Sample Test: Logical Reasoning


15 Questions MCQ Test Mock Test Series for CLAT 2021 | Sample Test: Logical Reasoning


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QUESTION: 1

It cannot be stressed enough the richness and inclusiveness of Derrida's archive considerations. Of particular interest to archivists and records managers is Derrida's examination of inscription technology, from tablets to email. Here he is concerned with inscription technology's relationship to both the psychic apparatus and archives. Concerning the former relationship, Derrida questions if Freud's conception of the psychic apparatus is still informed, if indeed archiving and reproduction technology affect the structures of the mind.
Concerning the latter, Derrida asserts that archiving technology determines "the very institution of the archivable event," (18) informing as well the conception of the future and possibly the future itself. Record managers and archivists may well accept this notion as it certainly lends the profession expansive power and responsibility. Included in this notion however is the fluid relationship between the archive and what it archives. The archive, its structure, formulation and operation is informed by its contents along with any number of external bodies of knowledge. Derrida asserts then that the archive cannot remain outside what it memorializes. This removes some of the objectivity with which records and archival documents are typically treated.

Which of the following do you think is revealed by looking into evolution of inscription technologies?

Solution:

Riya thinks that death penalty doesn't deter homicide. (a) would weaken her argument because a country with strong death penalty laws has a lower homicidal rate. (b) again weakens her argument. (c) neither weakens, nor strengthens the argument as the two countries have different socio- legal conditions, different death penalty laws, and the relative strength of these laws or the relative measure of homicidal rates is not given to us. (d) strengthens Riya's argument because even after having strong death penalty laws, X's homicide rate is higher than that of Y, a similar country without any death penalty laws.
That means the laws haven't deterred homicide.

QUESTION: 2

It cannot be stressed enough the richness and inclusiveness of Derrida's archive considerations. Of particular interest to archivists and records managers is Derrida's examination of inscription technology, from tablets to email. Here he is concerned with inscription technology's relationship to both the psychic apparatus and archives. Concerning the former relationship, Derrida questions if Freud's conception of the psychic apparatus is still informed, if indeed archiving and reproduction technology affect the structures of the mind.
Concerning the latter, Derrida asserts that archiving technology determines "the very institution of the archivable event," (18) informing as well the conception of the future and possibly the future itself. Record managers and archivists may well accept this notion as it certainly lends the profession expansive power and responsibility. Included in this notion however is the fluid relationship between the archive and what it archives. The archive, its structure, formulation and operation is informed by its contents along with any number of external bodies of knowledge. Derrida asserts then that the archive cannot remain outside what it memorializes. This removes some of the objectivity with which records and archival documents are typically treated.

Which of the following does not influence the formation of an archive?

Solution:

Priya believes that death penalty does deter homicide. But if punitive measures (punishments) have no bearing on future events, that means they would not prevent any possible future homicides. This destroys her argument. (a) strengthens her argument. (b), though tempting, doesn't weaken Priya's existing argument, as it is about the life of the people who would be murdered if certain criminals are not given death penalty, and not about the life of the criminals themselves. (d) again strengthens her argument.

QUESTION: 3

It cannot be stressed enough the richness and inclusiveness of Derrida's archive considerations. Of particular interest to archivists and records managers is Derrida's examination of inscription technology, from tablets to email. Here he is concerned with inscription technology's relationship to both the psychic apparatus and archives. Concerning the former relationship, Derrida questions if Freud's conception of the psychic apparatus is still informed, if indeed archiving and reproduction technology affect the structures of the mind.
Concerning the latter, Derrida asserts that archiving technology determines "the very institution of the archivable event," (18) informing as well the conception of the future and possibly the future itself. Record managers and archivists may well accept this notion as it certainly lends the profession expansive power and responsibility. Included in this notion however is the fluid relationship between the archive and what it archives. The archive, its structure, formulation and operation is informed by its contents along with any number of external bodies of knowledge. Derrida asserts then that the archive cannot remain outside what it memorializes. This removes some of the objectivity with which records and archival documents are typically treated.

Which of the following is false in relation to the given passage?

Solution:

Priya's argument is clearly a counter to Riya's.
Hence (d).

QUESTION: 4

It cannot be stressed enough the richness and inclusiveness of Derrida's archive considerations. Of particular interest to archivists and records managers is Derrida's examination of inscription technology, from tablets to email. Here he is concerned with inscription technology's relationship to both the psychic apparatus and archives. Concerning the former relationship, Derrida questions if Freud's conception of the psychic apparatus is still informed, if indeed archiving and reproduction technology affect the structures of the mind.
Concerning the latter, Derrida asserts that archiving technology determines "the very institution of the archivable event," (18) informing as well the conception of the future and possibly the future itself. Record managers and archivists may well accept this notion as it certainly lends the profession expansive power and responsibility. Included in this notion however is the fluid relationship between the archive and what it archives. The archive, its structure, formulation and operation is informed by its contents along with any number of external bodies of knowledge. Derrida asserts then that the archive cannot remain outside what it memorializes. This removes some of the objectivity with which records and archival documents are typically treated.

Which of the following is necessary for an archivable event to take place?

Solution:

As per both Riya's and Priya's argument, because of an incorrect belief, the proponents or the opponents are responsible for something. The incorrect belief, being the reason, is the premise, and the latter assertions are the conclusions.

QUESTION: 5

It cannot be stressed enough the richness and inclusiveness of Derrida's archive considerations. Of particular interest to archivists and records managers is Derrida's examination of inscription technology, from tablets to email. Here he is concerned with inscription technology's relationship to both the psychic apparatus and archives. Concerning the former relationship, Derrida questions if Freud's conception of the psychic apparatus is still informed, if indeed archiving and reproduction technology affect the structures of the mind.
Concerning the latter, Derrida asserts that archiving technology determines "the very institution of the archivable event," (18) informing as well the conception of the future and possibly the future itself. Record managers and archivists may well accept this notion as it certainly lends the profession expansive power and responsibility. Included in this notion however is the fluid relationship between the archive and what it archives. The archive, its structure, formulation and operation is informed by its contents along with any number of external bodies of knowledge. Derrida asserts then that the archive cannot remain outside what it memorializes. This removes some of the objectivity with which records and archival documents are typically treated.

Which of the following is close to Derrida's concerns regarding the creation of an archive?

Solution:

Options (a) and (c) can't be the answers because they kill one of the contradictory situations of the paradox. If they were true, the situation wouldn't be paradoxical. In (b), as the economic conditions have improved, the homicidal rate should have fallen. So this also doesn't resolve the paradox. (d) is the answer because the homicidal rate of a country is a fraction with the number of people killed by another as the numerator and the total population of the country as the denominator. As a lot of citizens have been killed, the denominator has gone down, thus increasing the rate.

QUESTION: 6

There's a reason why you feel hungry all the time. According to Eric Edmeades, there are six forms of human hunger which we experience - but they're not all created equal. Only one of these six forms is genuine. This is called Nutritional Hunger. As the name suggest, this hunger occurs when the body is asking for specific nutrients. However, our bodies have been taught to eat anything in sight, so be careful -nutritional hunger is not always communicated in an honest way. The other five forms of hunger are as follows Thirst: Our ancestors didn't used to be able to fill up bottles of water- so our water mostly came from the food we ate.
Now, when your body is thirsty, it instead communicates hunger. Variety: This form of craving is an ancient mechanism our body developed to ensure we have a balanced diet.
Low blood sugar: This results in low energy levels and our body interprets as hunger.
Emotional hunger: W e start associating different food with different emotions and this is potentially the most common and dangerous form of dysfunctional eating. Empty stomach hunger: It is a survival strategy and it came into being because for most of our history regular food was a luxury and people used to live in a feast and famine cycle. Its best to ignore this craving.
Once you understand these and learn to identify the right form of your cravings, you'll be able to the difference between being actually hungry or your body just playing tricks on you. And this will transform your life.

Which of the following, if true, will strengthen the author's claim?

Solution:

(a) is false as it uses the word 'widened'. The argument says that the gap 'dates from' that time. We don't know whether a gap existed earlier or not. (b) is inconsistent, because nowhere does the author has been critical of these laws from the beginning.
Nowhere does he imply that these laws were necessary. (c) is false because the author calls the laws 'ostensibly neutral'. (d) is consistent with the first and the second statement of the argument.

QUESTION: 7

There's a reason why you feel hungry all the time. According to Eric Edmeades, there are six forms of human hunger which we experience - but they're not all created equal. Only one of these six forms is genuine. This is called Nutritional Hunger. As the name suggest, this hunger occurs when the body is asking for specific nutrients. However, our bodies have been taught to eat anything in sight, so be careful -nutritional hunger is not always communicated in an honest way. The other five forms of hunger are as follows Thirst: Our ancestors didn't used to be able to fill up bottles of water- so our water mostly came from the food we ate.
Now, when your body is thirsty, it instead communicates hunger. Variety: This form of craving is an ancient mechanism our body developed to ensure we have a balanced diet.
Low blood sugar: This results in low energy levels and our body interprets as hunger.
Emotional hunger: W e start associating different food with different emotions and this is potentially the most common and dangerous form of dysfunctional eating. Empty stomach hunger: It is a survival strategy and it came into being because for most of our history regular food was a luxury and people used to live in a feast and famine cycle. Its best to ignore this craving.
Once you understand these and learn to identify the right form of your cravings, you'll be able to the difference between being actually hungry or your body just playing tricks on you. And this will transform your life.

Which of the following is an implicit assumption made by the author?

Solution:

A doesn't weaken the argument. Just because the black American labourers haven't stated it, doesn't mean that it didn't happen. Even if (c) is true, the labour laws could be aimed at or used for stymieing black labourers' economic and social advancement and thus result in their undoing. (d) doesn't weaken because the author has admitted that even if the laws were not aimed at stymieing economic and social advancement, they were used to that end. (b) weakens the argument because if America didn't maintain records of the unemployment rate prior to the government intervention, then we can't say that there was no gap in the unemployment rate between black and white earlier and that it was because of the laws.

QUESTION: 8

There's a reason why you feel hungry all the time. According to Eric Edmeades, there are six forms of human hunger which we experience - but they're not all created equal. Only one of these six forms is genuine. This is called Nutritional Hunger. As the name suggest, this hunger occurs when the body is asking for specific nutrients. However, our bodies have been taught to eat anything in sight, so be careful -nutritional hunger is not always communicated in an honest way. The other five forms of hunger are as follows Thirst: Our ancestors didn't used to be able to fill up bottles of water- so our water mostly came from the food we ate.
Now, when your body is thirsty, it instead communicates hunger. Variety: This form of craving is an ancient mechanism our body developed to ensure we have a balanced diet.
Low blood sugar: This results in low energy levels and our body interprets as hunger.
Emotional hunger: W e start associating different food with different emotions and this is potentially the most common and dangerous form of dysfunctional eating. Empty stomach hunger: It is a survival strategy and it came into being because for most of our history regular food was a luxury and people used to live in a feast and famine cycle. Its best to ignore this craving.
Once you understand these and learn to identify the right form of your cravings, you'll be able to the difference between being actually hungry or your body just playing tricks on you. And this will transform your life.

Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

Solution:

This is an easy question. To strengthen the argument, we have to support the idea that the laws stymied the economic and social advancement of black labourers. (a) strengthens the argument in the sense that while both blacks and whites were at an equal footing prior to the laws, they allowed whites to go one level up, but not blacks. But (c) does this even more strongly, as it indicates that because of "huge swaths" of labour market passing to labour unions from which they were excluded, they were made to go a level down. (d) weakens the author's argument. (b), in the absence of information about whether white labourers had an influence earlier and to what extent, fails to strengthen the argument.

QUESTION: 9

There's a reason why you feel hungry all the time. According to Eric Edmeades, there are six forms of human hunger which we experience - but they're not all created equal. Only one of these six forms is genuine. This is called Nutritional Hunger. As the name suggest, this hunger occurs when the body is asking for specific nutrients. However, our bodies have been taught to eat anything in sight, so be careful -nutritional hunger is not always communicated in an honest way. The other five forms of hunger are as follows Thirst: Our ancestors didn't used to be able to fill up bottles of water- so our water mostly came from the food we ate.
Now, when your body is thirsty, it instead communicates hunger. Variety: This form of craving is an ancient mechanism our body developed to ensure we have a balanced diet.
Low blood sugar: This results in low energy levels and our body interprets as hunger.
Emotional hunger: W e start associating different food with different emotions and this is potentially the most common and dangerous form of dysfunctional eating. Empty stomach hunger: It is a survival strategy and it came into being because for most of our history regular food was a luxury and people used to live in a feast and famine cycle. Its best to ignore this craving.
Once you understand these and learn to identify the right form of your cravings, you'll be able to the difference between being actually hungry or your body just playing tricks on you. And this will transform your life.

Which of the following, if true, will weaken the author's claims?

Solution:

(a) is the most desirable as it corrects a historical wrong and ensures that this wrong isn't continued in the future. Scrapping the laws may not end the discrimination, and even may increase its extent. So (b) goes out. Black labour unions might further the exclusion of blacks from the mainstream. So (c) goes out. (a) is more comprehensive than (d).

QUESTION: 10

There's a reason why you feel hungry all the time. According to Eric Edmeades, there are six forms of human hunger which we experience - but they're not all created equal. Only one of these six forms is genuine. This is called Nutritional Hunger. As the name suggest, this hunger occurs when the body is asking for specific nutrients. However, our bodies have been taught to eat anything in sight, so be careful -nutritional hunger is not always communicated in an honest way. The other five forms of hunger are as follows Thirst: Our ancestors didn't used to be able to fill up bottles of water- so our water mostly came from the food we ate.
Now, when your body is thirsty, it instead communicates hunger. Variety: This form of craving is an ancient mechanism our body developed to ensure we have a balanced diet.
Low blood sugar: This results in low energy levels and our body interprets as hunger.
Emotional hunger: W e start associating different food with different emotions and this is potentially the most common and dangerous form of dysfunctional eating. Empty stomach hunger: It is a survival strategy and it came into being because for most of our history regular food was a luxury and people used to live in a feast and famine cycle. Its best to ignore this craving.
Once you understand these and learn to identify the right form of your cravings, you'll be able to the difference between being actually hungry or your body just playing tricks on you. And this will transform your life.

Select the statement that best reflects the main idea of the passage?

Solution:

The sentence is the main conclusion, the author's viewpoint. It is supported by the two premises that come after it. The author then reiterates this viewpoint in the last sentence. In a way, the last sentence summarises the author's conclusion.

QUESTION: 11

Human activities, such as research, innovation and industry, concentrate disproportionately in large cities. The ten most innovative cities in the United States account for 23% of the national population, but for 48% of its patents and 33% of its gross domestic product. But why has human activity become increasingly concentrated? Here we use data on scientific papers, patents, employment and gross domestic product, for 353 metropolitan areas in the United States, to show that the spatial concentration of productive activities increases with their complexity. Complex economic activities, such as biotechnology, neurobiology and semiconductors, concentrate disproportionately in a few large cities compared to less-complex activities, such as apparel or paper manufacturing. We use multiple proxies to measure the complexity of activities, finding that complexity explains from 40% to 80% of the variance in urban concentration of occupations, industries, scientific fields and technologies.
Using historical patent data, we show that the spatial concentration of cutting-edge technologies has increased since 1850, suggesting a reinforcing cycle between the increase in the complexity of activities and urbanization.
These findings suggest that the growth of spatial inequality may be connected to the increasing complexity of the economy.

Which of the following sentences BEST conveys the central idea of the passage?

Solution:

The court has clearly drawn an analogy between Google Maps and the Aadhar Number. Through the former Google gets an individual's location data.
Through the latter the government gets a person's basic information. It is a comparison. This eliminates (b) . The court has framed its premises in the form of questions, but these questions aren't the "method" of reasoning. This eliminates (c). (d) doesn't fit. No generalised conclusion has been drawn

QUESTION: 12

Human activities, such as research, innovation and industry, concentrate disproportionately in large cities. The ten most innovative cities in the United States account for 23% of the national population, but for 48% of its patents and 33% of its gross domestic product. But why has human activity become increasingly concentrated? Here we use data on scientific papers, patents, employment and gross domestic product, for 353 metropolitan areas in the United States, to show that the spatial concentration of productive activities increases with their complexity. Complex economic activities, such as biotechnology, neurobiology and semiconductors, concentrate disproportionately in a few large cities compared to less-complex activities, such as apparel or paper manufacturing. We use multiple proxies to measure the complexity of activities, finding that complexity explains from 40% to 80% of the variance in urban concentration of occupations, industries, scientific fields and technologies.
Using historical patent data, we show that the spatial concentration of cutting-edge technologies has increased since 1850, suggesting a reinforcing cycle between the increase in the complexity of activities and urbanization.
These findings suggest that the growth of spatial inequality may be connected to the increasing complexity of the economy.

Which of the following is not an example of complex economic activity?

Solution:

The court states "All our data is with private entities anyway." So the first statement clearly weakens this assertion. The petitioner states "Also, it is not clear for what purpose their information is being used by the government." So, if the government states the purpose clearly, this assertion would be weakened.

QUESTION: 13

Human activities, such as research, innovation and industry, concentrate disproportionately in large cities. The ten most innovative cities in the United States account for 23% of the national population, but for 48% of its patents and 33% of its gross domestic product. But why has human activity become increasingly concentrated? Here we use data on scientific papers, patents, employment and gross domestic product, for 353 metropolitan areas in the United States, to show that the spatial concentration of productive activities increases with their complexity. Complex economic activities, such as biotechnology, neurobiology and semiconductors, concentrate disproportionately in a few large cities compared to less-complex activities, such as apparel or paper manufacturing. We use multiple proxies to measure the complexity of activities, finding that complexity explains from 40% to 80% of the variance in urban concentration of occupations, industries, scientific fields and technologies.
Using historical patent data, we show that the spatial concentration of cutting-edge technologies has increased since 1850, suggesting a reinforcing cycle between the increase in the complexity of activities and urbanization.
These findings suggest that the growth of spatial inequality may be connected to the increasing complexity of the economy.

Which of the following statements weakens the authors argument?

Solution:

(a) goes against the argument of the petitioner. It hints that Google has asked for consent. (b) can't be concluded. Even after the purpose is stated, the citizens may still not want to share their data. (c) can be inferred because 'being compelled to share data' has been presented as a difference between Google Maps using personal data and the government using it through Aadhar. (d) is beyond the scope of the argument.

QUESTION: 14

Human activities, such as research, innovation and industry, concentrate disproportionately in large cities. The ten most innovative cities in the United States account for 23% of the national population, but for 48% of its patents and 33% of its gross domestic product. But why has human activity become increasingly concentrated? Here we use data on scientific papers, patents, employment and gross domestic product, for 353 metropolitan areas in the United States, to show that the spatial concentration of productive activities increases with their complexity. Complex economic activities, such as biotechnology, neurobiology and semiconductors, concentrate disproportionately in a few large cities compared to less-complex activities, such as apparel or paper manufacturing. We use multiple proxies to measure the complexity of activities, finding that complexity explains from 40% to 80% of the variance in urban concentration of occupations, industries, scientific fields and technologies.
Using historical patent data, we show that the spatial concentration of cutting-edge technologies has increased since 1850, suggesting a reinforcing cycle between the increase in the complexity of activities and urbanization.
These findings suggest that the growth of spatial inequality may be connected to the increasing complexity of the economy.

Which of the following can be a reason why using patent data as a measure of complexity may be incorrect?

Solution:

Concession is a device used in arguments, where you agree with your opponent, before making your own point. This sentence precisely serves that purpose. It is an agreement before countering the court's argument with the assertion that the extent of sharing data needs to be pondered upon. (a) is incomplete. The sentence doesn't stray away from the topic. So (b) goes away. (d) doesn't cover the counter that has been raised by the petitioner.

QUESTION: 15

Human activities, such as research, innovation and industry, concentrate disproportionately in large cities. The ten most innovative cities in the United States account for 23% of the national population, but for 48% of its patents and 33% of its gross domestic product. But why has human activity become increasingly concentrated? Here we use data on scientific papers, patents, employment and gross domestic product, for 353 metropolitan areas in the United States, to show that the spatial concentration of productive activities increases with their complexity. Complex economic activities, such as biotechnology, neurobiology and semiconductors, concentrate disproportionately in a few large cities compared to less-complex activities, such as apparel or paper manufacturing. We use multiple proxies to measure the complexity of activities, finding that complexity explains from 40% to 80% of the variance in urban concentration of occupations, industries, scientific fields and technologies.
Using historical patent data, we show that the spatial concentration of cutting-edge technologies has increased since 1850, suggesting a reinforcing cycle between the increase in the complexity of activities and urbanization.
These findings suggest that the growth of spatial inequality may be connected to the increasing complexity of the economy.

Which of the following statements can be inferred from the given text?

Solution:

(b) very specifically states the job done by each statement of the petitioner. The first statement argues that Google's use of data and the government's use can't be compared because of the missing element of consent. The second casts a doubt on the court's assertion that the data is being used for welfare schemes. (a) is eliminated because the second statement casts a doubt on the contents of the court's question itself, more than answering it as it is. (c) and (d) are far off the mark. There is no general principle stated in the argument.

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