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Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5


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150 Questions MCQ Test Mock Test Series for CLAT | Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 for CLAT 2023 is part of Mock Test Series for CLAT preparation. The Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 questions and answers have been prepared according to the CLAT exam syllabus.The Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 MCQs are made for CLAT 2023 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 below.
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Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 1

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

An old man with steel-rimmed spectacles and very dusty clothes sat by the side of the road. There was a pontoon bridge across the river and carts, trucks and men, women and children were crossing it. The mule drawn carts staggered up the steel, bank from the bridge with soldiers helping to push against the spokes of the wheels. The trucks ground up and away heading out of it all. The peasants plodded along in the ankle deep dust. But the old man sat there without moving. It was my business to cross the bridge, explore the bridgehead beyond and find out to what point the enemy had advanced. I did this and returned over the bridge. There were not so many carts now and very few people on foot, but the old man was still there.

"Where do you come from?" I asked him.

"From San Carlos," he said, and smiled.

That was his native town and so it gave him pleasure to mention it and he smiled.

"I was taking care of animals," he explained. "Oh," I said, not quite understanding.

"Yes," he said, "I stayed, you see, taking care of animals. I was the last one to leave the town of San Carlos." He did not look like a shepherd nor a herdsman and I looked at his black dusty clothes and his gray dusty face and his steel rimmed spectacles and said, "What animals were they?"

"Various animals," he said, and shook his head. "I had to leave them."

Q. Which one of the following statements is correct according to the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 1 The first line of the passage states that an old man with steel-rimmed spectacles and very dusty clothes sat by the side of the road. There was a raft bridge across the river and carts, trucks and men, women and children were crossing it.

Hence, 'the old man was wearing steel-rimmed spectacles and very dusty clothes' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 2

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

An old man with steel-rimmed spectacles and very dusty clothes sat by the side of the road. There was a pontoon bridge across the river and carts, trucks and men, women and children were crossing it. The mule drawn carts staggered up the steel, bank from the bridge with soldiers helping to push against the spokes of the wheels. The trucks ground up and away heading out of it all. The peasants plodded along in the ankle deep dust. But the old man sat there without moving. It was my business to cross the bridge, explore the bridgehead beyond and find out to what point the enemy had advanced. I did this and returned over the bridge. There were not so many carts now and very few people on foot, but the old man was still there.

"Where do you come from?" I asked him.

"From San Carlos," he said, and smiled.

That was his native town and so it gave him pleasure to mention it and he smiled.

"I was taking care of animals," he explained. "Oh," I said, not quite understanding.

"Yes," he said, "I stayed, you see, taking care of animals. I was the last one to leave the town of San Carlos." He did not look like a shepherd nor a herdsman and I looked at his black dusty clothes and his gray dusty face and his steel rimmed spectacles and said, "What animals were they?"

"Various animals," he said, and shook his head. "I had to leave them."

Q. __________were helping to push the mule drawn carts as per the passage.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 3

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

An old man with steel-rimmed spectacles and very dusty clothes sat by the side of the road. There was a pontoon bridge across the river and carts, trucks and men, women and children were crossing it. The mule drawn carts staggered up the steel, bank from the bridge with soldiers helping to push against the spokes of the wheels. The trucks ground up and away heading out of it all. The peasants plodded along in the ankle deep dust. But the old man sat there without moving. It was my business to cross the bridge, explore the bridgehead beyond and find out to what point the enemy had advanced. I did this and returned over the bridge. There were not so many carts now and very few people on foot, but the old man was still there.

"Where do you come from?" I asked him.

"From San Carlos," he said, and smiled.

That was his native town and so it gave him pleasure to mention it and he smiled.

"I was taking care of animals," he explained. "Oh," I said, not quite understanding.

"Yes," he said, "I stayed, you see, taking care of animals. I was the last one to leave the town of San Carlos." He did not look like a shepherd nor a herdsman and I looked at his black dusty clothes and his gray dusty face and his steel rimmed spectacles and said, "What animals were they?"

"Various animals," he said, and shook his head. "I had to leave them."

Q. As per the passage, where the old man was sitting_________.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 3 According to the question, we see that the old man was sitting because he was so tired that he couldn't go any further and he wanted to sit and rest for a while.

Hence, 'because he was so tired that he couldn't go any further' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 4

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

An old man with steel-rimmed spectacles and very dusty clothes sat by the side of the road. There was a pontoon bridge across the river and carts, trucks and men, women and children were crossing it. The mule drawn carts staggered up the steel, bank from the bridge with soldiers helping to push against the spokes of the wheels. The trucks ground up and away heading out of it all. The peasants plodded along in the ankle deep dust. But the old man sat there without moving. It was my business to cross the bridge, explore the bridgehead beyond and find out to what point the enemy had advanced. I did this and returned over the bridge. There were not so many carts now and very few people on foot, but the old man was still there.

"Where do you come from?" I asked him.

"From San Carlos," he said, and smiled.

That was his native town and so it gave him pleasure to mention it and he smiled.

"I was taking care of animals," he explained. "Oh," I said, not quite understanding.

"Yes," he said, "I stayed, you see, taking care of animals. I was the last one to leave the town of San Carlos." He did not look like a shepherd nor a herdsman and I looked at his black dusty clothes and his gray dusty face and his steel rimmed spectacles and said, "What animals were they?"

"Various animals," he said, and shook his head. "I had to leave them."

Q. According to the passage, who else besides human beings crossed the bridge?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 4 According to the passage, we see that there was a barge bridge across the river and carts, trucks and men, women and children were crossing the bridge.

Hence, 'carts and trucks' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 5

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

An old man with steel-rimmed spectacles and very dusty clothes sat by the side of the road. There was a pontoon bridge across the river and carts, trucks and men, women and children were crossing it. The mule drawn carts staggered up the steel, bank from the bridge with soldiers helping to push against the spokes of the wheels. The trucks ground up and away heading out of it all. The peasants plodded along in the ankle deep dust. But the old man sat there without moving. It was my business to cross the bridge, explore the bridgehead beyond and find out to what point the enemy had advanced. I did this and returned over the bridge. There were not so many carts now and very few people on foot, but the old man was still there.

"Where do you come from?" I asked him.

"From San Carlos," he said, and smiled.

That was his native town and so it gave him pleasure to mention it and he smiled.

"I was taking care of animals," he explained. "Oh," I said, not quite understanding.

"Yes," he said, "I stayed, you see, taking care of animals. I was the last one to leave the town of San Carlos." He did not look like a shepherd nor a herdsman and I looked at his black dusty clothes and his gray dusty face and his steel rimmed spectacles and said, "What animals were they?"

"Various animals," he said, and shook his head. "I had to leave them."

Q. According to the passage, what was the old man doing?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 5 According to the passage, the old man was sitting by the side of the road, resting and relaxing for a while as he got tired while traveling and couldn't move further.

Hence, 'he was sitting by the side of the road' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 6

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

Whichever superlative description you apply to the Himalayas, the 3,000 kilometers long mountain range with peaks more than 8,000 meters high, won't be enough to capture its grandeur. Spectacular... awesome ... majestic …… breathtaking ... stunning ... magnificent .... None of these adjectives does justice to these mountains known as 'the roof of the world'. Little wonder that local people revere them as sacred, the home of the gods, the abode of the Supreme Soul, and that travelers come from all over the world.

Some of Asia's greatest rivers spring to life in the Himalayas - the Ganges, Yangtze and Brahmaputra among them. The peaks, foothills and plains are host to species such as the elusive snow leopard, the Bengal tiger, red panda, black bear, bearded vulture …… and perhaps even a yeti or two. And now we at the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) can add to that list. Our recent report reveals that no fewer than 244 plants, 16 amphibians, 16 reptiles, 14 fish, two birds, two mammals and at least 6060 invertebrates have been discovered by scientists in the Himalayas over the past 10 years. The Himalayan range is home to some 12,000 species of plants, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and freshwater fish. The number of new species discovered - and investigated and verified by WWF - in the eastern Himalayas between 1998 and 2008 equates to 35 finds every year. 'They remind us that despite our advances in knowledge, we can still be surprised,' says our conservation adviser, Mark Wright. 'If ever you needed a reminder of what we're striving to protect, discoveries like these have the power to do just that.'

Among the latest discoveries are a bright green frog which uses its long, red, webbed feet to glide through the air; three species of scorpion, one of which is the first scorpion to be found in Nepal; and there's the miniature muntjac or leaf deer. At just over half a meter tall, this is the world's smallest deer species. Equally extraordinary is the Namcha Barwa Canyon. 'Most people are blissfully unaware of this gorge,' says Mark. 'Yet it's 250 kilometers long and, in places, twice as deep as the Grand Canyon. When a couple of Chinese scientists ventured into it recently, they discovered a new ultramarine blue plant that not only flowers throughout the year but also changes colour according to the air temperature. Other plant discoveries include a pure white orchid and a 15-meter-high palm tree.'

Our study focused on the eastern Himalayas - an area that amazingly spans five countries and a wide range of temperatures. Nature doesn't respect boundaries and working together on environmental issues is therefore vital. The Himalayas are likely to be hard hit by the effects of climate change. Many regions have their own micro climates and already we're seeing significant changes. Some species of wildlife and vegetation are moving up hillsides, and seasonal rainfall has become less predictable, which can sometimes result in extreme conditions, ranging from drought to flooding, and uncertainty for farmers. Many communities in the Himalayas still live in isolation, and they remain deeply dependent on the resources nature provides.

Other issues which need discussion and agreement between the governments of the countries affected are cross-border trade in wildlife, timber felling and the harvesting of medicinal plants. Critically, we want to ensure that 50,000 square kilometres of forests, grasslands and wetlands are protected and well connected. This will help to save globally threatened species, such as the Asian elephant and the rhino, whose populations we constantly monitor. And we'll continue to help local communities to live in harmony with their natural surroundings. With that secured, it's surely only a matter of time before the Himalayas will reveal yet more secrets.

Q. According to the passage, which of the following statements is true in the context of the ultramarine blue plant?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 6 From the passage, we see that the Chinese scientist couple went to the place and they discovered a new ultramarine blue plant that not only flowers throughout the year but also changes color according to the air temperature.

Hence, 'it can change the colour of the flower according to the air temperature' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 7

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

Whichever superlative description you apply to the Himalayas, the 3,000 kilometers long mountain range with peaks more than 8,000 meters high, won't be enough to capture its grandeur. Spectacular... awesome ... majestic …… breathtaking ... stunning ... magnificent .... None of these adjectives does justice to these mountains known as 'the roof of the world'. Little wonder that local people revere them as sacred, the home of the gods, the abode of the Supreme Soul, and that travellers come from all over the world.

Some of Asia's greatest rivers spring to life in the Himalayas - the Ganges, Yangtze and Brahmaputra among them. The peaks, foothills and plains are host to species such as the elusive snow leopard, the Bengal tiger, red panda, black bear, bearded vulture …… and perhaps even a yeti or two. And now we at World Wildlife Fund (WWF) can add to that list. Our recent report reveals that no fewer than 244 plants, 16 amphibians, 16 reptiles, 14 fish, two birds, two mammals and at least 6060 invertebrates have been discovered by scientists in the Himalayas over the past 10 years. The Himalayan range is home to some 12,000 species of plants, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and freshwater fish. The number of new species discovered - and investigated and verified by WWF - in the eastern Himalayas between 1998 and 2008 equates to 35 finds every year. 'They remind us that despite our advances in knowledge, we can still be surprised,' says our conservation adviser, Mark Wright. 'If ever you needed a reminder of what we're striving to protect, discoveries like these have the power to do just that.'

Among the latest discoveries are a bright green frog which uses its long, red, webbed feet to glide through the air; three species of scorpion, one of which is the first scorpion to be found in Nepal; and there's the miniature muntjac or leaf deer. At just over half a meter tall, this is the world's smallest deer species. Equally extraordinary is the Namcha Barwa Canyon. 'Most people are blissfully unaware of this gorge,' says Mark. 'Yet it's 250 kilometers long and, in places, twice as deep as the Grand Canyon. When a couple of Chinese scientists ventured into it recently, they discovered a new ultramarine blue plant that not only flowers throughout the year but also changes colour according to the air temperature. Other plant discoveries include a pure white orchid and a 15-meter-high palm tree.'

Our study focused on the eastern Himalayas - an area that amazingly spans five countries and a wide range of temperatures. Nature doesn't respect boundaries and working together on environmental issues is therefore vital. The Himalayas are likely to be hard hit by the effects of climate change. Many regions have their own micro climates and already we're seeing significant changes. Some species of wildlife and vegetation are moving up hillsides, and seasonal rainfall has become less predictable, which can sometimes result in extreme conditions, ranging from drought to flooding, and uncertainty for farmers. Many communities in the Himalayas still live in isolation, and they remain deeply dependent on the resources nature provides.

Other issues which need discussion and agreement between the governments of the countries affected are cross-border trade in wildlife, timber felling and the harvesting of medicinal plants. Critically, we want to ensure that 50,000 square kilometres of forests, grasslands and wetlands are protected and well connected. This will help to save globally threatened species, such as the Asian elephant and the rhino, whose populations we constantly monitor. And we'll continue to help local communities to live in harmony with their natural surroundings. With that secured, it's surely only a matter of time before the Himalayas will reveal yet more secrets.

Q. According to the passage, what are the latest discoveries?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 7 The passage states that there were certain latest discoveries made in which was a bright green frog which uses its long, red, webbed feet to glide through the air; three species of scorpion, one of which is the first scorpion to be found in Nepal.

Hence, 'a bright green frog and three species of scorpion' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 8

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

Whichever superlative description you apply to the Himalayas, the 3,000 kilometers long mountain range with peaks more than 8,000 meters high, won't be enough to capture its grandeur. Spectacular... awesome ... majestic …… breathtaking ... stunning ... magnificent .... None of these adjectives does justice to these mountains known as 'the roof of the world'. Little wonder that local people revere them as sacred, the home of the gods, the abode of the Supreme Soul, and that travellers come from all over the world.

Some of Asia's greatest rivers spring to life in the Himalayas - the Ganges, Yangtze and Brahmaputra among them. The peaks, foothills and plains are host to species such as the elusive snow leopard, the Bengal tiger, red panda, black bear, bearded vulture …… and perhaps even a yeti or two. And now we at World Wildlife Fund (WWF) can add to that list. Our recent report reveals that no fewer than 244 plants, 16 amphibians, 16 reptiles, 14 fish, two birds, two mammals and at least 6060 invertebrates have been discovered by scientists in the Himalayas over the past 10 years. The Himalayan range is home to some 12,000 species of plants, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and freshwater fish. The number of new species discovered - and investigated and verified by WWF - in the eastern Himalayas between 1998 and 2008 equates to 35 finds every year. 'They remind us that despite our advances in knowledge, we can still be surprised,' says our conservation adviser, Mark Wright. 'If ever you needed a reminder of what we're striving to protect, discoveries like these have the power to do just that.'

Among the latest discoveries are a bright green frog which uses its long, red, webbed feet to glide through the air; three species of scorpion, one of which is the first scorpion to be found in Nepal; and there's the miniature muntjac or leaf deer. At just over half a meter tall, this is the world's smallest deer species. Equally extraordinary is the Namcha Barwa Canyon. 'Most people are blissfully unaware of this gorge,' says Mark. 'Yet it's 250 kilometers long and, in places, twice as deep as the Grand Canyon. When a couple of Chinese scientists ventured into it recently, they discovered a new ultramarine blue plant that not only flowers throughout the year but also changes colour according to the air temperature. Other plant discoveries include a pure white orchid and a 15-meter-high palm tree.'

Our study focused on the eastern Himalayas - an area that amazingly spans five countries and a wide range of temperatures. Nature doesn't respect boundaries and working together on environmental issues is therefore vital. The Himalayas are likely to be hard hit by the effects of climate change. Many regions have their own micro climates and already we're seeing significant changes. Some species of wildlife and vegetation are moving up hillsides, and seasonal rainfall has become less predictable, which can sometimes result in extreme conditions, ranging from drought to flooding, and uncertainty for farmers. Many communities in the Himalayas still live in isolation, and they remain deeply dependent on the resources nature provides.

Other issues which need discussion and agreement between the governments of the countries affected are cross-border trade in wildlife, timber felling and the harvesting of medicinal plants. Critically, we want to ensure that 50,000 square kilometres of forests, grasslands and wetlands are protected and well connected. This will help to save globally threatened species, such as the Asian elephant and the rhino, whose populations we constantly monitor. And we'll continue to help local communities to live in harmony with their natural surroundings. With that secured, it's surely only a matter of time before the Himalayas will reveal yet more secrets.

Q. As per the question, which species are globally threatened?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 8 According to the passage, we come to know that the species that are globally threatened are Asian elephants and rhinos. Now, it is ensured that they get proper land, forests, grasslands and wetlands to protect them.

Hence, 'asian elephants and rhino' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 9

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

Whichever superlative description you apply to the Himalayas, the 3,000 kilometers long mountain range with peaks more than 8,000 meters high, won't be enough to capture its grandeur. Spectacular... awesome ... majestic …… breathtaking ... stunning ... magnificent .... None of these adjectives does justice to these mountains known as 'the roof of the world'. Little wonder that local people revere them as sacred, the home of the gods, the abode of the Supreme Soul, and that travellers come from all over the world.

Some of Asia's greatest rivers spring to life in the Himalayas - the Ganges, Yangtze and Brahmaputra among them. The peaks, foothills and plains are host to species such as the elusive snow leopard, the Bengal tiger, red panda, black bear, bearded vulture …… and perhaps even a yeti or two. And now we at World Wildlife Fund (WWF) can add to that list. Our recent report reveals that no fewer than 244 plants, 16 amphibians, 16 reptiles, 14 fish, two birds, two mammals and at least 6060 invertebrates have been discovered by scientists in the Himalayas over the past 10 years. The Himalayan range is home to some 12,000 species of plants, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and freshwater fish. The number of new species discovered - and investigated and verified by WWF - in the eastern Himalayas between 1998 and 2008 equates to 35 finds every year. 'They remind us that despite our advances in knowledge, we can still be surprised,' says our conservation adviser, Mark Wright. 'If ever you needed a reminder of what we're striving to protect, discoveries like these have the power to do just that.'

Among the latest discoveries are a bright green frog which uses its long, red, webbed feet to glide through the air; three species of scorpion, one of which is the first scorpion to be found in Nepal; and there's the miniature muntjac or leaf deer. At just over half a meter tall, this is the world's smallest deer species. Equally extraordinary is the Namcha Barwa Canyon. 'Most people are blissfully unaware of this gorge,' says Mark. 'Yet it's 250 kilometers long and, in places, twice as deep as the Grand Canyon. When a couple of Chinese scientists ventured into it recently, they discovered a new ultramarine blue plant that not only flowers throughout the year but also changes colour according to the air temperature. Other plant discoveries include a pure white orchid and a 15-metre-high palm tree.'

Our study focused on the eastern Himalayas - an area that amazingly spans five countries and a wide range of temperatures. Nature doesn't respect boundaries and working together on environmental issues is therefore vital. The Himalayas aṣre likely to be hard hit by the effects of climate change. Many regions have their own micro climates and already we're seeing significant changes. Some species of wildlife and vegetation are moving up hillsides, and seasonal rainfall has become less predictable, which can sometimes result in extreme conditions, ranging from drought to flooding, and uncertainty for farmers. Many communities in the Himalayas still live in isolation, and they remain deeply dependent on the resources nature provides.

Other issues which need discussion and agreement between the governments of the countries affected are cross-border trade in wildlife, timber felling and the harvesting of medicinal plants. Critically, we want to ensure that 50,000 square kilometers of forests, grasslands and wetlands are protected and well connected. This will help to save globally threatened species, such as the Asian elephant and the rhino, whose populations we constantly monitor. And we'll continue to help local communities to live in harmony with their natural surroundings. With that secured, it's surely only a matter of time before the Himalayas will reveal yet more secrets.

Q. As per the passage, the Himalayas are known as the__________.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 9 Through the passage, we come to know that the Himalayas are known as the roof of the world because it has Asia's greatest rivers spring to life in the Himalayas - the Ganges, Yangtze and Brahmaputra among them. The peaks, foothills and plains are hosts to species such as the elusive snow leopard, the Bengal tiger, red panda, black bear, bearded vulture.

Hence, 'roof of the world' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 10

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

Whichever superlative description you apply to the Himalayas, the 3,000 kilometers long mountain range with peaks more than 8,000 meters high, won't be enough to capture its grandeur. Spectacular... awesome ... majestic …… breathtaking ... stunning ... magnificent .... None of these adjectives does justice to these mountains known as 'the roof of the world'. Little wonder that local people revere them as sacred, the home of the gods, the abode of the Supreme Soul, and that travelers come from all over the world.

Some of Asia's greatest rivers spring to life in the Himalayas - the Ganges, Yangtze and Brahmaputra among them. The peaks, foothills and plains are host to species such as the elusive snow leopard, the Bengal tiger, red panda, black bear, bearded vulture …… and perhaps even a yeti or two. And now we at the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) can add to that list. Our recent report reveals that no fewer than 244 plants, 16 amphibians, 16 reptiles, 14 fish, two birds, two mammals and at least 6060 invertebrates have been discovered by scientists in the Himalayas over the past 10 years. The Himalayan range is home to some 12,000 species of plants, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and freshwater fish. The number of new species discovered - and investigated and verified by WWF - in the eastern Himalayas between 1998 and 2008 equates to 35 finds every year. 'They remind us that despite our advances in knowledge, we can still be surprised,' says our conservation adviser, Mark Wright. 'If ever you needed a reminder of what we're striving to protect, discoveries like these have the power to do just that.'

Among the latest discoveries are a bright green frog which uses its long, red, webbed feet to glide through the air; three species of scorpion, one of which is the first scorpion to be found in Nepal; and there's the miniature muntjac or leaf deer. At just over half a meter tall, this is the world's smallest deer species. Equally extraordinary is the Namcha Barwa Canyon. 'Most people are blissfully unaware of this gorge,' says Mark. 'Yet it's 250 kilometers long and, in places, twice as deep as the Grand Canyon. When a couple of Chinese scientists ventured into it recently, they discovered a new ultramarine blue plant that not only flowers throughout the year but also changes colour according to the air temperature. Other plant discoveries include a pure white orchid and a 15-meter-high palm tree.'

Our study focused on the eastern Himalayas - an area that amazingly spans five countries and a wide range of temperatures. Nature doesn't respect boundaries and working together on environmental issues is therefore vital. The Himalayas are likely to be hard hit by the effects of climate change. Many regions have their own micro climates and already we're seeing significant changes. Some species of wildlife and vegetation are moving up hillsides, and seasonal rainfall has become less predictable, which can sometimes result in extreme conditions, ranging from drought to flooding, and uncertainty for farmers. Many communities in the Himalayas still live in isolation, and they remain deeply dependent on the resources nature provides.

Other issues which need discussion and agreement between the governments of the countries affected are cross-border trade in wildlife, timber felling and the harvesting of medicinal plants. Critically, we want to ensure that 50,000 square kilometers of forests, grasslands and wetlands are protected and well connected. This will help to save globally threatened species, such as the Asian elephant and the rhino, whose populations we constantly monitor. And we'll continue to help local communities to live in harmony with their natural surroundings. With that secured, it's surely only a matter of time before the Himalayas will reveal yet more secrets.

Q. According to the passage,which area amazingly spans five countries and a wide range of temperature?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 10 Through the passage, we come to know that the area which has amazingly spanned five countries and a wide range of temperatures is Eastern Himalayas. The Himalayas are likely to be hard hit by the effects of climate change. Many regions have their microclimates and already we're seeing significant changes.

Hence, 'Eastern Himalayas' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 11

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

I remember it vividly. We were fighting for our freedom. There was a battle at Lexington, and the news of Lexington spread everywhere, producing wild excitement. My father and I got ready to join the new army. It was as if the world was different that day. Everyone would go to Boston to join the army. Imagine you were there.

Every village and every farmhouse helped to swell the number. Men came from all over, even from tiny towns. In Connecticut, an old man was pillowing his field and proclaimed, "This is my fight, too." He unyoked his oxen, left his pellow in the furrow, and, leaping to his saddle, raced to join the army. Just picture what that was like.

Fiery Ethan Allen, at the head of his Green Mountain Boys, was eager to join us, but he stopped with his Green Mountain Boys to take over a fort. The soldiers did not expect them at all. Despite the fact that the Green Mountain Boys had not fought before, they were extremely brave, and the British gave up without a fight.

Day by day the army grew, until thirty thousand men were encamped around Boston, from Charlestown Neck to Dorchester. We were all terribly excited and determined. I was afraid, too, but I decided that I needed to remain strong and brave. Just imagine what it was like then.

The patriot leaders were beginning to grow impatient. It was now the middle of June, and they had decided the time had finally come to fight. They chose a place for the battle; the location selected was the highland on the Charlestown peninsula known as Bunker Hill. They chose the date of June 16th 16th . How do you think we felt?

The battle of Bunker Hill was a great fight. Never in my life had I witnessed such bravery on behalf of so many men. No one gave up, everyone fought hard, and we all worked together. Although it was a struggle, we remained strong. I really believe that with that one battle, our nation was born. We all felt different after the battle of Bunker Hill. We were Americans. I hope you can experience the feelings that I felt then.

I can recall that great battle clearly, and I remember the ones after that as well. Although it took much longer than I had initially anticipated, it was well worth it. It was difficult, and I became exhausted, but then we won and freed our country. We were a new nation. Now, each year on the fourth of July, I remember those days and smile. I hope you do, too.

Q. According to the question, which country fought the battle of Bunker Hill?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 11 In the passage, it is seen that the battle of Bunker Hill was bought by the Americans where all the men fought it with bravery. The bunker hill was the highland on the Charlestown peninsula.

Hence, 'USA' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 12

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

I remember it vividly. We were fighting for our freedom. There was a battle at Lexington, and the news of Lexington spread everywhere, producing wild excitement. My father and I got ready to join the new army. It was as if the world was different that day. Everyone would go to Boston to join the army. Imagine you were there.

Every village and every farmhouse helped to swell the number. Men came from all over, even from tiny towns. In Connecticut, an old man was pillowing his field and proclaimed, "This is my fight, too." He unyoked his oxen, left his pellow in the furrow, and, leaping to his saddle, raced to join the army. Just picture what that was like.

Fiery Ethan Allen, at the head of his Green Mountain Boys, was eager to join us, but he stopped with his Green Mountain Boys to take over a fort. The soldiers did not expect them at all. Despite the fact that the Green Mountain Boys had not fought before, they were extremely brave, and the British gave up without a fight.

Day by day the army grew, until thirty thousand men were encamped around Boston, from Charlestown Neck to Dorchester. We were all terribly excited and determined. I was afraid, too, but I decided that I needed to remain strong and brave. Just imagine what it was like then.

The patriot leaders were beginning to grow impatient. It was now the middle of June, and they had decided the time had finally come to fight. They chose a place for the battle; the location selected was the highland on the Charlestown peninsula known as Bunker Hill. They chose the date of June 16th 16th . How do you think we felt?

The battle of Bunker Hill was a great fight. Never in my life had I witnessed such bravery on behalf of so many men. No one gave up, everyone fought hard, and we all worked together. Although it was a struggle, we remained strong. I really believe that with that one battle, our nation was born. We all felt different after the battle of Bunker Hill. We were Americans. I hope you can experience the feelings that I felt then.

I can recall that great battle clearly, and I remember the ones after that as well. Although it took much longer than I had initially anticipated, it was well worth it. It was difficult, and I became exhausted, but then we won and freed our country. We were a new nation. Now, each year on the fourth of July, I remember those days and smile. I hope you do, too.

Q. Why did the Great Mountain Boys did not join the author for the war as per the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 12 In the passage, it is given that the Fiery Ethan Allen who was heading the Green Mountain Boys, was eager to join us, but he stopped with his Green Mountain Boys to take over a fort. The soldiers did not expect them at all. Even though the Green Mountain Boys had not fought before, they were extremely brave, and the British gave up without a fight.

Hence, 'they went to take over some other place' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 13

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

I remember it vividly. We were fighting for our freedom. There was a battle at Lexington, and the news of Lexington spread everywhere, producing wild excitement. My father and I got ready to join the new army. It was as if the world was different that day. Everyone would go to Boston to join the army. Imagine you were there.

Every village and every farmhouse helped to swell the number. Men came from all over, even from tiny towns. In Connecticut, an old man was pillowing his field and proclaimed, "This is my fight, too." He unyoked his oxen, left his pellow in the furrow, and, leaping to his saddle, raced to join the army. Just picture what that was like.

Fiery Ethan Allen, at the head of his Green Mountain Boys, was eager to join us, but he stopped with his Green Mountain Boys to take over a fort. The soldiers did not expect them at all. Despite the fact that the Green Mountain Boys had not fought before, they were extremely brave, and the British gave up without a fight.

Day by day the army grew, until thirty thousand men were encamped around Boston, from Charlestown Neck to Dorchester. We were all terribly excited and determined. I was afraid, too, but I decided that I needed to remain strong and brave. Just imagine what it was like then.

The patriot leaders were beginning to grow impatient. It was now the middle of June, and they had decided the time had finally come to fight. They chose a place for the battle; the location selected was the highland on the Charlestown peninsula known as Bunker Hill. They chose the date of June 16th 16th . How do you think we felt?

The battle of Bunker Hill was a great fight. Never in my life had I witnessed such bravery on behalf of so many men. No one gave up, everyone fought hard, and we all worked together. Although it was a struggle, we remained strong. I really believe that with that one battle, our nation was born. We all felt different after the battle of Bunker Hill. We were Americans. I hope you can experience the feelings that I felt then.

I can recall that great battle clearly, and I remember the ones after that as well. Although it took much longer than I had initially anticipated, it was well worth it. It was difficult, and I became exhausted, but then we won and freed our country. We were a new nation. Now, each year on the fourth of July, I remember those days and smile. I hope you do, too.

Q. According to the passage, what do you understand by 'vividly'?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 13 The word 'vividly' means a way to produce a powerful feeling or in an intensely deep or bright manner/way.

In the passage, the word means intensely deep images as per the description of the author.

Hence, 'intensely deep images' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 14

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

I remember it vividly. We were fighting for our freedom. There was a battle at Lexington, and the news of Lexington spread everywhere, producing wild excitement. My father and I got ready to join the new army. It was as if the world was different that day. Everyone would go to Boston to join the army. Imagine you were there.

Every village and every farmhouse helped to swell the number. Men came from all over, even from tiny towns. In Connecticut, an old man was pillowing his field and proclaimed, "This is my fight, too." He unyoked his oxen, left his pellow in the furrow, and, leaping to his saddle, raced to join the army. Just picture what that was like.

Fiery Ethan Allen, at the head of his Green Mountain Boys, was eager to join us, but he stopped with his Green Mountain Boys to take over a fort. The soldiers did not expect them at all. Despite the fact that the Green Mountain Boys had not fought before, they were extremely brave, and the British gave up without a fight.

Day by day the army grew, until thirty thousand men were encamped around Boston, from Charlestown Neck to Dorchester. We were all terribly excited and determined. I was afraid, too, but I decided that I needed to remain strong and brave. Just imagine what it was like then.

The patriot leaders were beginning to grow impatient. It was now the middle of June, and they had decided the time had finally come to fight. They chose a place for the battle; the location selected was the highland on the Charlestown peninsula known as Bunker Hill. They chose the date of June 16th 16th . How do you think we felt?

The battle of Bunker Hill was a great fight. Never in my life had I witnessed such bravery on behalf of so many men. No one gave up, everyone fought hard, and we all worked together. Although it was a struggle, we remained strong. I really believe that with that one battle, our nation was born. We all felt different after the battle of Bunker Hill. We were Americans. I hope you can experience the feelings that I felt then.

I can recall that great battle clearly, and I remember the ones after that as well. Although it took much longer than I had initially anticipated, it was well worth it. It was difficult, and I became exhausted, but then we won and freed our country. We were a new nation. Now, each year on the fourth of July, I remember those days and smile. I hope you do, too.

Q. According to the passage, which day is celebrated as Independence Day in the USA?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 14 In the passage, it is given that on 4th of July the USA celebrated its independence day. On this day, it was marked as a victory in the battle of Bunker hills and a new nation was born where the people rejoiced.

Hence, '4th July' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 15

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

I remember it vividly. We were fighting for our freedom. There was a battle at Lexington, and the news of Lexington spread everywhere, producing wild excitement. My father and I got ready to join the new army. It was as if the world was different that day. Everyone would go to Boston to join the army. Imagine you were there.

Every village and every farmhouse helped to swell the number. Men came from all over, even from tiny towns. In Connecticut, an old man was pillowing his field and proclaimed, "This is my fight, too." He unyoked his oxen, left his pellow in the furrow, and, leaping to his saddle, raced to join the army. Just picture what that was like.

Fiery Ethan Allen, at the head of his Green Mountain Boys, was eager to join us, but he stopped with his Green Mountain Boys to take over a fort. The soldiers did not expect them at all. Despite the fact that the Green Mountain Boys had not fought before, they were extremely brave, and the British gave up without a fight.

Day by day the army grew, until thirty thousand men were encamped around Boston, from Charlestown Neck to Dorchester. We were all terribly excited and determined. I was afraid, too, but I decided that I needed to remain strong and brave. Just imagine what it was like then.

The patriot leaders were beginning to grow impatient. It was now the middle of June, and they had decided the time had finally come to fight. They chose a place for the battle; the location selected was the highland on the Charlestown peninsula known as Bunker Hill. They chose the date of June 16th 16th . How do you think we felt?

The battle of Bunker Hill was a great fight. Never in my life had I witnessed such bravery on behalf of so many men. No one gave up, everyone fought hard, and we all worked together. Although it was a struggle, we remained strong. I really believe that with that one battle, our nation was born. We all felt different after the battle of Bunker Hill. We were Americans. I hope you can experience the feelings that I felt then.

I can recall that great battle clearly, and I remember the ones after that as well. Although it took much longer than I had initially anticipated, it was well worth it. It was difficult, and I became exhausted, but then we won and freed our country. We were a new nation. Now, each year on the fourth of July, I remember those days and smile. I hope you do, too.

Q. Why did the author think that the world was different that day as per the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 15 According to the passage given it is very clear that the author thinks that the world was different that day because the author and his father decided to join the army.

Hence, 'the author and his father decided to join the army' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 16

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

The wagon train departed bright and early this morning. I was disappointed that I had to tell my friends goodbye, but I had chosen to remain here in Denver. By that point, we had already been traveling for several long months. I was sorry to leave St. Louis, but I heard there was gold in California. It was June when we had first left St. Louis and it was October when we got to Denver. I had made the difficult decision that I would not be continuing onward with the rest of the families on the wagon train.

When we left St. Louis, we were extremely excited, because we were planning on traveling all the way to the ocean. We would journey to California. But that was not to be for my family.

Almost immediately, we stumbled upon the first major problem of our trip. Our very first day on the road, a wheel flew right off of our wagon. The wheel was badly cracked, which meant we were unable to repair the damage ourselves. Since we were not terribly far from St. Louis at that point, John rode all the way back there on his horse. He returned to the wagon train with a brand new wheel; however, that took nearly an entire day while the other families waited.

After that, we struggled with yet another problem. There was an awful rainstorm, and with it came so much mud that the oxen pulling our wagons were unable to get the wagons moving again. We had to wait for the rain to stop completely and for the mud to dry before we could continue onward. Because of this, we lost an additional two days.

We were unbelievably exhausted and it had been a mere two weeks, but we kept on traveling. Unfortunately, we then had to stop once more because the Brown family fell ill. We waited a few days for them to recover, but they eventually gave up and turned back.

Every single day, we faced very difficult work, but we still persevered. Nevertheless, by the time we arrived in Denver, it was just too much to handle. We had decided then that we were going to leave the wagon train. That night, we informed the wagon master of our plans.

The wagon master asked us to change our minds, and told us, "We've overcome the worst, now." However, I knew our trip would certainly not be getting any easier. The mountains we had just crossed were only the beginning. It had already been such hard work to get where we were now, and I knew it would be even more difficult to reach the ocean in California. That is when we decided the best option was to remain here in Denver.

Today, I have gone off to hunt for a new job. There are several jobs in the mines, and I hope to fill one of the positions. Then, we will be able to get our own home. I am extremely thankful that living in a tent beside the covered wagon is over. Instead, we will have a permanent place where we can live.

Although I will greatly miss my friends, I will not miss all the troubles and hardships we endured. I wrote a letter to a friend I made on the trip. I wanted him to know we are doing well although I miss him.

Q. According to the passage, what was the final destination of the wagon?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 16 The passage says that the wagon started from St. Louis and the final destination of the wagon is California. In between destinations, the wagon will stop in Denver.

Hence, 'California' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 17

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

The wagon train departed bright and early this morning. I was disappointed that I had to tell my friends goodbye, but I had chosen to remain here in Denver. By that point, we had already been traveling for several long months. I was sorry to leave St. Louis, but I heard there was gold in California. It was June when we had first left St. Louis and it was October when we got to Denver. I had made the difficult decision that I would not be continuing onward with the rest of the families on the wagon train.

When we left St. Louis, we were extremely excited, because we were planning on traveling all the way to the ocean. We would journey to California. But that was not to be for my family.

Almost immediately, we stumbled upon the first major problem of our trip. Our very first day on the road, a wheel flew right off of our wagon. The wheel was badly cracked, which meant we were unable to repair the damage ourselves. Since we were not terribly far from St. Louis at that point, John rode all the way back there on his horse. He returned to the wagon train with a brand new wheel; however, that took nearly an entire day while the other families waited.

After that, we struggled with yet another problem. There was an awful rainstorm, and with it came so much mud that the oxen pulling our wagons were unable to get the wagons moving again. We had to wait for the rain to stop completely and for the mud to dry before we could continue onward. Because of this, we lost an additional two days.

We were unbelievably exhausted and it had been a mere two weeks, but we kept on traveling. Unfortunately, we then had to stop once more because the Brown family fell ill. We waited a few days for them to recover, but they eventually gave up and turned back.

Every single day, we faced very difficult work, but we still persevered. Nevertheless, by the time we arrived in Denver, it was just too much to handle. We had decided then that we were going to leave the wagon train. That night, we informed the wagon master of our plans.

The wagon master asked us to change our minds, and told us, "We've overcome the worst, now." However, I knew our trip would certainly not be getting any easier. The mountains we had just crossed were only the beginning. It had already been such hard work to get where we were now, and I knew it would be even more difficult to reach the ocean in California. That is when we decided the best option was to remain here in Denver.

Today, I have gone off to hunt for a new job. There are several jobs in the mines, and I hope to fill one of the positions. Then, we will be able to get our own home. I am extremely thankful that living in a tent beside the covered wagon is over. Instead, we will have a permanent place where we can live.

Although I will greatly miss my friends, I will not miss all the troubles and hardships we endured. I wrote a letter to a friend I made on the trip. I wanted him to know we are doing well although I miss him.

Q. According to the question, how long was the author's journey?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 17 According to the passage, we see that the journey of the author through the wagon is 44 months long where he is traveling from St. Louis to California, which was a bit tiring.

Hence, '44 months' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 18

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

The wagon train departed bright and early this morning. I was disappointed that I had to tell my friends goodbye, but I had chosen to remain here in Denver. By that point, we had already been traveling for several long months. I was sorry to leave St. Louis, but I heard there was gold in California. It was June when we had first left St. Louis and it was October when we got to Denver. I had made the difficult decision that I would not be continuing onward with the rest of the families on the wagon train.

When we left St. Louis, we were extremely excited, because we were planning on traveling all the way to the ocean. We would journey to California. But that was not to be for my family.

Almost immediately, we stumbled upon the first major problem of our trip. Our very first day on the road, a wheel flew right off of our wagon. The wheel was badly cracked, which meant we were unable to repair the damage ourselves. Since we were not terribly far from St. Louis at that point, John rode all the way back there on his horse. He returned to the wagon train with a brand new wheel; however, that took nearly an entire day while the other families waited.

After that, we struggled with yet another problem. There was an awful rainstorm, and with it came so much mud that the oxen pulling our wagons were unable to get the wagons moving again. We had to wait for the rain to stop completely and for the mud to dry before we could continue onward. Because of this, we lost an additional two days.

We were unbelievably exhausted and it had been a mere two weeks, but we kept on traveling. Unfortunately, we then had to stop once more because the Brown family fell ill. We waited a few days for them to recover, but they eventually gave up and turned back.

Every single day, we faced very difficult work, but we still persevered. Nevertheless, by the time we arrived in Denver, it was just too much to handle. We had decided then that we were going to leave the wagon train. That night, we informed the wagon master of our plans.

The wagon master asked us to change our minds, and told us, "We've overcome the worst, now." However, I knew our trip would certainly not be getting any easier. The mountains we had just crossed were only the beginning. It had already been such hard work to get where we were now, and I knew it would be even more difficult to reach the ocean in California. That is when we decided the best option was to remain here in Denver.

Today, I have gone off to hunt for a new job. There are several jobs in the mines, and I hope to fill one of the positions. Then, we will be able to get our own home. I am extremely thankful that living in a tent beside the covered wagon is over. Instead, we will have a permanent place where we can live.

Although I will greatly miss my friends, I will not miss all the troubles and hardships we endured. I wrote a letter to a friend I made on the trip. I wanted him to know we are doing well although I miss him.

Q. According to the passage, what day is it in the first stanza?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 18 In the first stanza of the passage, the author tells the reader about the start of the journey and the day he traveled through the wagon and left his place for Denver.

Hence, 'the author left the wagon to live at Denver' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 19

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

The wagon train departed bright and early this morning. I was disappointed that I had to tell my friends goodbye, but I had chosen to remain here in Denver. By that point, we had already been traveling for several long months. I was sorry to leave St. Louis, but I heard there was gold in California. It was June when we had first left St. Louis and it was October when we got to Denver. I had made the difficult decision that I would not be continuing onward with the rest of the families on the wagon train.

When we left St. Louis, we were extremely excited, because we were planning on traveling all the way to the ocean. We would journey to California. But that was not to be for my family.

Almost immediately, we stumbled upon the first major problem of our trip. Our very first day on the road, a wheel flew right off of our wagon. The wheel was badly cracked, which meant we were unable to repair the damage ourselves. Since we were not terribly far from St. Louis at that point, John rode all the way back there on his horse. He returned to the wagon train with a brand new wheel; however, that took nearly an entire day while the other families waited.

After that, we struggled with yet another problem. There was an awful rainstorm, and with it came so much mud that the oxen pulling our wagons were unable to get the wagons moving again. We had to wait for the rain to stop completely and for the mud to dry before we could continue onward. Because of this, we lost an additional two days.

We were unbelievably exhausted and it had been a mere two weeks, but we kept on traveling. Unfortunately, we then had to stop once more because the Brown family fell ill. We waited a few days for them to recover, but they eventually gave up and turned back.

Every single day, we faced very difficult work, but we still persevered. Nevertheless, by the time we arrived in Denver, it was just too much to handle. We had decided then that we were going to leave the wagon train. That night, we informed the wagon master of our plans.

The wagon master asked us to change our minds, and told us, "We've overcome the worst, now." However, I knew our trip would certainly not be getting any easier. The mountains we had just crossed were only the beginning. It had already been such hard work to get where we were now, and I knew it would be even more difficult to reach the ocean in California. That is when we decided the best option was to remain here in Denver.

Today, I have gone off to hunt for a new job. There are several jobs in the mines, and I hope to fill one of the positions. Then, we will be able to get our own home. I am extremely thankful that living in a tent beside the covered wagon is over. Instead, we will have a permanent place where we can live.

Although I will greatly miss my friends, I will not miss all the troubles and hardships we endured. I wrote a letter to a friend I made on the trip. I wanted him to know we are doing well although I miss him.

Q. According to the passage, why did the author left the wagon train and stopped at Denver?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 19 The author said that they left the wagon train and stopped at Denver because they were tired of the journey by wagon and had lost their temper to tell it tight. The author knew it would have been even more difficult to reach the ocean in California. That is the reason when they decided the best option was to remain here in Denver.

Hence, 'they were tired of the journey and lost perseverance' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 20

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

The wagon train departed bright and early this morning. I was disappointed that I had to tell my friends goodbye, but I had chosen to remain here in Denver. By that point, we had already been traveling for several long months. I was sorry to leave St. Louis, but I heard there was gold in California. It was June when we had first left St. Louis and it was October when we got to Denver. I had made the difficult decision that I would not be continuing onward with the rest of the families on the wagon train.

When we left St. Louis, we were extremely excited, because we were planning on traveling all the way to the ocean. We would journey to California. But that was not to be for my family.

Almost immediately, we stumbled upon the first major problem of our trip. Our very first day on the road, a wheel flew right off of our wagon. The wheel was badly cracked, which meant we were unable to repair the damage ourselves. Since we were not terribly far from St. Louis at that point, John rode all the way back there on his horse. He returned to the wagon train with a brand new wheel; however, that took nearly an entire day while the other families waited.

After that, we struggled with yet another problem. There was an awful rainstorm, and with it came so much mud that the oxen pulling our wagons were unable to get the wagons moving again. We had to wait for the rain to stop completely and for the mud to dry before we could continue onward. Because of this, we lost an additional two days.

We were unbelievably exhausted and it had been a mere two weeks, but we kept on traveling. Unfortunately, we then had to stop once more because the Brown family fell ill. We waited a few days for them to recover, but they eventually gave up and turned back.

Every single day, we faced very difficult work, but we still persevered. Nevertheless, by the time we arrived in Denver, it was just too much to handle. We had decided then that we were going to leave the wagon train. That night, we informed the wagon master of our plans.

The wagon master asked us to change our minds, and told us, "We've overcome the worst, now." However, I knew our trip would certainly not be getting any easier. The mountains we had just crossed were only the beginning. It had already been such hard work to get where we were now, and I knew it would be even more difficult to reach the ocean in California. That is when we decided the best option was to remain here in Denver.

Today, I have gone off to hunt for a new job. There are several jobs in the mines, and I hope to fill one of the positions. Then, we will be able to get our own home. I am extremely thankful that living in a tent beside the covered wagon is over. Instead, we will have a permanent place where we can live.

Although I will greatly miss my friends, I will not miss all the troubles and hardships we endured. I wrote a letter to a friend I made on the trip. I wanted him to know we are doing well although I miss him.

Q. Why did the wagon master tried to change author's mind?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 20 In the passage, we see that the wagon master tried to change the author's mind because it had already been such hard work to get where they were now, and then he knew it would be even more difficult to reach the ocean in California. That is when we decided the best option was to remain here in Denver.

Hence, 'he thought that the journey from Denver will be smooth' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 21

Direction: Read the following passage carefully to answer the given questions that follow.

This March it would be years since my mother passed away. The death of a parent is among the most difficult and universal human experiences. Most people will, sadly, experience the loss of parents. The passing of a parent is unavoidable, but that doesn't make it easier. The pain endured is harrowing and changes children psychologically. Childhood grief is tenacious and frequent. Which makes unwelcome appearances at milestones like graduations and weddings. We know these feelings as an anniversary reaction; they aren't a setback in the grieving process. They're a reflection that your loved one's life was important to you. Human beings process grief deeply and intricately.

No one ever gets over the loss of their parents. People get through it, yes, and perhaps used to it, but no one gets over it. A piece of your life gets removed and however much you arrange the other pieces; they will never fit in the same way.

For me, that makes complete sense that everything changes; if we accept that, in some profound way, our parents help shape who we are, then undoubtedly their deaths will affect us deeply too.

The death of a parent perpetually changes us psychologically, physically, and emotionally for the rest of our lives. We always think we will have more time, but we never have enough. There is no quick fix here. The effects of early parent loss reverberate throughout a lifetime. There also will be times when you're going about your day and grief hits you like a bolt of lightning.

This is true for losing a mother because the synchronous mother-child relationship sets the stage for the child's relationships throughout life with family members at home, through teens and first love and, eventually, as parents to children of their own.

Imagine a huge hole in the middle of your core you carry with you every day, and nobody except you can understand or see it. The hole is as real and tangible as any other thing in your life. It gets a little easier as time goes away, but it never truly goes, it just gets easier to deal with time.

The process of grief varies from person to person, but certain emotions and circumstances that many of us experience. The successes, the weddings, and the thought of having your kids who will never know their grandmother.

However, grieving is important because it honours the loved ones and the relationship between them. When we love someone, we attach ourselves to that person, grieving is detaching and letting go, so we can move on, not forgetting but remembering the joy between two lives. Grieving is an essential element of therapy. It is a process by which we say farewell to a loved one, accept the suffering and think of the joy and pleasure of the affection and, as the pain eases, it leaves us with wonderful memories.

Q. Why is the loss of a mother is more impactful as given in the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 21 In the passage, we come to know that the loss of the mother is more impactful because she is the one that binds the house together and also the one who helps in relating with the family.

Hence, 'mother is the one who helps in relating with the family' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 22

Direction: Read the following passage carefully to answer the given questions that follow.

This March it would be years since my mother passed away. The death of a parent is among the most difficult and universal human experiences. Most people will, sadly, experience the loss of parents. The passing of a parent is unavoidable, but that doesn't make it easier. The pain endured is harrowing and changes children psychologically. Childhood grief is tenacious and frequent. Which makes unwelcome appearances at milestones like graduations and weddings. We know these feelings as an anniversary reaction; they aren't a setback in the grieving process. They're a reflection that your loved one's life was important to you. Human beings process grief deeply and intricately.

No one ever gets over the loss of their parents. People get through it, yes, and perhaps used to it, but no one gets over it. A piece of your life gets removed and however much you arrange the other pieces; they will never fit in the same way.

For me, that makes complete sense that everything changes; if we accept that, in some profound way, our parents help shape who we are, then undoubtedly their deaths will affect us deeply too.

The death of a parent perpetually changes us psychologically, physically, and emotionally for the rest of our lives. We always think we will have more time, but we never have enough. There is no quick fix here. The effects of early parent loss reverberate throughout a lifetime. There also will be times when you're going about your day and grief hits you like a bolt of lightning.

This is true for losing a mother because the synchronous mother-child relationship sets the stage for the child's relationships throughout life with family members at home, through teens and first love and, eventually, as parents to children of their own.

Imagine a huge hole in the middle of your core you carry with you every day, and nobody except you can understand or see it. The hole is as real and tangible as any other thing in your life. It gets a little easier as time goes away, but it never truly goes, it just gets easier to deal with time.

The process of grief varies from person to person, but certain emotions and circumstances that many of us experience. The successes, the weddings, and the thought of having your kids who will never know their grandmother.

However, grieving is important because it honours the loved ones and the relationship between them. When we love someone, we attach ourselves to that person, grieving is detaching and letting go, so we can move on, not forgetting but remembering the joy between two lives. Grieving is an essential element of therapy. It is a process by which we say farewell to a loved one, accept the suffering and think of the joy and pleasure of the affection and, as the pain eases, it leaves us with wonderful memories.

Q. Why are the feelings not a setback in the grieving process according to the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 22 The feelings are not a setback in the grieving process as these feelings are your love for the loved ones that are now gone/passed souls. They're a reflection that your loved one's life was important to you. Human beings process grief deeply and intricately.

Hence, 'these feelings are your love for the gone souls' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 23

Direction: Read the following passage carefully to answer the given questions that follow.

This March it would be years since my mother passed away. The death of a parent is among the most difficult and universal human experiences. Most people will, sadly, experience the loss of parents. The passing of a parent is unavoidable, but that doesn't make it easier. The pain endured is harrowing and changes children psychologically. Childhood grief is tenacious and frequent. Which makes unwelcome appearances at milestones like graduations and weddings. We know these feelings as an anniversary reaction; they aren't a setback in the grieving process. They're a reflection that your loved one's life was important to you. Human beings process grief deeply and intricately.

No one ever gets over the loss of their parents. People get through it, yes, and perhaps used to it, but no one gets over it. A piece of your life gets removed and however much you arrange the other pieces; they will never fit in the same way.

For me, that makes complete sense that everything changes; if we accept that, in some profound way, our parents help shape who we are, then undoubtedly their deaths will affect us deeply too.

The death of a parent perpetually changes us psychologically, physically, and emotionally for the rest of our lives. We always think we will have more time, but we never have enough. There is no quick fix here. The effects of early parent loss reverberate throughout a lifetime. There also will be times when you're going about your day and grief hits you like a bolt of lightning.

This is true for losing a mother because the synchronous mother-child relationship sets the stage for the child's relationships throughout life with family members at home, through teens and first love and, eventually, as parents to children of their own.

Imagine a huge hole in the middle of your core you carry with you every day, and nobody except you can understand or see it. The hole is as real and tangible as any other thing in your life. It gets a little easier as time goes away, but it never truly goes, it just gets easier to deal with time.

The process of grief varies from person to person, but certain emotions and circumstances that many of us experience. The successes, the weddings, and the thought of having your kids who will never know their grandmother.

However, grieving is important because it honours the loved ones and the relationship between them. When we love someone, we attach ourselves to that person, grieving is detaching and letting go, so we can move on, not forgetting but remembering the joy between two lives. Grieving is an essential element of therapy. It is a process by which we say farewell to a loved one, accept the suffering and think of the joy and pleasure of the affection and, as the pain eases, it leaves us with wonderful memories.

Q. Which of the following is the exact opposite of tenacious as given in the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 23 The word tenacious means to hold something too tightly or adhere closely. On the other hand, loose means something which isn't told too firmly or tightly fixed in a place.

Hence, 'loose' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 24

Direction: Read the following passage carefully to answer the given questions that follow.

This March it would be years since my mother passed away. The death of a parent is among the most difficult and universal human experiences. Most people will, sadly, experience the loss of parents. The passing of a parent is unavoidable, but that doesn't make it easier. The pain endured is harrowing and changes children psychologically. Childhood grief is tenacious and frequent. Which makes unwelcome appearances at milestones like graduations and weddings. We know these feelings as an anniversary reaction; they aren't a setback in the grieving process. They're a reflection that your loved one's life was important to you. Human beings process grief deeply and intricately.

No one ever gets over the loss of their parents. People get through it, yes, and perhaps used to it, but no one gets over it. A piece of your life gets removed and however much you arrange the other pieces; they will never fit in the same way.

For me, that makes complete sense that everything changes; if we accept that, in some profound way, our parents help shape who we are, then undoubtedly their deaths will affect us deeply too.

The death of a parent perpetually changes us psychologically, physically, and emotionally for the rest of our lives. We always think we will have more time, but we never have enough. There is no quick fix here. The effects of early parent loss reverberate throughout a lifetime. There also will be times when you're going about your day and grief hits you like a bolt of lightning.

This is true for losing a mother because the synchronous mother-child relationship sets the stage for the child's relationships throughout life with family members at home, through teens and first love and, eventually, as parents to children of their own.

Imagine a huge hole in the middle of your core you carry with you every day, and nobody except you can understand or see it. The hole is as real and tangible as any other thing in your life. It gets a little easier as time goes away, but it never truly goes, it just gets easier to deal with time.

The process of grief varies from person to person, but certain emotions and circumstances that many of us experience. The successes, the weddings, and the thought of having your kids who will never know their grandmother.

However, grieving is important because it honours the loved ones and the relationship between them. When we love someone, we attach ourselves to that person, grieving is detaching and letting go, so we can move on, not forgetting but remembering the joy between two lives. Grieving is an essential element of therapy. It is a process by which we say farewell to a loved one, accept the suffering and think of the joy and pleasure of the affection and, as the pain eases, it leaves us with wonderful memories.

Q. According to the passage, why grieving is important?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 24 Grieving is important because it helps or holds together the loved ones and the relationship between them. It is an essential element of therapy and a process by which we say farewell to a loved one, accept the suffering and think of the joy.

Hence, 'grieving helps in moving on in our life' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 25

Direction: Read the following passage carefully to answer the given questions that follow.

This March it would be years since my mother passed away. The death of a parent is among the most difficult and universal human experiences. Most people will, sadly, experience the loss of parents. The passing of a parent is unavoidable, but that doesn't make it easier. The pain endured is harrowing and changes children psychologically. Childhood grief is tenacious and frequent. Which makes unwelcome appearances at milestones like graduations and weddings. We know these feelings as an anniversary reaction; they aren't a setback in the grieving process. They're a reflection that your loved one's life was important to you. Human beings process grief deeply and intricately.

No one ever gets over the loss of their parents. People get through it, yes, and perhaps used to it, but no one gets over it. A piece of your life gets removed and however much you arrange the other pieces; they will never fit in the same way.

For me, that makes complete sense that everything changes; if we accept that, in some profound way, our parents help shape who we are, then undoubtedly their deaths will affect us deeply too.

The death of a parent perpetually changes us psychologically, physically, and emotionally for the rest of our lives. We always think we will have more time, but we never have enough. There is no quick fix here. The effects of early parent loss reverberate throughout a lifetime. There also will be times when you're going about your day and grief hits you like a bolt of lightning.

This is true for losing a mother because the synchronous mother-child relationship sets the stage for the child's relationships throughout life with family members at home, through teens and first love and, eventually, as parents to children of their own.

Imagine a huge hole in the middle of your core you carry with you every day, and nobody except you can understand or see it. The hole is as real and tangible as any other thing in your life. It gets a little easier as time goes away, but it never truly goes, it just gets easier to deal with time.

The process of grief varies from person to person, but certain emotions and circumstances that many of us experience. The successes, the weddings, and the thought of having your kids who will never know their grandmother.

However, grieving is important because it honours the loved ones and the relationship between them. When we love someone, we attach ourselves to that person, grieving is detaching and letting go, so we can move on, not forgetting but remembering the joy between two lives. Grieving is an essential element of therapy. It is a process by which we say farewell to a loved one, accept the suffering and think of the joy and pleasure of the affection and, as the pain eases, it leaves us with wonderful memories.

Q. Which of the following words best describe 'harrowing' from the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 25 The word harrowing means acutely distressing. In other words, we can also say that it will be a distressful situation. That has been said in terms of children who lost their parents.

Hence, 'distressful' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 26

Directions: Read the passage and answer the questions that follow:

Back in the 1950s and 60s, the world changed. Modern economies moved people out of factories and fields and into office buildings. Whereas you used to have to stand on your feet all day and work very hard to make a buck, now, the best-paying jobs simply asked that you sit at a desk for as long as possible without ever getting up. Our bodies aren't particularly adapted for a sedentary lifestyle. In fact, it turns out that sitting around all day munching on donuts and soda is downright awful for your physical health. As a result, we began to see epidemics of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease around the same time that everyone got cushy office jobs. People's bodies were falling apart, becoming overly sensitive, and not functioning correctly.

To counteract this sedentary lifestyle, we all came together and developed a fitness culture to counteract the health crisis. People realized that if modern life had you sitting around all day watching a screen, that you needed to set aside time in your day to go lift something heavy or run around a little bit. That kept your body healthy and stable and strong. Jogging became a thing. Gym memberships were invented. And people wore spandex and jumped around on VHS tapes, looking absolutely ridiculous. The eighties were great.

Our bodies are designed in such a way that they need to be challenged and stressed to a certain degree, otherwise, they become soft and weak, and the smallest endeavors walking up a flight of stairs, picking up a bag of groceries-will begin to feel difficult or impossible. It turns out that these small, conscious efforts to stress our bodies are what keep them healthy. In the same way, removing stress and strain from our physical bodies causes them to become fragile and weak, removing mental stress and strain from our minds makes them fragile and weak. The same way we discovered that the sedentary lifestyles of the 20th century required us to physically exert ourselves and work our bodies into healthy shape, I believe we're on the cusp of discovering a similar necessity for our minds. We need to consciously limit our own comforts.

We need to force our minds to strain themselves, to work hard for their information, to deprive our attention of the constant stimulation that it craves. The same way the consumer economy of the 20th century called upon us to invent the nutritional diet, I believe that the attention economy of the 21st century calls upon us to invent an attention diet.

Q. What is a sedentary lifestyle?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 26 From the passage, we see that the meaning of a sedentary lifestyle is the lifestyle where there is zero or minimum physical activity by an individual. We can also say that basically, an individual is inactive.

Hence, ''lifestyle with no physical activity'' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 27

Directions: Read the passage and answer the questions that follow:

Back in the 1950s and 60s, the world changed. Modern economies moved people out of factories and fields and into office buildings. Whereas you used to have to stand on your feet all day and work very hard to make a buck, now, the best-paying jobs simply asked that you sit at a desk for as long as possible without ever getting up. Our bodies aren't particularly adapted for a sedentary lifestyle. In fact, it turns out that sitting around all day munching on donuts and soda is downright awful for your physical health. As a result, we began to see epidemics of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease around the same time that everyone got cushy office jobs. People's bodies were falling apart, becoming overly sensitive, and not functioning correctly.

To counteract this sedentary lifestyle, we all came together and developed a fitness culture to counteract the health crisis. People realized that if modern life had you sitting around all day watching a screen, that you needed to set aside time in your day to go lift something heavy or run around a little bit. That kept your body healthy, stable and strong. Jogging became a thing. Gym memberships were invented. And people wore spandex and jumped around on VHS tapes, looking absolutely ridiculous. The eighties were great.

Our bodies are designed in such a way that they need to be challenged and stressed to a certain degree, otherwise, they become soft and weak, and the smallest endeavors walking up a flight of stairs, picking up a bag of groceries-will begin to feel difficult or impossible. It turns out that these small, conscious efforts to stress our bodies are what keep them healthy. In the same way, removing stress and strain from our physical bodies causes them to become fragile and weak, removing mental stress and strain from our minds makes them fragile and weak. The same way we discovered that the sedentary lifestyles of the 20th century required us to physically exert ourselves and work our bodies into healthy shape, I believe we're on the cusp of discovering a similar necessity for our minds. We need to consciously limit our own comforts.

We need to force our minds to strain themselves, to work hard for their information, to deprive our attention of the constant stimulation that it craves. The same way the consumer economy of the 20th century called upon us to invent the nutritional diet, I believe that the attention economy of the 21st century calls upon us to invent an attention diet.

Q. Why there was a rise in diseases like heart attacks, obesity, etc?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 27 According to the passage, we see that as the time changed and the revolution started people initially were more into physical work whereas now they prefer spending more time in a desk job so that they can be paid more.

Hence, ''People started enjoying the cushy office jobs'' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 28

Directions: Read the passage and answer the questions that follow:

Back in the 1950s and 60s, the world changed. Modern economies moved people out of factories and fields and into office buildings. Whereas you used to have to stand on your feet all day and work very hard to make a buck, now, the best-paying jobs simply asked that you sit at a desk for as long as possible without ever getting up. Our bodies aren't particularly adapted for a sedentary lifestyle. In fact, it turns out that sitting around all day munching on donuts and soda is downright awful for your physical health. As a result, we began to see epidemics of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease around the same time that everyone got cushy office jobs. People's bodies were falling apart, becoming overly sensitive, and not functioning correctly.

To counteract this sedentary lifestyle, we all came together and developed a fitness culture to counteract the health crisis. People realized that if modern life had you sitting around all day watching a screen, that you needed to set aside time in your day to go lift something heavy or run around a little bit. That kept your body healthy and stable and strong. Jogging became a thing. Gym memberships were invented. And people wore spandex and jumped around on VHS tapes, looking absolutely ridiculous. The eighties were great.

Our bodies are designed in such a way that they need to be challenged and stressed to a certain degree, otherwise, they become soft and weak, and the smallest endeavors walking up a flight of stairs, picking up a bag of groceries-will begin to feel difficult or impossible. It turns out that these small, conscious efforts to stress our bodies are what keep them healthy. In the same way, removing stress and strain from our physical bodies causes them to become fragile and weak, removing mental stress and strain from our minds makes them fragile and weak. The same way we discovered that the sedentary lifestyles of the 20th century required us to physically exert ourselves and work our bodies into healthy shape, I believe we're on the cusp of discovering a similar necessity for our minds. We need to consciously limit our own comforts.

We need to force our minds to strain themselves, to work hard for their information, to deprive our attention of the constant stimulation that it craves. The same way the consumer economy of the 20th century called upon us to invent the nutritional diet, I believe that the attention economy of the 21st century calls upon us to invent an attention diet.

Q. Which of the following can be used instead of endeavors?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 28 According to the passage given, we see that the synonym of the word 'endeavors' is 'ventures'. The meaning of this word is that when a person or individual is involving a chance, risk, or danger in doing something especially a business.

Hence, 'ventures' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 29

Directions: Read the passage and answer the questions that follow:

Back in the 1950s and 60s, the world changed. Modern economies moved people out of factories and fields and into office buildings. Whereas you used to have to stand on your feet all day and work very hard to make a buck, now, the best-paying jobs simply asked that you sit at a desk for as long as possible without ever getting up. Our bodies aren't particularly adapted for a sedentary lifestyle. In fact, it turns out that sitting around all day munching on donuts and soda is downright awful for your physical health. As a result, we began to see epidemics of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease around the same time that everyone got cushy office jobs. People's bodies were falling apart, becoming overly sensitive, and not functioning correctly.

To counteract this sedentary lifestyle, we all came together and developed a fitness culture to counteract the health crisis. People realized that if modern life had you sitting around all day watching a screen, that you needed to set aside time in your day to go lift something heavy or run around a little bit. That kept your body healthy and stable and strong. Jogging became a thing. Gym memberships were invented. And people wore spandex and jumped around on VHS tapes, looking absolutely ridiculous. The eighties were great.

Our bodies are designed in such a way that they need to be challenged and stressed to a certain degree, otherwise, they become soft and weak, and the smallest endeavors walking up a flight of stairs, picking up a bag of groceries-will begin to feel difficult or impossible. It turns out that these small, conscious efforts to stress our bodies are what keep them healthy. In the same way, removing stress and strain from our physical bodies causes them to become fragile and weak, removing mental stress and strain from our minds makes them fragile and weak. The same way we discovered that the sedentary lifestyles of the 20th century required us to physically exert ourselves and work our bodies into healthy shape, I believe we're on the cusp of discovering a similar necessity for our minds. We need to consciously limit our own comforts.

We need to force our minds to strain themselves, to work hard for their information, to deprive our attention of the constant stimulation that it craves. The same way the consumer economy of the 20th century called upon us to invent the nutritional diet, I believe that the attention economy of the 21st century calls upon us to invent an attention diet.

Q. Why are our bodies need to be challenged?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 29 In the given passage, it is very evident that our lifestyle or the human body is more in need of physical activity and also being challenged. Doing physical activity gives us a healthy body and makes us a healthy person.

Hence, the correct answer is ''It will help in evolving as a healthy person''.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 30

Directions: Read the passage and answer the questions that follow:

Back in the 1950s and 60s, the world changed. Modern economies moved people out of factories and fields and into office buildings. Whereas you used to have to stand on your feet all day and work very hard to make a buck, now, the best-paying jobs simply asked that you sit at a desk for as long as possible without ever getting up. Our bodies aren't particularly adapted for a sedentary lifestyle. In fact, it turns out that sitting around all day munching on donuts and soda is downright awful for your physical health. As a result, we began to see epidemics of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease around the same time that everyone got cushy office jobs. People's bodies were falling apart, becoming overly sensitive, and not functioning correctly.

To counteract this sedentary lifestyle, we all came together and developed a fitness culture to counteract the health crisis. People realized that if modern life had you sitting around all day watching a screen, that you needed to set aside time in your day to go lift something heavy or run around a little bit. That kept your body healthy and stable and strong. Jogging became a thing. Gym memberships were invented. And people wore spandex and jumped around on VHS tapes, looking absolutely ridiculous. The eighties were great.

Our bodies are designed in such a way that they need to be challenged and stressed to a certain degree, otherwise, they become soft and weak, and the smallest endeavors walking up a flight of stairs, picking up a bag of groceries-will begin to feel difficult or impossible. It turns out that these small, conscious efforts to stress our bodies are what keep them healthy. In the same way, removing stress and strain from our physical bodies causes them to become fragile and weak, removing mental stress and strain from our minds makes them fragile and weak. The same way we discovered that the sedentary lifestyles of the 20th century required us to physically exert ourselves and work our bodies into healthy shape, I believe we're on the cusp of discovering a similar necessity for our minds. We need to consciously limit our own comforts.

We need to force our minds to strain themselves, to work hard for their information, to deprive our attention of the constant stimulation that it craves. The same way the consumer economy of the 20th century called upon us to invent the nutritional diet, I believe that the attention economy of the 21st century calls upon us to invent an attention diet.

Q. Which of the following is similar to the word cusp?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 30 According to the passage given, we see that the meaning of the word 'cusp' means 'the point of transition'. The transition can be between different states or transition between different things.

Hence, ''point of transition'' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 31

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Under the Jal Jeevan Mission, led by the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, 10.2 crore rural households, or about 53% of the eligible population, now have tap water access. This, the Government claims, is a 37-percentage point rise since its inception. The Government commissions annual surveys to evaluate the success of the scheme. A recent audit, by a private agency, found that around 62% of rural households in India had fully functional tap water connections within their premises. A report of a Parliamentary Standing Committee on Water Resources in March, based on numbers provided by the nodal Jal Shakti Ministry, stated that 46% households had such fully functional tap water connections. It is important to note that for the purposes of the survey, only 3% of rural households were surveyed by the agency for the updated numbers and so the margin of error may be substantial and subject to the way the survey was designed. If the numbers are accurate, however, this represents an impressive rise in potable, tap water accessibility and suggests that the mission is well on its way to meeting its 2024 target.

[Source - The Hindu, October 4, 2022]

Q. When is World Water Day celebrated every year?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 31 World Water Day, held on 22 March every year since 1993, is celebrated to raise awareness of the 2 billion people living without access to safe water.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 32

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Under the Jal Jeevan Mission, led by the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, 10.2 crore rural households, or about 53% of the eligible population, now have tap water access. This, the Government claims, is a 37-percentage point rise since its inception. The Government commissions annual surveys to evaluate the success of the scheme. A recent audit, by a private agency, found that around 62% of rural households in India had fully functional tap water connections within their premises. A report of a Parliamentary Standing Committee on Water Resources in March, based on numbers provided by the nodal Jal Shakti Ministry, stated that 46% households had such fully functional tap water connections. It is important to note that for the purposes of the survey, only 3% of rural households were surveyed by the agency for the updated numbers and so the margin of error may be substantial and subject to the way the survey was designed. If the numbers are accurate, however, this represents an impressive rise in potable, tap water accessibility and suggests that the mission is well on its way to meeting its 2024 target.

[Source - The Hindu, October 4, 2022]

Q. In which year was the Jal Jeevan Mission launched?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 32 The Jal Jeevan Mission is envisioned to provide safe and adequate drinking water through individual household tap connections by 2024 to all households in rural India. The Mission was launched on August 15, 2019.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 33

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Under the Jal Jeevan Mission, led by the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, 10.2 crore rural households, or about 53% of the eligible population, now have tap water access. This, the Government claims, is a 37-percentage point rise since its inception. The Government commissions annual surveys to evaluate the success of the scheme. A recent audit, by a private agency, found that around 62% of rural households in India had fully functional tap water connections within their premises. A report of a Parliamentary Standing Committee on Water Resources in March, based on numbers provided by the nodal Jal Shakti Ministry, stated that 46% households had such fully functional tap water connections. It is important to note that for the purposes of the survey, only 3% of rural households were surveyed by the agency for the updated numbers and so the margin of error may be substantial and subject to the way the survey was designed. If the numbers are accurate, however, this represents an impressive rise in potable, tap water accessibility and suggests that the mission is well on its way to meeting its 2024 target.

[Source - The Hindu, October 4, 2022]

Q. Mark the incorrect statement about the Ministry of Jal Shakti.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 33 Gajendra Singh Shekhawat (born 3 October, 1967) is an Indian politician from Rajasthan who is the Union Cabinet Minister in Ministry of Jal Shakti as of 2022. He is a member of parliament from the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) representing Jodhpur in the Lok Sabha.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 34

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Under the Jal Jeevan Mission, led by the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, 10.2 crore rural households, or about 53% of the eligible population, now have tap water access. This, the Government claims, is a 37-percentage point rise since its inception. The Government commissions annual surveys to evaluate the success of the scheme. A recent audit, by a private agency, found that around 62% of rural households in India had fully functional tap water connections within their premises. A report of a Parliamentary Standing Committee on Water Resources in March, based on numbers provided by the nodal Jal Shakti Ministry, stated that 46% households had such fully functional tap water connections. It is important to note that for the purposes of the survey, only 3% of rural households were surveyed by the agency for the updated numbers and so the margin of error may be substantial and subject to the way the survey was designed. If the numbers are accurate, however, this represents an impressive rise in potable, tap water accessibility and suggests that the mission is well on its way to meeting its 2024 target.

[Source - The Hindu, October 4, 2022]

Q. Which is the first state in the country to provide 100 percent tap water connections in rural areas?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 34 Goa became the first state in the country to provide 100 percent tap water connections in rural areas covering 2.30 lakh households.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 35

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Under the Jal Jeevan Mission, led by the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, 10.2 crore rural households, or about 53% of the eligible population, now have tap water access. This, the Government claims, is a 37-percentage point rise since its inception. The Government commissions annual surveys to evaluate the success of the scheme. A recent audit, by a private agency, found that around 62% of rural households in India had fully functional tap water connections within their premises. A report of a Parliamentary Standing Committee on Water Resources in March, based on numbers provided by the nodal Jal Shakti Ministry, stated that 46% households had such fully functional tap water connections. It is important to note that for the purposes of the survey, only 3% of rural households were surveyed by the agency for the updated numbers and so the margin of error may be substantial and subject to the way the survey was designed. If the numbers are accurate, however, this represents an impressive rise in potable, tap water accessibility and suggests that the mission is well on its way to meeting its 2024 target.

[Source - The Hindu, October 4, 2022]

Q. The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act establishes an institutional structure for preventing and abating water pollution. Which among the following was set up under the Act?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 35 The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act establishes an institutional structure for preventing and abating water pollution. It establishes standards for water quality and effluent. Polluting industries must seek permission to discharge waste into effluent bodies. The CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) was constituted under this Act. The Central Pollution Control Board of India is a statutory organisation under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 36

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The draft Indian Telecommunication Bill, 2022 (Telecom Bill) - published for public consultation on September 21, 2022 - aims to create a legal framework attuned to the realities of the 21st century to ensure India's socio-economic development. This Telecom Bill follows the release of the consultation paper, Need for a new legal framework governing Telecommunication in India, which was published on July 23, 2022. However, it fails to let go of the colonial moorings that have shaped the law around telecommunications in India for the past century. Instead, it represents multiple squandered opportunities for significant legislative reform. The Telecom Bill misses the opportunity for the democratisation of telecommunication services. Now, it has preferred a move towards centralisation of power through its new licensing regime. Here, the Telecom Bill also fails to inculcate the learnings evolved in courts and other institutions of authority, and instead repackages the provisions from pre-Independence laws to pass them off as legislative advancements. This is in lieu of enacting sweeping legislative reform which would cement user rights as the cornerstone of the Indian telecommunication sector.

[Source - The Hindu, October 1, 2022]

Q. The TRAI is a regulatory body set up by the Government of India under:

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 36 The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India is a regulatory body set up by the Government of India under section 3 of the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997. It is the regulator of the telecommunications sector in India. It consists of a Chairperson and not more than two full-time members and two part-time members.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 37

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The draft Indian Telecommunication Bill, 2022 (Telecom Bill) - published for public consultation on September 21, 2022 - aims to create a legal framework attuned to the realities of the 21st century to ensure India's socio-economic development. This Telecom Bill follows the release of the consultation paper, Need for a new legal framework governing Telecommunication in India, which was published on July 23, 2022. However, it fails to let go of the colonial moorings that have shaped the law around telecommunications in India for the past century. Instead, it represents multiple squandered opportunities for significant legislative reform. The Telecom Bill misses the opportunity for the democratisation of telecommunication services. Now, it has preferred a move towards centralisation of power through its new licensing regime. Here, the Telecom Bill also fails to inculcate the learnings evolved in courts and other institutions of authority, and instead repackages the provisions from pre-Independence laws to pass them off as legislative advancements. This is in lieu of enacting sweeping legislative reform which would cement user rights as the cornerstone of the Indian telecommunication sector.

[Source - The Hindu, October 1, 2022]

Q. BharatNet Project is the world's largest rural broadband connectivity programme using Optical fibre, implemented by:

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 37 BharatNet Project is the world's largest rural broadband connectivity programme using Optical fibre. It is implemented by Bharat Broadband Network Limited (BBNL) – a special purpose vehicle under the Telecom Ministry and is the Government of India's ambitious rural internet connectivity programme. In other words, BharatNet is a project envisioned by the Government of India to digitally connect all the Gram Panchayats (GPs) and Villages of India.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 38

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The draft Indian Telecommunication Bill, 2022 (Telecom Bill) - published for public consultation on September 21, 2022 - aims to create a legal framework attuned to the realities of the 21st century to ensure India's socio-economic development. This Telecom Bill follows the release of the consultation paper, Need for a new legal framework governing Telecommunication in India, which was published on July 23, 2022. However, it fails to let go of the colonial moorings that have shaped the law around telecommunications in India for the past century. Instead, it represents multiple squandered opportunities for significant legislative reform. The Telecom Bill misses the opportunity for the democratisation of telecommunication services. Now, it has preferred a move towards centralisation of power through its new licensing regime. Here, the Telecom Bill also fails to inculcate the learnings evolved in courts and other institutions of authority, and instead repackages the provisions from pre-Independence laws to pass them off as legislative advancements. This is in lieu of enacting sweeping legislative reform which would cement user rights as the cornerstone of the Indian telecommunication sector.

[Source - The Hindu, October 1, 2022]

Q. GOI has recently rolled out 5G in India that will not only facilitate communication technology but also add a new dimension to the missions like 'Digital India' and 'Smart Cities'. Which among the following was the first country to launch 5G?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 38 South Korea became the first country to commercially launch nationwide 5G services. South Korea is the country which deployed the first 5G network and is expected to stay in the lead as far as penetration of the technology goes. By 2025, almost 60 percent of mobile subscriptions in South Korea are expected to be for 5G networks.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 39

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The draft Indian Telecommunication Bill, 2022 (Telecom Bill) - published for public consultation on September 21, 2022 - aims to create a legal framework attuned to the realities of the 21st century to ensure India's socio-economic development. This Telecom Bill follows the release of the consultation paper, Need for a new legal framework governing Telecommunication in India, which was published on July 23, 2022. However, it fails to let go of the colonial moorings that have shaped the law around telecommunications in India for the past century. Instead, it represents multiple squandered opportunities for significant legislative reform. The Telecom Bill misses the opportunity for the democratisation of telecommunication services. Now, it has preferred a move towards centralisation of power through its new licensing regime. Here, the Telecom Bill also fails to inculcate the learnings evolved in courts and other institutions of authority, and instead repackages the provisions from pre-Independence laws to pass them off as legislative advancements. This is in lieu of enacting sweeping legislative reform which would cement user rights as the cornerstone of the Indian telecommunication sector.

[Source - The Hindu, October 1, 2022]

Q. Consider the following statements and mark the correct option.

Statement I: India is currently the world's second-largest telecommunications market.

Statement II: Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) up to 75% has been allowed in the Telecom sector under the automatic route.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 39 According to Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI), India is currently the world's 2nd largest telecommunication market with an overall teledensity of 85.11% and a subscriber base of 1.20 billion. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) up to 100% has now been allowed in the Telecom sector under the automatic route.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 40

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The draft Indian Telecommunication Bill, 2022 (Telecom Bill) - published for public consultation on September 21, 2022 - aims to create a legal framework attuned to the realities of the 21st century to ensure India's socio-economic development. This Telecom Bill follows the release of the consultation paper, Need for a new legal framework governing Telecommunication in India, which was published on July 23, 2022. However, it fails to let go of the colonial moorings that have shaped the law around telecommunications in India for the past century. Instead, it represents multiple squandered opportunities for significant legislative reform. The Telecom Bill misses the opportunity for the democratisation of telecommunication services. Now, it has preferred a move towards centralisation of power through its new licensing regime. Here, the Telecom Bill also fails to inculcate the learnings evolved in courts and other institutions of authority, and instead repackages the provisions from pre-Independence laws to pass them off as legislative advancements. This is in lieu of enacting sweeping legislative reform which would cement user rights as the cornerstone of the Indian telecommunication sector.

[Source - The Hindu, October 1, 2022]

Q. In which year was the Ministry of Communications carved out of the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 40 Ministry of Communications is a Central ministry under the Government of India responsible for telecommunications and postal service. It was carved out of the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology on July 19, 2016. It consists of two departments viz. Department of Telecommunications and the Department of Posts.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 41

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

A team of researchers has flagged the changing chemistry of the western region of the Arctic Ocean after discovering acidity levels increasing three to four times faster than ocean waters elsewhere. The team also identified a strong correlation between the accelerated rate of melting ice and the rate of ocean acidification. The study, published on Thursday in 'Science', the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, is the first analysis of Arctic acidification that includes data from 1994 to 2020. Scientists have predicted that by 2050, Arctic sea ice in this region will no longer survive the increasingly warm summers. As a result, the ocean's chemistry will grow more acidic, creating life-threatening problems for the diverse population of sea creatures, plants and other living things that depend on a healthy ocean. Crabs, for example, live in a crusty shell built from the calcium carbonate prevalent in ocean water. Polar bears rely on healthy fish populations for food, fish and sea birds rely on plankton and plants, and seafood is a key element of many humans' diets.

[Source - The Indian Express, October 3, 2022]

Q. Consider the following statements about Arctic region and mark the incorrect one.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 41 The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Canada, Denmark (Greenland), Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia (Murmansk, Siberia, Nenets Okrug, Novaya Zemlya), Sweden and the United States (Alaska). The area can be defined as north of the Arctic Circle (about 66° 34'N), the approximate southern limit of the midnight sun and the polar night.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 42

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

A team of researchers has flagged the changing chemistry of the western region of the Arctic Ocean after discovering acidity levels increasing three to four times faster than ocean waters elsewhere. The team also identified a strong correlation between the accelerated rate of melting ice and the rate of ocean acidification. The study, published on Thursday in 'Science', the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, is the first analysis of Arctic acidification that includes data from 1994 to 2020. Scientists have predicted that by 2050, Arctic sea ice in this region will no longer survive the increasingly warm summers. As a result, the ocean's chemistry will grow more acidic, creating life-threatening problems for the diverse population of sea creatures, plants and other living things that depend on a healthy ocean. Crabs, for example, live in a crusty shell built from the calcium carbonate prevalent in ocean water. Polar bears rely on healthy fish populations for food, fish and sea birds rely on plankton and plants, and seafood is a key element of many humans' diets.

[Source - The Indian Express, October 3, 2022]

Q. ________ refers to Arctic shipping routes connecting three major economic centers - North America, East Asia, and Western Europe - through the Arctic Circle.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 42 The Polar Silk Route refers to Arctic shipping routes connecting three major economic centers - North America, East Asia, and Western Europe - through the Arctic Circle. As melting sea ice in the Arctic is making it possible for the region to open to navigation, it is creating significantly shortened shipping lanes, such as the Northern Sea Passage.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 43

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

A team of researchers has flagged the changing chemistry of the western region of the Arctic Ocean after discovering acidity levels increasing three to four times faster than ocean waters elsewhere. The team also identified a strong correlation between the accelerated rate of melting ice and the rate of ocean acidification. The study, published on Thursday in 'Science', the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, is the first analysis of Arctic acidification that includes data from 1994 to 2020. Scientists have predicted that by 2050, Arctic sea ice in this region will no longer survive the increasingly warm summers. As a result, the ocean's chemistry will grow more acidic, creating life-threatening problems for the diverse population of sea creatures, plants and other living things that depend on a healthy ocean. Crabs, for example, live in a crusty shell built from the calcium carbonate prevalent in ocean water. Polar bears rely on healthy fish populations for food, fish and sea birds rely on plankton and plants, and seafood is a key element of many humans' diets.

[Source - The Indian Express, October 3, 2022]

Q. IndARC is India's first underwater moored observatory in the Arctic region. When was it deployed?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 43 IndARC is India's first underwater moored observatory in the Arctic region. It was deployed in 2014 at Kongsfjorden fjord, Svalbard, Norway which is midway between Norway and the North Pole.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 44

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

A team of researchers has flagged the changing chemistry of the western region of the Arctic Ocean after discovering acidity levels increasing three to four times faster than ocean waters elsewhere. The team also identified a strong correlation between the accelerated rate of melting ice and the rate of ocean acidification. The study, published on Thursday in 'Science', the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, is the first analysis of Arctic acidification that includes data from 1994 to 2020. Scientists have predicted that by 2050, Arctic sea ice in this region will no longer survive the increasingly warm summers. As a result, the ocean's chemistry will grow more acidic, creating life-threatening problems for the diverse population of sea creatures, plants and other living things that depend on a healthy ocean. Crabs, for example, live in a crusty shell built from the calcium carbonate prevalent in ocean water. Polar bears rely on healthy fish populations for food, fish and sea birds rely on plankton and plants, and seafood is a key element of many humans' diets.

[Source - The Indian Express, October 3, 2022]

Q. Which of the following countries border the Arctic Ocean?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 44 The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the world's oceans, centring approximately on the North Pole. Countries bordering the Arctic Ocean are Russia, Norway, Iceland, Greenland (territory of the Kingdom of Denmark), Canada, and the United States.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 45

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

A team of researchers has flagged the changing chemistry of the western region of the Arctic Ocean after discovering acidity levels increasing three to four times faster than ocean waters elsewhere. The team also identified a strong correlation between the accelerated rate of melting ice and the rate of ocean acidification. The study, published on Thursday in 'Science', the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, is the first analysis of Arctic acidification that includes data from 1994 to 2020. Scientists have predicted that by 2050, Arctic sea ice in this region will no longer survive the increasingly warm summers. As a result, the ocean's chemistry will grow more acidic, creating life-threatening problems for the diverse population of sea creatures, plants and other living things that depend on a healthy ocean. Crabs, for example, live in a crusty shell built from the calcium carbonate prevalent in ocean water. Polar bears rely on healthy fish populations for food, fish and sea birds rely on plankton and plants, and seafood is a key element of many humans' diets.

[Source - The Indian Express, October 3, 2022]

Q. Name India's first permanent Arctic research station located at Spitsbergen, Svalbard, Norway.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 45 Himadri is India's first permanent Arctic research station located at Spitsbergen, Svalbard, Norway. It is located at the International Arctic Research base, Ny-Ålesund. It was inaugurated on the 1st of July, 2008 by the Minister of Earth Sciences. It was set up during India's second Arctic expedition in June 2008. It is located at a distance of 1,200 kilometers (750 mi) from the North Pole.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 46

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

For significantly improving our understanding of the role of banks in the economy, particularly during financial crises, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences for 2022 was awarded on October 10 to three American economists: Ben S Bernanke, Douglas W. Diamond and Philip H. Dybvi. The last of the Nobel Prize announcements for this year, the Economics Prize has gone to the three individuals for their role in research related to how banks function. Modern banking research clarifies why we have banks, how to make them less vulnerable in crises and how bank collapses exacerbate financial crises. The foundations of this research were laid by Ben Bernanke, Douglas Diamond and Philip Dybvig in the early 1980s. Their analyses have been of great practical importance in regulating financial markets and dealing with financial crises, said the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in its press release. It also noted, Later, when the pandemic hit in 2020, significant measures were taken to avoid a global financial crisis. The laureates' insights have played an important role in ensuring these latter crises did not develop into new depressions with devastating consequences for society.

[Source - The Indian Express, October 10, 2022]

Q. Who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the year 2022?

(a) Carolyn Bertozzi

(b) Morten Meldal

(c) Barry Sharpless

(d) Alain Aspect

(e) John Clauser

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 46 The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2022 was awarded jointly to Carolyn R. Bertozzi, Morten Meldal and K. Barry Sharpless, the latter winning the second Nobel of his career. The three were awarded for their work in 'click chemistry', in which molecules snap together fast and firmly, without the need for a long, complicated process and too many unwanted byproducts. Their work has applications in the field of medical science, including the treatment of cancer. Bertozzi is based at Stanford University in California, Sharpless at Scripps Research, California, and Meldal is at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 47

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

For significantly improving our understanding of the role of banks in the economy, particularly during financial crises, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences for 2022 was awarded on October 10 to three American economists: Ben S Bernanke, Douglas W. Diamond and Philip H. Dybvi. The last of the Nobel Prize announcements for this year, the Economics Prize has gone to the three individuals for their role in research related to how banks function. Modern banking research clarifies why we have banks, how to make them less vulnerable in crises and how bank collapses exacerbate financial crises. The foundations of this research were laid by Ben Bernanke, Douglas Diamond and Philip Dybvig in the early 1980s. Their analyses have been of great practical importance in regulating financial markets and dealing with financial crises, said the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in its press release. It also noted, Later, when the pandemic hit in 2020, significant measures were taken to avoid a global financial crisis. The laureates' insights have played an important role in ensuring these latter crises did not develop into new depressions with devastating consequences for society.

[Source - The Indian Express, October 10, 2022]

Q. Consider the following statements and mark the correct option.

Statement I: Nobel Prizes are awarded in six fields.

Statement II: Nobel Prizes were first awarded in 1901.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 47 Nobel Prizes are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel's will of 1895, are awarded to those who, during the preceding year, have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind. Nobel Prizes were first awarded in 1901.

Nobel Prizes are awarded in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 48

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

For significantly improving our understanding of the role of banks in the economy, particularly during financial crises, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences for 2022 was awarded on October 10 to three American economists: Ben S Bernanke, Douglas W. Diamond and Philip H. Dybvi. The last of the Nobel Prize announcements for this year, the Economics Prize has gone to the three individuals for their role in research related to how banks function. Modern banking research clarifies why we have banks, how to make them less vulnerable in crises and how bank collapses exacerbate financial crises. The foundations of this research were laid by Ben Bernanke, Douglas Diamond and Philip Dybvig in the early 1980s. Their analyses have been of great practical importance in regulating financial markets and dealing with financial crises, said the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in its press release. It also noted, Later, when the pandemic hit in 2020, significant measures were taken to avoid a global financial crisis. The laureates' insights have played an important role in ensuring these latter crises did not develop into new depressions with devastating consequences for society.

[Source - The Indian Express, October 10, 2022]

Q. Who is the only woman among the list of recipients of Indian Nobel laureates?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 48 The 1979 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Mother Teresa, an Albanian-born nun, dedicating her life to the destitutes of Calcutta. The Norwegian Nobel Committee announced its decision to award the coveted prize to the 69-year old nun after considering 56 candidates, among whom were President Jimmy Carter of the United States, President Urho Kekkonen of Finland and Polish Cardinal Stefan Wyszynsky.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 49

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

For significantly improving our understanding of the role of banks in the economy, particularly during financial crises, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences for 2022 was awarded on October 10 to three American economists: Ben S Bernanke, Douglas W. Diamond and Philip H. Dybvi. The last of the Nobel Prize announcements for this year, the Economics Prize has gone to the three individuals for their role in research related to how banks function. Modern banking research clarifies why we have banks, how to make them less vulnerable in crises and how bank collapses exacerbate financial crises. The foundations of this research were laid by Ben Bernanke, Douglas Diamond and Philip Dybvig in the early 1980s. Their analyses have been of great practical importance in regulating financial markets and dealing with financial crises, said the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in its press release. It also noted, Later, when the pandemic hit in 2020, significant measures were taken to avoid a global financial crisis. The laureates' insights have played an important role in ensuring these latter crises did not develop into new depressions with devastating consequences for society.

[Source - The Indian Express, October 10, 2022]

Q. Annie Ernaux won the Nobel Prize 2022 in __________ for the courage and clinical acuity with which she uncovers the roots, estrangements, and collective restraints of personal memory.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 49 The Nobel Prize in Literature for 2022 was awarded to the French author Annie Ernaux for the courage and clinical acuity with which she uncovers the roots, estrangements and collective restraints of personal memory at the Swedish Academy in Stockholm. The writer is known for works that blur the line between memoir and fiction. The French author believes in the liberating force of writing. Her work is uncompromising and written in plain language, scraped clean. With great courage and clinical acuity, Annie Ernaux reveals the agony of the experience of class, describing shame, humiliation, jealousy or inability to see who you are.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 50

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

For significantly improving our understanding of the role of banks in the economy, particularly during financial crises, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences for 2022 was awarded on October 10 to three American economists: Ben S Bernanke, Douglas W. Diamond and Philip H. Dybvi. The last of the Nobel Prize announcements for this year, the Economics Prize has gone to the three individuals for their role in research related to how banks function. Modern banking research clarifies why we have banks, how to make them less vulnerable in crises and how bank collapses exacerbate financial crises. The foundations of this research were laid by Ben Bernanke, Douglas Diamond and Philip Dybvig in the early 1980s. Their analyses have been of great practical importance in regulating financial markets and dealing with financial crises, said the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in its press release. It also noted, Later, when the pandemic hit in 2020, significant measures were taken to avoid a global financial crisis. The laureates' insights have played an important role in ensuring these latter crises did not develop into new depressions with devastating consequences for society.

[Source - The Indian Express, October 10, 2022]

Q. Who was the first Indian citizen to be awarded the Nobel Prize?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 50 Rabindranath Tagore was the first person of Indian origin and also the first Asian to be awarded with the Nobel Prize. He received the prize for Literature in 1913 for his collection 'Gitanjali' published in London in 1912.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 51

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA) has kickstarted a campaign under 'Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav'. The Pension Regulator will be observing October 1, 2021 as the National Pension System Diwas (NPS Diwas) to promote pension and retirement planning for a carefree 'azad' retirement. PFRDA is promoting this campaign on its social media platforms with #npsdiwas. The pension regulator aims to encourage every citizen (working professionals and self-employed professionals) to plan towards creating a financial cushion to ensure for oneself a financially sound future after retirement. NPS subscribers will enjoy the benefits, power of compounding now and reap many of the benefits after retirement. PFRDA Chairperson Shri Supratim Bandyopadhyay said: We are happy to announce October 1 as NPS Diwas, especially for pension and retirement planning. We are excited to be a part of the Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav of the Government. Through this campaign, we want to create awareness about pension planning among the public. As a regulatory body, our foremost aim is to cover all eligible citizens under a pension scheme to fulfill the vision of a pensioned society for India.

[Source - www.pib.gov.in, September 30, 2022]

Q. Name the national project that led to the establishment of PFRDA.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 51 The Government of India had, in the year 1999, commissioned a national project titled OASIS (an acronym for old age social and income security) to examine policy related to old age income security in India. Based on the recommendations of the OASIS report, the Government of India introduced a new Defined Contribution Pension System for the new entrants to Central/State Government service, except to Armed Forces, replacing the existing system of Defined Benefit Pension System. On 23 August, 2003, Interim Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA) was established through a resolution by the Government of India to promote, develop and regulate pension sector in India.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 52

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA) has kickstarted a campaign under 'Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav'. The Pension Regulator will be observing October 1, 2021 as the National Pension System Diwas (NPS Diwas) to promote pension and retirement planning for a carefree 'azad' retirement. PFRDA is promoting this campaign on its social media platforms with #npsdiwas. The pension regulator aims to encourage every citizen (working professionals and self-employed professionals) to plan towards creating a financial cushion to ensure for oneself a financially sound future after retirement. NPS subscribers will enjoy the benefits, power of compounding now and reap many of the benefits after retirement. PFRDA Chairperson Shri Supratim Bandyopadhyay said: We are happy to announce October 1 as NPS Diwas, especially for pension and retirement planning. We are excited to be a part of the Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav of the Government. Through this campaign, we want to create awareness about pension planning among the public. As a regulatory body, our foremost aim is to cover all eligible citizens under a pension scheme to fulfill the vision of a pensioned society for India.

[Source - www.pib.gov.in, September 30, 2022]

Q. The National Pension System (NPS) is a voluntary defined contribution pension system in India, opened up for all citizens of India between the age of

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 52 The NPS was started with the decision of the Government of India to stop defined benefit pensions for all its employees who joined after 1 April, 2004. While the scheme was initially designed for government employees only, it was opened up for all citizens of India between the age of 18 and 65 years in 2009, for OCI card holders and PIOs in October 2019. On 26 August, 2021, the PFRDA increased the entry age for the National Pension System (NPS) from 65 years to 70 years.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 53

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA) has kickstarted a campaign under 'Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav'. The Pension Regulator will be observing October 1, 2021 as the National Pension System Diwas (NPS Diwas) to promote pension and retirement planning for a carefree 'azad' retirement. PFRDA is promoting this campaign on its social media platforms with #npsdiwas. The pension regulator aims to encourage every citizen (working professionals and self-employed professionals) to plan towards creating a financial cushion to ensure for oneself a financially sound future after retirement. NPS subscribers will enjoy the benefits, power of compounding now and reap many of the benefits after retirement. PFRDA Chairperson Shri Supratim Bandyopadhyay said: We are happy to announce October 1 as NPS Diwas, especially for pension and retirement planning. We are excited to be a part of the Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav of the Government. Through this campaign, we want to create awareness about pension planning among the public. As a regulatory body, our foremost aim is to cover all eligible citizens under a pension scheme to fulfill the vision of a pensioned society for India.

[Source - www.pib.gov.in, September 30, 2022]

Q. Atal Pension Yojana (APY) is a government-backed pension scheme in India, primarily targeted at the unorganised sector. What is the range of monthly pension after the age of 60 years under APY?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 53 Under the APY scheme, a guaranteed minimum pension of Rs. 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000 and 5,000 per month will be given at the age of 60 years depending on the contributions made by the subscribers. The APY focuses on Indian citizens in the unorganised sector. Individuals between the age of 18 and 40 years are eligible to become the subscribers of this central government scheme.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 54

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA) has kickstarted a campaign under 'Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav'. The Pension Regulator will be observing October 1, 2021 as the National Pension System Diwas (NPS Diwas) to promote pension and retirement planning for a carefree 'azad' retirement. PFRDA is promoting this campaign on its social media platforms with #npsdiwas. The pension regulator aims to encourage every citizen (working professionals and self-employed professionals) to plan towards creating a financial cushion to ensure for oneself a financially sound future after retirement. NPS subscribers will enjoy the benefits, power of compounding now and reap many of the benefits after retirement. PFRDA Chairperson Shri Supratim Bandyopadhyay said: We are happy to announce October 1 as NPS Diwas, especially for pension and retirement planning. We are excited to be a part of the Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav of the Government. Through this campaign, we want to create awareness about pension planning among the public. As a regulatory body, our foremost aim is to cover all eligible citizens under a pension scheme to fulfill the vision of a pensioned society for India.

[Source - www.pib.gov.in, September 30, 2022]

Q. Consider the following statements and mark the correct option.

Statement I: President Pratibha Patil gave her assent to the Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority Bill to make it an Act.

Statement II: The Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority Act was passed in the year 2013.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 54 On 19 September, 2013, President Pranab Mukherjee gave his assent to the Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority Bill of 2013, which was passed in the Monsoon Session of Parliament on 4 September, 2013 in the Lok Sabha and 6 September, 2013 in the Rajya Sabha, to make it a Permanent Act. This improved, foolproof and re-approved Bill, with the acceptance of all political parties in India, replaced the old and imperfect IPRDA Bill of 2003.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 55

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA) has kickstarted a campaign under 'Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav'. The Pension Regulator will be observing October 1, 2021 as the National Pension System Diwas (NPS Diwas) to promote pension and retirement planning for a carefree 'azad' retirement. PFRDA is promoting this campaign on its social media platforms with #npsdiwas. The pension regulator aims to encourage every citizen (working professionals and self-employed professionals) to plan towards creating a financial cushion to ensure for oneself a financially sound future after retirement. NPS subscribers will enjoy the benefits, power of compounding now and reap many of the benefits after retirement. PFRDA Chairperson Shri Supratim Bandyopadhyay said: We are happy to announce October 1 as NPS Diwas, especially for pension and retirement planning. We are excited to be a part of the Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav of the Government. Through this campaign, we want to create awareness about pension planning among the public. As a regulatory body, our foremost aim is to cover all eligible citizens under a pension scheme to fulfill the vision of a pensioned society for India.

[Source - www.pib.gov.in, September 30, 2022]

Q. Which of the following launched a novel corporate NPS initiative called FuturRs on the occasion of the NPS Diwas in 2022?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 55 KFintech launched a novel corporate NPS initiative called FuturRs. The FuturRs aims to help corporate employees understand and enroll for the National Pension Scheme, while easing the pains of employers.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 56

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

President Droupadi Murmu on Tuesday launched 'herSTART', aimed at supporting women-led start-ups. The 'herSTART' platform will boost innovation and start-up efforts of women entrepreneurs and also help them connect with various government and private enterprises, according to a government release. The platform will include a digital platform to provide resources and training modules free of cost to aspiring women entrepreneurs, a digital community for them, and a digital publication to spread their success stories. The President, who is on a two-day visit to Gujarat starting Monday, virtually laid the foundation stone and dedicated 11 educational development projects worth Rs. 164 crore. The inclusive development model of Gujarat is becoming a guide for other states of the country today, she said and urged states to adopt each other's development model and work in the direction of building a developed nation. India has improved in the Global Innovation Index (GII) of 2022 as a result of the start-up program started across the country with the efforts of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, the President said in her address.

[Source - The Hindustan Times, October 4, 2022]

Q. 'herSTART' is an initiative of:

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 56 President Droupadi Murmu launched 'herSTART', an initiative of the Gujarat University Start-up and Entrepreneurship Council (GUSEC) aimed at supporting women-led start-ups. Gujarat University Start-up and Entrepreneurship Council (GUSEC) is one of India's leading start-up support systems, which has set an unprecedented benchmark by facilitating at zero-cost.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 57

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

President Droupadi Murmu on Tuesday launched 'herSTART', aimed at supporting women-led start-ups. The 'herSTART' platform will boost innovation and start-up efforts of women entrepreneurs and also help them connect with various government and private enterprises, according to a government release. The platform will include a digital platform to provide resources and training modules free of cost to aspiring women entrepreneurs, a digital community for them, and a digital publication to spread their success stories. The President, who is on a two-day visit to Gujarat starting Monday, virtually laid the foundation stone and dedicated 11 educational development projects worth Rs. 164 crore. The inclusive development model of Gujarat is becoming a guide for other states of the country today, she said and urged states to adopt each other's development model and work in the direction of building a developed nation. India has improved in the Global Innovation Index (GII) of 2022 as a result of the start-up program started across the country with the efforts of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, the President said in her address.

[Source - The Hindustan Times, October 4, 2022]

Q. 'National Start-up Day', as declared in 2022, is going to be celebrated every year on:

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 57 Prime Minister Narendra Modi has declared to mark 16th January as 'National Start-up Day'. The announcement was made by PM Modi on January 15, 2022, via video conferencing during a week-long event Celebrating Innovation Ecosystem as a part of Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav. The Prime Minister interacted with more than 150 start-ups across different sectors during the event.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 58

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

President Droupadi Murmu on Tuesday launched 'herSTART', aimed at supporting women-led start-ups. The 'herSTART' platform will boost innovation and start-up efforts of women entrepreneurs and also help them connect with various government and private enterprises, according to a government release. The platform will include a digital platform to provide resources and training modules free of cost to aspiring women entrepreneurs, a digital community for them, and a digital publication to spread their success stories. The President, who is on a two-day visit to Gujarat starting Monday, virtually laid the foundation stone and dedicated 11 educational development projects worth Rs. 164 crore. The inclusive development model of Gujarat is becoming a guide for other states of the country today, she said and urged states to adopt each other's development model and work in the direction of building a developed nation. India has improved in the Global Innovation Index (GII) of 2022 as a result of the start-up program started across the country with the efforts of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, the President said in her address.

[Source - The Hindustan Times, October 4, 2022]

Q. The Government has set up a National Start-up Advisory Council to advise the Centre on measures needed to build a strong ecosystem for nurturing innovation and start-ups in the country. Who is the chairman of the council?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 58 The Government has set up a National Start-up Advisory Council to advise the Centre on measures needed to build a strong ecosystem for nurturing innovation and start-ups in the country. Its chairman is the Minister for Commerce & Industry. Piyush Vedprakash Goyal is the Minister of Commerce and Industry as of 2022.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 59

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

President Droupadi Murmu on Tuesday launched 'herSTART', aimed at supporting women-led start-ups. The 'herSTART' platform will boost innovation and start-up efforts of women entrepreneurs and also help them connect with various government and private enterprises, according to a government release. The platform will include a digital platform to provide resources and training modules free of cost to aspiring women entrepreneurs, a digital community for them, and a digital publication to spread their success stories. The President, who is on a two-day visit to Gujarat starting Monday, virtually laid the foundation stone and dedicated 11 educational development projects worth Rs. 164 crore. The inclusive development model of Gujarat is becoming a guide for other states of the country today, she said and urged states to adopt each other's development model and work in the direction of building a developed nation. India has improved in the Global Innovation Index (GII) of 2022 as a result of the start-up program started across the country with the efforts of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, the President said in her address.

[Source - The Hindustan Times, October 4, 2022]

Q. What was India's rank in Global Innovation Index (GII) 2022?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 59 India, for the first time, made it to the top 40 countries at the Global Innovation Index (GII), led by improvement in information and communication technologies (ICT) services exports, venture capital recipients' value, and finance for start-ups. India's six-notch jump to the 40th spot in the 132-nation GII 2022 from 46th rank in 2021 made it to the top most innovative lower middle-income economy in the world, overtaking Vietnam.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 60

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

President Droupadi Murmu on Tuesday launched 'herSTART', aimed at supporting women-led start-ups. The 'herSTART' platform will boost innovation and start-up efforts of women entrepreneurs and also help them connect with various government and private enterprises, according to a government release. The platform will include a digital platform to provide resources and training modules free of cost to aspiring women entrepreneurs, a digital community for them, and a digital publication to spread their success stories. The President, who is on a two-day visit to Gujarat starting Monday, virtually laid the foundation stone and dedicated 11 educational development projects worth Rs. 164 crore. The inclusive development model of Gujarat is becoming a guide for other states of the country today, she said and urged states to adopt each other's development model and work in the direction of building a developed nation. India has improved in the Global Innovation Index (GII) of 2022 as a result of the start-up program started across the country with the efforts of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, the President said in her address.

[Source - The Hindustan Times, October 4, 2022]

Q. Which Ministry launched SAMRIDH program, a scheme to create a conducive platform for 'Indian Software Product' start-ups?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 60 The Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology (MeitY) has launched the 'Start-up Accelerators of MeitY for pRoduct Innovation, Development and growth (SAMRIDH)' programme. SAMRIDH will create a conducive platform for Indian software product start-ups to enhance their products and secure investments for scaling their businesses. The programme is being implemented by MeitY Start-up Hub (MSH).
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 61

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

India celebrated its Republic Day across the country on Wednesday with the annual parade held at Rajpath here showcasing the nation's cultural diversity and military might with a series of tableaux and cultural performances.

Sanitation workers, frontline workers, auto rickshaw drivers, construction workers and labourers who prepared the majestic tableaus were among special guests invited this year to the Republic Day parade.

This year's parade witnessed a half-hour delay to ensure better visibility. Only those who are fully vaccinated individuals were allowed in limited numbers due to the Covid-19 restrictions in place.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi paid homage to the armed personnel who lost their lives, at the National War Memorial, following which the celebrations kicked-off with the unfurling of the national flag and a 21-gun salute.

Several marching contingents showed their prowess with the fabled Rajput Regiment, led by Lieutenant Varun Pratap Singh of 17 Rajput Regiment, carrying weapon point 3 naught that was used during the 1947-48 Indo-Pakistan war.

[Source - The Hindu, Jan 26, 2022]

Q. What was the reason behind choosing January 26 as Republic Day?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 61 The Purna Swaraj declaration, or Declaration of the Independence of India, was promulgated by the Indian National Congress on 26 January, 1930, resolving the Congress and Indian nationalists to fight for Purna Swaraj, or complete self-rule independent of the British Empire. On this day, the Indian National Congress declared the independence of India which the British did not recognise.

January 26 was decided to be the Republic Day of India since it was the day that the Indian National Congress (INC) proclaimed the Declaration of Indian Independence in 1930.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 62

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

India celebrated its Republic Day across the country on Wednesday with the annual parade held at Rajpath here showcasing the nation's cultural diversity and military might with a series of tableaux and cultural performances.

Sanitation workers, frontline workers, auto rickshaw drivers, construction workers and labourers who prepared the majestic tableaus were among special guests invited this year to the Republic Day parade.

This year's parade witnessed a half-hour delay to ensure better visibility. Only those who are fully vaccinated individuals were allowed in limited numbers due to the Covid-19 restrictions in place.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi paid homage to the armed personnel who lost their lives, at the National War Memorial, following which the celebrations kicked-off with the unfurling of the national flag and a 21-gun salute.

Several marching contingents showed their prowess with the fabled Rajput Regiment, led by Lieutenant Varun Pratap Singh of 17 Rajput Regiment, carrying weapon point 3 naught that was used during the 1947-48 Indo-Pakistan war.

[Source - The Hindu, Jan 26, 2022]

Q. Choose the statement providing false information regarding the Republic Day of India.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 62 Republic Day is a public holiday in India, when the country marks and celebrates the date on which the Constitution of India came into effect on 26th January, 1950, replacing the Government of India Act 1935 as the governing document of India and thus, turning the nation into a newly formed republic.

The Constitution of India was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November, 1949 and came into force on 26th January, 1950.

Rajpath was not the event's organisational centre from 1950 to 1954 because Republic Day was organised at Irwin Stadium (now known as National Stadium), Kingsway, Red Fort and Ramleela Maidan, from 1950 to 1954. After that, Rajpath has been the permanent venue of Republic Day.

Rajendra Prasad (3 December, 1884 - 28 February, 1963) was an Indian independence activist, lawyer, scholar and subsequently, the first president of India, in office from 1950 to 1962. Two and a half years after independence, on 26 January, 1950, the Constitution of independent India was ratified and he was elected as the first President of India.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 63

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

India celebrated its Republic Day across the country on Wednesday with the annual parade held at Rajpath here showcasing the nation's cultural diversity and military might with a series of tableaux and cultural performances.

Sanitation workers, frontline workers, auto rickshaw drivers, construction workers and labourers who prepared the majestic tableaus were among special guests invited this year to the Republic Day parade.

This year's parade witnessed a half-hour delay to ensure better visibility. Only those who are fully vaccinated individuals were allowed in limited numbers due to the Covid-19 restrictions in place.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi paid homage to the armed personnel who lost their lives, at the National War Memorial, following which the celebrations kicked-off with the unfurling of the national flag and a 21-gun salute.

Several marching contingents showed their prowess with the fabled Rajput Regiment, led by Lieutenant Varun Pratap Singh of 17 Rajput Regiment, carrying weapon point 3 naught that was used during the 1947-48 Indo-Pakistan war.

[Source - The Hindu, Jan 26, 2022]

Q. The Amar Jawan Jyoti flame at India Gate was merged with the Eternal Flame at the National War Memorial in January 2022.

In which year was National War Memorial inaugurated?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 63 The National War Memorial in India is a national monument built to honour and remember soldiers of the Indian military who fought in armed conflicts of independent India. The names of armed forces personnel killed during the armed conflicts with Pakistan and China as well as the 1961 War in Goa, Operation Pawan, and other operations such as Operation Rakshak are inscribed on the memorial walls in golden letters.

The memorial was completed in January 2019 and unveiled on 25 February, 2019 in an inauguration ceremony held at the monument where Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi in the presence of Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) of India, and the three Chief of Staffs of the Indian Armed Forces, ignited the eternal flame of the Amar Jawan Jyoti (Flames of Eternal Soldiers) at the Amar Chakra under the main obelisk of the monument.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 64

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

India celebrated its Republic Day across the country on Wednesday with the annual parade held at Rajpath here showcasing the nation's cultural diversity and military might with a series of tableaux and cultural performances.

Sanitation workers, frontline workers, auto rickshaw drivers, construction workers and labourers who prepared the majestic tableaus were among special guests invited this year to the Republic Day parade.

This year's parade witnessed a half-hour delay to ensure better visibility. Only those who are fully vaccinated individuals were allowed in limited numbers due to the Covid-19 restrictions in place.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi paid homage to the armed personnel who lost their lives, at the National War Memorial, following which the celebrations kicked-off with the unfurling of the national flag and a 21-gun salute.

Several marching contingents showed their prowess with the fabled Rajput Regiment, led by Lieutenant Varun Pratap Singh of 17 Rajput Regiment, carrying weapon point 3 naught that was used during the 1947-48 Indo-Pakistan war.

[Source - The Hindu, Jan 26, 2022]

Q. The Republic Day 2022 parade witnessed the largest flypast of aircraft. How many aircraft were used in the flypast at the event?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 64 The Republic Day Parade 2022 at the Rajpath saw the "grandest and largest" flypast ever with the participation of 75 aircraft to mark the 'Azadi ka Amrut Mahotsav' celebrations. The flypast concluded with 17 Jaguar fighter aircraft flying in the 'Amrit' formation to commemorate the 75 years of Independence.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 65

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

India celebrated its Republic Day across the country on Wednesday with the annual parade held at Rajpath here showcasing the nation's cultural diversity and military might with a series of tableaux and cultural performances.

Sanitation workers, frontline workers, auto rickshaw drivers, construction workers and labourers who prepared the majestic tableaus were among special guests invited this year to the Republic Day parade.

This year's parade witnessed a half-hour delay to ensure better visibility. Only those who are fully vaccinated individuals were allowed in limited numbers due to the Covid-19 restrictions in place.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi paid homage to the armed personnel who lost their lives, at the National War Memorial, following which the celebrations kicked-off with the unfurling of the national flag and a 21-gun salute.

Several marching contingents showed their prowess with the fabled Rajput Regiment, led by Lieutenant Varun Pratap Singh of 17 Rajput Regiment, carrying weapon point 3 naught that was used during the 1947-48 Indo-Pakistan war.

[Source - The Hindu, Jan 26, 2022]

Q. Which dates were decided in January 2022 by the government as the starting and ending of Republic Day Celebrations?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 65 Republic Day Celebrations would now begin every year from January 23 instead of January 24. The change was made to include the birth anniversary of Subhash Chandra Bose, which the Modi government earlier started celebrating as Parakram Divas.

The Republic Day 2022 celebrations commenced from January 23 with PM Modi unveiling the hologram statue of Subhash Chandra Bose at India Gate in the national capital. The week long celebrations culminated on January 30 which is observed as Martyrs' Day.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 66

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Every day-to-day transaction that is conducted involves the usage of contracts, whether verbal or written. Contracts are an indispensable part of any individual's life and are utilised at every part.Contracts are essentially a bundle of rights and obligations that tend to bind one party with another in exchange for some consideration. The Indian Contract Act is one of the oldest mercantile laws of our country. It came into effect on the 1st of September 1872. It is the principal law regulating contracts in India. Indian Contract Act frames and validates the contracts or agreements between various parties. Contract Act is one of the central laws that regulate and oversee all the business wherever there is a case of a deal or an agreement.The following section will tell us what a contract is. To form an agreement, one party has to make the proposal and other has to accept it. It means that there must be two parties and no one can enter into an agreement with himself. A contract must involve a consideration and the parties must have the capacity to contract.

A person is said to be of sound mind for the purpose of making a contract, if, at the time when he makes it, he is capable of understanding it and of forming a rational judgment as to its effect upon his interests." A person who is usually of unsound mind, but occasionally of sound mind, may make a contract when he is of sound mind. A person who is usually of sound mind; but occasionally of unsound mind, may not make a contract when he is of unsound mind.

Consent is crucial for an agreement and thus for a valid contract. If two people reach a similar agreement in the same sense, they are said to consent to the promise. However, for a valid contract, we must have free consent which means that the two parties must have reached consent without either of them being influenced, coerced, misrepresented or tricked into it. In other words, we say that if the consent of either of the parties is vitiated knowingly or by mistake, the contract between the parties is no longer valid.

'Consent' defined. -Two or more persons are said to consent when they agree upon the same thing in the same sense. -Two or more persons are said to consent when they agree upon the same thing in the same sense."

Free consent' defined-Consent is said to be free when it is not caused by--Consent is said to be free when it is not caused by-"

(1) coercion

(2) undue influence

(3) fraud

(4) misrepresentation

(5) mistake.

Coercion means committing or threatening to commit, any act, or unlawful detention or threatening to detain, any property, with the intention of causing that person into the agreement.

Undue influence means Influence by which a person is induced to act otherwise than by his own free will or without adequate attention to the consequences thereafter. when one party is in a position to dominate the will of others and actually misuses the power, then it is a case of undue influence.Fraud means wrongful deception intended to result in that person to enter into a contract. Consent is said to be so vitiated when it would not have been given but for the existence of such coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake.

Misrepresentation" means and includes-

(1) the positive assertion, in a manner not warranted by the information of the person making it, of that which is not true, though he believes it to be true;

(2) any breach of duty which, without an intent to deceive, gains an advantage of the person committing it, or anyone claiming under him, by misleading another to his prejudice, or to the prejudice of anyone claiming under him;

(3) causing, however innocently, a party to an agreement, to make a mistake as to the substance of the thing which is the subject of the agreement.

A consent vitiated by mistake revolves around mistake of fact. This happens when both the parties misunderstood each other leaving them at a crossroads. Such a wrongful act or a mistake can be because of an error in understanding, or ignorance or omission etc. But a mistake is never intentional,it is an innocent commanding.

The main objective of this aspect of free consent is to be fair to both the parties and ensure that the judgment of either of the party was not clouded or influenced before entering into a contract. This doctrine helps in the promotion of individual autonomy and freedom to contract.

The entire structure of law of contract is based on the concept of consent, which is placed on the highest pedestal during any agreement. In order to validate the formation of a contract, the main ingredient would be the obtainment of genuine and free consent of the parties. Thus, the mere acquisition of consent is not enough but the consent must be obtained in a free and voluntary manner.

Q. Amar who is suffering from a terminal illness is aged about 85 years and has a few days left. Due to heavy dosage of medication which has affected his brain as a spill-over effect he suffers from mental insanity with intervals of sound mind. During one of these intervals, he entered into a contract with David, a renowned artist, to paint a picture of his within 10 days for a consideration of Rs. 10000 . After 10 days on the day of delivery of the painting, David delivered Amar his portrait but Amar refused to pay consideration for the contract saying that he suffers from insanity and that there is no valid contract between them. Can David force Amar to pay?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 66 According to question, this option is the appropriate answer,

A person is said to be of sound mind for the purpose of making a contract, if, at the time when he makes it, he is capable of understanding it and of forming a rational judgment as to its effect upon his interests.In this case Amar was mentally sound when the agreement was made.

Hence, the correct answer is Yes, because whenever a contract has been performed the other party is obliged to pay consideration.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 67

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Every day-to-day transaction that is conducted involves the usage of contracts, whether verbal or written. Contracts are an indispensable part of any individual's life and are utilised at every part.Contracts are essentially a bundle of rights and obligations that tend to bind one party with another in exchange for some consideration. The Indian Contract Act is one of the oldest mercantile laws of our country. It came into effect on the 1st of September 1872. It is the principal law regulating contracts in India. Indian Contract Act frames and validates the contracts or agreements between various parties. Contract Act is one of the central laws that regulate and oversee all the business wherever there is a case of a deal or an agreement.The following section will tell us what a contract is. To form an agreement, one party has to make the proposal and other has to accept it. It means that there must be two parties and no one can enter into an agreement with himself. A contract must involve a consideration and the parties must have the capacity to contract.

A person is said to be of sound mind for the purpose of making a contract, if, at the time when he makes it, he is capable of understanding it and of forming a rational judgment as to its effect upon his interests." A person who is usually of unsound mind, but occasionally of sound mind, may make a contract when he is of sound mind. A person who is usually of sound mind; but occasionally of unsound mind, may not make a contract when he is of unsound mind.

Consent is crucial for an agreement and thus for a valid contract. If two people reach a similar agreement in the same sense, they are said to consent to the promise. However, for a valid contract, we must have free consent which means that the two parties must have reached consent without either of them being influenced, coerced, misrepresented or tricked into it. In other words, we say that if the consent of either of the parties is vitiated knowingly or by mistake, the contract between the parties is no longer valid.

'Consent' defined. -Two or more persons are said to consent when they agree upon the same thing in the same sense. -Two or more persons are said to consent when they agree upon the same thing in the same sense."

Free consent' defined-Consent is said to be free when it is not caused by--Consent is said to be free when it is not caused by-"

(1) coercion

(2) undue influence

(3) fraud

(4) misrepresentation

(5) mistake.

Coercion means committing or threatening to commit, any act, or unlawful detention or threatening to detain, any property, with the intention of causing that person into the agreement.

Undue influence means Influence by which a person is induced to act otherwise than by his own free will or without adequate attention to the consequences thereafter. when one party is in a position to dominate the will of others and actually misuses the power, then it is a case of undue influence.Fraud means wrongful deception intended to result in that person to enter into a contract. Consent is said to be so vitiated when it would not have been given but for the existence of such coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake.

Misrepresentation" means and includes-

(1) the positive assertion, in a manner not warranted by the information of the person making it, of that which is not true, though he believes it to be true;

(2) any breach of duty which, without an intent to deceive, gains an advantage of the person committing it, or anyone claiming under him, by misleading another to his prejudice, or to the prejudice of anyone claiming under him;

(3) causing, however innocently, a party to an agreement, to make a mistake as to the substance of the thing which is the subject of the agreement.

A consent vitiated by mistake revolves around mistake of fact. This happens when both the parties misunderstood each other leaving them at a crossroads. Such a wrongful act or a mistake can be because of an error in understanding, or ignorance or omission etc. But a mistake is never intentional,it is an innocent commanding.

The main objective of this aspect of free consent is to be fair to both the parties and ensure that the judgment of either of the party was not clouded or influenced before entering into a contract. This doctrine helps in the promotion of individual autonomy and freedom to contract.

The entire structure of law of contract is based on the concept of consent, which is placed on the highest pedestal during any agreement. In order to validate the formation of a contract, the main ingredient would be the obtainment of genuine and free consent of the parties. Thus, the mere acquisition of consent is not enough but the consent must be obtained in a free and voluntary manner.

Q. Mr. Atwater was a dealer of dogs. He had several breeds of dogs which were put out for sale. There were two dogs named Alex- one dog was a German Shepherd and the other was a Golden Retriever. Abby wanted to buy Alex, the golden retriever. Abby: hi! I want to buy Alex.

Mr. Atwater: Ok sure. I will deliver it by tomorrow. Abby: Thank you.

Mr. Atwater sent the German Shepherd dog called Alex and by then the Golden retriever had died. Finding the misplaced dog Abby wanted to return the dog.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 67 According to Indian contract Act, A mistake of fact arises when one or both of the contracting parties have misunderstood a term that is essential to the meaning of the contract.

If the consent has been obtained or caused by coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake, then the aggrieved person has the right to void the agreement.

Hence, according to the above provisions Abby can revoke the contract as he was delivered wrong dog.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 68

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Every day-to-day transaction that is conducted involves the usage of contracts, whether verbal or written. Contracts are an indispensable part of any individual's life and are utilised at every part.Contracts are essentially a bundle of rights and obligations that tend to bind one party with another in exchange for some consideration. The Indian Contract Act is one of the oldest mercantile laws of our country. It came into effect on the 1st of September 1872. It is the principal law regulating contracts in India. Indian Contract Act frames and validates the contracts or agreements between various parties. Contract Act is one of the central laws that regulate and oversee all the business wherever there is a case of a deal or an agreement.The following section will tell us what a contract is. To form an agreement, one party has to make the proposal and other has to accept it. It means that there must be two parties and no one can enter into an agreement with himself. A contract must involve a consideration and the parties must have the capacity to contract.

A person is said to be of sound mind for the purpose of making a contract, if, at the time when he makes it, he is capable of understanding it and of forming a rational judgment as to its effect upon his interests." A person who is usually of unsound mind, but occasionally of sound mind, may make a contract when he is of sound mind. A person who is usually of sound mind; but occasionally of unsound mind, may not make a contract when he is of unsound mind.

Consent is crucial for an agreement and thus for a valid contract. If two people reach a similar agreement in the same sense, they are said to consent to the promise. However, for a valid contract, we must have free consent which means that the two parties must have reached consent without either of them being influenced, coerced, misrepresented or tricked into it. In other words, we say that if the consent of either of the parties is vitiated knowingly or by mistake, the contract between the parties is no longer valid.

'Consent' defined. -Two or more persons are said to consent when they agree upon the same thing in the same sense. -Two or more persons are said to consent when they agree upon the same thing in the same sense."

Free consent' defined-Consent is said to be free when it is not caused by--Consent is said to be free when it is not caused by-"

(1) coercion

(2) undue influence

(3) fraud

(4) misrepresentation

(5) mistake.

Coercion means committing or threatening to commit, any act, or unlawful detention or threatening to detain, any property, with the intention of causing that person into the agreement.

Undue influence means Influence by which a person is induced to act otherwise than by his own free will or without adequate attention to the consequences thereafter. when one party is in a position to dominate the will of others and actually misuses the power, then it is a case of undue influence.Fraud means wrongful deception intended to result in that person to enter into a contract. Consent is said to be so vitiated when it would not have been given but for the existence of such coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake.

Misrepresentation" means and includes-

(1) the positive assertion, in a manner not warranted by the information of the person making it, of that which is not true, though he believes it to be true;

(2) any breach of duty which, without an intent to deceive, gains an advantage of the person committing it, or anyone claiming under him, by misleading another to his prejudice, or to the prejudice of anyone claiming under him;

(3) causing, however innocently, a party to an agreement, to make a mistake as to the substance of the thing which is the subject of the agreement.

A consent vitiated by mistake revolves around mistake of fact. This happens when both the parties misunderstood each other leaving them at a crossroads. Such a wrongful act or a mistake can be because of an error in understanding, or ignorance or omission etc. But a mistake is never intentional,it is an innocent commanding.

The main objective of this aspect of free consent is to be fair to both the parties and ensure that the judgment of either of the party was not clouded or influenced before entering into a contract. This doctrine helps in the promotion of individual autonomy and freedom to contract.

The entire structure of law of contract is based on the concept of consent, which is placed on the highest pedestal during any agreement. In order to validate the formation of a contract, the main ingredient would be the obtainment of genuine and free consent of the parties. Thus, the mere acquisition of consent is not enough but the consent must be obtained in a free and voluntary manner.

Q. A valid contract is comprised of:

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 68 According to Indian Contract Act, 1872 An agreement between private parties creating mutual obligations enforceable by law is a valid contract.

The basic elements required for the agreement to be a legally enforceable contract are:

  • mutual assent

  • expressed by a valid offer and acceptance;

  • adequate consideration;

  • capacity; and

  • legality

Hence, the correct answer is option C.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 69

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Every day-to-day transaction that is conducted involves the usage of contracts, whether verbal or written. Contracts are an indispensable part of any individual's life and are utilised at every part.Contracts are essentially a bundle of rights and obligations that tend to bind one party with another in exchange for some consideration. The Indian Contract Act is one of the oldest mercantile laws of our country. It came into effect on the 1st of September 1872. It is the principal law regulating contracts in India. Indian Contract Act frames and validates the contracts or agreements between various parties. Contract Act is one of the central laws that regulate and oversee all the business wherever there is a case of a deal or an agreement.The following section will tell us what a contract is. To form an agreement, one party has to make the proposal and other has to accept it. It means that there must be two parties and no one can enter into an agreement with himself. A contract must involve a consideration and the parties must have the capacity to contract.

A person is said to be of sound mind for the purpose of making a contract, if, at the time when he makes it, he is capable of understanding it and of forming a rational judgment as to its effect upon his interests." A person who is usually of unsound mind, but occasionally of sound mind, may make a contract when he is of sound mind. A person who is usually of sound mind; but occasionally of unsound mind, may not make a contract when he is of unsound mind.

Consent is crucial for an agreement and thus for a valid contract. If two people reach a similar agreement in the same sense, they are said to consent to the promise. However, for a valid contract, we must have free consent which means that the two parties must have reached consent without either of them being influenced, coerced, misrepresented or tricked into it. In other words, we say that if the consent of either of the parties is vitiated knowingly or by mistake, the contract between the parties is no longer valid.

'Consent' defined. -Two or more persons are said to consent when they agree upon the same thing in the same sense. -Two or more persons are said to consent when they agree upon the same thing in the same sense."

Free consent' defined-Consent is said to be free when it is not caused by--Consent is said to be free when it is not caused by-"

(1) coercion

(2) undue influence

(3) fraud

(4) misrepresentation

(5) mistake.

Coercion means committing or threatening to commit, any act, or unlawful detention or threatening to detain, any property, with the intention of causing that person into the agreement.

Undue influence means Influence by which a person is induced to act otherwise than by his own free will or without adequate attention to the consequences thereafter. when one party is in a position to dominate the will of others and actually misuses the power, then it is a case of undue influence.Fraud means wrongful deception intended to result in that person to enter into a contract. Consent is said to be so vitiated when it would not have been given but for the existence of such coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake.

Misrepresentation" means and includes-

(1) the positive assertion, in a manner not warranted by the information of the person making it, of that which is not true, though he believes it to be true;

(2) any breach of duty which, without an intent to deceive, gains an advantage of the person committing it, or anyone claiming under him, by misleading another to his prejudice, or to the prejudice of anyone claiming under him;

(3) causing, however innocently, a party to an agreement, to make a mistake as to the substance of the thing which is the subject of the agreement.

A consent vitiated by mistake revolves around mistake of fact. This happens when both the parties misunderstood each other leaving them at a crossroads. Such a wrongful act or a mistake can be because of an error in understanding, or ignorance or omission etc. But a mistake is never intentional,it is an innocent commanding.

The main objective of this aspect of free consent is to be fair to both the parties and ensure that the judgment of either of the party was not clouded or influenced before entering into a contract. This doctrine helps in the promotion of individual autonomy and freedom to contract.

The entire structure of law of contract is based on the concept of consent, which is placed on the highest pedestal during any agreement. In order to validate the formation of a contract, the main ingredient would be the obtainment of genuine and free consent of the parties. Thus, the mere acquisition of consent is not enough but the consent must be obtained in a free and voluntary manner.

Q. Ram who was the head engineer for the construction of a bridge across river Dandi was threatened by the CEO of Armsteel Company that Ram must let the company to construct the bridge else the the CEO will divulge out the secrets of his corrupt practices previously.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 69 According to question, this option is the appropriate answer,

Fraud means wrongful deception intended to result in that person to enter into a contract. Consent is said to be so vitiated when it would not have been given but for the existence of such coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake.

In this case Ram was threatened by CEO.

Hence, the correct answer is the contract can be declared void as the consent was obtained by coercion.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 70

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Every day-to-day transaction that is conducted involves the usage of contracts, whether verbal or written. Contracts are an indispensable part of any individual's life and are utilised at every part.Contracts are essentially a bundle of rights and obligations that tend to bind one party with another in exchange for some consideration. The Indian Contract Act is one of the oldest mercantile laws of our country. It came into effect on the 1st of September 1872. It is the principal law regulating contracts in India. Indian Contract Act frames and validates the contracts or agreements between various parties. Contract Act is one of the central laws that regulate and oversee all the business wherever there is a case of a deal or an agreement.The following section will tell us what a contract is. To form an agreement, one party has to make the proposal and other has to accept it. It means that there must be two parties and no one can enter into an agreement with himself. A contract must involve a consideration and the parties must have the capacity to contract.

A person is said to be of sound mind for the purpose of making a contract, if, at the time when he makes it, he is capable of understanding it and of forming a rational judgment as to its effect upon his interests." A person who is usually of unsound mind, but occasionally of sound mind, may make a contract when he is of sound mind. A person who is usually of sound mind; but occasionally of unsound mind, may not make a contract when he is of unsound mind.

Consent is crucial for an agreement and thus for a valid contract. If two people reach a similar agreement in the same sense, they are said to consent to the promise. However, for a valid contract, we must have free consent which means that the two parties must have reached consent without either of them being influenced, coerced, misrepresented or tricked into it. In other words, we say that if the consent of either of the parties is vitiated knowingly or by mistake, the contract between the parties is no longer valid.

'Consent' defined. -Two or more persons are said to consent when they agree upon the same thing in the same sense. -Two or more persons are said to consent when they agree upon the same thing in the same sense."

Free consent' defined-Consent is said to be free when it is not caused by--Consent is said to be free when it is not caused by-"

(1) coercion

(2) undue influence

(3) fraud

(4) misrepresentation

(5) mistake.

Coercion means committing or threatening to commit, any act, or unlawful detention or threatening to detain, any property, with the intention of causing that person into the agreement.

Undue influence means Influence by which a person is induced to act otherwise than by his own free will or without adequate attention to the consequences thereafter. when one party is in a position to dominate the will of others and actually misuses the power, then it is a case of undue influence.Fraud means wrongful deception intended to result in that person to enter into a contract. Consent is said to be so vitiated when it would not have been given but for the existence of such coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake.

Misrepresentation" means and includes-

(1) the positive assertion, in a manner not warranted by the information of the person making it, of that which is not true, though he believes it to be true;

(2) any breach of duty which, without an intent to deceive, gains an advantage of the person committing it, or anyone claiming under him, by misleading another to his prejudice, or to the prejudice of anyone claiming under him;

(3) causing, however innocently, a party to an agreement, to make a mistake as to the substance of the thing which is the subject of the agreement.

A consent vitiated by mistake revolves around mistake of fact. This happens when both the parties misunderstood each other leaving them at a crossroads. Such a wrongful act or a mistake can be because of an error in understanding, or ignorance or omission etc. But a mistake is never intentional,it is an innocent commanding.

The main objective of this aspect of free consent is to be fair to both the parties and ensure that the judgment of either of the party was not clouded or influenced before entering into a contract. This doctrine helps in the promotion of individual autonomy and freedom to contract.

The entire structure of law of contract is based on the concept of consent, which is placed on the highest pedestal during any agreement. In order to validate the formation of a contract, the main ingredient would be the obtainment of genuine and free consent of the parties. Thus, the mere acquisition of consent is not enough but the consent must be obtained in a free and voluntary manner.

Q. Mr. James was the medical attendant of Adam who was completely bedridden and is completely dependent on him for the slightest of his physical requirements. The roof of Adam's house was leaking and required fixing. Mr. James hired his brother for construction work and demanded exceptionally high charges for the work.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 70 Consent is said to be free when it is not caused by-"

(1) coercion

(2) undue influence

(3) fraud

(4) misrepresentation

(5) mistake.

Undue influence is an equitable doctrine that involves one person taking advantage of a position of power over another person

Since in this case Adam was bedridden and James's brother was charging very high amount due to his condition.

Hence, it is undue influence.

Hence, the correct answer is the consent for the contract was given under undue influence.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 71

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Minor : A person is a minor who has not attained the age of majority. The age of majority is determined by the law to which he is subject. In India, the term 'minor' is understood as explained in section 3 of the Indian Majority Act, 1875 which reads as - A minor is a person who has not completed eighteen years of age. A person is deemed to have attained the age of 18 years at the first moment of time on his 18th birthday. Status of a contract entered into by a minor - Section 1010 of the Indian Contract Act provides that on agreement can become a contract when the parties to it are competent to contract. Minor is a person who is not competent to contract. An agreement entered into by a minor does not qualify to become a contract and hence is void ab initio. Doctrine of estoppel does not apply to minor. The doctrine of estoppel is that - when a person makes a false representation, and the other person believes it to be true and acts accordingly, later on the person who has made false representation is stopped from denying the truth of that presentation. The term tort may be defined as any wrong for which a civil suit can be brought A tort arises out of a contract and when the contract is not enforceable against the minor, he cannot be made liable for tort. Section 68 of the Indian contract Act, 1872 reads - If a person is incapable of entering into a contract or anyone whom he is legally bound to support, is supplied by another person with necessaries suited to his condition in life, the person who has furnished such supplies is entitled to be reimbursed from the property of such incapable person.

Q. M, a minor, executed a mortgage deed of his house in favour of a money lender Rs.20000. Out of this he received cash worth Rs. 8000 from the money lender later on the money lender filed a suit for recovery of his money and sale of the mortgaged property in case of default. Decide.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 71 This is the correct option for the given question. Minor is a person who is not competent to contract. An agreement entered into by a minor does not qualify to become a contract and hence is void ab initio.

Since, M is minor, Any contract by him is not valid and hence it is liable to pay

Therefore, the correct answer is M is liable to pay the money.

The concepts used in this question are

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 72

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Minor : A person is a minor who has not attained the age of majority. The age of majority is determined by the law to which he is subject. In India, the term 'minor' is understood as explained in section 3 of the Indian Majority Act, 1875 which reads as - A minor is a person who has not completed eighteen years of age. A person is deemed to have attained the age of 18 years at the first moment of time on his 18th birthday. Status of a contract entered into by a minor - Section 1010 of the Indian Contract Act provides that on agreement can become a contract when the parties to it are competent to contract. Minor is a person who is not competent to contract. An agreement entered into by a minor does not qualify to become a contract and hence is void ab initio. Doctrine of estoppel does not apply to minor. The doctrine of estoppel is that - when a person makes a false representation, and the other person believes it to be true and acts accordingly, later on the person who has made false representation is stopped from denying the truth of that presentation. The term tort may be defined as any wrong for which a civil suit can be brought A tort arises out of a contract and when the contract is not enforceable against the minor, he cannot be made liable for tort. Section 68 of the Indian contract Act, 1872 reads - If a person is incapable of entering into a contract or anyone whom he is legally bound to support, is supplied by another person with necessaries suited to his condition in life, the person who has furnished such supplies is entitled to be reimbursed from the property of such incapable person.

Q. A minor hired a horse for riding.He injured it by over riding. He was guilty of negligence in performing his part of contract. Decide.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 72 This is the correct option for the given question.

According to section 10 of the Indian Contract Act, contract entered into by a minor provides Minor is a person who is not competent to contract. An agreement entered into by a minor does not qualify to become a contract and hence is void ab initio.

A, a minor, made a contract is not valid. A cannot be made liable is tort. Hence, he is not liable to return the money.

Therefore, the correct answer is A cannot be made liable is tort.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 73

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Minor : A person is a minor who has not attained the age of majority. The age of majority is determined by the law to which he is subject. In India, the term 'minor' is understood as explained in section 3 of the Indian Majority Act, 1875 which reads as - A minor is a person who has not completed eighteen years of age. A person is deemed to have attained the age of 18 years at the first moment of time on his 18th birthday. Status of a contract entered into by a minor - Section 1010 of the Indian Contract Act provides that on agreement can become a contract when the parties to it are competent to contract. Minor is a person who is not competent to contract. An agreement entered into by a minor does not qualify to become a contract and hence is void ab initio. Doctrine of estoppel does not apply to minor. The doctrine of estoppel is that - when a person makes a false representation, and the other person believes it to be true and acts accordingly, later on the person who has made false representation is stopped from denying the truth of that presentation. The term tort may be defined as any wrong for which a civil suit can be brought A tort arises out of a contract and when the contract is not enforceable against the minor, he cannot be made liable for tort. Section 68 of the Indian contract Act, 1872 reads - If a person is incapable of entering into a contract or anyone whom he is legally bound to support, is supplied by another person with necessaries suited to his condition in life, the person who has furnished such supplies is entitled to be reimbursed from the property of such incapable person.

Q. Section 11 of the contract Act states grounds of competency for entering into contracts. The majority age for an agreement with minor parties is 18 years. The rule of estoppel under evidence law does not apply to minors in contracts. Which law allows minors to receive property but prohibits them from transferring it.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 73 This is the correct option for the given question.

Section 11 of the contract Act states grounds of competency for entering into contracts. The majority age for an agreement with minor parties is 18 years.

The rule of estoppel under evidence law does not apply to minors in contracts.This law allows minors to receive property but prohibits them from transferring it.

Therefore, the correct answer is transfer of property.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 74

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Minor : A person is a minor who has not attained the age of majority. The age of majority is determined by the law to which he is subject. In India, the term 'minor' is understood as explained in section 3 of the Indian Majority Act, 1875 which reads as - A minor is a person who has not completed eighteen years of age. A person is deemed to have attained the age of 18 years at the first moment of time on his 18th birthday. Status of a contract entered into by a minor - Section 1010 of the Indian Contract Act provides that on agreement can become a contract when the parties to it are competent to contract. Minor is a person who is not competent to contract. An agreement entered into by a minor does not qualify to become a contract and hence is void ab initio. Doctrine of estoppel does not apply to minor. The doctrine of estoppel is that - when a person makes a false representation, and the other person believes it to be true and acts accordingly, later on the person who has made false representation is stopped from denying the truth of that presentation. The term tort may be defined as any wrong for which a civil suit can be brought A tort arises out of a contract and when the contract is not enforceable against the minor, he cannot be made liable for tort. Section 68 of the Indian contract Act, 1872 reads - If a person is incapable of entering into a contract or anyone whom he is legally bound to support, is supplied by another person with necessaries suited to his condition in life, the person who has furnished such supplies is entitled to be reimbursed from the property of such incapable person.

Q. A, a minor borrowed Rs.50005000 from B by fraudulently representing himself to be a major. A refused to repay the money B sued A. Decide.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 74 This is the correct option for the given question.

According to section 10 of the Indian Contract Act, contract entered into by a minor provides Minor is a person who is not competent to contract. An agreement entered into by a minor does not qualify to become a contract and hence is void ab initio.

M, a minor, made a contract by Fraud. Hence, he is liable to return the money.

Therefore, the correct answer is (a) and (c).

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 75

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Minor : A person is a minor who has not attained the age of majority. The age of majority is determined by the law to which he is subject. In India, the term 'minor' is understood as explained in section 3 of the Indian Majority Act, 1875 which reads as - A minor is a person who has not completed eighteen years of age. A person is deemed to have attained the age of 18 years at the first moment of time on his 18th birthday. Status of a contract entered into by a minor - Section 1010 of the Indian Contract Act provides that on agreement can become a contract when the parties to it are competent to contract. Minor is a person who is not competent to contract. An agreement entered into by a minor does not qualify to become a contract and hence is void ab initio. Doctrine of estoppel does not apply to minors. The doctrine of estoppel is that - when a person makes a false representation, and the other person believes it to be true and acts accordingly, later on the person who has made false representation is stopped from denying the truth of that presentation. The term tort may be defined as any wrong for which a civil suit can be brought A tort arises out of a contract and when the contract is not enforceable against the minor, he cannot be made liable for tort. Section 68 of the Indian contract Act, 1872 reads - If a person is incapable of entering into a contract or anyone whom he is legally bound to support, is supplied by another person with necessaries suited to his condition in life, the person who has furnished such supplies is entitled to be reimbursed from the property of such incapable person.

Q. A, a minor was amply supplied with proper clothes according to his position. He bought a number of new dresses, including clever fancy-waist coats from B.Decide.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 75 This is the correct option for the given question.

A is a minor and he was supplied clothes according to his position. But he took more clothes which was not for his position. Since it was not in contract as A is minor. Any contract by minor is not valid.

Therefore, the correct answer is both (A) and (B).

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 76

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

During the course of a lecture, Supreme Court (SC) judge Justice Deepak Gupta, remarked that the time had come to reconsider the law of sedition. Highlighting a number of recent examples, he observed that the law of sedition "is more often abused and misused", and that "freedom of expression being a constitutional right must get primacy over the laws of sedition".

Justice Gupta's observations are a significant intervention in the ongoing debate about the utility of the sedition law in India of 20192019. As Justice Gupta correctly noted in his lecture, sedition is - of course - of colonial origin. The British regime enacted it in order to suppress political and cultural dissent, and many of the most famous figures of the freedom struggle - including Gandhi - were sent to jail on charges of sedition. The very text of the sedition law reflects its colonial provenance. In prohibiting "disaffection", "contempt" or "hatred" against the government, it effectively requires citizens to love their rulers - or, at least, to not make their dislike publicly known. It was for this reason that there was a fierce debate about sedition in the Constituent Assembly. Attempts to include it as a specific restriction upon the freedom of speech were defeated, and Jawaharlal Nehru himself went on to promise that the government would soon get rid of it. However, the government didn't, and in 19621962, the SC upheld the constitutional validity of sedition. The court held that penalising sedition was a reasonable restriction upon the freedom of speech - however, only if the words of the provision themselves were given a narrow meaning. In other words, it wasn't enough to just spread "disaffection" against the government, but to do so in a manner that incited violence or public disorder. In the five-and-a-half decades since that judgment, the SC has refined the test further, noting that the link between speech and public disorder must be like that of a "spark in a powder keg", and that it must constitute an incitement to "imminent" lawless action.

The problem, however, is that there remains a massive gap between the words of the sedition law — "disaffection", "contempt", and "hatred" - and the interpretation placed upon it by the Supreme Court - incitement to imminent lawless action. An ordinary person who simply looks at the text of the law is unlikely to divine that what it actually requires is incitement to public disorder. It is this gap that has allowed the law of sedition to be used as a political tool. As Justice Gupta also pointed out in his lecture, sedition is a cognizable offence, which means that the police can arrest an accused without the need for a judicial warrant. This allows for the deprivation of personal liberty with great ease; so while there are very few convictions for sedition, the provision's broad wording facilitates - to use an old cliche - "the process being the punishment".

Keeping this in mind, and the fact that we already have laws to penalise and punish people who call for and incite violence, Justice Gupta's call to relook at, and review, the sedition law must be heeded. The real bite of the sedition law is in its broad wording. Terms like "disaffection" and "contempt" can be stretched to mean just about anything, enabling, for instance, prosecuting 7,0007,000 farmers for protesting against a nuclear power plant (as happened a few years ago). But it is this precise broad wording - with its colonial rationale of insulating the government from the citizen - that is contrary to the Constitution, and the precise reason why the SC has given it a narrow (and almost unrecognisable) meaning. As events have shown, however, the gap between the law and its judicial interpretation has become so wide that there can be no interpretive bridge that will adequately protect liberty; this being the case, the Supreme Court will, hopefully, reconsider its 19621962 decision, and strike down the law of sedition as being unconstitutional. This will be the greatest tribute to Gandhi.

Q. What is the origin of the Law of Sedition?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 76 This is the correct option for the given question.

Sedition is of colonial origin. The British regime enacted it in order to suppress political and cultural dissent, and many of the most famous figures of the freedom struggle - including Gandhi - were sent to jail on charges of sedition. The very text of the sedition law reflects its colonial provenance. In prohibiting "disaffection", "contempt" or "hatred" against the government, it effectively requires citizens to love their rulers - or, at least, to not make their dislike publicly known. It was for this reason that there was a fierce debate about sedition in the Constituent Assembly.

Therefore, the correct answer is colonial.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 77

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

During the course of a lecture, Supreme Court (SC) judge Justice Deepak Gupta, remarked that the time had come to reconsider the law of sedition. Highlighting a number of recent examples, he observed that the law of sedition "is more often abused and misused", and that "freedom of expression being a constitutional right must get primacy over the laws of sedition".

Justice Gupta's observations are a significant intervention in the ongoing debate about the utility of the sedition law in India of 20192019. As Justice Gupta correctly noted in his lecture, sedition is - of course - of colonial origin. The British regime enacted it in order to suppress political and cultural dissent, and many of the most famous figures of the freedom struggle - including Gandhi - were sent to jail on charges of sedition. The very text of the sedition law reflects its colonial provenance. In prohibiting "disaffection", "contempt" or "hatred" against the government, it effectively requires citizens to love their rulers - or, at least, to not make their dislike publicly known. It was for this reason that there was a fierce debate about sedition in the Constituent Assembly. Attempts to include it as a specific restriction upon the freedom of speech were defeated, and Jawaharlal Nehru himself went on to promise that the government would soon get rid of it. However, the government didn't, and in 19621962, the SC upheld the constitutional validity of sedition. The court held that penalising sedition was a reasonable restriction upon the freedom of speech - however, only if the words of the provision themselves were given a narrow meaning. In other words, it wasn't enough to just spread "disaffection" against the government, but to do so in a manner that incited violence or public disorder. In the five-and-a-half decades since that judgment, the SC has refined the test further, noting that the link between speech and public disorder must be like that of a "spark in a powder keg", and that it must constitute an incitement to "imminent" lawless action.

The problem, however, is that there remains a massive gap between the words of the sedition law — "disaffection", "contempt", and "hatred" - and the interpretation placed upon it by the Supreme Court - incitement to imminent lawless action. An ordinary person who simply looks at the text of the law is unlikely to divine that what it actually requires is incitement to public disorder. It is this gap that has allowed the law of sedition to be used as a political tool. As Justice Gupta also pointed out in his lecture, sedition is a cognizable offence, which means that the police can arrest an accused without the need for a judicial warrant. This allows for the deprivation of personal liberty with great ease; so while there are very few convictions for sedition, the provision's broad wording facilitates - to use an old cliche - "the process being the punishment".

Keeping this in mind, and the fact that we already have laws to penalise and punish people who call for and incite violence, Justice Gupta's call to relook at, and review, the sedition law must be heeded. The real bite of the sedition law is in its broad wording. Terms like "disaffection" and "contempt" can be stretched to mean just about anything, enabling, for instance, prosecuting 7,0007,000 farmers for protesting against a nuclear power plant (as happened a few years ago). But it is this precise broad wording - with its colonial rationale of insulating the government from the citizen - that is contrary to the Constitution, and the precise reason why the SC has given it a narrow (and almost unrecognisable) meaning. As events have shown, however, the gap between the law and its judicial interpretation has become so wide that there can be no interpretive bridge that will adequately protect liberty; this being the case, the Supreme Court will, hopefully, reconsider its 19621962 decision, and strike down the law of sedition as being unconstitutional. This will be the greatest tribute to Gandhi.

Q. Which gap has allowed the law of sedition to be used as a political tool?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 77 This is the correct option for the given question.

The law of sedition to be used as a political tool.

This happens because there is massive gap between the words of the sedition law — "disaffection", "contempt", and "hatred" - and the interpretation placed upon it by the Supreme Court - incitement to imminent lawless action. It is this gap that has allowed the law of sedition to be used as a political tool. Sedition is a cognizable offence, which means that the police can arrest an accused without the need for a judicial warrant. This allows for the deprivation of personal liberty with great ease.

Therefore, the correct answer is gap between words "“disaffection", "contempt", and "hatred" and the interpretation by the Supreme Court

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 78

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

During the course of a lecture, Supreme Court (SC) judge Justice Deepak Gupta, remarked that the time had come to reconsider the law of sedition. Highlighting a number of recent examples, he observed that the law of sedition "is more often abused and misused", and that "freedom of expression being a constitutional right must get primacy over the laws of sedition".

Justice Gupta's observations are a significant intervention in the ongoing debate about the utility of the sedition law in India of 20192019. As Justice Gupta correctly noted in his lecture, sedition is - of course - of colonial origin. The British regime enacted it in order to suppress political and cultural dissent, and many of the most famous figures of the freedom struggle - including Gandhi - were sent to jail on charges of sedition. The very text of the sedition law reflects its colonial provenance. In prohibiting "disaffection", "contempt" or "hatred" against the government, it effectively requires citizens to love their rulers - or, at least, to not make their dislike publicly known. It was for this reason that there was a fierce debate about sedition in the Constituent Assembly. Attempts to include it as a specific restriction upon the freedom of speech were defeated, and Jawaharlal Nehru himself went on to promise that the government would soon get rid of it. However, the government didn't, and in 19621962, the SC upheld the constitutional validity of sedition. The court held that penalising sedition was a reasonable restriction upon the freedom of speech - however, only if the words of the provision themselves were given a narrow meaning. In other words, it wasn't enough to just spread "disaffection" against the government, but to do so in a manner that incited violence or public disorder. In the five-and-a-half decades since that judgment, the SC has refined the test further, noting that the link between speech and public disorder must be like that of a "spark in a powder keg", and that it must constitute an incitement to "imminent" lawless action.

The problem, however, is that there remains a massive gap between the words of the sedition law — "disaffection", "contempt", and "hatred" - and the interpretation placed upon it by the Supreme Court - incitement to imminent lawless action. An ordinary person who simply looks at the text of the law is unlikely to divine that what it actually requires is incitement to public disorder. It is this gap that has allowed the law of sedition to be used as a political tool. As Justice Gupta also pointed out in his lecture, sedition is a cognizable offence, which means that the police can arrest an accused without the need for a judicial warrant. This allows for the deprivation of personal liberty with great ease; so while there are very few convictions for sedition, the provision's broad wording facilitates - to use an old cliche - "the process being the punishment".

Keeping this in mind, and the fact that we already have laws to penalise and punish people who call for and incite violence, Justice Gupta's call to relook at, and review, the sedition law must be heeded. The real bite of the sedition law is in its broad wording. Terms like "disaffection" and "contempt" can be stretched to mean just about anything, enabling, for instance, prosecuting 7,0007,000 farmers for protesting against a nuclear power plant (as happened a few years ago). But it is this precise broad wording - with its colonial rationale of insulating the government from the citizen - that is contrary to the Constitution, and the precise reason why the SC has given it a narrow (and almost unrecognisable) meaning. As events have shown, however, the gap between the law and its judicial interpretation has become so wide that there can be no interpretive bridge that will adequately protect liberty; this being the case, the Supreme Court will, hopefully, reconsider its 19621962 decision, and strike down the law of sedition as being unconstitutional. This will be the greatest tribute to Gandhi.

Q. What does the author is not trying to conclude in the above passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 78 This is the correct option for the given question.

Sedition is of colonial origin. The British regime enacted it in order to suppress political and cultural dissent, and many of the most famous figures of the freedom struggle.

Since it is Prohibiting the liberty of citizens, Hence it shouldn’t have taken any reference.

Therefore, the correct answer is Free India shouldn't have taken any reference to any law from the colonial laws.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 79

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

During the course of a lecture, Supreme Court (SC) judge Justice Deepak Gupta, remarked that the time had come to reconsider the law of sedition. Highlighting a number of recent examples, he observed that the law of sedition "is more often abused and misused", and that "freedom of expression being a constitutional right must get primacy over the laws of sedition".

Justice Gupta's observations are a significant intervention in the ongoing debate about the utility of the sedition law in India of 20192019. As Justice Gupta correctly noted in his lecture, sedition is - of course - of colonial origin. The British regime enacted it in order to suppress political and cultural dissent, and many of the most famous figures of the freedom struggle - including Gandhi - were sent to jail on charges of sedition. The very text of the sedition law reflects its colonial provenance. In prohibiting "disaffection", "contempt" or "hatred" against the government, it effectively requires citizens to love their rulers - or, at least, to not make their dislike publicly known. It was for this reason that there was a fierce debate about sedition in the Constituent Assembly. Attempts to include it as a specific restriction upon the freedom of speech were defeated, and Jawaharlal Nehru himself went on to promise that the government would soon get rid of it. However, the government didn't, and in 19621962, the SC upheld the constitutional validity of sedition. The court held that penalising sedition was a reasonable restriction upon the freedom of speech - however, only if the words of the provision themselves were given a narrow meaning. In other words, it wasn't enough to just spread "disaffection" against the government, but to do so in a manner that incited violence or public disorder. In the five-and-a-half decades since that judgment, the SC has refined the test further, noting that the link between speech and public disorder must be like that of a "spark in a powder keg", and that it must constitute an incitement to "imminent" lawless action.

The problem, however, is that there remains a massive gap between the words of the sedition law — "disaffection", "contempt", and "hatred" - and the interpretation placed upon it by the Supreme Court - incitement to imminent lawless action. An ordinary person who simply looks at the text of the law is unlikely to divine that what it actually requires is incitement to public disorder. It is this gap that has allowed the law of sedition to be used as a political tool. As Justice Gupta also pointed out in his lecture, sedition is a cognizable offence, which means that the police can arrest an accused without the need for a judicial warrant. This allows for the deprivation of personal liberty with great ease; so while there are very few convictions for sedition, the provision's broad wording facilitates - to use an old cliche - "the process being the punishment".

Keeping this in mind, and the fact that we already have laws to penalise and punish people who call for and incite violence, Justice Gupta's call to relook at, and review, the sedition law must be heeded. The real bite of the sedition law is in its broad wording. Terms like "disaffection" and "contempt" can be stretched to mean just about anything, enabling, for instance, prosecuting 7,0007,000 farmers for protesting against a nuclear power plant (as happened a few years ago). But it is this precise broad wording - with its colonial rationale of insulating the government from the citizen - that is contrary to the Constitution, and the precise reason why the SC has given it a narrow (and almost unrecognisable) meaning. As events have shown, however, the gap between the law and its judicial interpretation has become so wide that there can be no interpretive bridge that will adequately protect liberty; this being the case, the Supreme Court will, hopefully, reconsider its 19621962 decision, and strike down the law of sedition as being unconstitutional. This will be the greatest tribute to Gandhi.

Q. What do you understand by the phrase 'spark in a powder keg'?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 79 The meaning of phrase "spark in a powder keg", is source of violence.

The court held that penalizing sedition was a reasonable restriction upon the freedom of speech - however, only if the words of the provision themselves were given a narrow meaning. In other words, it wasn't enough to just spread "disaffection" against the government, but to do so in a manner that incited violence or public disorder.

Therefore, the correct answer is source of violence.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 80

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

During the course of a lecture, Supreme Court (SC) judge Justice Deepak Gupta, remarked that the time had come to reconsider the law of sedition. Highlighting a number of recent examples, he observed that the law of sedition "is more often abused and misused", and that "freedom of expression being a constitutional right must get primacy over the laws of sedition".

Justice Gupta's observations are a significant intervention in the ongoing debate about the utility of the sedition law in India of 20192019. As Justice Gupta correctly noted in his lecture, sedition is - of course - of colonial origin. The British regime enacted it in order to suppress political and cultural dissent, and many of the most famous figures of the freedom struggle - including Gandhi - were sent to jail on charges of sedition. The very text of the sedition law reflects its colonial provenance. In prohibiting "disaffection", "contempt" or "hatred" against the government, it effectively requires citizens to love their rulers - or, at least, to not make their dislike publicly known. It was for this reason that there was a fierce debate about sedition in the Constituent Assembly. Attempts to include it as a specific restriction upon the freedom of speech were defeated, and Jawaharlal Nehru himself went on to promise that the government would soon get rid of it. However, the government didn't, and in 19621962, the SC upheld the constitutional validity of sedition. The court held that penalising sedition was a reasonable restriction upon the freedom of speech - however, only if the words of the provision themselves were given a narrow meaning. In other words, it wasn't enough to just spread "disaffection" against the government, but to do so in a manner that incited violence or public disorder. In the five-and-a-half decades since that judgment, the SC has refined the test further, noting that the link between speech and public disorder must be like that of a "spark in a powder keg", and that it must constitute an incitement to "imminent" lawless action.

The problem, however, is that there remains a massive gap between the words of the sedition law — "disaffection", "contempt", and "hatred" - and the interpretation placed upon it by the Supreme Court - incitement to imminent lawless action. An ordinary person who simply looks at the text of the law is unlikely to divine that what it actually requires is incitement to public disorder. It is this gap that has allowed the law of sedition to be used as a political tool. As Justice Gupta also pointed out in his lecture, sedition is a cognizable offence, which means that the police can arrest an accused without the need for a judicial warrant. This allows for the deprivation of personal liberty with great ease; so while there are very few convictions for sedition, the provision's broad wording facilitates - to use an old cliche - "the process being the punishment".

Keeping this in mind, and the fact that we already have laws to penalise and punish people who call for and incite violence, Justice Gupta's call to relook at, and review, the sedition law must be heeded. The real bite of the sedition law is in its broad wording. Terms like "disaffection" and "contempt" can be stretched to mean just about anything, enabling, for instance, prosecuting 7,0007,000 farmers for protesting against a nuclear power plant (as happened a few years ago). But it is this precise broad wording - with its colonial rationale of insulating the government from the citizen - that is contrary to the Constitution, and the precise reason why the SC has given it a narrow (and almost unrecognisable) meaning. As events have shown, however, the gap between the law and its judicial interpretation has become so wide that there can be no interpretive bridge that will adequately protect liberty; this being the case, the Supreme Court will, hopefully, reconsider its 19621962 decision, and strike down the law of sedition as being unconstitutional. This will be the greatest tribute to Gandhi.

Q. What is a cognizable offence?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 80 Cognizable offences are offences which are serious in nature. Example- Murder, Rape, Dowry Death, Kidnapping, Theft, Criminal Breach of Trust, Unnatural Offences.

Sedition is a cognizable offence, which means that the police can arrest an accused without the need for a judicial warrant. This allows for the deprivation of personal liberty with great ease; so, while there are very few convictions for sedition, the provision's broad wording facilitates - to use an old cliché - "the process being the punishment".

Therefore, the correct answer is Police officers can arrest without judicial warrant.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 81

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Entrapment is a defence to criminal charges on the basis that the defendant only committed the crime because of harassment or coercion by a government official. Without such coercion, the crime would never have been committed. Entrapment can be a difficult defence to assert because it requires the defendant to establish that the idea and impetus for the crime were introduced by government officials, and the defendant was not already willing or predisposed to commit the crime. It is also important to note that entrapment can only occur with a government official, such as an FBI official or a police officer, not a private individual. Additionally, since it is an affirmative defence, the criminal defendant has the burden of establishing that entrapment occurred.

Opportunity is not Entrapment

In order to find and eliminate criminal behaviour, law enforcement officers are allowed to engage in sting operations, whereby they create circumstances that allow individuals to take criminal actions that they can then be arrested and prosecuted for. These are considered "opportunities" for individuals believed to be involved in criminal behaviour to commit crimes. An opportunity is considered very different from entrapment and involves merely the temptation to violate the law, not being forced to do so.

Unlike creating an opportunity, entrapment occurs when law enforcement officers urge, harass, or otherwise overly encourage an individual to commit a crime when he or she would not otherwise do so. Entrapment may result from the use of threats, intimidation, extended fraud, or any other means where the defendant was essentially forced to commit a crime.

For example, law enforcement officers could set up a sting operation for a suspected criminal to commit a burglary. This might involve a law enforcement officer pretending to be a fellow criminal and alerting the defendant of a warehouse shipment that will be arriving shortly and will not be protected by security. If the defendant completes the burglary on the basis of this information, this is not entrapment. The officers have merely created an opportunity for the defendant to commit the crime, and their efforts to do so were entirely legal. If however, the undercover law enforcement officer threatens that the defendant needs to commit the burglary for him, or he will be punished, or shows up every day and harasses the defendant to commit the burglary even though the defendant does not appear interested, this could amount to entrapment. It goes beyond providing an opportunity and involves efforts by law enforcement to force the burglary to occur.

Analysing Entrapment

Assessing whether a criminal defendant was harassed or forced into committing a criminal act is a difficult task and involves a thorough evaluation of the circumstances. In some states, an objective standard is used to evaluate entrapment, meaning that the criminal defendant must show that the tactics used by government officials were such that any reasonable person would have been induced to commit a crime.

However, other states utilize a subjective standard for assessing entrapment.Under the subjective standard, the court or jury weighs the actions of the law enforcement officials against the criminal defendant's predisposition to commit a crime and considers which was the primary motivating factor for the criminal act. Thus, the burden is on the defendant to show that the actions of the government officials were so overbearing and extreme as to constitute the primary reason for the crime to occur, or that the defendant had no prior motivation or disposition to complete the crime. This is often a much harder standard to meet than the objective standard.

Q. John is charged under section 403 of IPC, dishonest misappropriation of property. He claims entrapment by the product manager of TATA Consultancy Ltd. He also presented enough evidence showing that the crime was introduced by the manager and he coerced him to commit crime. Can John claim the defence of entrapment?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 81 This is the correct option for the given question.

Entrapment is a defence to criminal charges on the basis that the defendant only committed the crime because of harassment or coercion by a government official. Without such coercion, the crime would never have been committed. It is also important to note that entrapment can only occur with a government official, such as an FBI official or a police officer, not a private individual.

Here it is not mentioned that John is a government employee or not.

Therefore, the correct answer is No, he cannot claim the defence of entrapment.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 82

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Entrapment is a defence to criminal charges on the basis that the defendant only committed the crime because of harassment or coercion by a government official. Without such coercion, the crime would never have been committed. Entrapment can be a difficult defence to assert because it requires the defendant to establish that the idea and impetus for the crime were introduced by government officials, and the defendant was not already willing or predisposed to commit the crime. It is also important to note that entrapment can only occur with a government official, such as an FBI official or a police officer, not a private individual. Additionally, since it is an affirmative defence, the criminal defendant has the burden of establishing that entrapment occurred.

Opportunity is not Entrapment

In order to find and eliminate criminal behaviour, law enforcement officers are allowed to engage in sting operations, whereby they create circumstances that allow individuals to take criminal actions that they can then be arrested and prosecuted for. These are considered "opportunities" for individuals believed to be involved in criminal behaviour to commit crimes. An opportunity is considered very different from entrapment and involves merely the temptation to violate the law, not being forced to do so.

Unlike creating an opportunity, entrapment occurs when law enforcement officers urge, harass, or otherwise overly encourage an individual to commit a crime when he or she would not otherwise do so. Entrapment may result from the use of threats, intimidation, extended fraud, or any other means where the defendant was essentially forced to commit a crime.

For example, law enforcement officers could set up a sting operation for a suspected criminal to commit a burglary. This might involve a law enforcement officer pretending to be a fellow criminal and alerting the defendant of a warehouse shipment that will be arriving shortly and will not be protected by security. If the defendant completes the burglary on the basis of this information, this is not entrapment. The officers have merely created an opportunity for the defendant to commit the crime, and their efforts to do so were entirely legal. If however, the undercover law enforcement officer threatens that the defendant needs to commit the burglary for him, or he will be punished, or shows up every day and harasses the defendant to commit the burglary even though the defendant does not appear interested, this could amount to entrapment. It goes beyond providing an opportunity and involves efforts by law enforcement to force the burglary to occur.

Analysing Entrapment

Assessing whether a criminal defendant was harassed or forced into committing a criminal act is a difficult task and involves a thorough evaluation of the circumstances. In some states, an objective standard is used to evaluate entrapment, meaning that the criminal defendant must show that the tactics used by government officials were such that any reasonable person would have been induced to commit a crime.

However, other states utilize a subjective standard for assessing entrapment.Under the subjective standard, the court or jury weighs the actions of the law enforcement officials against the criminal defendant's predisposition to commit a crime and considers which was the primary motivating factor for the criminal act. Thus, the burden is on the defendant to show that the actions of the government officials were so overbearing and extreme as to constitute the primary reason for the crime to occur, or that the defendant had no prior motivation or disposition to complete the crime. This is often a much harder standard to meet than the objective standard.

Q. The evidence put up by John to show that he was forced by the manager to commit the crime is such that it show that the tactics used by him were such that any reasonable person would have been induced to commit a crime. What type of standard will be used to assess whether there was any entrapment or not?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 82 This is the correct option for the given question.

Assessing whether a criminal defendant was harassed or forced into committing a criminal act is analyzed by using different standard methods.

As per condition given in the question, an objective standard is used to evaluate entrapment, meaning that the criminal defendant must show that the tactics used by government officials were such that any reasonable person would have been induced to commit a crime.

Therefore, the correct answer is Objective standard.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 83

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Entrapment is a defence to criminal charges on the basis that the defendant only committed the crime because of harassment or coercion by a government official. Without such coercion, the crime would never have been committed. Entrapment can be a difficult defence to assert because it requires the defendant to establish that the idea and impetus for the crime were introduced by government officials, and the defendant was not already willing or predisposed to commit the crime. It is also important to note that entrapment can only occur with a government official, such as an FBI official or a police officer, not a private individual. Additionally, since it is an affirmative defence, the criminal defendant has the burden of establishing that entrapment occurred.

Opportunity is not Entrapment

In order to find and eliminate criminal behaviour, law enforcement officers are allowed to engage in sting operations, whereby they create circumstances that allow individuals to take criminal actions that they can then be arrested and prosecuted for. These are considered "opportunities" for individuals believed to be involved in criminal behaviour to commit crimes. An opportunity is considered very different from entrapment and involves merely the temptation to violate the law, not being forced to do so.

Unlike creating an opportunity, entrapment occurs when law enforcement officers urge, harass, or otherwise overly encourage an individual to commit a crime when he or she would not otherwise do so. Entrapment may result from the use of threats, intimidation, extended fraud, or any other means where the defendant was essentially forced to commit a crime.

For example, law enforcement officers could set up a sting operation for a suspected criminal to commit a burglary. This might involve a law enforcement officer pretending to be a fellow criminal and alerting the defendant of a warehouse shipment that will be arriving shortly and will not be protected by security. If the defendant completes the burglary on the basis of this information, this is not entrapment. The officers have merely created an opportunity for the defendant to commit the crime, and their efforts to do so were entirely legal. If however, the undercover law enforcement officer threatens that the defendant needs to commit the burglary for him, or he will be punished, or shows up every day and harasses the defendant to commit the burglary even though the defendant does not appear interested, this could amount to entrapment. It goes beyond providing an opportunity and involves efforts by law enforcement to force the burglary to occur.

Analysing Entrapment

Assessing whether a criminal defendant was harassed or forced into committing a criminal act is a difficult task and involves a thorough evaluation of the circumstances. In some states, an objective standard is used to evaluate entrapment, meaning that the criminal defendant must show that the tactics used by government officials were such that any reasonable person would have been induced to commit a crime.

However, other states utilize a subjective standard for assessing entrapment.Under the subjective standard, the court or jury weighs the actions of the law enforcement officials against the criminal defendant's predisposition to commit a crime and considers which was the primary motivating factor for the criminal act. Thus, the burden is on the defendant to show that the actions of the government officials were so overbearing and extreme as to constitute the primary reason for the crime to occur, or that the defendant had no prior motivation or disposition to complete the crime. This is often a much harder standard to meet than the objective standard.

Q. Suppose in the facts given in question 2.1, John

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 83 This is the correct option for the given question.

As John is not government employee, entrapment doesn’t apply him. Also, law enforcement officers are allowed to engage in sting operations,which is known as opportunity which might be the case with him.

Therefore, the correct answer is no, he cannot claim the defense entrapment by a CBI officer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 84

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Entrapment is a defence to criminal charges on the basis that the defendant only committed the crime because of harassment or coercion by a government official. Without such coercion, the crime would never have been committed. Entrapment can be a difficult defence to assert because it requires the defendant to establish that the idea and impetus for the crime were introduced by government officials, and the defendant was not already willing or predisposed to commit the crime. It is also important to note that entrapment can only occur with a government official, such as an FBI official or a police officer, not a private individual. Additionally, since it is an affirmative defence, the criminal defendant has the burden of establishing that entrapment occurred.

Opportunity is not Entrapment

In order to find and eliminate criminal behaviour, law enforcement officers are allowed to engage in sting operations, whereby they create circumstances that allow individuals to take criminal actions that they can then be arrested and prosecuted for. These are considered "opportunities" for individuals believed to be involved in criminal behaviour to commit crimes. An opportunity is considered very different from entrapment and involves merely the temptation to violate the law, not being forced to do so.

Unlike creating an opportunity, entrapment occurs when law enforcement officers urge, harass, or otherwise overly encourage an individual to commit a crime when he or she would not otherwise do so. Entrapment may result from the use of threats, intimidation, extended fraud, or any other means where the defendant was essentially forced to commit a crime.

For example, law enforcement officers could set up a sting operation for a suspected criminal to commit a burglary. This might involve a law enforcement officer pretending to be a fellow criminal and alerting the defendant of a warehouse shipment that will be arriving shortly and will not be protected by security. If the defendant completes the burglary on the basis of this information, this is not entrapment. The officers have merely created an opportunity for the defendant to commit the crime, and their efforts to do so were entirely legal. If however, the undercover law enforcement officer threatens that the defendant needs to commit the burglary for him, or he will be punished, or shows up every day and harasses the defendant to commit the burglary even though the defendant does not appear interested, this could amount to entrapment. It goes beyond providing an opportunity and involves efforts by law enforcement to force the burglary to occur.

Analysing Entrapment

Assessing whether a criminal defendant was harassed or forced into committing a criminal act is a difficult task and involves a thorough evaluation of the circumstances. In some states, an objective standard is used to evaluate entrapment, meaning that the criminal defendant must show that the tactics used by government officials were such that any reasonable person would have been induced to commit a crime.

However, other states utilize a subjective standard for assessing entrapment.Under the subjective standard, the court or jury weighs the actions of the law enforcement officials against the criminal defendant's predisposition to commit a crime and considers which was the primary motivating factor for the criminal act. Thus, the burden is on the defendant to show that the actions of the government officials were so overbearing and extreme as to constitute the primary reason for the crime to occur, or that the defendant had no prior motivation or disposition to complete the crime. This is often a much harder standard to meet than the objective standard.

Q. What is the basic difference that differentiates opportunity from entrapment?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 84 This is the correct option for the given question.

The process to find and eliminate criminal behaviour, law enforcement officers are allowed to engage in sting operations, whereby they create circumstances that allow individuals to take criminal actions that they can then be arrested and prosecuted for. These are considered "opportunities" for individuals believed to be involved in criminal behaviour to commit crimes.

Thus, it is considered very different from entrapment and involves merely the temptation to violate the law, not being forced to do so.

Entrapment occurs when law enforcement officers urge, harass, or otherwise overly encourage an individual to commit a crime when he or she would not otherwise do so. Entrapment may result from the use of threats, intimidation, extended fraud, or any other means where the defendant was essentially forced to commit a crime.

Therefore, the correct answer is Opportunity involves the temptation to violate the law

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 85

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Entrapment is a defence to criminal charges on the basis that the defendant only committed the crime because of harassment or coercion by a government official. Without such coercion, the crime would never have been committed. Entrapment can be a difficult defence to assert because it requires the defendant to establish that the idea and impetus for the crime were introduced by government officials, and the defendant was not already willing or predisposed to commit the crime. It is also important to note that entrapment can only occur with a government official, such as an FBI official or a police officer, not a private individual. Additionally, since it is an affirmative defence, the criminal defendant has the burden of establishing that entrapment occurred.

Opportunity is not Entrapment

In order to find and eliminate criminal behaviour, law enforcement officers are allowed to engage in sting operations, whereby they create circumstances that allow individuals to take criminal actions that they can then be arrested and prosecuted for. These are considered "opportunities" for individuals believed to be involved in criminal behaviour to commit crimes. An opportunity is considered very different from entrapment and involves merely the temptation to violate the law, not being forced to do so.

Unlike creating an opportunity, entrapment occurs when law enforcement officers urge, harass, or otherwise overly encourage an individual to commit a crime when he or she would not otherwise do so. Entrapment may result from the use of threats, intimidation, extended fraud, or any other means where the defendant was essentially forced to commit a crime.

For example, law enforcement officers could set up a sting operation for a suspected criminal to commit a burglary. This might involve a law enforcement officer pretending to be a fellow criminal and alerting the defendant of a warehouse shipment that will be arriving shortly and will not be protected by security. If the defendant completes the burglary on the basis of this information, this is not entrapment. The officers have merely created an opportunity for the defendant to commit the crime, and their efforts to do so were entirely legal. If however, the undercover law enforcement officer threatens that the defendant needs to commit the burglary for him, or he will be punished, or shows up every day and harasses the defendant to commit the burglary even though the defendant does not appear interested, this could amount to entrapment. It goes beyond providing an opportunity and involves efforts by law enforcement to force the burglary to occur.

Analysing Entrapment

Assessing whether a criminal defendant was harassed or forced into committing a criminal act is a difficult task and involves a thorough evaluation of the circumstances. In some states, an objective standard is used to evaluate entrapment, meaning that the criminal defendant must show that the tactics used by government officials were such that any reasonable person would have been induced to commit a crime.

However, other states utilize a subjective standard for assessing entrapment.Under the subjective standard, the court or jury weighs the actions of the law enforcement officials against the criminal defendant's predisposition to commit a crime and considers which was the primary motivating factor for the criminal act. Thus, the burden is on the defendant to show that the actions of the government officials were so overbearing and extreme as to constitute the primary reason for the crime to occur, or that the defendant had no prior motivation or disposition to complete the crime. This is often a much harder standard to meet than the objective standard.

Q. What is the basic requirement in the subjective standard to assess entrapment?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 85 This is the correct option for the given question.

The basic requirement to find out whether entrapment was intentional or not is to prove that the court or jury weighs the actions of the law enforcement officials against the criminal defendant's predisposition to commit a crime and considers which was the primary motivating factor for the criminal act. Thus, the burden is on the defendant to show that the actions of the government officials were so overbearing and extreme as to constitute the primary reason for the crime to occur, or that the defendant had no prior motivation or disposition to complete the crime.

Therefore, the correct answer is the defendant has to show he had no motivation to complete the crime.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 86

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Negligence is the breach of a duty exercised by omission to do something which a reasonable man, guided by those considerations which ordinarily regulate the conduct of human affairs, would do, or doing something which a prudent and reasonable man would not do is essential ingredient of the offence. The negligence to be established by the prosecution must be culpable or gross and not the negligence merely based upon an error of judgment.

The medical professional is expected to bring a reasonable degree of skill and knowledge and must exercise a reasonable degree of care.Neither the very highest nor a very low degree of care and competence judged in the light of the particular circumstances of each case is what the law requires.

A medical practitioner would be liable only where his conduct fell below that of the standards of a reasonably competent practitioner in his field.

In the realm of diagnosis and treatment there is scope for genuine difference of opinion and one professional doctor is clearly not negligent merely because his conclusion differs from that of other professional doctor.

The medical professional is often called upon to adopt a procedure which involves higher element of risk, but which he honestly believes as providing greater chances of success for the patient rather than a procedure involving lesser risk but higher chances of failure.Just because a professional looking to the gravity of illness has taken higher element of risk to redeem the patient out of his/her suffering which did not yield the desired result may not amount to negligence.

Negligence cannot be attributed to a doctor so long as he performs his duties with reasonable skill and competence. Merely because the doctor chooses one course of action in preference to the other one available, he would not be liable if the course of action chosen by him was acceptable to the medical profession.

It would not be conducive to the efficiency of the medical profession if no Doctor could administer medicine without a halter round his neck.

It is our bounden duty and obligation of the civil society to ensure that the medical professionals are not unnecessarily harassed or humiliated so that they can perform their professional duties without fear and apprehension.

The medical practitioners at times also have to be saved from such a class of complainants who use criminal process as a tool for pressurizing the medical professionals/hospitals particularly private hospitals or clinics for extracting uncalled for compensation. Such malicious proceedings deserve to be discarded against the medical practitioners.

The medical professionals are entitled to get protection so long as they perform their duties with reasonable skill and competence and in the interest of the patients. The interest and welfare of the patients have to be paramount for the medical professionals.

Q. Anisha was suffering from pain due to appendicitis and required her a surgery that involved cutting her stomach open as per the advice of her doctor, Dr C. Though the operation was successful, after a few weeks, she started suffering from an infection which was a result of her stomach being cut open for the surgery though all the reasonable precautions to avoid any such infection had been taken by the group of surgeons who operated upon her. She visited another doctor, Dr K, after the development of this infection, and he told her that even a laser surgery could have cured her stomach ailment without exposing her to the risk of infection. However, as a matter of fact, there were many doctors in the country who supported the advice given by Dr C to cure her health condition, and there were many others who were of the same opinion as that of Dr K. Nevertheless, Anisha sued Dr C. Decide.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 86 This is the correct option for the given question.

The medical professional is expected to bring a reasonable degree of skill and knowledge and must exercise a reasonable degree of care. The competence is judged in the light of the particular circumstances of each case is what the law requires. A medical practitioner would be liable only where his conduct fell below that of the standards of a reasonably competent practitioner in his field. In the realm of diagnosis and treatment there is scope for genuine difference of opinion and one professional doctor is clearly not negligent merely because his conclusion differs from that of other professional doctor.

Negligence cannot be attributed to a doctor so long as he performs his duties with reasonable skill and competence. Anisha was suffering from pain due to appendicitis and required her a surgery that involved cutting her stomach open as per the advice of her doctor, Dr C.

Since, Dr K, have a different opinion of Dr K. Thus which can happen in medical profession depending upon their experience.

Therefore, the correct answer is Dr C will win because he had followed an accepted and established medical procedure taking reasonable precautions.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 87

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Negligence is the breach of a duty exercised by omission to do something which a reasonable man, guided by those considerations which ordinarily regulate the conduct of human affairs, would do, or doing something which a prudent and reasonable man would not do is essential ingredient of the offence. The negligence to be established by the prosecution must be culpable or gross and not the negligence merely based upon an error of judgment.

The medical professional is expected to bring a reasonable degree of skill and knowledge and must exercise a reasonable degree of care.Neither the very highest nor a very low degree of care and competence judged in the light of the particular circumstances of each case is what the law requires.

A medical practitioner would be liable only where his conduct fell below that of the standards of a reasonably competent practitioner in his field.

In the realm of diagnosis and treatment there is scope for genuine difference of opinion and one professional doctor is clearly not negligent merely because his conclusion differs from that of other professional doctor.

The medical professional is often called upon to adopt a procedure which involves higher element of risk, but which he honestly believes as providing greater chances of success for the patient rather than a procedure involving lesser risk but higher chances of failure.Just because a professional looking to the gravity of illness has taken higher element of risk to redeem the patient out of his/her suffering which did not yield the desired result may not amount to negligence.

Negligence cannot be attributed to a doctor so long as he performs his duties with reasonable skill and competence. Merely because the doctor chooses one course of action in preference to the other one available, he would not be liable if the course of action chosen by him was acceptable to the medical profession.

It would not be conducive to the efficiency of the medical profession if no Doctor could administer medicine without a halter round his neck.

It is our bounden duty and obligation of the civil society to ensure that the medical professionals are not unnecessarily harassed or humiliated so that they can perform their professional duties without fear and apprehension.

The medical practitioners at times also have to be saved from such a class of complainants who use criminal process as a tool for pressurizing the medical professionals/hospitals particularly private hospitals or clinics for extracting uncalled for compensation. Such malicious proceedings deserve to be discarded against the medical practitioners.

The medical professionals are entitled to get protection so long as they perform their duties with reasonable skill and competence and in the interest of the patients. The interest and welfare of the patients have to be paramount for the medical professionals.

Q. Amit was prescribed a medicine which caused allergy in his body. When asked about his medical history Amit did not mention the drugs he was allergic to. Amit sued the hospital and asked for compensation due to the problems he had to suffer.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 87 This is the correct option for the given question.

Amit was asked about any problems and allergies in the body before prescription. He didn’t mention his allergy which he should have mentioned.

Therefore, the correct answer is Amit cannot sue the hospital as he has a culpable mind to extract money from the hospital using the criminal offense clause as a tool.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 88

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Negligence is the breach of a duty exercised by omission to do something which a reasonable man, guided by those considerations which ordinarily regulate the conduct of human affairs, would do, or doing something which a prudent and reasonable man would not do is essential ingredient of the offence. The negligence to be established by the prosecution must be culpable or gross and not the negligence merely based upon an error of judgment.

The medical professional is expected to bring a reasonable degree of skill and knowledge and must exercise a reasonable degree of care.Neither the very highest nor a very low degree of care and competence judged in the light of the particular circumstances of each case is what the law requires.

A medical practitioner would be liable only where his conduct fell below that of the standards of a reasonably competent practitioner in his field.

In the realm of diagnosis and treatment there is scope for genuine difference of opinion and one professional doctor is clearly not negligent merely because his conclusion differs from that of other professional doctor.

The medical professional is often called upon to adopt a procedure which involves higher element of risk, but which he honestly believes as providing greater chances of success for the patient rather than a procedure involving lesser risk but higher chances of failure.Just because a professional looking to the gravity of illness has taken higher element of risk to redeem the patient out of his/her suffering which did not yield the desired result may not amount to negligence.

Negligence cannot be attributed to a doctor so long as he performs his duties with reasonable skill and competence. Merely because the doctor chooses one course of action in preference to the other one available, he would not be liable if the course of action chosen by him was acceptable to the medical profession.

It would not be conducive to the efficiency of the medical profession if no Doctor could administer medicine without a halter round his neck.

It is our bounden duty and obligation of the civil society to ensure that the medical professionals are not unnecessarily harassed or humiliated so that they can perform their professional duties without fear and apprehension.

The medical practitioners at times also have to be saved from such a class of complainants who use criminal process as a tool for pressurizing the medical professionals/hospitals particularly private hospitals or clinics for extracting uncalled for compensation. Such malicious proceedings deserve to be discarded against the medical practitioners.

The medical professionals are entitled to get protection so long as they perform their duties with reasonable skill and competence and in the interest of the patients. The interest and welfare of the patients have to be paramount for the medical professionals.

Q. Which of the following is not a required element in establishing or negligence action?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 88 This is the correct option for the given question.

Doctors are not God. If they are performing their duties honestly negligence cannot be attributed to a doctor so long as he performs his duties with reasonable skill and competence.

Therefore, the correct answer is Malicious intent on the part of the defendant.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 89

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Negligence is the breach of a duty exercised by omission to do something which a reasonable man, guided by those considerations which ordinarily regulate the conduct of human affairs, would do, or doing something which a prudent and reasonable man would not do is essential ingredient of the offence. The negligence to be established by the prosecution must be culpable or gross and not the negligence merely based upon an error of judgment.

The medical professional is expected to bring a reasonable degree of skill and knowledge and must exercise a reasonable degree of care.Neither the very highest nor a very low degree of care and competence judged in the light of the particular circumstances of each case is what the law requires.

A medical practitioner would be liable only where his conduct fell below that of the standards of a reasonably competent practitioner in his field.

In the realm of diagnosis and treatment there is scope for genuine difference of opinion and one professional doctor is clearly not negligent merely because his conclusion differs from that of other professional doctor.

The medical professional is often called upon to adopt a procedure which involves higher element of risk, but which he honestly believes as providing greater chances of success for the patient rather than a procedure involving lesser risk but higher chances of failure.Just because a professional looking to the gravity of illness has taken higher element of risk to redeem the patient out of his/her suffering which did not yield the desired result may not amount to negligence.

Negligence cannot be attributed to a doctor so long as he performs his duties with reasonable skill and competence. Merely because the doctor chooses one course of action in preference to the other one available, he would not be liable if the course of action chosen by him was acceptable to the medical profession.

It would not be conducive to the efficiency of the medical profession if no Doctor could administer medicine without a halter round his neck.

It is our bounden duty and obligation of the civil society to ensure that the medical professionals are not unnecessarily harassed or humiliated so that they can perform their professional duties without fear and apprehension.

The medical practitioners at times also have to be saved from such a class of complainants who use criminal process as a tool for pressurizing the medical professionals/hospitals particularly private hospitals or clinics for extracting uncalled for compensation. Such malicious proceedings deserve to be discarded against the medical practitioners.

The medical professionals are entitled to get protection so long as they perform their duties with reasonable skill and competence and in the interest of the patients. The interest and welfare of the patients have to be paramount for the medical professionals.

Q. Dr. X operated on a person Z on whom he held grudge as due to Z Dr, X's father had committed suicide. Z was unaware of this and came to know it after the operation. The operation was declared successful but a few days later in the symptoms of previous disease again returned which proved to be fatal. Decide.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 89 This is the correct option for the given question.

The medical professionals are entitled to get protection so long as they perform their duties with reasonable skill and competence and in the interest of the patients. The interest and welfare of the patients have to be paramount for the medical professionals. Since operation was successful and negligence cannot be attributed to a doctor so long as he performs his duties with reasonable skill and competence.

In this case also he was well but developed infection later which is after effects of operations.

Therefore, the correct answer is Dr. X cannot be held liable as he was competent enough to perform the operation.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 90

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Negligence is the breach of a duty exercised by omission to do something which a reasonable man, guided by those considerations which ordinarily regulate the conduct of human affairs, would do, or doing something which a prudent and reasonable man would not do is essential ingredient of the offence. The negligence to be established by the prosecution must be culpable or gross and not the negligence merely based upon an error of judgment.

The medical professional is expected to bring a reasonable degree of skill and knowledge and must exercise a reasonable degree of care.Neither the very highest nor a very low degree of care and competence judged in the light of the particular circumstances of each case is what the law requires.

A medical practitioner would be liable only where his conduct fell below that of the standards of a reasonably competent practitioner in his field.

In the realm of diagnosis and treatment there is scope for genuine difference of opinion and one professional doctor is clearly not negligent merely because his conclusion differs from that of other professional doctor.

The medical professional is often called upon to adopt a procedure which involves higher element of risk, but which he honestly believes as providing greater chances of success for the patient rather than a procedure involving lesser risk but higher chances of failure.Just because a professional looking to the gravity of illness has taken higher element of risk to redeem the patient out of his/her suffering which did not yield the desired result may not amount to negligence.

Negligence cannot be attributed to a doctor so long as he performs his duties with reasonable skill and competence. Merely because the doctor chooses one course of action in preference to the other one available, he would not be liable if the course of action chosen by him was acceptable to the medical profession.

It would not be conducive to the efficiency of the medical profession if no Doctor could administer medicine without a halter round his neck.

It is our bounden duty and obligation of the civil society to ensure that the medical professionals are not unnecessarily harassed or humiliated so that they can perform their professional duties without fear and apprehension.

The medical practitioners at times also have to be saved from such a class of complainants who use criminal process as a tool for pressurizing the medical professionals/hospitals particularly private hospitals or clinics for extracting uncalled for compensation. Such malicious proceedings deserve to be discarded against the medical practitioners.

The medical professionals are entitled to get protection so long as they perform their duties with reasonable skill and competence and in the interest of the patients. The interest and welfare of the patients have to be paramount for the medical professionals.

Q. Smriti had undergone an operation in the stomach. Though the operation was successful she could feel a swelling and puss in her stomach. When an X-Ray was done it was found that a scissor was left in her stomach.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 90 This is the correct option for the given question.

The operation was successful but when the X-Ray was done it was found that a scissor was left in her stomach. It means negligence on the part of doctor.

Therefore, the correct answer is Smriti can sue the doctor as he negligently left the scissor in the stomach.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 91

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The National Green Tribunal's order on Friday in the Visakhapatnam gas tragedy found LG Polymers prima facie liable under the 19th century English law principle of "strict liability", which was made redundant in India by the Supreme Court in 1986. Lawyers say the term "absolute liability" should have been used instead.

Even though the NGT directed the company to deposit an initial amount of ₹50 crore and formed a fact-finding committee, its use of the term "strict liability" has been questioned. For, under the "strict liability principle", a party is not liable and need not pay compensation if a hazardous substance escapes his premises by accident or by an "act of God" among other circumstances.

The Supreme Court, while deciding the Oleum gas leak case of Delhi, found strict liability woefully inadequate to protect citizens' rights in an industrialised economy like India and replaced it with the 'absolute liability principle'.

The country was then reeling under the shock of the 1984 Bhopal gas tragedy. The court under then Chief Justice PN Bhagwati wanted corporations to be made fully liable for future "undeserved suffering of thousands of innocent citizens".

So, under the absolute liability principle, the apex court held that a company in a hazardous industry cannot claim any exemption. It has to mandatorily pay compensation, whether or not the disaster was caused by its negligence. The court said a hazardous enterprise has an "absolute non-delegable duty to the community".

"If any harm results on account of such activity, the enterprise must be absolutely liable to compensate for such harm irrespective of the fact that the enterprise had taken all reasonable care and that the harm occurred without any negligence on its part," Justice Bhagwati wrote.

"The court found that strict liability, evolved in an 1868 English case called Rylands versus Fletcher, provided companies with several exemptions from assuming liability. Absolute liability, on the other hand, provided them with no defence or exemptions. The principle of absolute liability is part of Article 21 (right to life)... The courts, to make the legal position clear, should use the term 'absolute liability' in orders and judgments," said senior advocate Sanjay Parikh.

The National Green Tribunal Act of 2010 has wholeheartedly adopted 'absolute liability'. Section 17 mandates that the Tribunal should apply the 'no-fault principle' even if the disaster caused is an accident.

"The NGT statute recognizes only absolute or no-fault liability. That is, a hazardous enterprise is liable even if the disaster is an accident and not caused by the negligence of the company. The Act of 2010 fully incorporated the principle of 1986 Oleum gas leak judgment," said environmental lawyer Ritwick Dutta.

Q. Why was the principle of 'Strict liability' was made redundant in India?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 91 This is the correct option for the given question.

The NGT statute recognizes only absolute or no-fault liability. That is, a hazardous enterprise is liable even if the disaster is an accident and not caused by the negligence of the company.

Strict liability provided an escape to the companies. Strict liability did not include the no-fault principle. It gives the liable party exemption of 'Accident' or 'Act of God'.

In above cases affected individuals are not provided with any compensation.

Therefore, the correct answer is All of the above.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 92

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The National Green Tribunal's order on Friday in the Visakhapatnam gas tragedy found LG Polymers prima facie liable under the 19th century English law principle of "strict liability", which was made redundant in India by the Supreme Court in 1986. Lawyers say the term "absolute liability" should have been used instead.

Even though the NGT directed the company to deposit an initial amount of ₹50 crore and formed a fact-finding committee, its use of the term "strict liability" has been questioned. For, under the "strict liability principle", a party is not liable and need not pay compensation if a hazardous substance escapes his premises by accident or by an "act of God" among other circumstances.

The Supreme Court, while deciding the Oleum gas leak case of Delhi, found strict liability woefully inadequate to protect citizens' rights in an industrialised economy like India and replaced it with the 'absolute liability principle'.

The country was then reeling under the shock of the 1984 Bhopal gas tragedy. The court under then Chief Justice PN Bhagwati wanted corporations to be made fully liable for future "undeserved suffering of thousands of innocent citizens".

So, under the absolute liability principle, the apex court held that a company in a hazardous industry cannot claim any exemption. It has to mandatorily pay compensation, whether or not the disaster was caused by its negligence. The court said a hazardous enterprise has an "absolute non-delegable duty to the community".

"If any harm results on account of such activity, the enterprise must be absolutely liable to compensate for such harm irrespective of the fact that the enterprise had taken all reasonable care and that the harm occurred without any negligence on its part," Justice Bhagwati wrote.

"The court found that strict liability, evolved in an 1868 English case called Rylands versus Fletcher, provided companies with several exemptions from assuming liability. Absolute liability, on the other hand, provided them with no defence or exemptions. The principle of absolute liability is part of Article 21 (right to life)... The courts, to make the legal position clear, should use the term 'absolute liability' in orders and judgments," said senior advocate Sanjay Parikh.

The National Green Tribunal Act of 2010 has wholeheartedly adopted 'absolute liability'. Section 17 mandates that the Tribunal should apply the 'no-fault principle' even if the disaster caused is an accident.

"The NGT statute recognizes only absolute or no-fault liability. That is, a hazardous enterprise is liable even if the disaster is an accident and not caused by the negligence of the company. The Act of 2010 fully incorporated the principle of 1986 Oleum gas leak judgment," said environmental lawyer Ritwick Dutta.

Q. In which case did the supreme court replace the principle of 'Strict Liability' with 'Absolute Liability'?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 92 This is the correct option for the given question.

Even though the NGT directed the company to deposit an initial amount of ₹50 crore and formed a fact-finding committee. The company the term "strict liability". Under the "strict liability principle", a party is not liable and need not pay compensation if a hazardous substance escapes his premises by accident or by an "act of God" among other circumstances.

The Supreme Court, while deciding the Oleum gas leak case of Delhi, found strict liability woefully inadequate to protect citizens' rights in an industrialized economy like India and replaced it with the 'absolute liability principle'.

Therefore, the correct answer Oleum Gas Leak Case

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 93

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The National Green Tribunal's order on Friday in the Visakhapatnam gas tragedy found LG Polymers prima facie liable under the 19th century English law principle of "strict liability", which was made redundant in India by the Supreme Court in 1986. Lawyers say the term "absolute liability" should have been used instead.

Even though the NGT directed the company to deposit an initial amount of ₹50 crore and formed a fact-finding committee, its use of the term "strict liability" has been questioned. For, under the "strict liability principle", a party is not liable and need not pay compensation if a hazardous substance escapes his premises by accident or by an "act of God" among other circumstances.

The Supreme Court, while deciding the Oleum gas leak case of Delhi, found strict liability woefully inadequate to protect citizens' rights in an industrialised economy like India and replaced it with the 'absolute liability principle'.

The country was then reeling under the shock of the 1984 Bhopal gas tragedy. The court under then Chief Justice PN Bhagwati wanted corporations to be made fully liable for future "undeserved suffering of thousands of innocent citizens".

So, under the absolute liability principle, the apex court held that a company in a hazardous industry cannot claim any exemption. It has to mandatorily pay compensation, whether or not the disaster was caused by its negligence. The court said a hazardous enterprise has an "absolute non-delegable duty to the community".

"If any harm results on account of such activity, the enterprise must be absolutely liable to compensate for such harm irrespective of the fact that the enterprise had taken all reasonable care and that the harm occurred without any negligence on its part," Justice Bhagwati wrote.

"The court found that strict liability, evolved in an 1868 English case called Rylands versus Fletcher, provided companies with several exemptions from assuming liability. Absolute liability, on the other hand, provided them with no defence or exemptions. The principle of absolute liability is part of Article 21 (right to life)... The courts, to make the legal position clear, should use the term 'absolute liability' in orders and judgments," said senior advocate Sanjay Parikh.

The National Green Tribunal Act of 2010 has wholeheartedly adopted 'absolute liability'. Section 17 mandates that the Tribunal should apply the 'no-fault principle' even if the disaster caused is an accident.

"The NGT statute recognizes only absolute or no-fault liability. That is, a hazardous enterprise is liable even if the disaster is an accident and not caused by the negligence of the company. The Act of 2010 fully incorporated the principle of 1986 Oleum gas leak judgment," said environmental lawyer Ritwick Dutta.

Q. One man, Mr. X stored 20 gas cylinders in his factory for commercial purposes. He took all the necessary precautions and care which a prudent man of ordinary sense ought to take. One day, a fire broke out in the factory due to some accidental leakage. Four workers died and several workers were injured. Mr. X was charged for negligence. He claimed the exemption of 'Accident'. He took all the necessary precautions he could have foreseen. Is Mr. X liable?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 93 This is the correct option for the given question.

The country was shocked by the 1984 Bhopal gas tragedy. The court wanted corporations to be made fully liable for future "undeserved suffering of thousands of innocent citizens". Thus, under the absolute liability principle, the apex court held that a company in a hazardous industry cannot claim any exemption. It has to mandatorily pay compensation, whether or not the disaster was caused by its negligence. The court said a hazardous enterprise has an "absolute non-delegable duty to the community". So, in this case Mr. X is liable to pay.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 94

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The National Green Tribunal's order on Friday in the Visakhapatnam gas tragedy found LG Polymers prima facie liable under the 19th century English law principle of "strict liability", which was made redundant in India by the Supreme Court in 1986. Lawyers say the term "absolute liability" should have been used instead.

Even though the NGT directed the company to deposit an initial amount of ₹50 crore and formed a fact-finding committee, its use of the term "strict liability" has been questioned. For, under the "strict liability principle", a party is not liable and need not pay compensation if a hazardous substance escapes his premises by accident or by an "act of God" among other circumstances.

The Supreme Court, while deciding the Oleum gas leak case of Delhi, found strict liability woefully inadequate to protect citizens' rights in an industrialised economy like India and replaced it with the 'absolute liability principle'.

The country was then reeling under the shock of the 1984 Bhopal gas tragedy. The court under then Chief Justice PN Bhagwati wanted corporations to be made fully liable for future "undeserved suffering of thousands of innocent citizens".

So, under the absolute liability principle, the apex court held that a company in a hazardous industry cannot claim any exemption. It has to mandatorily pay compensation, whether or not the disaster was caused by its negligence. The court said a hazardous enterprise has an "absolute non-delegable duty to the community".

"If any harm results on account of such activity, the enterprise must be absolutely liable to compensate for such harm irrespective of the fact that the enterprise had taken all reasonable care and that the harm occurred without any negligence on its part," Justice Bhagwati wrote.

"The court found that strict liability, evolved in an 1868 English case called Rylands versus Fletcher, provided companies with several exemptions from assuming liability. Absolute liability, on the other hand, provided them with no defence or exemptions. The principle of absolute liability is part of Article 21 (right to life)... The courts, to make the legal position clear, should use the term 'absolute liability' in orders and judgments," said senior advocate Sanjay Parikh.

The National Green Tribunal Act of 2010 has wholeheartedly adopted 'absolute liability'. Section 17 mandates that the Tribunal should apply the 'no-fault principle' even if the disaster caused is an accident.

"The NGT statute recognizes only absolute or no-fault liability. That is, a hazardous enterprise is liable even if the disaster is an accident and not caused by the negligence of the company. The Act of 2010 fully incorporated the principle of 1986 Oleum gas leak judgment," said environmental lawyer Ritwick Dutta.

Q. Which principle was applied in the case of Bhopal Gas Tragedy 1948?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 94 The incident of 1984 Bhopal gas tragedy is under Strict liability. If any harm results on account of such activity, the enterprise must be absolutely liable to compensate for such harm irrespective of the fact that the enterprise had taken all reasonable care and that the harm occurred without any negligence on its part.

Therefore, the correct answer is Strict Liability.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 95

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The National Green Tribunal's order on Friday in the Visakhapatnam gas tragedy found LG Polymers prima facie liable under the 19th century English law principle of "strict liability", which was made redundant in India by the Supreme Court in 1986. Lawyers say the term "absolute liability" should have been used instead.

Even though the NGT directed the company to deposit an initial amount of ₹50 crore and formed a fact-finding committee, its use of the term "strict liability" has been questioned. For, under the "strict liability principle", a party is not liable and need not pay compensation if a hazardous substance escapes his premises by accident or by an "act of God" among other circumstances.

The Supreme Court, while deciding the Oleum gas leak case of Delhi, found strict liability woefully inadequate to protect citizens' rights in an industrialised economy like India and replaced it with the 'absolute liability principle'.

The country was then reeling under the shock of the 1984 Bhopal gas tragedy. The court under then Chief Justice PN Bhagwati wanted corporations to be made fully liable for future "undeserved suffering of thousands of innocent citizens".

So, under the absolute liability principle, the apex court held that a company in a hazardous industry cannot claim any exemption. It has to mandatorily pay compensation, whether or not the disaster was caused by its negligence. The court said a hazardous enterprise has an "absolute non-delegable duty to the community".

"If any harm results on account of such activity, the enterprise must be absolutely liable to compensate for such harm irrespective of the fact that the enterprise had taken all reasonable care and that the harm occurred without any negligence on its part," Justice Bhagwati wrote.

"The court found that strict liability, evolved in an 1868 English case called Rylands versus Fletcher, provided companies with several exemptions from assuming liability. Absolute liability, on the other hand, provided them with no defence or exemptions. The principle of absolute liability is part of Article 21 (right to life)... The courts, to make the legal position clear, should use the term 'absolute liability' in orders and judgments," said senior advocate Sanjay Parikh.

The National Green Tribunal Act of 2010 has wholeheartedly adopted 'absolute liability'. Section 17 mandates that the Tribunal should apply the 'no-fault principle' even if the disaster caused is an accident.

"The NGT statute recognizes only absolute or no-fault liability. That is, a hazardous enterprise is liable even if the disaster is an accident and not caused by the negligence of the company. The Act of 2010 fully incorporated the principle of 1986 Oleum gas leak judgment," said environmental lawyer Ritwick Dutta.

Q. In the recent LG Polymers Case, the company should be liable under which principle?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 95 This is the correct option for the given question.

The National Green Tribunal's order gas tragedy found LG Polymers prima facie liable under the 19th century English law principle of "strict liability", which was made redundant in India by the Supreme Court in 1986. Lawyers say the term "absolute liability" should have been used instead. Thus, under the absolute liability principle, the apex court held that a company in a hazardous industry cannot claim any exemption. It has to mandatorily pay compensation, whether or not the disaster was caused by its negligence. The court said a hazardous enterprise has an "absolute non-delegable duty to the community".

Therefore, the correct answer is absolute liability.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 96

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The role of basic education in the process of development and social progress is very wide and critically important. First, the capability to read and write and count has powerful effects on our quality of life; education leads to an informed life, to communicate with others, and to be generally in touch with what is going on. In a society, particularly in the modern world, where so much depends on the written medium, being illiterate is like being imprisoned, and school education opens a door through which people can escape incarceration. Second, our economic opportunities and employment prospects depend greatly on our educational achievements... Third, illiteracy muffles the political voice of people and thus contributes directly to their insecurity ...Fourth, basic education can play a major role in tackling public health problems in general and public health in particular ...Fifth, educational development has often been the prime mover in bringing about changes in public perceptions of the range and reach of what can be called human rights ... Sixth, education can also make a difference to the understanding and use of legal rights... When people are illiterate, their ability to understand, invoke and use their legal rights can be very limited...Lack of schooling can directly lead to insecurities...Seventh,...the schooling of young women can substantially enhance the voice and power of women in family decisions...Eighth, even though education is no magic bullet against class barriers, it can make a big contribution to reduce inequalities related to the divisions of class and caste... Last but not least, learning and studying can be immensely enjoyable ... quite apart from the long run benefits people receive from it..."

86th Amendment to the Constitution has introduced Article 21A with effect from 12.12.2002 which reads "The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine." This provision is strengthened by adding clause (k) to Article 51 A which enacts that it is a duty of a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his/her child or ward between the age of six & fourteen years; the importance of these new provisions can be understood by the observations of the Apex Court to the effect that without Article 21 A, the other fundamental rights are rendered meaningless; without education, a citizen may never come to know of his other rights; since there is no corresponding constitutional right to higher education, the fundamental stress has to be on primary and elementary education, so that a proper foundation for higher education can be effectively laid vide Bhartiya Sewa Samaj Trust v. Yogeshbhai Ambalal Patel, (2012) 9 SCC 310.

Q. What are the effects of education observed in human behaviour?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 96 This is the correct option for the given question.

The role of basic education in the process of development and social progress is very wide and critically important. First, the capability to read and write and count has powerful effects on our quality of life, education leads to a power to communicate with others. Also, economic opportunities and employment prospects depend greatly on our educational achievements.

Therefore, the correct answer is All of the above.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 97

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The role of basic education in the process of development and social progress is very wide and critically important. First, the capability to read and write and count has powerful effects on our quality of life; education leads to an informed life, to communicate with others, and to be generally in touch with what is going on. In a society, particularly in the modern world, where so much depends on the written medium, being illiterate is like being imprisoned, and school education opens a door through which people can escape incarceration. Second, our economic opportunities and employment prospects depend greatly on our educational achievements... Third, illiteracy muffles the political voice of people and thus contributes directly to their insecurity ...Fourth, basic education can play a major role in tackling public health problems in general and public health in particular ...Fifth, educational development has often been the prime mover in bringing about changes in public perceptions of the range and reach of what can be called human rights ... Sixth, education can also make a difference to the understanding and use of legal rights... When people are illiterate, their ability to understand, invoke and use their legal rights can be very limited...Lack of schooling can directly lead to insecurities...Seventh,...the schooling of young women can substantially enhance the voice and power of women in family decisions...Eighth, even though education is no magic bullet against class barriers, it can make a big contribution to reduce inequalities related to the divisions of class and caste... Last but not least, learning and studying can be immensely enjoyable ... quite apart from the long run benefits people receive from it..."

86th Amendment to the Constitution has introduced Article 21A with effect from 12.12.2002 which reads "The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine." This provision is strengthened by adding clause (k) to Article 51 A which enacts that it is a duty of a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his/her child or ward between the age of six & fourteen years; the importance of these new provisions can be understood by the observations of the Apex Court to the effect that without Article 21 A, the other fundamental rights are rendered meaningless; without education, a citizen may never come to know of his other rights; since there is no corresponding constitutional right to higher education, the fundamental stress has to be on primary and elementary education, so that a proper foundation for higher education can be effectively laid vide Bhartiya Sewa Samaj Trust v. Yogeshbhai Ambalal Patel, (2012) 9 SCC 310.

Q. Right to free and compulsory education under article 21 A is applicable to:

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 97 This is the correct option for the given question.

86th Amendment to the Constitution has introduced Article 21A with effect from 12.12.2002 which reads "The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine.

Therefore, the correct answer is All people living in the territory.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 98

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The role of basic education in the process of development and social progress is very wide and critically important. First, the capability to read and write and count has powerful effects on our quality of life; education leads to an informed life, to communicate with others, and to be generally in touch with what is going on. In a society, particularly in the modern world, where so much depends on the written medium, being illiterate is like being imprisoned, and school education opens a door through which people can escape incarceration. Second, our economic opportunities and employment prospects depend greatly on our educational achievements... Third, illiteracy muffles the political voice of people and thus contributes directly to their insecurity ...Fourth, basic education can play a major role in tackling public health problems in general and public health in particular ...Fifth, educational development has often been the prime mover in bringing about changes in public perceptions of the range and reach of what can be called human rights ... Sixth, education can also make a difference to the understanding and use of legal rights... When people are illiterate, their ability to understand, invoke and use their legal rights can be very limited...Lack of schooling can directly lead to insecurities...Seventh,...the schooling of young women can substantially enhance the voice and power of women in family decisions...Eighth, even though education is no magic bullet against class barriers, it can make a big contribution to reduce inequalities related to the divisions of class and caste... Last but not least, learning and studying can be immensely enjoyable ... quite apart from the long run benefits people receive from it..."

86th Amendment to the Constitution has introduced Article 21A with effect from 12.12.2002 which reads "The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine." This provision is strengthened by adding clause (k) to Article 51 A which enacts that it is a duty of a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his/her child or ward between the age of six & fourteen years; the importance of these new provisions can be understood by the observations of the Apex Court to the effect that without Article 21 A, the other fundamental rights are rendered meaningless; without education, a citizen may never come to know of his other rights; since there is no corresponding constitutional right to higher education, the fundamental stress has to be on primary and elementary education, so that a proper foundation for higher education can be effectively laid vide Bhartiya Sewa Samaj Trust v. Yogeshbhai Ambalal Patel, (2012) 9 SCC 310.

Q. Can article 21 A of the constitution be suspended?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 98 This is the correct option for the given question.

This article is made by constitutional amendment and is applicable to all states.It is made as law by constitution.

Thus, it cannot be suspended.

Therefore, the correct answer is No, Article 21 A cannot be suspended.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 99

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The role of basic education in the process of development and social progress is very wide and critically important. First, the capability to read and write and count has powerful effects on our quality of life; education leads to an informed life, to communicate with others, and to be generally in touch with what is going on. In a society, particularly in the modern world, where so much depends on the written medium, being illiterate is like being imprisoned, and school education opens a door through which people can escape incarceration. Second, our economic opportunities and employment prospects depend greatly on our educational achievements... Third, illiteracy muffles the political voice of people and thus contributes directly to their insecurity ...Fourth, basic education can play a major role in tackling public health problems in general and public health in particular ...Fifth, educational development has often been the prime mover in bringing about changes in public perceptions of the range and reach of what can be called human rights ... Sixth, education can also make a difference to the understanding and use of legal rights... When people are illiterate, their ability to understand, invoke and use their legal rights can be very limited...Lack of schooling can directly lead to insecurities...Seventh,...the schooling of young women can substantially enhance the voice and power of women in family decisions...Eighth, even though education is no magic bullet against class barriers, it can make a big contribution to reduce inequalities related to the divisions of class and caste... Last but not least, learning and studying can be immensely enjoyable ... quite apart from the long run benefits people receive from it..."

86th Amendment to the Constitution has introduced Article 21A with effect from 12.12.2002 which reads "The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine." This provision is strengthened by adding clause (k) to Article 51 A which enacts that it is a duty of a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his/her child or ward between the age of six & fourteen years; the importance of these new provisions can be understood by the observations of the Apex Court to the effect that without Article 21 A, the other fundamental rights are rendered meaningless; without education, a citizen may never come to know of his other rights; since there is no corresponding constitutional right to higher education, the fundamental stress has to be on primary and elementary education, so that a proper foundation for higher education can be effectively laid vide Bhartiya Sewa Samaj Trust v. Yogeshbhai Ambalal Patel, (2012) 9 SCC 310.

Q. What kind of an obligation is enshrined under article 51 A(k)?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 99 This is the correct option for the given question.

86th Amendment to the Constitution has introduced Article with effect from 12.12.2002 which reads "The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine.

This provision is strengthened by adding clause (k) to Article 51 A which enacts that it is a duty of a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his/her child or ward between the age of six & fourteen years; the importance of these new provisions can be understood by the observations of the Apex Court to the effect that without Article 21.

Therefore, the correct answer is Fundamental Duty

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 100

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The role of basic education in the process of development and social progress is very wide and critically important. First, the capability to read and write and count has powerful effects on our quality of life; education leads to an informed life, to communicate with others, and to be generally in touch with what is going on. In a society, particularly in the modern world, where so much depends on the written medium, being illiterate is like being imprisoned, and school education opens a door through which people can escape incarceration. Second, our economic opportunities and employment prospects depend greatly on our educational achievements... Third, illiteracy muffles the political voice of people and thus contributes directly to their insecurity ...Fourth, basic education can play a major role in tackling public health problems in general and public health in particular ...Fifth, educational development has often been the prime mover in bringing about changes in public perceptions of the range and reach of what can be called human rights ... Sixth, education can also make a difference to the understanding and use of legal rights... When people are illiterate, their ability to understand, invoke and use their legal rights can be very limited...Lack of schooling can directly lead to insecurities...Seventh,...the schooling of young women can substantially enhance the voice and power of women in family decisions...Eighth, even though education is no magic bullet against class barriers, it can make a big contribution to reduce inequalities related to the divisions of class and caste... Last but not least, learning and studying can be immensely enjoyable ... quite apart from the long run benefits people receive from it..."

86th Amendment to the Constitution has introduced Article 21A with effect from 12.12.2002 which reads "The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine." This provision is strengthened by adding clause (k) to Article 51 A which enacts that it is a duty of a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his/her child or ward between the age of six & fourteen years; the importance of these new provisions can be understood by the observations of the Apex Court to the effect that without Article 21 A, the other fundamental rights are rendered meaningless; without education, a citizen may never come to know of his other rights; since there is no corresponding constitutional right to higher education, the fundamental stress has to be on primary and elementary education, so that a proper foundation for higher education can be effectively laid vide Bhartiya Sewa Samaj Trust v. Yogeshbhai Ambalal Patel, (2012) 9 SCC 310.

Q. Article 21A ensures free elementary education to the children of

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 100 This is the correct option for the given question.

86th Amendment to the Constitution has introduced Article 21 A with effect from 12.12.2002 which reads "The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine.

Therefore, the correct answer is 6 to 14 years.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 101

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Under the POCSO Act, Section 29 and 30 deals with reverse onus clauses. Section 29 states that whenever a person is prosecuted for committing, abetting to commit or attempting to commit an offence under Sections 3,5,7 and 9 of the Act, the Special Court shall presume that the offence has been committed, abetting or attempted to commit the offence unless the accused can prove to the contrary. Section 30 deals with presumption of culpability of the mental state of the accused with regards to any offence committed under the POCSO Act until the defence proves it otherwise. Further, subclause (2) states that the defence has to prove the innocence of the accused beyond reasonable doubt and not on the basis of preponderance of probabilities.

Under principles of procedural fairness in the common law the burden of proof lies on the prosecution to prove the case against the accused beyond any reasonable doubt. Until this is proved, there is a presumption of innocence in favour of the accused. The pair of presumptions lead to the commencement of proceedings against the accused with a presumption of guilt. Therefore, it is the prosecution which should prove the concurrent presence of mens rea and actus reus beyond a reasonable doubt. This reverse burden on the accused to prove his innocence was incorporated in the POCSO Act keeping in view the low conviction rate of sexual offences against children.

Right to equality as envisaged under article 14 of the constitution encompasses both- Right to equality and equality of opportunity. The equals have to be treated equally and differentiation can only be made on the basis of intelligible differentia having a nexus with the object of the legislation. Article 14 pervades Article 21 and something which is not a valid procedure under Article 14 will automatically not be a fair procedure under Article 21. . The procedure established by law which can be used to curtail the freedom under these section has to be fair, just and reasonable, and non-arbitrary.

The Legislature was aware that there were chances of false accusation and hence had put Section 22 of the POCSO which punishes the persons who falsely accuse the other of offences under the Act.

Justice Anup Jairam Bhambhani clarified that if a bail plea is being considered before charges have been framed, Section 29 has no application. 'Trial' commences when charges are framed against an accused and not before that, Justice Bhambhani said. Only at the stage when charges are framed does the court apply its judicial mind to whether there is enough evidence on record to frame a precise allegation, which the accused must answer.

"Therefore, it is only once charges are framed that the accused knows exactly what he is alleged to be guilty of; and therefore, what guilt he is required to rebut," he said, adding an accused cannot be asked to disprove his guilt even before the foundational allegations with supporting evidence that suggest guilt are placed by the prosecution before the court.

Q. Mr. Animesh is a neighbour of the Roy family and shares a good relation with them. One evening the Roys went out for an invitation and kept their only daughter Janvi aged about 5 years in custody of Mr. Animesh for a few hours. Mr. Animesh tried to touch the genitals of the child when she felt. uncomfortable, he slapped her. Janvi later told the incident to her mother who lodged police complaint.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 101 This is the correct option for the given question.

Since according to Janvi statement, Animesh harassed her by making feeling her uncomfortable. Section 29 states that whenever a person is prosecuted for committing, abetting to commit or attempting to commit an offence.

Under Sections 3,5,7 and 9 of the Act, the Special Court shall presume that the offence has been committed, abetting or attempted to commit the offence unless the accused can prove to the contrary.

Therefore, the correct answer is Court shall presume that Mr. Animesh has committed an offence under POSCO Act.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 102

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Under the POCSO Act, Section 29 and 30 deals with reverse onus clauses. Section 29 states that whenever a person is prosecuted for committing, abetting to commit or attempting to commit an offence under Sections 3,5,7 and 9 of the Act, the Special Court shall presume that the offence has been committed, abetting or attempted to commit the offence unless the accused can prove to the contrary. Section 30 deals with presumption of culpability of the mental state of the accused with regards to any offence committed under the POCSO Act until the defence proves it otherwise. Further, subclause (2) states that the defence has to prove the innocence of the accused beyond reasonable doubt and not on the basis of preponderance of probabilities.

Under principles of procedural fairness in the common law the burden of proof lies on the prosecution to prove the case against the accused beyond any reasonable doubt. Until this is proved, there is a presumption of innocence in favour of the accused. The pair of presumptions lead to the commencement of proceedings against the accused with a presumption of guilt. Therefore, it is the prosecution which should prove the concurrent presence of mens rea and actus reus beyond a reasonable doubt. This reverse burden on the accused to prove his innocence was incorporated in the POCSO Act keeping in view the low conviction rate of sexual offences against children.

Right to equality as envisaged under article 14 of the constitution encompasses both- Right to equality and equality of opportunity. The equals have to be treated equally and differentiation can only be made on the basis of intelligible differentia having a nexus with the object of the legislation. Article 14 pervades Article 21 and something which is not a valid procedure under Article 14 will automatically not be a fair procedure under Article 21. . The procedure established by law which can be used to curtail the freedom under these section has to be fair, just and reasonable, and non-arbitrary.

The Legislature was aware that there were chances of false accusation and hence had put Section 22 of the POCSO which punishes the persons who falsely accuse the other of offences under the Act.

Justice Anup Jairam Bhambhani clarified that if a bail plea is being considered before charges have been framed, Section 29 has no application. 'Trial' commences when charges are framed against an accused and not before that, Justice Bhambhani said. Only at the stage when charges are framed does the court apply its judicial mind to whether there is enough evidence on record to frame a precise allegation, which the accused must answer.

"Therefore, it is only once charges are framed that the accused knows exactly what he is alleged to be guilty of; and therefore, what guilt he is required to rebut," he said, adding an accused cannot be asked to disprove his guilt even before the foundational allegations with supporting evidence that suggest guilt are placed by the prosecution before the court.

Q. Article 14 ensuring right to equality is applicable to

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 102 This is the correct option for the given question.

Right to equality as envisaged under article 14 of the constitution encompasses both- Right to equality and equality of opportunity. The equals have to be treated equally and differentiation can only be made on the basis of intelligible differentia having a nexus with the object of the legislation. This article applies all persons.

Therefore, the correct answer is All persons living in the territory.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 103

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Under the POCSO Act, Section 29 and 30 deals with reverse onus clauses. Section 29 states that whenever a person is prosecuted for committing, abetting to commit or attempting to commit an offence under Sections 3,5,7 and 9 of the Act, the Special Court shall presume that the offence has been committed, abetting or attempted to commit the offence unless the accused can prove to the contrary. Section 30 deals with presumption of culpability of the mental state of the accused with regards to any offence committed under the POCSO Act until the defence proves it otherwise. Further, subclause (2) states that the defence has to prove the innocence of the accused beyond reasonable doubt and not on the basis of preponderance of probabilities.

Under principles of procedural fairness in the common law the burden of proof lies on the prosecution to prove the case against the accused beyond any reasonable doubt. Until this is proved, there is a presumption of innocence in favour of the accused. The pair of presumptions lead to the commencement of proceedings against the accused with a presumption of guilt. Therefore, it is the prosecution which should prove the concurrent presence of mens rea and actus reus beyond a reasonable doubt. This reverse burden on the accused to prove his innocence was incorporated in the POCSO Act keeping in view the low conviction rate of sexual offences against children.

Right to equality as envisaged under article 14 of the constitution encompasses both- Right to equality and equality of opportunity. The equals have to be treated equally and differentiation can only be made on the basis of intelligible differentia having a nexus with the object of the legislation. Article 14 pervades Article 21 and something which is not a valid procedure under Article 14 will automatically not be a fair procedure under Article 21. . The procedure established by law which can be used to curtail the freedom under these section has to be fair, just and reasonable, and non-arbitrary.

The Legislature was aware that there were chances of false accusation and hence had put Section 22 of the POCSO which punishes the persons who falsely accuse the other of offences under the Act.

Justice Anup Jairam Bhambhani clarified that if a bail plea is being considered before charges have been framed, Section 29 has no application. 'Trial' commences when charges are framed against an accused and not before that, Justice Bhambhani said. Only at the stage when charges are framed does the court apply its judicial mind to whether there is enough evidence on record to frame a precise allegation, which the accused must answer.

"Therefore, it is only once charges are framed that the accused knows exactly what he is alleged to be guilty of; and therefore, what guilt he is required to rebut," he said, adding an accused cannot be asked to disprove his guilt even before the foundational allegations with supporting evidence that suggest guilt are placed by the prosecution before the court.

Q. Shyam is a tenant in the house of the Singh Family and has been residing in the house for more than 30 years. The Singhs are unable to vacate the room and in order to get rid of the tenant Mr. Singh filed a complaint alleging sexual assault being committed on his daughter by Shyam.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 103 This is the correct option for the given question.

Under the POCSO Act, Section 29 and 30 deal with reverse onus clauses. Section 29 states that whenever a person is prosecuted for committing, abetting to commit or attempting to commit an offence under Sections 3,5,7 and 9 of the Act, the Special Court shall presume that the offence has been committed, abetting or attempted to commit the offence unless the accused can prove to the contrary. Under principles of procedural fairness in the common law the burden of proof lies on the prosecution to prove the case against the accused beyond any reasonable doubt. Until this is proved, there is a presumption of innocence in favour of the accused. The pair of presumptions lead to the commencement of proceedings against the accused with a presumption of guilt. Therefore, it is the prosecution which should prove the concurrent presence of reasonable doubt. This reverse burden on the accused to prove his innocence was incorporated in the POCSO Act keeping in view the low conviction rate of sexual offences against children. In the conditions given in the case of the question, false accusation is made, Thus, the court will look into the kind of relationship between Shyam and the Singh family and The court will penalize Mr. Singh if it is proved that he filed the suit with malicious intent.

Therefore, the correct answer is both (b) and (c).

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 104

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Under the POCSO Act, Section 29 and 30 deals with reverse onus clauses. Section 29 states that whenever a person is prosecuted for committing, abetting to commit or attempting to commit an offence under Sections 3,5,7 and 9 of the Act, the Special Court shall presume that the offence has been committed, abetting or attempted to commit the offence unless the accused can prove to the contrary. Section 30 deals with presumption of culpability of the mental state of the accused with regards to any offence committed under the POCSO Act until the defence proves it otherwise. Further, subclause (2) states that the defence has to prove the innocence of the accused beyond reasonable doubt and not on the basis of preponderance of probabilities.

Under principles of procedural fairness in the common law the burden of proof lies on the prosecution to prove the case against the accused beyond any reasonable doubt. Until this is proved, there is a presumption of innocence in favour of the accused. The pair of presumptions lead to the commencement of proceedings against the accused with a presumption of guilt. Therefore, it is the prosecution which should prove the concurrent presence of mens rea and actus reus beyond a reasonable doubt. This reverse burden on the accused to prove his innocence was incorporated in the POCSO Act keeping in view the low conviction rate of sexual offences against children.

Right to equality as envisaged under article 14 of the constitution encompasses both- Right to equality and equality of opportunity. The equals have to be treated equally and differentiation can only be made on the basis of intelligible differentia having a nexus with the object of the legislation. Article 14 pervades Article 21 and something which is not a valid procedure under Article 14 will automatically not be a fair procedure under Article 21. . The procedure established by law which can be used to curtail the freedom under these section has to be fair, just and reasonable, and non-arbitrary.

The Legislature was aware that there were chances of false accusation and hence had put Section 22 of the POCSO which punishes the persons who falsely accuse the other of offences under the Act.

Justice Anup Jairam Bhambhani clarified that if a bail plea is being considered before charges have been framed, Section 29 has no application. 'Trial' commences when charges are framed against an accused and not before that, Justice Bhambhani said. Only at the stage when charges are framed does the court apply its judicial mind to whether there is enough evidence on record to frame a precise allegation, which the accused must answer.

"Therefore, it is only once charges are framed that the accused knows exactly what he is alleged to be guilty of; and therefore, what guilt he is required to rebut," he said, adding an accused cannot be asked to disprove his guilt even before the foundational allegations with supporting evidence that suggest guilt are placed by the prosecution before the court.

Q. Article 21 of the constitution enshrines

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 104 This is the correct option for the given question.

Right to equality as envisaged under article 14 of the constitution encompasses both- Right to equality and equality of opportunity. These equals have to be treated equally and differentiation can only be made on the basis of intelligible differentia having a nexus with the object of the legislation. Article 14 pervades Article 21 and something which is not a valid procedure under Article 14 will automatically not be a fair procedure under Article 21. Article of the constitution enshrines Right to life and right to personal liberty.

Therefore, the correct answer both.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 105

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Climate science research continues to trigger the alarm. The latest from Scientific Reports, a Nature journal, says that global warming is now an unstoppable process. The model generated by two scientists' forecasts that the Earth's temperature will rise unabated and so would ocean levels even if the whole world stopped greenhouse gas emission right now. The climate model, devised by Jorgen Randers and Ulrich Goluke, has been the subject of controversy in the scientific fraternity. According to the duo's earth system climate interpretable model, the planet has witnessed several tipping points and the process of climate change is now irreversible.

It took into account the melting of Arctic ice for hundreds of years, the thawing process of permafrost as well as increased release of water vapour captured eventually in warmer atmosphere. "We have identified a point-of-no return in our climate model ESCIMO-and that it is already behind us," the research paper says. The model has been run from 1850 and shows that global temperatures will eventually rise till 2500 and possibly well beyond it, no matter how much GHG emissions are cut by humanity. The two scenarios presented in the model look at a 'dark' future for the blue planet. "As temperature rises, ice and snow are melted, making the planet darker," says the paper, which

Forecasts significant changes in the global climate system. The ESCIMO model has found its fair share of critics who call it contradictory to the more established and evaluated ones.

But the world can only ignore such alarms at its own peril because nations are nowhere near the climate goals set by the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In terms of impact, one merely needs to look at Australia bearing the brunt while one of its own studies says that the worst is yet to come. A recent study from a Japan university says that hurricanes are getting stronger after landfall, causing more destruction because of climate change impacts. Developing and poor nations are paying the bigger human cost of global warming. Under such scenarios, no alarm bell seems alarmist enough.

Q. Which of the following is true as per the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 105 According to the given passage,

It is mentioned that,

Researcher says that ESCIMO model shows that global temperatures will eventually rise till 25002500 and possibly well beyond it, no matter how much GHG emissions are cut by humanity. The two scenarios presented in the model look at a 'dark' future for the blue planet.

Therefore, from the above statement it is clear that the option is correct.

Hence, "The ESCIMO model stresses on the dark future for the blue planet" is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 106

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Climate science research continues to trigger the alarm. The latest from Scientific Reports, a Nature journal, says that global warming is now an unstoppable process. The model generated by two scientists' forecasts that the Earth's temperature will rise unabated and so would ocean levels even if the whole world stopped greenhouse gas emission right now. The climate model, devised by Jorgen Randers and Ulrich Goluke, has been the subject of controversy in the scientific fraternity. According to the duo's earth system climate interpretable model, the planet has witnessed several tipping points and the process of climate change is now irreversible.

It took into account the melting of Arctic ice for hundreds of years, the thawing process of permafrost as well as increased release of water vapour captured eventually in warmer atmosphere. "We have identified a point-of-no return in our climate model ESCIMO-and that it is already behind us," the research paper says. The model has been run from 1850 and shows that global temperatures will eventually rise till 2500 and possibly well beyond it, no matter how much GHG emissions are cut by humanity. The two scenarios presented in the model look at a 'dark' future for the blue planet. "As temperature rises, ice and snow are melted, making the planet darker," says the paper, which

Forecasts significant changes in the global climate system. The ESCIMO model has found its fair share of critics who call it contradictory to the more established and evaluated ones.

But the world can only ignore such alarms at its own peril because nations are nowhere near the climate goals set by the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In terms of impact, one merely needs to look at Australia bearing the brunt while one of its own studies says that the worst is yet to come. A recent study from a Japan university says that hurricanes are getting stronger after landfall, causing more destruction because of climate change impacts. Developing and poor nations are paying the bigger human cost of global warming. Under such scenarios, no alarm bell seems alarmist enough.

Q. The climate model ESCIMO focusses on?-

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 106 According to the given passage,

It is mentioned that,

The ESCIMO model shows that global temperatures will eventually rise no matter how people try to reduce the emissions of Green House Gases.

Hence, "The global temperature will continuously rise irrespective of the greenhouse gas emissions cut" is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 107

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Climate science research continues to trigger the alarm. The latest from Scientific Reports, a Nature journal, says that global warming is now an unstoppable process. The model generated by two scientists' forecasts that the Earth's temperature will rise unabated and so would ocean levels even if the whole world stopped greenhouse gas emission right now. The climate model, devised by Jorgen Randers and Ulrich Goluke, has been the subject of controversy in the scientific fraternity. According to the duo's earth system climate interpretable model, the planet has witnessed several tipping points and the process of climate change is now irreversible.

It took into account the melting of Arctic ice for hundreds of years, the thawing process of permafrost as well as increased release of water vapour captured eventually in warmer atmosphere. "We have identified a point-of-no return in our climate model ESCIMO-and that it is already behind us," the research paper says. The model has been run from 1850 and shows that global temperatures will eventually rise till 2500 and possibly well beyond it, no matter how much GHG emissions are cut by humanity. The two scenarios presented in the model look at a 'dark' future for the blue planet. "As temperature rises, ice and snow are melted, making the planet darker," says the paper, which

Forecasts significant changes in the global climate system. The ESCIMO model has found its fair share of critics who call it contradictory to the more established and evaluated ones.

But the world can only ignore such alarms at its own peril because nations are nowhere near the climate goals set by the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In terms of impact, one merely needs to look at Australia bearing the brunt while one of its own studies says that the worst is yet to come. A recent study from a Japan university says that hurricanes are getting stronger after landfall, causing more destruction because of climate change impacts. Developing and poor nations are paying the bigger human cost of global warming. Under such scenarios, no alarm bell seems alarmist enough.

Q. The Author's statement "Developing and poor nations are paying the bigger human cost of global warming" implies that-

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 107 According to the given passage,

It is mentioned by the author that,

Every nation is facing the consequences of climate change, global warming and rise in the temperature, be it a developed nation or a poor nation.

Hence, "Developing nations will have to face bad result of the global warming impact" is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 108

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Climate science research continues to trigger the alarm. The latest from Scientific Reports, a Nature journal, says that global warming is now an unstoppable process. The model generated by two scientists' forecasts that the Earth's temperature will rise unabated and so would ocean levels even if the whole world stopped greenhouse gas emission right now. The climate model, devised by Jorgen Randers and Ulrich Goluke, has been the subject of controversy in the scientific fraternity. According to the duo's earth system climate interpretable model, the planet has witnessed several tipping points and the process of climate change is now irreversible.

It took into account the melting of Arctic ice for hundreds of years, the thawing process of permafrost as well as increased release of water vapour captured eventually in warmer atmosphere. "We have identified a point-of-no return in our climate model ESCIMO-and that it is already behind us," the research paper says. The model has been run from 1850 and shows that global temperatures will eventually rise till 2500 and possibly well beyond it, no matter how much GHG emissions are cut by humanity. The two scenarios presented in the model look at a 'dark' future for the blue planet. "As temperature rises, ice and snow are melted, making the planet darker," says the paper, which

Forecasts significant changes in the global climate system. The ESCIMO model has found its fair share of critics who call it contradictory to the more established and evaluated ones.

But the world can only ignore such alarms at its own peril because nations are nowhere near the climate goals set by the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In terms of impact, one merely needs to look at Australia bearing the brunt while one of its own studies says that the worst is yet to come. A recent study from a Japan university says that hurricanes are getting stronger after landfall, causing more destruction because of climate change impacts. Developing and poor nations are paying the bigger human cost of global warming. Under such scenarios, no alarm bell seems alarmist enough.

Q. Which of the following is against the idea portrayed in the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 108 According to the given passage,

Green House gas emission is one of the reasons of Global warming that means rise in the temperature.

That is why this statement is contradicting the main idea of the passage that is to explain the reasons of climate change.

Hence,'The green house emission would stop the temperature rise of the earth' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 109

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Climate science research continues to trigger the alarm. The latest from Scientific Reports, a Nature journal, says that global warming is now an unstoppable process. The model generated by two scientists' forecasts that the Earth's temperature will rise unabated and so would ocean levels even if the whole world stopped greenhouse gas emission right now. The climate model, devised by Jorgen Randers and Ulrich Goluke, has been the subject of controversy in the scientific fraternity. According to the duo's earth system climate interpretable model, the planet has witnessed several tipping points and the process of climate change is now irreversible.

It took into account the melting of Arctic ice for hundreds of years, the thawing process of permafrost as well as increased release of water vapour captured eventually in warmer atmosphere. "We have identified a point-of-no return in our climate model ESCIMO-and that it is already behind us," the research paper says. The model has been run from 1850 and shows that global temperatures will eventually rise till 2500 and possibly well beyond it, no matter how much GHG emissions are cut by humanity. The two scenarios presented in the model look at a 'dark' future for the blue planet. "As temperature rises, ice and snow are melted, making the planet darker," says the paper, which

Forecasts significant changes in the global climate system. The ESCIMO model has found its fair share of critics who call it contradictory to the more established and evaluated ones.

But the world can only ignore such alarms at its own peril because nations are nowhere near the climate goals set by the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In terms of impact, one merely needs to look at Australia bearing the brunt while one of its own studies says that the worst is yet to come. A recent study from a Japan university says that hurricanes are getting stronger after landfall, causing more destruction because of climate change impacts. Developing and poor nations are paying the bigger human cost of global warming. Under such scenarios, no alarm bell seems alarmist enough.

Q. What is the Central Idea of the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 109 According to the given passage,

We understand that the author is trying to mention the reasons for the climate change and global warming.

As mentioned in the passage that a Nature journal, says that global warming is now an unstoppable process. The model generated by two scientists' forecasts that the Earth's temperature will rise unabated and so would ocean levels even if the whole world stopped greenhouse gas emission right now.

Hence, "The global warming is unstoppable and Earth's temperature will rise persistently" is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 110

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

If women do a lot more unpaid work than men, but society does not value their unpaid work, this structural inequality perpetuates an asymmetric power relationship, both materially and in the mind. Violence against women is just one of the several toxic side effects of the resulting misogyny. Abusing 'the second sex' can become a socially sanctioned continuum from insults to rape, in this mindset In this context a recent N.S.O. report is very telling, as it shows that in India the average woman spends 19.5%19.5% of her time in unpaid domestic work or care giving as compared to an average man's 2.5%.2.5%. This is based on data collected in 20192019 and does not factor in the seismic changes wrought by the pandemic. The closing of schools, anganwadis and other childcare centres has of course increased 'the motherhood penalty' across classes and across countries. A UK think tank for instance has found that the lock-down there saw many working mothers able to do only an hour of uninterrupted paid work for every three hours logged in by fathers.

All the talk about bringing up boys differently, socialising them in egalitarian thinking and behaviours, can be poppycock when what they see the closest up is that both work and respect are deeply segregated by gender. Building a healthier society needs more women doing paid work and men taking up a fairer share of unpaid responsibilities. We, also need an augmented version of GDP, which accounts for unpaid work in measuring economic progress.

Q. As per the Author, "the closing of schools has increased the motherhood penalty" means that-

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 110 According to the passage, the author is trying to mention the problems faced by women in terms of physical abuse and a lot of work and responsibilities.

So according to the given line the author meant that working women find it difficult to balance household work and office work.

Hence, "Working mothers are balancing both the household work and their paid work together after the closing of schools with a lot of struggles as compared to men" is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 111

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

If women do a lot more unpaid work than men, but society does not value their unpaid work, this structural inequality perpetuates an asymmetric power relationship, both materially and in the mind. Violence against women is just one of the several toxic side effects of the resulting misogyny. Abusing 'the second sex' can become a socially sanctioned continuum from insults to rape, in this mindset In this context a recent N.S.O. report is very telling, as it shows that in India the average woman spends 19.5%19.5% of her time in unpaid domestic work or care giving as compared to an average man's 2.5%.2.5%. This is based on data collected in 20192019 and does not factor in the seismic changes wrought by the pandemic. The closing of schools, anganwadis and other childcare centres has of course increased 'the motherhood penalty' across classes and across countries. A UK think tank for instance has found that the lock-down there saw many working mothers able to do only an hour of uninterrupted paid work for every three hours logged in by fathers.

All the talk about bringing up boys differently, socialising them in egalitarian thinking and behaviours, can be poppycock when what they see the closest up is that both work and respect are deeply segregated by gender. Building a healthier society needs more women doing paid work and men taking up a fairer share of unpaid responsibilities. We, also need an augmented version of GDP, which accounts for unpaid work in measuring economic progress.

Q. Given below are the factors suggested by the Author that can reduce the side effects of the resulting misogyny in the society. Select the option that contains the correct answer.

(i) Men take and share more unpaid responsibilities.

(ii) Women spend more time in unpaid work and responsibilities.

(iii) When work and respect is deeply not segregated by gender.

(iv) Men are given equal chances of employment opportunities.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 111 As mentioned in the given passage that,

Building a healthier society needs more women doing paid work and men taking up a fairer share of unpaid responsibilities and all the talk about bringing up boys differently, socialising them in egalitarian thinking and behaviours, can be poppycock when what they see the closest up is that both work and respect are deeply segregated by gender.

So point number (i) and (ii) is covered in the paragraph.

Hence, "(i) and (ii)" is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 112

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

If women do a lot more unpaid work than men, but society does not value their unpaid work, this structural inequality perpetuates an asymmetric power relationship, both materially and in the mind. Violence against women is just one of the several toxic side effects of the resulting misogyny. Abusing 'the second sex' can become a socially sanctioned continuum from insults to rape, in this mindset In this context a recent N.S.O. report is very telling, as it shows that in India the average woman spends 19.5%19.5% of her time in unpaid domestic work or care giving as compared to an average man's 2.5%.2.5%. This is based on data collected in 20192019 and does not factor in the seismic changes wrought by the pandemic. The closing of schools, anganwadis and other childcare centres has of course increased 'the motherhood penalty' across classes and across countries. A UK think tank for instance has found that the lock-down there saw many working mothers able to do only an hour of uninterrupted paid work for every three hours logged in by fathers.

All the talk about bringing up boys differently, socialising them in egalitarian thinking and behaviours, can be poppycock when what they see the closest up is that both work and respect are deeply segregated by gender. Building a healthier society needs more women doing paid work and men taking up a fairer share of unpaid responsibilities. We, also need an augmented version of GDP, which accounts for unpaid work in measuring economic progress.

Q. Which of the following statements is FALSE in the context of the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 112 As mentioned in the first paragraph of the passage that women contribute in unpaid work more than compared to men and still society does not value their unpaid work because of the prevailing misogyny.

Therefore, this statement is false.

Hence, "Women do a lot more unpaid work than men but society value their unpaid work." is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 113

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

If women do a lot more unpaid work than men, but society does not value their unpaid work, this structural inequality perpetuates an asymmetric power relationship, both materially and in the mind. Violence against women is just one of the several toxic side effects of the resulting misogyny. Abusing 'the second sex' can become a socially sanctioned continuum from insults to rape, in this mindset In this context a recent N.S.O. report is very telling, as it shows that in India the average woman spends 19.5%19.5% of her time in unpaid domestic work or care giving as compared to an average man's 2.5%.2.5%. This is based on data collected in 20192019 and does not factor in the seismic changes wrought by the pandemic. The closing of schools, anganwadis and other childcare centres has of course increased 'the motherhood penalty' across classes and across countries. A UK think tank for instance has found that the lock-down there saw many working mothers able to do only an hour of uninterrupted paid work for every three hours logged in by fathers.

All the talk about bringing up boys differently, socialising them in egalitarian thinking and behaviours, can be poppycock when what they see the closest up is that both work and respect are deeply segregated by gender. Building a healthier society needs more women doing paid work and men taking up a fairer share of unpaid responsibilities. We, also need an augmented version of GDP, which accounts for unpaid work in measuring economic progress.

Q. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage above?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 113 According to the given passage,

It is mentioned by the author that,

"As it shows that in India the average woman spends 19.5%19.5% of her time in unpaid domestic work or care giving as compared to an average man's 2.5%2.5%.

Hence, "In India the average woman spends 19.5%19.5% of her time in unpaid domestic work" is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 114

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

If women do a lot more unpaid work than men, but society does not value their unpaid work, this structural inequality perpetuates an asymmetric power relationship, both materially and in the mind. Violence against women is just one of the several toxic side effects of the resulting misogyny. Abusing 'the second sex' can become a socially sanctioned continuum from insults to rape, in this mindset In this context a recent N.S.O. report is very telling, as it shows that in India the average woman spends 19.5%19.5% of her time in unpaid domestic work or care giving as compared to an average man's 2.5%.2.5%. This is based on data collected in 20192019 and does not factor in the seismic changes wrought by the pandemic. The closing of schools, anganwadis and other childcare centres has of course increased 'the motherhood penalty' across classes and across countries. A UK think tank for instance has found that the lock-down there saw many working mothers able to do only an hour of uninterrupted paid work for every three hours logged in by fathers.

All the talk about bringing up boys differently, socialising them in egalitarian thinking and behaviours, can be poppycock when what they see the closest up is that both work and respect are deeply segregated by gender. Building a healthier society needs more women doing paid work and men taking up a fairer share of unpaid responsibilities. We, also need an augmented version of GDP, which accounts for unpaid work in measuring economic progress.

Q. As per the Author, "We also need an augmented version of GDP which accounts for unpaid work in measuring economic progress" means that-

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 114 According to the passage,

It is mentioned by the author that,

The author is trying to convey that more women should contribute in the economic growth of the country and their unpaid work should be included in economic growth and men should be given more unpaid responsibilities to maintain a balance and to witness an augmented version of GDP.

Hence, "Women's unpaid work should also be included in the "economic production" of a country." is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 115

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

In a year of severe disruption for schools caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, students in rural areas have received only marginal assistance in the form of structured learning materials from teachers, and have had to rely more on parents and siblings to study at home. This unsettling finding by the Annual Status of Education Report 2020 should prompt the Centre and the State governments to plan remedial measures for the future, when it will be safe again for students to return to the classroom. In the interim, they must work with schools to make remote learning possible. The ASER 2020 survey covering 26 States and four Union Territories has come up with striking findings, including one of a shift in enrolments from private schools to government institutions, of about five percentage points over 2018,, ranging from class one to higher secondary levels. Also, with the suspension of physical classes since the lockdown in March, there is a marked rise in students not being enrolled, either because they dropped out, or because it was not possible to get admitted. It must also concern governments that the digital divide stands out starkly once again: the survey found 43.6% of students in government schools without access to a smartphone, while 67.3% of those who received learning materials in these institutions got them over WhatsApp, underscoring the role played by gadgets and connectivity. On the other hand, only half the children got help with studies at home, a third got materials from teachers, and nearly 60% used textbooks.

The ASER survey provides data that could facilitate intervention by the education system in some respects, even if, going forward, schools opt for a hybrid solution of partial reopening and online learning. Expanding availability of textbooks to all, including those who dropped out or are waiting to be formally admitted, will help parents and siblings aid learning. Bridging the divide on educational aids, now including smartphones, will enable transmission of learning materials, and personal tutorial sessions. Beyond these basics, however, the education system could creatively use opportunities during the current year to broaden learning. Students could use the safety of the open countryside to learn, under guidance from teachers, a host of topics by doing things themselves. This is particularly feasible for lower classes, where observational learning creates a strong foundation. Educational video, which has helped thousands, can advance learning even beyond the pandemic, using talented teacher-communicators. States such as Tamil Nadu and Kerala have already hosted curriculum-based video lessons on the Internet, after beaming them on television. It will take out-of-the-box thinking during the pandemic to come up with interventions that are a substitute for traditional methods and prevent 2020 becoming a zero year, as parents everywhere remain wary of sending children to school.

Q. Given below are some observations of the COVID-19 pandemic mentioned by the Author.

(i) During the pandemic, the rural areas have received only marginal assistance in the form of structured learning materials from teachers.

(ii) Parents are still wary in sending their children to schools.

(iii) Lot of students have started taking more admissions in private schools during the pandemic.

(iv) Around 67.3%67.3% of students of government schools have access to smartphones.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 115 As given in the passage,

In a year of severe disruption for schools caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, students in rural areas have received only marginal assistance in the form of structured learning materials from teachers, and have had to rely more on parents and siblings to study at home.

It will take out-of-the-box thinking during the pandemic to come up with interventions that are a substitute for traditional methods and prevent 2020 becoming a zero year, as parents everywhere remain wary of sending children to school.

Hence, "(i) and (ii)" is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 5 - Question 116

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

In a year of severe disruption for schools caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, students in rural areas have received only marginal assistance in the form of structured learning materials from teachers, and have had to rely more on parents and siblings to study at home. This unsettling finding by the Annual Status of Education Report 2020 should prompt the Centre and the State governments to plan remedial measures for the future, when it will be safe again for students to return to the classroom. In the interim, they must work with schools to make remote learning possible. The ASER 2020 survey covering 26 States and four Union Territories has come up with striking findings, including one of a shift in enrolments from private schools to government institutions, of about five percentage points over 2018,, ranging from class one to higher secondary levels. Also, with the suspension of physical classes since the lockdown in March, there is a marked rise in students not being enrolled, either because they dropped out, or because it was not possible to get admitted. It must also concern governments that the digital divide stands out starkly once again: the survey found 43.6% of students in government schools without access to a smartphone, while 67.3% of those who received learning materials in these institutions got them over WhatsApp, underscoring the role played by gadgets and connectivity. On the other hand, only half the children got help with studies at home, a third got materials from teachers, and nearly 60% used textbooks.

The ASER survey provides data that could facilitate intervention by the education system in some respects, even if, going forward, schools opt for a hybrid solution of partial reopening and online learning. Expanding availability of textbooks to all, including those who dropped out or are waiting to be formally admitted, will help parents and siblings aid learning. Bridging the divide on educational aids, now including smartphones, will enable transmission of learning materials, and personal tutorial sessions. Beyond these basics, however, the education system could creatively use opportunities during the current year to broaden learning. Students could use the safety of the open countryside to learn, under guidance from teachers, a host of topics by doing things themselves. This is particularly feasible for lower classes, where observational learning creates a strong foundation. Educational video, which has helped thousands, can advance learning even beyond the pandemic, using talented teacher-communicators. States such as Tamil Nadu and Kerala have already hosted curriculum-based video lessons on the Internet, after beaming them on television. It will take out-of-the-box thinking during the pandemic to come up with interventions that are a substitute for traditional methods and prevent 2020 becoming a zero year, as parents everywhere remain wary of sending children to school.

Q. Which can be inferred from the expression "out-of the-box thinking" as used in the passage?