-97. 

Q. According to the passage, how is agro sector helpful to other industries? 

Solution:

This is directly explained in the passage hence it is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 20

Passage: The rapid and unprecedented changes in the external environment such as liberalization of the economy, globalization of international markets, and deregulation of the financial system and implications of various clauses under WTO exerted considerable pressure on the agricultural system. The inadequate levels of capital formation in the agricultural sector, distancing of farm technologies from requirements of the market, inadequate and untimely supply of credit and post-harvest losses are the worrying factors. Agricultural sector employs about 64% of the workforce, contributes 27.4% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and accounts for about 18% share of the value of the country‘s exports. It supplies bulk of wage goods required by non-agricultural sector and raw material for a large section of the industry. In terms of gross fertilizer consumption, India ranks 4th in the world after USA, Russia and China. The country has the largest area in the world under pulse crops while in the field of cotton; India is the first to evolve a cotton hybrid. In 1996-97, the per capital net availability of foodgrains touched 528.77gms, which was a mere 395gms at the time of India‘s independence. Therefore, it has a vital place in the economic development of the country. Significant strides have been made in agricultural production towards ensuring food security. There has been a significant improvement in agricultural productivity which has helped in reducing rural poverty. The trend in the growth of foodgrain production, particularly in high productivity areas like Haryana and Punjab, is on the decline. Agricultural productivity in the Eastern region, excepting West Bengal, is low, and it is mainly attributed to weak infrastructure. Indian agriculture is also on the threshold of becoming globally competitive and is in a position to make major gains in the export market. Foodgrains account for 63% of country‘s agricultural output and hence even a marginal production has ‘ripple effect‘on the rest of the economy. IN 1997, the foodgrains output was 199 million tones but in 1998 it was lowered by over 4 million tones owing to a fall in the pulse production. Initiatives for increasing the production and productivity of cereal crops on the basis of cropping systems approach continued during the year 1996-97. In 1997-98, 31.2 million tones of coarse cereals were produced. However, barring the record production of 69.3 million tonnes of wheat in 1996-97, the production of wheat at 66.5 million tonnes in 1997-98 and expected rice production at 83.5 million tones is said to be the highest ever. Procurement of wheat during the rabbi marketing season 1998-99 touched a record high of 10.61 million tonnes. Pulses production in the country has been stagnating around 8-14 million tonnes for the last 40 years. The production of pulses is expected to be about 13 million tonnes in 1997-98 compared to 13.19 million tonnes during 1995-96. The adverse agro-climatic conditions have had their impact on the production of commercial crops. The production of 9 major oilseeds in 1997-98 is expected to be 24 million tonnes, as compared to 25 million tonnes in 1996-97 and 22.4 million tonnes in ‘95-96. Among the nine oilseed crops grown in the country, groundnut and rasped/mustard together account for 62% of the total oilseeds production. The production of groundnut and rapeseed and mustard is expected to touch 8 million and 6 million tonnes compared to 9 million and 7 million tonnes in 1996-97. 

Q. What is the author‘s assessment about Indian agriculture in terms of the world scenario?

Solution:

According to the passage, this seems to be the perfect option.

QUESTION: 21

Passage: The rapid and unprecedented changes in the external environment such as liberalization of the economy, globalization of international markets, and deregulation of the financial system and implications of various clauses under WTO exerted considerable pressure on the agricultural system. The inadequate levels of capital formation in the agricultural sector, distancing of farm technologies from requirements of the market, inadequate and untimely supply of credit and post-harvest losses are the worrying factors. Agricultural sector employs about 64% of the workforce, contributes 27.4% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and accounts for about 18% share of the value of the country‘s exports. It supplies bulk of wage goods required by non-agricultural sector and raw material for a large section of the industry. In terms of gross fertilizer consumption, India ranks 4th in the world after USA, Russia and China. The country has the largest area in the world under pulse crops while in the field of cotton; India is the first to evolve a cotton hybrid. In 1996-97, the per capital net availability of foodgrains touched 528.77gms, which was a mere 395gms at the time of India‘s independence. Therefore, it has a vital place in the economic development of the country. Significant strides have been made in agricultural production towards ensuring food security. There has been a significant improvement in agricultural productivity which has helped in reducing rural poverty. The trend in the growth of foodgrain production, particularly in high productivity areas like Haryana and Punjab, is on the decline. Agricultural productivity in the Eastern region, excepting West Bengal, is low, and it is mainly attributed to weak infrastructure. Indian agriculture is also on the threshold of becoming globally competitive and is in a position to make major gains in the export market. Foodgrains account for 63% of country‘s agricultural output and hence even a marginal production has ‘ripple effect‘on the rest of the economy. IN 1997, the foodgrains output was 199 million tones but in 1998 it was lowered by over 4 million tones owing to a fall in the pulse production. Initiatives for increasing the production and productivity of cereal crops on the basis of cropping systems approach continued during the year 1996-97. In 1997-98, 31.2 million tones of coarse cereals were produced. However, barring the record production of 69.3 million tonnes of wheat in 1996-97, the production of wheat at 66.5 million tonnes in 1997-98 and expected rice production at 83.5 million tones is said to be the highest ever. Procurement of wheat during the rabbi marketing season 1998-99 touched a record high of 10.61 million tonnes. Pulses production in the country has been stagnating around 8-14 million tonnes for the last 40 years. The production of pulses is expected to be about 13 million tonnes in 1997-98 compared to 13.19 million tonnes during 1995-96. The adverse agro-climatic conditions have had their impact on the production of commercial crops. The production of 9 major oilseeds in 1997-98 is expected to be 24 million tonnes, as compared to 25 million tonnes in 1996-97 and 22.4 million tonnes in ‘95-96. Among the nine oilseed crops grown in the country, groundnut and rasped/mustard together account for 62% of the total oilseeds production. The production of groundnut and rapeseed and mustard is expected to touch 8 million and 6 million tonnes compared to 9 million and 7 million tonnes in 1996-97. 

Q. The sharp decline in foodgrain production in 1998 over its preceding year is attributed to 

Solution:

After eliminating the not suited ones, this option seems the most appropriate.

QUESTION: 22

Passage: The rapid and unprecedented changes in the external environment such as liberalization of the economy, globalization of international markets, and deregulation of the financial system and implications of various clauses under WTO exerted considerable pressure on the agricultural system. The inadequate levels of capital formation in the agricultural sector, distancing of farm technologies from requirements of the market, inadequate and untimely supply of credit and post-harvest losses are the worrying factors. Agricultural sector employs about 64% of the workforce, contributes 27.4% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and accounts for about 18% share of the value of the country‘s exports. It supplies bulk of wage goods required by non-agricultural sector and raw material for a large section of the industry. In terms of gross fertilizer consumption, India ranks 4th in the world after USA, Russia and China. The country has the largest area in the world under pulse crops while in the field of cotton; India is the first to evolve a cotton hybrid. In 1996-97, the per capital net availability of foodgrains touched 528.77gms, which was a mere 395gms at the time of India‘s independence. Therefore, it has a vital place in the economic development of the country. Significant strides have been made in agricultural production towards ensuring food security. There has been a significant improvement in agricultural productivity which has helped in reducing rural poverty. The trend in the growth of foodgrain production, particularly in high productivity areas like Haryana and Punjab, is on the decline. Agricultural productivity in the Eastern region, excepting West Bengal, is low, and it is mainly attributed to weak infrastructure. Indian agriculture is also on the threshold of becoming globally competitive and is in a position to make major gains in the export market. Foodgrains account for 63% of country‘s agricultural output and hence even a marginal production has ‘ripple effect‘on the rest of the economy. IN 1997, the foodgrains output was 199 million tones but in 1998 it was lowered by over 4 million tones owing to a fall in the pulse production. Initiatives for increasing the production and productivity of cereal crops on the basis of cropping systems approach continued during the year 1996-97. In 1997-98, 31.2 million tones of coarse cereals were produced. However, barring the record production of 69.3 million tonnes of wheat in 1996-97, the production of wheat at 66.5 million tonnes in 1997-98 and expected rice production at 83.5 million tones is said to be the highest ever. Procurement of wheat during the rabbi marketing season 1998-99 touched a record high of 10.61 million tonnes. Pulses production in the country has been stagnating around 8-14 million tonnes for the last 40 years. The production of pulses is expected to be about 13 million tonnes in 1997-98 compared to 13.19 million tonnes during 1995-96. The adverse agro-climatic conditions have had their impact on the production of commercial crops. The production of 9 major oilseeds in 1997-98 is expected to be 24 million tonnes, as compared to 25 million tonnes in 1996-97 and 22.4 million tonnes in ‘95-96. Among the nine oilseed crops grown in the country, groundnut and rasped/mustard together account for 62% of the total oilseeds production. The production of groundnut and rapeseed and mustard is expected to touch 8 million and 6 million tonnes compared to 9 million and 7 million tonnes in 1996-97. 

Q. What is the impact of increase in food and other agro-production, according to the passage?

Solution:

Consulting the passage, this option perfectly suits.

QUESTION: 23

Passage: The rapid and unprecedented changes in the external environment such as liberalization of the economy, globalization of international markets, and deregulation of the financial system and implications of various clauses under WTO exerted considerable pressure on the agricultural system. The inadequate levels of capital formation in the agricultural sector, distancing of farm technologies from requirements of the market, inadequate and untimely supply of credit and post-harvest losses are the worrying factors. Agricultural sector employs about 64% of the workforce, contributes 27.4% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and accounts for about 18% share of the value of the country‘s exports. It supplies bulk of wage goods required by non-agricultural sector and raw material for a large section of the industry. In terms of gross fertilizer consumption, India ranks 4th in the world after USA, Russia and China. The country has the largest area in the world under pulse crops while in the field of cotton; India is the first to evolve a cotton hybrid. In 1996-97, the per capital net availability of foodgrains touched 528.77gms, which was a mere 395gms at the time of India‘s independence. Therefore, it has a vital place in the economic development of the country. Significant strides have been made in agricultural production towards ensuring food security. There has been a significant improvement in agricultural productivity which has helped in reducing rural poverty. The trend in the growth of foodgrain production, particularly in high productivity areas like Haryana and Punjab, is on the decline. Agricultural productivity in the Eastern region, excepting West Bengal, is low, and it is mainly attributed to weak infrastructure. Indian agriculture is also on the threshold of becoming globally competitive and is in a position to make major gains in the export market. Foodgrains account for 63% of country‘s agricultural output and hence even a marginal production has ‘ripple effect‘on the rest of the economy. IN 1997, the foodgrains output was 199 million tones but in 1998 it was lowered by over 4 million tones owing to a fall in the pulse production. Initiatives for increasing the production and productivity of cereal crops on the basis of cropping systems approach continued during the year 1996-97. In 1997-98, 31.2 million tones of coarse cereals were produced. However, barring the record production of 69.3 million tonnes of wheat in 1996-97, the production of wheat at 66.5 million tonnes in 1997-98 and expected rice production at 83.5 million tones is said to be the highest ever. Procurement of wheat during the rabbi marketing season 1998-99 touched a record high of 10.61 million tonnes. Pulses production in the country has been stagnating around 8-14 million tonnes for the last 40 years. The production of pulses is expected to be about 13 million tonnes in 1997-98 compared to 13.19 million tonnes during 1995-96. The adverse agro-climatic conditions have had their impact on the production of commercial crops. The production of 9 major oilseeds in 1997-98 is expected to be 24 million tonnes, as compared to 25 million tonnes in 1996-97 and 22.4 million tonnes in ‘95-96. Among the nine oilseed crops grown in the country, groundnut and rasped/mustard together account for 62% of the total oilseeds production. The production of groundnut and rapeseed and mustard is expected to touch 8 million and 6 million tonnes compared to 9 million and 7 million tonnes in 1996-97. 

Q. What, according to the passage, is the ‘RIPPLE EFFECT‘?

Solution:

This is directly explained in the passage hence it is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 24

Passage: The rapid and unprecedented changes in the external environment such as liberalization of the economy, globalization of international markets, and deregulation of the financial system and implications of various clauses under WTO exerted considerable pressure on the agricultural system. The inadequate levels of capital formation in the agricultural sector, distancing of farm technologies from requirements of the market, inadequate and untimely supply of credit and post-harvest losses are the worrying factors. Agricultural sector employs about 64% of the workforce, contributes 27.4% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and accounts for about 18% share of the value of the country‘s exports. It supplies bulk of wage goods required by non-agricultural sector and raw material for a large section of the industry. In terms of gross fertilizer consumption, India ranks 4th in the world after USA, Russia and China. The country has the largest area in the world under pulse crops while in the field of cotton; India is the first to evolve a cotton hybrid. In 1996-97, the per capital net availability of foodgrains touched 528.77gms, which was a mere 395gms at the time of India‘s independence. Therefore, it has a vital place in the economic development of the country. Significant strides have been made in agricultural production towards ensuring food security. There has been a significant improvement in agricultural productivity which has helped in reducing rural poverty. The trend in the growth of foodgrain production, particularly in high productivity areas like Haryana and Punjab, is on the decline. Agricultural productivity in the Eastern region, excepting West Bengal, is low, and it is mainly attributed to weak infrastructure. Indian agriculture is also on the threshold of becoming globally competitive and is in a position to make major gains in the export market. Foodgrains account for 63% of country‘s agricultural output and hence even a marginal production has ‘ripple effect‘on the rest of the economy. IN 1997, the foodgrains output was 199 million tones but in 1998 it was lowered by over 4 million tones owing to a fall in the pulse production. Initiatives for increasing the production and productivity of cereal crops on the basis of cropping systems approach continued during the year 1996-97. In 1997-98, 31.2 million tones of coarse cereals were produced. However, barring the record production of 69.3 million tonnes of wheat in 1996-97, the production of wheat at 66.5 million tonnes in 1997-98 and expected rice production at 83.5 million tones is said to be the highest ever. Procurement of wheat during the rabbi marketing season 1998-99 touched a record high of 10.61 million tonnes. Pulses production in the country has been stagnating around 8-14 million tonnes for the last 40 years. The production of pulses is expected to be about 13 million tonnes in 1997-98 compared to 13.19 million tonnes during 1995-96. The adverse agro-climatic conditions have had their impact on the production of commercial crops. The production of 9 major oilseeds in 1997-98 is expected to be 24 million tonnes, as compared to 25 million tonnes in 1996-97 and 22.4 million tonnes in ‘95-96. Among the nine oilseed crops grown in the country, groundnut and rasped/mustard together account for 62% of the total oilseeds production. The production of groundnut and rapeseed and mustard is expected to touch 8 million and 6 million tonnes compared to 9 million and 7 million tonnes in 1996-97. 

Q. Which of the following is FALSE in the context of this passage? 

Solution:

According to the passage, this seems to be the perfect option.

QUESTION: 25

Choose the word or group of words which is MOST NEARLY THE SAME in meaning as the word printed in Underline. 
Passage: The rapid and unprecedented changes in the external environment such as liberalization of the economy, globalization of international markets, and deregulation of the financial system and implications of various clauses under WTO exerted considerable pressure on the agricultural system. The inadequate levels of capital formation in the agricultural sector, distancing of farm technologies from requirements of the market, inadequate and untimely supply of credit and post-harvest losses are the worrying factors. Agricultural sector employs about 64% of the workforce, contributes 27.4% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and accounts for about 18% share of the value of the country‘s exports. It supplies bulk of wage goods required by non-agricultural sector and raw material for a large section of the industry. In terms of gross fertilizer consumption, India ranks 4th in the world after USA, Russia and China. The country has the largest area in the world under pulse crops while in the field of cotton; India is the first to evolve a cotton hybrid. In 1996-97, the per capital net availability of foodgrains touched 528.77gms, which was a mere 395gms at the time of India‘s independence. Therefore, it has a vital place in the economic development of the country. Significant strides have been made in agricultural production towards ensuring food security. There has been a significant improvement in agricultural productivity which has helped in reducing rural poverty. The trend in the growth of foodgrain production, particularly in high productivity areas like Haryana and Punjab, is on the decline. Agricultural productivity in the Eastern region, excepting West Bengal, is low, and it is mainly attributed to weak infrastructure. Indian agriculture is also on the threshold of becoming globally competitive and is in a position to make major gains in the export market. Foodgrains account for 63% of country‘s agricultural output and hence even a marginal production has ‘ripple effect‘on the rest of the economy. IN 1997, the foodgrains output was 199 million tones but in 1998 it was lowered by over 4 million tones owing to a fall in the pulse production. Initiatives for increasing the production and productivity of cereal crops on the basis of cropping systems approach continued during the year 1996-97. In 1997-98, 31.2 million tones of coarse cereals were produced. However, barring the record production of 69.3 million tonnes of wheat in 1996-97, the production of wheat at 66.5 million tonnes in 1997-98 and expected rice production at 83.5 million tones is said to be the highest ever. Procurement of wheat during the rabbi marketing season 1998-99 touched a record high of 10.61 million tonnes. Pulses production in the country has been stagnating around 8-14 million tonnes for the last 40 years. The production of pulses is expected to be about 13 million tonnes in 1997-98 compared to 13.19 million tonnes during 1995-96. The adverse agro-climatic conditions have had their impact on the production of commercial crops. The production of 9 major oilseeds in 1997-98 is expected to be 24 million tonnes, as compared to 25 million tonnes in 1996-97 and 22.4 million tonnes in ‘95-96. Among the nine oilseed crops grown in the country, groundnut and rasped/mustard together account for 62% of the total oilseeds production. The production of groundnut and rapeseed and mustard is expected to touch 8 million and 6 million tonnes compared to 9 million and 7 million tonnes in 1996-97. 

Q. STRIDES 

Solution:

After eliminating the not suited ones, this option seems the most appropriate.

QUESTION: 26

Choose the word or group of words which is MOST NEARLY THE SAME in meaning as the word printed in Underline. 
​Passage: The rapid and unprecedented changes in the external environment such as liberalization of the economy, globalization of international markets, and deregulation of the financial system and implications of various clauses under WTO exerted considerable pressure on the agricultural system. The inadequate levels of capital formation in the agricultural sector, distancing of farm technologies from requirements of the market, inadequate and untimely supply of credit and post-harvest losses are the worrying factors. Agricultural sector employs about 64% of the workforce, contributes 27.4% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and accounts for about 18% share of the value of the country‘s exports. It supplies bulk of wage goods required by non-agricultural sector and raw material for a large section of the industry. In terms of gross fertilizer consumption, India ranks 4th in the world after USA, Russia and China. The country has the largest area in the world under pulse crops while in the field of cotton; India is the first to evolve a cotton hybrid. In 1996-97, the per capital net availability of foodgrains touched 528.77gms, which was a mere 395gms at the time of India‘s independence. Therefore, it has a vital place in the economic development of the country. Significant strides have been made in agricultural production towards ensuring food security. There has been a significant improvement in agricultural productivity which has helped in reducing rural poverty. The trend in the growth of foodgrain production, particularly in high productivity areas like Haryana and Punjab, is on the decline. Agricultural productivity in the Eastern region, excepting West Bengal, is low, and it is mainly attributed to weak infrastructure. Indian agriculture is also on the threshold of becoming globally competitive and is in a position to make major gains in the export market. Foodgrains account for 63% of country‘s agricultural output and hence even a marginal production has ‘ripple effect‘on the rest of the economy. IN 1997, the foodgrains output was 199 million tones but in 1998 it was lowered by over 4 million tones owing to a fall in the pulse production. Initiatives for increasing the production and productivity of cereal crops on the basis of cropping systems approach continued during the year 1996-97. In 1997-98, 31.2 million tones of coarse cereals were produced. However, barring the record production of 69.3 million tonnes of wheat in 1996-97, the production of wheat at 66.5 million tonnes in 1997-98 and expected rice production at 83.5 million tones is said to be the highest ever. Procurement of wheat during the rabbi marketing season 1998-99 touched a record high of 10.61 million tonnes. Pulses production in the country has been stagnating around 8-14 million tonnes for the last 40 years. The production of pulses is expected to be about 13 million tonnes in 1997-98 compared to 13.19 million tonnes during 1995-96. The adverse agro-climatic conditions have had their impact on the production of commercial crops. The production of 9 major oilseeds in 1997-98 is expected to be 24 million tonnes, as compared to 25 million tonnes in 1996-97 and 22.4 million tonnes in ‘95-96. Among the nine oilseed crops grown in the country, groundnut and rasped/mustard together account for 62% of the total oilseeds production. The production of groundnut and rapeseed and mustard is expected to touch 8 million and 6 million tonnes compared to 9 million and 7 million tonnes in 1996-97. 

Q. EVOLVE 

Solution:

Consulting the passage, this option perfectly suits.

QUESTION: 27

Choose the word or group of words which is MOST NEARLY THE SAME in meaning as the word printed in Underline. 
​Passage: The rapid and unprecedented changes in the external environment such as liberalization of the economy, globalization of international markets, and deregulation of the financial system and implications of various clauses under WTO exerted considerable pressure on the agricultural system. The inadequate levels of capital formation in the agricultural sector, distancing of farm technologies from requirements of the market, inadequate and untimely supply of credit and post-harvest losses are the worrying factors. Agricultural sector employs about 64% of the workforce, contributes 27.4% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and accounts for about 18% share of the value of the country‘s exports. It supplies bulk of wage goods required by non-agricultural sector and raw material for a large section of the industry. In terms of gross fertilizer consumption, India ranks 4th in the world after USA, Russia and China. The country has the largest area in the world under pulse crops while in the field of cotton; India is the first to evolve a cotton hybrid. In 1996-97, the per capital net availability of foodgrains touched 528.77gms, which was a mere 395gms at the time of India‘s independence. Therefore, it has a vital place in the economic development of the country. Significant strides have been made in agricultural production towards ensuring food security. There has been a significant improvement in agricultural productivity which has helped in reducing rural poverty. The trend in the growth of foodgrain production, particularly in high productivity areas like Haryana and Punjab, is on the decline. Agricultural productivity in the Eastern region, excepting West Bengal, is low, and it is mainly attributed to weak infrastructure. Indian agriculture is also on the threshold of becoming globally competitive and is in a position to make major gains in the export market. Foodgrains account for 63% of country‘s agricultural output and hence even a marginal production has ‘ripple effect‘on the rest of the economy. IN 1997, the foodgrains output was 199 million tones but in 1998 it was lowered by over 4 million tones owing to a fall in the pulse production. Initiatives for increasing the production and productivity of cereal crops on the basis of cropping systems approach continued during the year 1996-97. In 1997-98, 31.2 million tones of coarse cereals were produced. However, barring the record production of 69.3 million tonnes of wheat in 1996-97, the production of wheat at 66.5 million tonnes in 1997-98 and expected rice production at 83.5 million tones is said to be the highest ever. Procurement of wheat during the rabbi marketing season 1998-99 touched a record high of 10.61 million tonnes. Pulses production in the country has been stagnating around 8-14 million tonnes for the last 40 years. The production of pulses is expected to be about 13 million tonnes in 1997-98 compared to 13.19 million tonnes during 1995-96. The adverse agro-climatic conditions have had their impact on the production of commercial crops. The production of 9 major oilseeds in 1997-98 is expected to be 24 million tonnes, as compared to 25 million tonnes in 1996-97 and 22.4 million tonnes in ‘95-96. Among the nine oilseed crops grown in the country, groundnut and rasped/mustard together account for 62% of the total oilseeds production. The production of groundnut and rapeseed and mustard is expected to touch 8 million and 6 million tonnes compared to 9 million and 7 million tonnes in 1996-97. 

Q. CONSIDERABLE 

Solution:

This is directly explained in the passage hence it is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 28

Choose the word or group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in Underline. 
​Passage: The rapid and unprecedented changes in the external environment such as liberalization of the economy, globalization of international markets, and deregulation of the financial system and implications of various clauses under WTO exerted considerable pressure on the agricultural system. The inadequate levels of capital formation in the agricultural sector, distancing of farm technologies from requirements of the market, inadequate and untimely supply of credit and post-harvest losses are the worrying factors. Agricultural sector employs about 64% of the workforce, contributes 27.4% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and accounts for about 18% share of the value of the country‘s exports. It supplies bulk of wage goods required by non-agricultural sector and raw material for a large section of the industry. In terms of gross fertilizer consumption, India ranks 4th in the world after USA, Russia and China. The country has the largest area in the world under pulse crops while in the field of cotton; India is the first to evolve a cotton hybrid. In 1996-97, the per capital net availability of foodgrains touched 528.77gms, which was a mere 395gms at the time of India‘s independence. Therefore, it has a vital place in the economic development of the country. Significant strides have been made in agricultural production towards ensuring food security. There has been a significant improvement in agricultural productivity which has helped in reducing rural poverty. The trend in the growth of foodgrain production, particularly in high productivity areas like Haryana and Punjab, is on the decline. Agricultural productivity in the Eastern region, excepting West Bengal, is low, and it is mainly attributed to weak infrastructure. Indian agriculture is also on the threshold of becoming globally competitive and is in a position to make major gains in the export market. Foodgrains account for 63% of country‘s agricultural output and hence even a marginal production has ‘ripple effect‘on the rest of the economy. IN 1997, the foodgrains output was 199 million tones but in 1998 it was lowered by over 4 million tones owing to a fall in the pulse production. Initiatives for increasing the production and productivity of cereal crops on the basis of cropping systems approach continued during the year 1996-97. In 1997-98, 31.2 million tones of coarse cereals were produced. However, barring the record production of 69.3 million tonnes of wheat in 1996-97, the production of wheat at 66.5 million tonnes in 1997-98 and expected rice production at 83.5 million tones is said to be the highest ever. Procurement of wheat during the rabbi marketing season 1998-99 touched a record high of 10.61 million tonnes. Pulses production in the country has been stagnating around 8-14 million tonnes for the last 40 years. The production of pulses is expected to be about 13 million tonnes in 1997-98 compared to 13.19 million tonnes during 1995-96. The adverse agro-climatic conditions have had their impact on the production of commercial crops. The production of 9 major oilseeds in 1997-98 is expected to be 24 million tonnes, as compared to 25 million tonnes in 1996-97 and 22.4 million tonnes in ‘95-96. Among the nine oilseed crops grown in the country, groundnut and rasped/mustard together account for 62% of the total oilseeds production. The production of groundnut and rapeseed and mustard is expected to touch 8 million and 6 million tonnes compared to 9 million and 7 million tonnes in 1996-97. 

Q. MARGINAL

Solution:

According to the passage, this seems to be the perfect option.

QUESTION: 29

Choose the word or group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in Underline. 
​Passage: The rapid and unprecedented changes in the external environment such as liberalization of the economy, globalization of international markets, and deregulation of the financial system and implications of various clauses under WTO exerted considerable pressure on the agricultural system. The inadequate levels of capital formation in the agricultural sector, distancing of farm technologies from requirements of the market, inadequate and untimely supply of credit and post-harvest losses are the worrying factors. Agricultural sector employs about 64% of the workforce, contributes 27.4% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and accounts for about 18% share of the value of the country‘s exports. It supplies bulk of wage goods required by non-agricultural sector and raw material for a large section of the industry. In terms of gross fertilizer consumption, India ranks 4th in the world after USA, Russia and China. The country has the largest area in the world under pulse crops while in the field of cotton; India is the first to evolve a cotton hybrid. In 1996-97, the per capital net availability of foodgrains touched 528.77gms, which was a mere 395gms at the time of India‘s independence. Therefore, it has a vital place in the economic development of the country. Significant strides have been made in agricultural production towards ensuring food security. There has been a significant improvement in agricultural productivity which has helped in reducing rural poverty. The trend in the growth of foodgrain production, particularly in high productivity areas like Haryana and Punjab, is on the decline. Agricultural productivity in the Eastern region, excepting West Bengal, is low, and it is mainly attributed to weak infrastructure. Indian agriculture is also on the threshold of becoming globally competitive and is in a position to make major gains in the export market. Foodgrains account for 63% of country‘s agricultural output and hence even a marginal production has ‘ripple effect‘on the rest of the economy. IN 1997, the foodgrains output was 199 million tones but in 1998 it was lowered by over 4 million tones owing to a fall in the pulse production. Initiatives for increasing the production and productivity of cereal crops on the basis of cropping systems approach continued during the year 1996-97. In 1997-98, 31.2 million tones of coarse cereals were produced. However, barring the record production of 69.3 million tonnes of wheat in 1996-97, the production of wheat at 66.5 million tonnes in 1997-98 and expected rice production at 83.5 million tones is said to be the highest ever. Procurement of wheat during the rabbi marketing season 1998-99 touched a record high of 10.61 million tonnes. Pulses production in the country has been stagnating around 8-14 million tonnes for the last 40 years. The production of pulses is expected to be about 13 million tonnes in 1997-98 compared to 13.19 million tonnes during 1995-96. The adverse agro-climatic conditions have had their impact on the production of commercial crops. The production of 9 major oilseeds in 1997-98 is expected to be 24 million tonnes, as compared to 25 million tonnes in 1996-97 and 22.4 million tonnes in ‘95-96. Among the nine oilseed crops grown in the country, groundnut and rasped/mustard together account for 62% of the total oilseeds production. The production of groundnut and rapeseed and mustard is expected to touch 8 million and 6 million tonnes compared to 9 million and 7 million tonnes in 1996-97.

Q. ADVERSE 

Solution:

After eliminating the not suited ones, this option seems the most appropriate.

QUESTION: 30

Choose the word or group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in Underline. 
​Passage: The rapid and unprecedented changes in the external environment such as liberalization of the economy, globalization of international markets, and deregulation of the financial system and implications of various clauses under WTO exerted considerable pressure on the agricultural system. The inadequate levels of capital formation in the agricultural sector, distancing of farm technologies from requirements of the market, inadequate and untimely supply of credit and post-harvest losses are the worrying factors. Agricultural sector employs about 64% of the workforce, contributes 27.4% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and accounts for about 18% share of the value of the country‘s exports. It supplies bulk of wage goods required by non-agricultural sector and raw material for a large section of the industry. In terms of gross fertilizer consumption, India ranks 4th in the world after USA, Russia and China. The country has the largest area in the world under pulse crops while in the field of cotton; India is the first to evolve a cotton hybrid. In 1996-97, the per capital net availability of foodgrains touched 528.77gms, which was a mere 395gms at the time of India‘s independence. Therefore, it has a vital place in the economic development of the country. Significant strides have been made in agricultural production towards ensuring food security. There has been a significant improvement in agricultural productivity which has helped in reducing rural poverty. The trend in the growth of foodgrain production, particularly in high productivity areas like Haryana and Punjab, is on the decline. Agricultural productivity in the Eastern region, excepting West Bengal, is low, and it is mainly attributed to weak infrastructure. Indian agriculture is also on the threshold of becoming globally competitive and is in a position to make major gains in the export market. Foodgrains account for 63% of country‘s agricultural output and hence even a marginal production has ‘ripple effect‘on the rest of the economy. IN 1997, the foodgrains output was 199 million tones but in 1998 it was lowered by over 4 million tones owing to a fall in the pulse production. Initiatives for increasing the production and productivity of cereal crops on the basis of cropping systems approach continued during the year 1996-97. In 1997-98, 31.2 million tones of coarse cereals were produced. However, barring the record production of 69.3 million tonnes of wheat in 1996-97, the production of wheat at 66.5 million tonnes in 1997-98 and expected rice production at 83.5 million tones is said to be the highest ever. Procurement of wheat during the rabbi marketing season 1998-99 touched a record high of 10.61 million tonnes. Pulses production in the country has been stagnating around 8-14 million tonnes for the last 40 years. The production of pulses is expected to be about 13 million tonnes in 1997-98 compared to 13.19 million tonnes during 1995-96. The adverse agro-climatic conditions have had their impact on the production of commercial crops. The production of 9 major oilseeds in 1997-98 is expected to be 24 million tonnes, as compared to 25 million tonnes in 1996-97 and 22.4 million tonnes in ‘95-96. Among the nine oilseed crops grown in the country, groundnut and rasped/mustard together account for 62% of the total oilseeds production. The production of groundnut and rapeseed and mustard is expected to touch 8 million and 6 million tonnes compared to 9 million and 7 million tonnes in 1996-97.

Q. RAPID 

Solution:

Consulting the passage, this option perfectly suits.

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