English Mock Test - 8


40 Questions MCQ Test Mock Test Series for CLAT 2020 | English Mock Test - 8


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This mock test of English Mock Test - 8 for CLAT helps you for every CLAT entrance exam. This contains 40 Multiple Choice Questions for CLAT English Mock Test - 8 (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this English Mock Test - 8 quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. CLAT students definitely take this English Mock Test - 8 exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other English Mock Test - 8 extra questions, long questions & short questions for CLAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

Directions (1 – 5): - Read the following passages carefully and answer the question given below them.  All answer should be given in the context of the given passage. Certain words/phrases are printed in Bold to help you to locate them while answering some of the questions.

The persistent patterns in the way nations fight reflect their cultural and historical traditions and deeply rooted attitudes that collectively make up their strategic culture. These patterns provide insights that go beyond what can be learnt just by comparing armaments and divisions. In the Vietnam War, the strategic tradition of the United States called for forcing the enemy to fight a massed battle in an open area, where superior American weapons would prevail. The United States was trying to fight World War II in the jungles of Southeast Asia, against an enemy with no intention of doing so.

Some British military historians describe the Asian way of war as one of indirect attacks, avoiding frontal attacks meant to overpower an opponent. This traces back to Asian history and geography; the great distances and harsh terrain have often made it difficult to execute the sort of open field clashes allowed by the flat terrain and relatively compact size of Europe. A very different strategic tradition arose in Asia.

The bow and arrow were metaphors for an Eastern way of war: By its nature, the arrow is an indirect weapon. Fired from a distance of hundreds of yards, it does not necessitate immediate physical contact with the enemy. Thus, it can be fired from hidden positions. When fired from behind a bridge, the barrage seems to come out of nowhere, taking the enemy by surprise. The tradition of this kind of fighting is captured in the classical strategic writings of the East. The 2,000 years’ worth of Chinese writings on war constitutes the subtlest writings on the subject in any language. Not until Clausewitz did the West produce a strategic theorist to match the sophistication of Sun-tzu, whose Art of War was written 2,300 years earlier.

In Sun-tzu and other Chinese writings, the highest achievement of arms is to defeat an adversary, without fighting. He wrote. “To win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the supreme excellence.” Actual combat is just one among many means towards the goal of subduing an adversary. War contains too many surprises to be a first resort. It can lead to ruinous losses, as has been seen time and again. It can have the unwanted effect of inspiring heroic efforts in an enemy, as the United States learnt in Vietnam, and as the Japanese found out after Pearl Harbor.

Aware of the uncertainties of a military campaign, Sun-tzu advocated war only after the most thorough preparations. Even then, it should be quick and clean. Ideally, the army is just an instrument to deal the final blow to an enemy already weakened by isolation, poor morale and disunity. Ever since Sun-tzu, the Chinese have been seen as masters of subtlety, who take measured actions to manipulate an adversary without his knowledge. The dividing line between war and peace can be obscure. Low level violence often is the backdrop to a larger strategic campaign. The unwitting victim, focused on the day-to-day events, never realizes what’s happening to him until it’s too late. History holds many examples. The Viet Cong lured French and US infantry deep into the jungle, weakening their morale over several years. The mobile army of the United States was designed to fight on the plains of Europe, where it could quickly move unhindered from one spot to the next. The jungle did more than make quick movement impossible broken down into smaller units and scattered in isolated bases, US forces were deprived of the feeling of support and protection that ordinarily comes from being part of a big army.

The isolation of US troops in Vietnam was not just a logistical detail, something that could be overcome by, for instance, bringing in reinforcements by helicopter. In a big army reinforcements are readily available. It was Napolean who realized the extraordinary effects on morale that come from being part of a larger formation. Just the knowledge of it lowers the soldier’s fear and increases his aggressiveness. In the jungle and on isolated bases, this feeling was removed. The thick vegetation slowed down the reinforcements and made it difficult to find standard units. Soldiers felt they were on their own.

More importantly, by altering the way the war was fought the Viet Cong stripped the United States of its belief in the inevitability of victory, as it had done to the French before them. Morale was high when these armies first went to Vietnam. Only after many years of debilitating and demoralizing fighting did Hanoi launch its decisive attacks, at Dienbienphu in 1954 and against Saigon in 1975. It should be reached recalled that in the final push to victory, the North Vietnamese abandoned their jungle guerrilla tactics completely, committing their entire army of twenty divisions to pushing the South Vietnamese into collapse. The final battle, with the enemy’s army all in one was the one that the United States had desperately wanted to fight in 1965. When it did come out into the open in 1975, Washington had already withdrawn its forces and there was no possibility of re-intervention.

The Japanese early in World War II, used a modern form of the indirect attack, one that relied on stealth and surprise for its effect. At Pearl Harbor, in the Philippines, and in Southeast Asia, stealth and surprise were attained by sailing under radio silence so that the navy’s movements could not be tracked.

Moving troops abroad ships into Southeast Asia made it appear that the Japanese army was also “invisible”. Attacks against Hawaii and Singapore seemed, to the American and British defenders, to come from nowhere. In Indonesia and the Philippines, the Japanese attack was even faster than the Gernam blitz against France in the West. The greatest military surprises in American history have all been in Asia. Surely, there is something going on here beyond the purely technical difficulties of detecting enemy movements. Pearl harbor, the Chinese intervention in Korea, and the Tet offensive in Vietnam, all came out a traditional of surprise and stealth. US technical intelligence – the location of enemy units and their movements – was greatly improved after each surprise, but with no noticeable improvement in the American ability to foresee or prepare what would happen next. There is a cultural divide here, not just a technical one. Even when it was possible to track an army with intelligence satellites, as when Iraq invaded Kuwait or when Syria and Egypt attacked Israel, surprise was achieved. The United States was stunned by Iraq’s attack on Kuwait even though it had satellite pictures of Iraqi troops massing at the border.

The exception that proves the point that cultural differences obscure the West’s understanding of Asian behavior was the Soviet Union’s 1979 invasion of Afghanistan. This was fully anticipated and understood in advance. There was no surprise because the United States understood Moscow’s world view and thinking. It could anticipate Soviet action almost as well as the Soviets themselves, because the Soviet Union was really a Western country.

The difference between the Eastern and the Western way of war is striking. The West’s great strategic writer, Clausewitz, linked war to politics, as did Sun-tzu. Both were opponents of militarism, of turning war over to the generals. But here all similarity ends. Clausewitz wrote that the way to achieve a larger political purpose is through destruction of the enemy’s army. After observing Napolean conquer Europe by smashing enemy armies to bits, Clausewitz made his famous remark in On War (1952) that combat is the continuation of politics by violent means. Morale and unity are important, but they should be harnessed for the ultimate battle. If the Eastern way of war is embodied by the stealthy archer, the metaphorical Western counterpart is the swordsman charging forward, seeking a decisive showdown, eager to administer the blow that will obliterate the enemy once and for all. In this view, war proceeds along a fixed course and occupies a finite extent of time, like a play in three acts with a beginning, a middle, and an end. The end, the final scene, decides the issue for good. When things don’t work out quite this way, the Western military mind feels tremendous frustration. Sun-tzu’s great disciples, Mao Zedong and Ho Chi Minh, are respected in Asia for their clever use of indirection and deception to achieve an advantage over stronger adversaries. But in the West, their approach is seen as underhanded and devious. To the American strategic mind, the Viet Cong guerrilla did not fight fairly. He should have come out into the open and fought like a man, instead of hiding in the jungle and sneaking around like a cat in the night.

Q. 

According to the author, the main reason for the US losing the Vietnam war was

Solution:
QUESTION: 2

The persistent patterns in the way nations fight reflect their cultural and historical traditions and deeply rooted attitudes that collectively make up their strategic culture. These patterns provide insights that go beyond what can be learnt just by comparing armaments and divisions. In the Vietnam War, the strategic tradition of the United States called for forcing the enemy to fight a massed battle in an open area, where superior American weapons would prevail. The United States was trying to fight World War II in the jungles of Southeast Asia, against an enemy with no intention of doing so.

Some British military historians describe the Asian way of war as one of indirect attacks, avoiding frontal attacks meant to overpower an opponent. This traces back to Asian history and geography; the great distances and harsh terrain have often made it difficult to execute the sort of open field clashes allowed by the flat terrain and relatively compact size of Europe. A very different strategic tradition arose in Asia.

The bow and arrow were metaphors for an Eastern way of war: By its nature, the arrow is an indirect weapon. Fired from a distance of hundreds of yards, it does not necessitate immediate physical contact with the enemy. Thus, it can be fired from hidden positions. When fired from behind a bridge, the barrage seems to come out of nowhere, taking the enemy by surprise. The tradition of this kind of fighting is captured in the classical strategic writings of the East. The 2,000 years’ worth of Chinese writings on war constitutes the subtlest writings on the subject in any language. Not until Clausewitz did the West produce a strategic theorist to match the sophistication of Sun-tzu, whose Art of War was written 2,300 years earlier.

In Sun-tzu and other Chinese writings, the highest achievement of arms is to defeat an adversary, without fighting. He wrote. “To win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the supreme excellence.” Actual combat is just one among many means towards the goal of subduing an adversary. War contains too many surprises to be a first resort. It can lead to ruinous losses, as has been seen time and again. It can have the unwanted effect of inspiring heroic efforts in an enemy, as the United States learnt in Vietnam, and as the Japanese found out after Pearl Harbor.

Aware of the uncertainties of a military campaign, Sun-tzu advocated war only after the most thorough preparations. Even then, it should be quick and clean. Ideally, the army is just an instrument to deal the final blow to an enemy already weakened by isolation, poor morale and disunity. Ever since Sun-tzu, the Chinese have been seen as masters of subtlety, who take measured actions to manipulate an adversary without his knowledge. The dividing line between war and peace can be obscure. Low level violence often is the backdrop to a larger strategic campaign. The unwitting victim, focused on the day-to-day events, never realizes what’s happening to him until it’s too late. History holds many examples. The Viet Cong lured French and US infantry deep into the jungle, weakening their morale over several years. The mobile army of the United States was designed to fight on the plains of Europe, where it could quickly move unhindered from one spot to the next. The jungle did more than make quick movement impossible broken down into smaller units and scattered in isolated bases, US forces were deprived of the feeling of support and protection that ordinarily comes from being part of a big army.

The isolation of US troops in Vietnam was not just a logistical detail, something that could be overcome by, for instance, bringing in reinforcements by helicopter. In a big army reinforcements are readily available. It was Napolean who realized the extraordinary effects on morale that come from being part of a larger formation. Just the knowledge of it lowers the soldier’s fear and increases his aggressiveness. In the jungle and on isolated bases, this feeling was removed. The thick vegetation slowed down the reinforcements and made it difficult to find standard units. Soldiers felt they were on their own.

More importantly, by altering the way the war was fought the Viet Cong stripped the United States of its belief in the inevitability of victory, as it had done to the French before them. Morale was high when these armies first went to Vietnam. Only after many years of debilitating and demoralizing fighting did Hanoi launch its decisive attacks, at Dienbienphu in 1954 and against Saigon in 1975. It should be reached recalled that in the final push to victory, the North Vietnamese abandoned their jungle guerrilla tactics completely, committing their entire army of twenty divisions to pushing the South Vietnamese into collapse. The final battle, with the enemy’s army all in one was the one that the United States had desperately wanted to fight in 1965. When it did come out into the open in 1975, Washington had already withdrawn its forces and there was no possibility of re-intervention.

The Japanese early in World War II, used a modern form of the indirect attack, one that relied on stealth and surprise for its effect. At Pearl Harbor, in the Philippines, and in Southeast Asia, stealth and surprise were attained by sailing under radio silence so that the navy’s movements could not be tracked.

Moving troops abroad ships into Southeast Asia made it appear that the Japanese army was also “invisible”. Attacks against Hawaii and Singapore seemed, to the American and British defenders, to come from nowhere. In Indonesia and the Philippines, the Japanese attack was even faster than the Gernam blitz against France in the West. The greatest military surprises in American history have all been in Asia. Surely, there is something going on here beyond the purely technical difficulties of detecting enemy movements. Pearl harbor, the Chinese intervention in Korea, and the Tet offensive in Vietnam, all came out a traditional of surprise and stealth. US technical intelligence – the location of enemy units and their movements – was greatly improved after each surprise, but with no noticeable improvement in the American ability to foresee or prepare what would happen next. There is a cultural divide here, not just a technical one. Even when it was possible to track an army with intelligence satellites, as when Iraq invaded Kuwait or when Syria and Egypt attacked Israel, surprise was achieved. The United States was stunned by Iraq’s attack on Kuwait even though it had satellite pictures of Iraqi troops massing at the border.

The exception that proves the point that cultural differences obscure the West’s understanding of Asian behavior was the Soviet Union’s 1979 invasion of Afghanistan. This was fully anticipated and understood in advance. There was no surprise because the United States understood Moscow’s world view and thinking. It could anticipate Soviet action almost as well as the Soviets themselves, because the Soviet Union was really a Western country.

The difference between the Eastern and the Western way of war is striking. The West’s great strategic writer, Clausewitz, linked war to politics, as did Sun-tzu. Both were opponents of militarism, of turning war over to the generals. But here all similarity ends. Clausewitz wrote that the way to achieve a larger political purpose is through destruction of the enemy’s army. After observing Napolean conquer Europe by smashing enemy armies to bits, Clausewitz made his famous remark in On War (1952) that combat is the continuation of politics by violent means. Morale and unity are important, but they should be harnessed for the ultimate battle. If the Eastern way of war is embodied by the stealthy archer, the metaphorical Western counterpart is the swordsman charging forward, seeking a decisive showdown, eager to administer the blow that will obliterate the enemy once and for all. In this view, war proceeds along a fixed course and occupies a finite extent of time, like a play in three acts with a beginning, a middle, and an end. The end, the final scene, decides the issue for good. When things don’t work out quite this way, the Western military mind feels tremendous frustration. Sun-tzu’s great disciples, Mao Zedong and Ho Chi Minh, are respected in Asia for their clever use of indirection and deception to achieve an advantage over stronger adversaries. But in the West, their approach is seen as underhanded and devious. To the American strategic mind, the Viet Cong guerrilla did not fight fairly. He should have come out into the open and fought like a man, instead of hiding in the jungle and sneaking around like a cat in the night.

Q. 

Which of the following statements does not describe the ‘Asian’ way of war?

Solution:

D is the correct option. As per the paragraph “To subdue the enemy without fighting is the supreme excellence”  was found by united States and the japanese not the Asians.

QUESTION: 3

The persistent patterns in the way nations fight reflect their cultural and historical traditions and deeply rooted attitudes that collectively make up their strategic culture. These patterns provide insights that go beyond what can be learnt just by comparing armaments and divisions. In the Vietnam War, the strategic tradition of the United States called for forcing the enemy to fight a massed battle in an open area, where superior American weapons would prevail. The United States was trying to fight World War II in the jungles of Southeast Asia, against an enemy with no intention of doing so.

Some British military historians describe the Asian way of war as one of indirect attacks, avoiding frontal attacks meant to overpower an opponent. This traces back to Asian history and geography; the great distances and harsh terrain have often made it difficult to execute the sort of open field clashes allowed by the flat terrain and relatively compact size of Europe. A very different strategic tradition arose in Asia.

The bow and arrow were metaphors for an Eastern way of war: By its nature, the arrow is an indirect weapon. Fired from a distance of hundreds of yards, it does not necessitate immediate physical contact with the enemy. Thus, it can be fired from hidden positions. When fired from behind a bridge, the barrage seems to come out of nowhere, taking the enemy by surprise. The tradition of this kind of fighting is captured in the classical strategic writings of the East. The 2,000 years’ worth of Chinese writings on war constitutes the subtlest writings on the subject in any language. Not until Clausewitz did the West produce a strategic theorist to match the sophistication of Sun-tzu, whose Art of War was written 2,300 years earlier.

In Sun-tzu and other Chinese writings, the highest achievement of arms is to defeat an adversary, without fighting. He wrote. “To win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the supreme excellence.” Actual combat is just one among many means towards the goal of subduing an adversary. War contains too many surprises to be a first resort. It can lead to ruinous losses, as has been seen time and again. It can have the unwanted effect of inspiring heroic efforts in an enemy, as the United States learnt in Vietnam, and as the Japanese found out after Pearl Harbor.

Aware of the uncertainties of a military campaign, Sun-tzu advocated war only after the most thorough preparations. Even then, it should be quick and clean. Ideally, the army is just an instrument to deal the final blow to an enemy already weakened by isolation, poor morale and disunity. Ever since Sun-tzu, the Chinese have been seen as masters of subtlety, who take measured actions to manipulate an adversary without his knowledge. The dividing line between war and peace can be obscure. Low level violence often is the backdrop to a larger strategic campaign. The unwitting victim, focused on the day-to-day events, never realizes what’s happening to him until it’s too late. History holds many examples. The Viet Cong lured French and US infantry deep into the jungle, weakening their morale over several years. The mobile army of the United States was designed to fight on the plains of Europe, where it could quickly move unhindered from one spot to the next. The jungle did more than make quick movement impossible broken down into smaller units and scattered in isolated bases, US forces were deprived of the feeling of support and protection that ordinarily comes from being part of a big army.

The isolation of US troops in Vietnam was not just a logistical detail, something that could be overcome by, for instance, bringing in reinforcements by helicopter. In a big army reinforcements are readily available. It was Napolean who realized the extraordinary effects on morale that come from being part of a larger formation. Just the knowledge of it lowers the soldier’s fear and increases his aggressiveness. In the jungle and on isolated bases, this feeling was removed. The thick vegetation slowed down the reinforcements and made it difficult to find standard units. Soldiers felt they were on their own.

More importantly, by altering the way the war was fought the Viet Cong stripped the United States of its belief in the inevitability of victory, as it had done to the French before them. Morale was high when these armies first went to Vietnam. Only after many years of debilitating and demoralizing fighting did Hanoi launch its decisive attacks, at Dienbienphu in 1954 and against Saigon in 1975. It should be reached recalled that in the final push to victory, the North Vietnamese abandoned their jungle guerrilla tactics completely, committing their entire army of twenty divisions to pushing the South Vietnamese into collapse. The final battle, with the enemy’s army all in one was the one that the United States had desperately wanted to fight in 1965. When it did come out into the open in 1975, Washington had already withdrawn its forces and there was no possibility of re-intervention.

The Japanese early in World War II, used a modern form of the indirect attack, one that relied on stealth and surprise for its effect. At Pearl Harbor, in the Philippines, and in Southeast Asia, stealth and surprise were attained by sailing under radio silence so that the navy’s movements could not be tracked.

Moving troops abroad ships into Southeast Asia made it appear that the Japanese army was also “invisible”. Attacks against Hawaii and Singapore seemed, to the American and British defenders, to come from nowhere. In Indonesia and the Philippines, the Japanese attack was even faster than the Gernam blitz against France in the West. The greatest military surprises in American history have all been in Asia. Surely, there is something going on here beyond the purely technical difficulties of detecting enemy movements. Pearl harbor, the Chinese intervention in Korea, and the Tet offensive in Vietnam, all came out a traditional of surprise and stealth. US technical intelligence – the location of enemy units and their movements – was greatly improved after each surprise, but with no noticeable improvement in the American ability to foresee or prepare what would happen next. There is a cultural divide here, not just a technical one. Even when it was possible to track an army with intelligence satellites, as when Iraq invaded Kuwait or when Syria and Egypt attacked Israel, surprise was achieved. The United States was stunned by Iraq’s attack on Kuwait even though it had satellite pictures of Iraqi troops massing at the border.

The exception that proves the point that cultural differences obscure the West’s understanding of Asian behavior was the Soviet Union’s 1979 invasion of Afghanistan. This was fully anticipated and understood in advance. There was no surprise because the United States understood Moscow’s world view and thinking. It could anticipate Soviet action almost as well as the Soviets themselves, because the Soviet Union was really a Western country.

The difference between the Eastern and the Western way of war is striking. The West’s great strategic writer, Clausewitz, linked war to politics, as did Sun-tzu. Both were opponents of militarism, of turning war over to the generals. But here all similarity ends. Clausewitz wrote that the way to achieve a larger political purpose is through destruction of the enemy’s army. After observing Napolean conquer Europe by smashing enemy armies to bits, Clausewitz made his famous remark in On War (1952) that combat is the continuation of politics by violent means. Morale and unity are important, but they should be harnessed for the ultimate battle. If the Eastern way of war is embodied by the stealthy archer, the metaphorical Western counterpart is the swordsman charging forward, seeking a decisive showdown, eager to administer the blow that will obliterate the enemy once and for all. In this view, war proceeds along a fixed course and occupies a finite extent of time, like a play in three acts with a beginning, a middle, and an end. The end, the final scene, decides the issue for good. When things don’t work out quite this way, the Western military mind feels tremendous frustration. Sun-tzu’s great disciples, Mao Zedong and Ho Chi Minh, are respected in Asia for their clever use of indirection and deception to achieve an advantage over stronger adversaries. But in the West, their approach is seen as underhanded and devious. To the American strategic mind, the Viet Cong guerrilla did not fight fairly. He should have come out into the open and fought like a man, instead of hiding in the jungle and sneaking around like a cat in the night.

Q. 

Which of the following is not one of Sun-tzu’s postulate?

Solution:
QUESTION: 4

The persistent patterns in the way nations fight reflect their cultural and historical traditions and deeply rooted attitudes that collectively make up their strategic culture. These patterns provide insights that go beyond what can be learnt just by comparing armaments and divisions. In the Vietnam War, the strategic tradition of the United States called for forcing the enemy to fight a massed battle in an open area, where superior American weapons would prevail. The United States was trying to fight World War II in the jungles of Southeast Asia, against an enemy with no intention of doing so.

Some British military historians describe the Asian way of war as one of indirect attacks, avoiding frontal attacks meant to overpower an opponent. This traces back to Asian history and geography; the great distances and harsh terrain have often made it difficult to execute the sort of open field clashes allowed by the flat terrain and relatively compact size of Europe. A very different strategic tradition arose in Asia.

The bow and arrow were metaphors for an Eastern way of war: By its nature, the arrow is an indirect weapon. Fired from a distance of hundreds of yards, it does not necessitate immediate physical contact with the enemy. Thus, it can be fired from hidden positions. When fired from behind a bridge, the barrage seems to come out of nowhere, taking the enemy by surprise. The tradition of this kind of fighting is captured in the classical strategic writings of the East. The 2,000 years’ worth of Chinese writings on war constitutes the subtlest writings on the subject in any language. Not until Clausewitz did the West produce a strategic theorist to match the sophistication of Sun-tzu, whose Art of War was written 2,300 years earlier.

In Sun-tzu and other Chinese writings, the highest achievement of arms is to defeat an adversary, without fighting. He wrote. “To win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the supreme excellence.” Actual combat is just one among many means towards the goal of subduing an adversary. War contains too many surprises to be a first resort. It can lead to ruinous losses, as has been seen time and again. It can have the unwanted effect of inspiring heroic efforts in an enemy, as the United States learnt in Vietnam, and as the Japanese found out after Pearl Harbor.

Aware of the uncertainties of a military campaign, Sun-tzu advocated war only after the most thorough preparations. Even then, it should be quick and clean. Ideally, the army is just an instrument to deal the final blow to an enemy already weakened by isolation, poor morale and disunity. Ever since Sun-tzu, the Chinese have been seen as masters of subtlety, who take measured actions to manipulate an adversary without his knowledge. The dividing line between war and peace can be obscure. Low level violence often is the backdrop to a larger strategic campaign. The unwitting victim, focused on the day-to-day events, never realizes what’s happening to him until it’s too late. History holds many examples. The Viet Cong lured French and US infantry deep into the jungle, weakening their morale over several years. The mobile army of the United States was designed to fight on the plains of Europe, where it could quickly move unhindered from one spot to the next. The jungle did more than make quick movement impossible broken down into smaller units and scattered in isolated bases, US forces were deprived of the feeling of support and protection that ordinarily comes from being part of a big army.

The isolation of US troops in Vietnam was not just a logistical detail, something that could be overcome by, for instance, bringing in reinforcements by helicopter. In a big army reinforcements are readily available. It was Napolean who realized the extraordinary effects on morale that come from being part of a larger formation. Just the knowledge of it lowers the soldier’s fear and increases his aggressiveness. In the jungle and on isolated bases, this feeling was removed. The thick vegetation slowed down the reinforcements and made it difficult to find standard units. Soldiers felt they were on their own.

More importantly, by altering the way the war was fought the Viet Cong stripped the United States of its belief in the inevitability of victory, as it had done to the French before them. Morale was high when these armies first went to Vietnam. Only after many years of debilitating and demoralizing fighting did Hanoi launch its decisive attacks, at Dienbienphu in 1954 and against Saigon in 1975. It should be reached recalled that in the final push to victory, the North Vietnamese abandoned their jungle guerrilla tactics completely, committing their entire army of twenty divisions to pushing the South Vietnamese into collapse. The final battle, with the enemy’s army all in one was the one that the United States had desperately wanted to fight in 1965. When it did come out into the open in 1975, Washington had already withdrawn its forces and there was no possibility of re-intervention.

The Japanese early in World War II, used a modern form of the indirect attack, one that relied on stealth and surprise for its effect. At Pearl Harbor, in the Philippines, and in Southeast Asia, stealth and surprise were attained by sailing under radio silence so that the navy’s movements could not be tracked.

Moving troops abroad ships into Southeast Asia made it appear that the Japanese army was also “invisible”. Attacks against Hawaii and Singapore seemed, to the American and British defenders, to come from nowhere. In Indonesia and the Philippines, the Japanese attack was even faster than the Gernam blitz against France in the West. The greatest military surprises in American history have all been in Asia. Surely, there is something going on here beyond the purely technical difficulties of detecting enemy movements. Pearl harbor, the Chinese intervention in Korea, and the Tet offensive in Vietnam, all came out a traditional of surprise and stealth. US technical intelligence – the location of enemy units and their movements – was greatly improved after each surprise, but with no noticeable improvement in the American ability to foresee or prepare what would happen next. There is a cultural divide here, not just a technical one. Even when it was possible to track an army with intelligence satellites, as when Iraq invaded Kuwait or when Syria and Egypt attacked Israel, surprise was achieved. The United States was stunned by Iraq’s attack on Kuwait even though it had satellite pictures of Iraqi troops massing at the border.

The exception that proves the point that cultural differences obscure the West’s understanding of Asian behavior was the Soviet Union’s 1979 invasion of Afghanistan. This was fully anticipated and understood in advance. There was no surprise because the United States understood Moscow’s world view and thinking. It could anticipate Soviet action almost as well as the Soviets themselves, because the Soviet Union was really a Western country.

The difference between the Eastern and the Western way of war is striking. The West’s great strategic writer, Clausewitz, linked war to politics, as did Sun-tzu. Both were opponents of militarism, of turning war over to the generals. But here all similarity ends. Clausewitz wrote that the way to achieve a larger political purpose is through destruction of the enemy’s army. After observing Napolean conquer Europe by smashing enemy armies to bits, Clausewitz made his famous remark in On War (1952) that combat is the continuation of politics by violent means. Morale and unity are important, but they should be harnessed for the ultimate battle. If the Eastern way of war is embodied by the stealthy archer, the metaphorical Western counterpart is the swordsman charging forward, seeking a decisive showdown, eager to administer the blow that will obliterate the enemy once and for all. In this view, war proceeds along a fixed course and occupies a finite extent of time, like a play in three acts with a beginning, a middle, and an end. The end, the final scene, decides the issue for good. When things don’t work out quite this way, the Western military mind feels tremendous frustration. Sun-tzu’s great disciples, Mao Zedong and Ho Chi Minh, are respected in Asia for their clever use of indirection and deception to achieve an advantage over stronger adversaries. But in the West, their approach is seen as underhanded and devious. To the American strategic mind, the Viet Cong guerrilla did not fight fairly. He should have come out into the open and fought like a man, instead of hiding in the jungle and sneaking around like a cat in the night.

Q. 

The difference in the concepts of war of Clausewitz and Sun-tzu is best characterized by

Solution:
QUESTION: 5

The persistent patterns in the way nations fight reflect their cultural and historical traditions and deeply rooted attitudes that collectively make up their strategic culture. These patterns provide insights that go beyond what can be learnt just by comparing armaments and divisions. In the Vietnam War, the strategic tradition of the United States called for forcing the enemy to fight a massed battle in an open area, where superior American weapons would prevail. The United States was trying to fight World War II in the jungles of Southeast Asia, against an enemy with no intention of doing so.

Some British military historians describe the Asian way of war as one of indirect attacks, avoiding frontal attacks meant to overpower an opponent. This traces back to Asian history and geography; the great distances and harsh terrain have often made it difficult to execute the sort of open field clashes allowed by the flat terrain and relatively compact size of Europe. A very different strategic tradition arose in Asia.

The bow and arrow were metaphors for an Eastern way of war: By its nature, the arrow is an indirect weapon. Fired from a distance of hundreds of yards, it does not necessitate immediate physical contact with the enemy. Thus, it can be fired from hidden positions. When fired from behind a bridge, the barrage seems to come out of nowhere, taking the enemy by surprise. The tradition of this kind of fighting is captured in the classical strategic writings of the East. The 2,000 years’ worth of Chinese writings on war constitutes the subtlest writings on the subject in any language. Not until Clausewitz did the West produce a strategic theorist to match the sophistication of Sun-tzu, whose Art of War was written 2,300 years earlier.

In Sun-tzu and other Chinese writings, the highest achievement of arms is to defeat an adversary, without fighting. He wrote. “To win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the supreme excellence.” Actual combat is just one among many means towards the goal of subduing an adversary. War contains too many surprises to be a first resort. It can lead to ruinous losses, as has been seen time and again. It can have the unwanted effect of inspiring heroic efforts in an enemy, as the United States learnt in Vietnam, and as the Japanese found out after Pearl Harbor.

Aware of the uncertainties of a military campaign, Sun-tzu advocated war only after the most thorough preparations. Even then, it should be quick and clean. Ideally, the army is just an instrument to deal the final blow to an enemy already weakened by isolation, poor morale and disunity. Ever since Sun-tzu, the Chinese have been seen as masters of subtlety, who take measured actions to manipulate an adversary without his knowledge. The dividing line between war and peace can be obscure. Low level violence often is the backdrop to a larger strategic campaign. The unwitting victim, focused on the day-to-day events, never realizes what’s happening to him until it’s too late. History holds many examples. The Viet Cong lured French and US infantry deep into the jungle, weakening their morale over several years. The mobile army of the United States was designed to fight on the plains of Europe, where it could quickly move unhindered from one spot to the next. The jungle did more than make quick movement impossible broken down into smaller units and scattered in isolated bases, US forces were deprived of the feeling of support and protection that ordinarily comes from being part of a big army.

The isolation of US troops in Vietnam was not just a logistical detail, something that could be overcome by, for instance, bringing in reinforcements by helicopter. In a big army reinforcements are readily available. It was Napolean who realized the extraordinary effects on morale that come from being part of a larger formation. Just the knowledge of it lowers the soldier’s fear and increases his aggressiveness. In the jungle and on isolated bases, this feeling was removed. The thick vegetation slowed down the reinforcements and made it difficult to find standard units. Soldiers felt they were on their own.

More importantly, by altering the way the war was fought the Viet Cong stripped the United States of its belief in the inevitability of victory, as it had done to the French before them. Morale was high when these armies first went to Vietnam. Only after many years of debilitating and demoralizing fighting did Hanoi launch its decisive attacks, at Dienbienphu in 1954 and against Saigon in 1975. It should be reached recalled that in the final push to victory, the North Vietnamese abandoned their jungle guerrilla tactics completely, committing their entire army of twenty divisions to pushing the South Vietnamese into collapse. The final battle, with the enemy’s army all in one was the one that the United States had desperately wanted to fight in 1965. When it did come out into the open in 1975, Washington had already withdrawn its forces and there was no possibility of re-intervention.

The Japanese early in World War II, used a modern form of the indirect attack, one that relied on stealth and surprise for its effect. At Pearl Harbor, in the Philippines, and in Southeast Asia, stealth and surprise were attained by sailing under radio silence so that the navy’s movements could not be tracked.

Moving troops abroad ships into Southeast Asia made it appear that the Japanese army was also “invisible”. Attacks against Hawaii and Singapore seemed, to the American and British defenders, to come from nowhere. In Indonesia and the Philippines, the Japanese attack was even faster than the Gernam blitz against France in the West. The greatest military surprises in American history have all been in Asia. Surely, there is something going on here beyond the purely technical difficulties of detecting enemy movements. Pearl harbor, the Chinese intervention in Korea, and the Tet offensive in Vietnam, all came out a traditional of surprise and stealth. US technical intelligence – the location of enemy units and their movements – was greatly improved after each surprise, but with no noticeable improvement in the American ability to foresee or prepare what would happen next. There is a cultural divide here, not just a technical one. Even when it was possible to track an army with intelligence satellites, as when Iraq invaded Kuwait or when Syria and Egypt attacked Israel, surprise was achieved. The United States was stunned by Iraq’s attack on Kuwait even though it had satellite pictures of Iraqi troops massing at the border.

The exception that proves the point that cultural differences obscure the West’s understanding of Asian behavior was the Soviet Union’s 1979 invasion of Afghanistan. This was fully anticipated and understood in advance. There was no surprise because the United States understood Moscow’s world view and thinking. It could anticipate Soviet action almost as well as the Soviets themselves, because the Soviet Union was really a Western country.

The difference between the Eastern and the Western way of war is striking. The West’s great strategic writer, Clausewitz, linked war to politics, as did Sun-tzu. Both were opponents of militarism, of turning war over to the generals. But here all similarity ends. Clausewitz wrote that the way to achieve a larger political purpose is through destruction of the enemy’s army. After observing Napolean conquer Europe by smashing enemy armies to bits, Clausewitz made his famous remark in On War (1952) that combat is the continuation of politics by violent means. Morale and unity are important, but they should be harnessed for the ultimate battle. If the Eastern way of war is embodied by the stealthy archer, the metaphorical Western counterpart is the swordsman charging forward, seeking a decisive showdown, eager to administer the blow that will obliterate the enemy once and for all. In this view, war proceeds along a fixed course and occupies a finite extent of time, like a play in three acts with a beginning, a middle, and an end. The end, the final scene, decides the issue for good. When things don’t work out quite this way, the Western military mind feels tremendous frustration. Sun-tzu’s great disciples, Mao Zedong and Ho Chi Minh, are respected in Asia for their clever use of indirection and deception to achieve an advantage over stronger adversaries. But in the West, their approach is seen as underhanded and devious. To the American strategic mind, the Viet Cong guerrilla did not fight fairly. He should have come out into the open and fought like a man, instead of hiding in the jungle and sneaking around like a cat in the night.

Q. 

To the Americans, the approach of the Viet Cong seemed devious because

Solution:
QUESTION: 6

Directions (6 – 15): In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. four or five words are suggested, Find one of which fits at number 6 appropriately.

The Earth is one of the known planets that circle the sun. In (6) times, the men who studied the (7) noticed that while certain heavenly (8) seemed fixed in the sky, others seemed to (9) about. The latter they named planets or wanderers. (10) astronomers have discovered that the four planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, (11) Neptune, are surrounded by poisonous gases and are so (12) that any living thing attempting to (13) on them would instantly be frozen to death. Of the five remaining (14) Venus most closely (15) the Earth in size. 

Solution:

‘ancient’ resembles ‘old’.

QUESTION: 7

In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. four or five words are suggested, Find one of which fits at number 7 appropriately.

The Earth is one of the known planets that circle the sun. In (6) times, the men who studied the (7) noticed that while certain heavenly (8) seemed fixed in the sky, others seemed to (9) about. The latter they named planets or wanderers. (10) astronomers have discovered that the four planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, (11) Neptune, are surrounded by poisonous gases and are so (12) that any living thing attempting to (13) on them would instantly be frozen to death. Of the five remaining (14) Venus most closely (15) the Earth in size.

Solution:

‘stars’

QUESTION: 8

In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. four or five words are suggested, Find one of which fits at number 8 appropriately.

The Earth is one of the known planets that circle the sun. In (6) times, the men who studied the (7) noticed that while certain heavenly (8) seemed fixed in the sky, others seemed to (9) about. The latter they named planets or wanderers. (10) astronomers have discovered that the four planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, (11) Neptune, are surrounded by poisonous gases and are so (12) that any living thing attempting to (13) on them would instantly be frozen to death. Of the five remaining (14) Venus most closely (15) the Earth in size.

Solution:

‘Bodies’

QUESTION: 9

In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. four or five words are suggested, Find one of which fits at number 9 appropriately.

The Earth is one of the known planets that circle the sun. In (6) times, the men who studied the (7) noticed that while certain heavenly (8) seemed fixed in the sky, others seemed to (9) about. The latter they named planets or wanderers. (10) astronomers have discovered that the four planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, (11) Neptune, are surrounded by poisonous gases and are so (12) that any living thing attempting to (13) on them would instantly be frozen to death. Of the five remaining (14) Venus most closely (15) the Earth in size.

Solution:

‘Move’ suits the best.

QUESTION: 10

In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. four or five words are suggested, Find one of which fits at number 10 appropriately.

The Earth is one of the known planets that circle the sun. In (6) times, the men who studied the (7) noticed that while certain heavenly (8) seemed fixed in the sky, others seemed to (9) about. The latter they named planets or wanderers. (10) astronomers have discovered that the four planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, (11) Neptune, are surrounded by poisonous gases and are so (12) that any living thing attempting to (13) on them would instantly be frozen to death. Of the five remaining (14) Venus most closely (15) the Earth in size.

Solution:

talking about astronomers modern does well.

QUESTION: 11

In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. four or five words are suggested, Find one of which fits at number 11 appropriately.

The Earth is one of the known planets that circle the sun. In (6) times, the men who studied the (7) noticed that while certain heavenly (8) seemed fixed in the sky, others seemed to (9) about. The latter they named planets or wanderers. (10) astronomers have discovered that the four planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, (11) Neptune, are surrounded by poisonous gases and are so (12) that any living thing attempting to (13) on them would instantly be frozen to death. Of the five remaining (14) Venus most closely (15) the Earth in size.

Solution:

‘and’

QUESTION: 12

In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. four or five words are suggested, Find one of which fits at number 12 appropriately.

The Earth is one of the known planets that circle the sun. In (6) times, the men who studied the (7) noticed that while certain heavenly (8) seemed fixed in the sky, others seemed to (9) about. The latter they named planets or wanderers. (10) astronomers have discovered that the four planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, (11) Neptune, are surrounded by poisonous gases and are so (12) that any living thing attempting to (13) on them would instantly be frozen to death. Of the five remaining (14) Venus most closely (15) the Earth in size.

Solution:

extremely cold

QUESTION: 13

In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. four or five words are suggested, Find one of which fits at number 13 appropriately.

The Earth is one of the known planets that circle the sun. In (6) times, the men who studied the (7) noticed that while certain heavenly (8) seemed fixed in the sky, others seemed to (9) about. The latter they named planets or wanderers. (10) astronomers have discovered that the four planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, (11) Neptune, are surrounded by poisonous gases and are so (12) that any living thing attempting to (13) on them would instantly be frozen to death. Of the five remaining (14) Venus most closely (15) the Earth in size.

Solution:

stay

QUESTION: 14

In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. four or five words are suggested, Find one of which fits at number 14 appropriately.

The Earth is one of the known planets that circle the sun. In (6) times, the men who studied the (7) noticed that while certain heavenly (8) seemed fixed in the sky, others seemed to (9) about. The latter they named planets or wanderers. (10) astronomers have discovered that the four planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, (11) Neptune, are surrounded by poisonous gases and are so (12) that any living thing attempting to (13) on them would instantly be frozen to death. Of the five remaining (14) Venus most closely (15) the Earth in size.

Solution:

all the examples represent planets

QUESTION: 15

In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. four or five words are suggested, Find one of which fits at number 15 appropriately.

The Earth is one of the known planets that circle the sun. In (6) times, the men who studied the (7) noticed that while certain heavenly (8) seemed fixed in the sky, others seemed to (9) about. The latter they named planets or wanderers. (10) astronomers have discovered that the four planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, (11) Neptune, are surrounded by poisonous gases and are so (12) that any living thing attempting to (13) on them would instantly be frozen to death. Of the five remaining (14) Venus most closely (15) the Earth in size.

Solution:

it suits the ‘Best’

QUESTION: 16

LEVEL – I

(Direction 16 - 20): In the Blanks with Appropriate Words

I am not ……… to sell you my house unless you offer a more …….. price.

Solution:

realistic price and selling is prepared.

QUESTION: 17

With the realisation, we have found ourselves left with ……… moral values and little ethical ……….

Solution:

exclude the options.

QUESTION: 18

If we do not take ………. Care in our industry, we will have to ………. a grave problem.

Solution:

The correct option is B.
It is the best suitable option and makes sense.
 

QUESTION: 19

Education is ………. to the economic and social fabric of the nation, but ……… that few political parties have made it an election issue.

Solution:

despite explains the situation

QUESTION: 20

Despite their strong resentment, the tribals ……… the new laws as long as the Government officials did not ………. them too strenuously.

Solution:

laws are enforced.

QUESTION: 21

LEVEL – II

Directions (21 – 25): In the following sentences given below, a word or phrase is written in italicised letter. For each italicised part four words/phrases are listed below each sentence. Choose the word nearest in meaning to the italicized part.

Q. 

He was warned at the outset of his career.

 

Solution:

The beginning

QUESTION: 22

On scrutiny the police officer found out that the documents provided by the landlord were totally fabricated.

Solution:

one that is copied fraudulently.

QUESTION: 23

Most of the staff is restive under the new manager’s rule.

Solution:

dissatisfied or boredom

QUESTION: 24

Grandfather has been getting feeble of late.

Solution:

it shows weakness.

QUESTION: 25

His visit to foreign countries brought about a sea change in his outlook and his attitude to the people.

Solution:

it shows weakness.

QUESTION: 26

LEVEL – III

(Directions 26 - 30) Fill in the Blanks

………… in him makes him rude to everybody.

Solution:

The correct option is D.
It is the best suitable option.

QUESTION: 27

The board called on a meeting to ……….. the financial situation of the company.

Solution:
QUESTION: 28

It is impossible for an ordinary mortal to …….. all these figures to memory.

Solution:

The correct option is B.
Commit means to ‘carry out’.

QUESTION: 29

They were awaiting official ……… of the news they had heard from a friend.

Solution:
QUESTION: 30

The Government’s economic policy includes certain projects for …….. the living conditions of the poor.

Solution:
QUESTION: 31

Directions (31 – 35): In each of the following sentences, four options are given. You are required to identify the best way of writing the sentence in the context of the correct usage of standard written English. While doing so, you have to ensure that the message being conveyed remains the same in all the cases.

Q. 

The trend toward a decrease in the working hours is already evident in the longer weekend given to employees in many multinational organizations.

Solution:
QUESTION: 32

Using it wisely, leisure promote health, long life, efficiency and happiness.

Solution:

The correct option is B.
It is an assumption, so if will be used.

QUESTION: 33

We want the trainer to be him who has the best rapport knowledge about the subject and the most superior communication skills.

Solution:

The correct option is B.
“He” is the subject of the sentence, which takes who as the relative pronoun.

QUESTION: 34

If she were to win the Olympic medal, I for one would be surprised.

Solution:
QUESTION: 35

The soldier were told to take a long arduous bike, pitch their caps, have dinner, and that they should be in bed by 10 pm.

Solution:
QUESTION: 36

(Direction 36 - 40) ONE-WORD SUBSTITUTION

Q.

Relationship by blood or birth

Solution:

Property of being from the same kinship

QUESTION: 37

A religious discourse

Solution:

Priest gives a talk on religious

QUESTION: 38

A place that provides refuge

Solution:

A place of safety

QUESTION: 39

The cessation of warfare before a treaty is signed

Solution:

To stop fighting for a certain time

QUESTION: 40

A large dark grey cloud that brings rain or snow

Solution:

A latin word meaning dark cloud

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