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Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7


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150 Questions MCQ Test Mock Test Series for CLAT | Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 for CLAT 2023 is part of Mock Test Series for CLAT preparation. The Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 questions and answers have been prepared according to the CLAT exam syllabus.The Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 MCQs are made for CLAT 2023 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 below.
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Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 1

Answer the following questions based on the graph.

Percentage of marks obtained by six students in five different subjects

Q. What is difference between the total marks obtained by student D in Chemistry and English and that obtained by student F in the same subject?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 1 According to the question,

First we have to find the total marks scored by student D in Chemistry and English=

Marks scored in Chemistry= 82/100 x 75 = 61.5

Marks scored by him in English= 70/100 x 150 = 105

Sum=166.5

Marks scored by F in Chemistry=66/100 x 75 = 49.5

In English= 66/100 x 150 = 99

Sum=148.5

Difference=166.5−148.5=18

Hence, '18' is the correct answer.

Sectio_Name: Quantitative Techniques

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 2

Study the given information carefully to answer the question that follows:

Anjali spent [A]% of her monthly income of ₹[B]. She distributed 30% of her monthly income among her cousins, Raj, Simran and Priya in the ratio of 4: 3: 3, respectively, 10%10% of her monthly income on buying books, and 25%25% of her monthly income, she invested in share-market and rest she saved for herself.

Annual income package of Anjali is ₹3.75₹3.75 lacs, in which 10% CGST and 10% SGST are charged as tax.

Raj, Simran and Priya started a business together with 75%,80% and 60 respectively of their respective amount received from Anjali. After a year, they received a total profit of ₹2400. It is decided that Raj will be given [C]% of the total profit for taking care of all the administrative work. The profit share of Priya is ₹450.

Raj invested the amount earned as profit from business partially in two different schemes, AA and BB in the ratio of 5: 45: 4, respectively. Scheme A offers simple interest at the rate of 12% 12% p.a., while scheme B offers simple interest at the rate of [D]%p.a., respectively. And after 2 years, he received a total interest of ₹300.

The interest earned by Raj is used to buy tree saplings to plant trees on Environment Day. Raj and Simran together can plant 100 trees in 5 hours, the ratio of efficiency of Raj and Simran is 3: 2, respectively. Priya is 50% more efficient than Simran.

Q. Find the average of [A] and [C].

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 2 The total income of Anjali is ₹3.75 lacs per annum.

After deducting of 10% CGST and 10% SGST as tax, the remaining income of Anjali is 80/100 x 3.75 = ₹3 lacs.

The monthly income of Anjali is 300000/12 = ₹25000

30% of his monthly income is 30/100 x 25000 = ₹7500

The amount is distributed in Raj, Simran and Priya in the ratio of 4 : 3 : 3.

We know that the profit is distributed in the same ratio in which the amount is invested by the people.

The profit of Priya is ₹450 and the profit of Simran is ₹450

The profit of Raj is ₹600.

Therefore,

The remaining profit is ₹2400 - ₹1500 = ₹900

Raj invested [C]C percent of the total profit for administrative work.

Therefore,

⇒ C/100 x 2400 = 900

⇒ C = 37.5%

The value of A is 100% − 65% = 35%

Therefore,

The average of A and C is 35% + 37.5%/2 = 36.25

Hence, the correct answer is 36.25.

\Section_Name: Quantitative Techniques

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 3

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

If you're a girl in Heaven, you don't get out much. When we leave, it's to go to the post office to fill out the deposit forms for our mothers' government-scheme bank accounts, or to the market where we've been sent for onions or tomatoes.

Makes it hard to remember that there is a world out there that is not the same as ours.

Joy goes out even less than the rest of us. When she leaves the muddy paths of Heaven, she leaves more than just tin roofs and hospital sludge. She leaves a fortress, a kingdom she built herself. Subject by subject, brick by brick.

Last year, when the health worker put Joy on the scale and told her she was underweight (just like the rest of us), Selvi Aunty took her to the hospital to get the iron pills the government is distributing to adolescent girls.

When the nurse asked for Joy's paperwork, Selvi Aunty handed over her birth certificate.

"Beti, I think you brought the wrong one," the nurse said. Purple lab coat over a red-checkered sari. North Indian convent-school voice coated with the congratulations she must get for helping backward women, starving girls.

"This looks like it's for your son. Do you have a child named Anand?"

"That's right," Selvi Aunty said. Joy sat straight backed and stone-faced, a granite statuette.

"This is Anand. He's Joy now."

"This is Anand?" the nurse asked.

"Yes," Selvi Aunty said. "We were reborn. As Christians. Anand has become Joy."

"Really, you people will stop at nothing for government hand-outs," the nurse said.

"What do you mean?" Selvi Aunty asked. Joy, though, pressed the balls of her feet into the ground, readying herself to leave.

"Like you don't know," the nurse said. "This scheme is for girls! The lengths you'll go to for some extra rations. Really. Get a job."

"I have a job," Selvi Aunty said. "Four jobs at four different houses. And Joy is a girl. But anyway, what does it matter? She's underweight. The health worker said so. What's that word? Malnourished."

"I can't help you," the nurse said, waving her off. "Take your son elsewhere. And put some proper clothes on him."

Joy stood up then. Regally declared, "Come on, Amma. Don't bother with this woman."

But Selvi Aunty wasn't done yet. She leaned across the table and stared into the nurse's eyes like a cobra hypnotizing its prey.

"Not my son," she said quietly. "My daughter. Who is ten times the woman you will ever be."

Q. Which of the following can be inferred as the reason why Joy used to go out less often than most of us?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 3 The correct answer is option c. The author states the hospital incident as an example of the challenges that Joy has to face in her everyday life. When the author says that she goes out less often than most of us she implies that she is comfortable with her life at her home where nobody questions her. When she steps out, she faces experiences similar to the one she did at the hospital.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 4

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

If you're a girl in Heaven, you don't get out much. When we leave, it's to go to the post office to fill out the deposit forms for our mothers' government-scheme bank accounts, or to the market where we've been sent for onions or tomatoes.

Makes it hard to remember that there is a world out there that is not the same as ours.

Joy goes out even less than the rest of us. When she leaves the muddy paths of Heaven, she leaves more than just tin roofs and hospital sludge. She leaves a fortress, a kingdom she built herself. Subject by subject, brick by brick.

Last year, when the health worker put Joy on the scale and told her she was underweight (just like the rest of us), Selvi Aunty took her to the hospital to get the iron pills the government is distributing to adolescent girls.

When the nurse asked for Joy's paperwork, Selvi Aunty handed over her birth certificate.

"Beti, I think you brought the wrong one," the nurse said. Purple lab coat over a red-checkered sari. North Indian convent-school voice coated with the congratulations she must get for helping backward women, starving girls.

"This looks like it's for your son. Do you have a child named Anand?"

"That's right," Selvi Aunty said. Joy sat straight backed and stone-faced, a granite statuette.

"This is Anand. He's Joy now."

"This is Anand?" the nurse asked.

"Yes," Selvi Aunty said. "We were reborn. As Christians. Anand has become Joy."

"Really, you people will stop at nothing for government hand-outs," the nurse said.

"What do you mean?" Selvi Aunty asked. Joy, though, pressed the balls of her feet into the ground, readying herself to leave.

"Like you don't know," the nurse said. "This scheme is for girls! The lengths you'll go to for some extra rations. Really. Get a job."

"I have a job," Selvi Aunty said. "Four jobs at four different houses. And Joy is a girl. But anyway, what does it matter? She's underweight. The health worker said so. What's that word? Malnourished."

"I can't help you," the nurse said, waving her off. "Take your son elsewhere. And put some proper clothes on him."

Joy stood up then. Regally declared, "Come on, Amma. Don't bother with this woman."

But Selvi Aunty wasn't done yet. She leaned across the table and stared into the nurse's eyes like a cobra hypnotizing its prey.

"Not my son," she said quietly. "My daughter. Who is ten times the woman you will ever be."

Q. What does the word 'backward' as used in the passage mean?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 4 The correct answer is option c. This is derived from the 3rd paragraph which states; 'tin roofs and hospital sludge' we get the sense that Joy and her family are poor. Moreover, this is reinforced by the fact that she went to get iron pills from a government programme and further supported by the nurse's statement of 'you people will stop at nothing for government hand-outs.' Given this meaning and context, all the options 1, 2 and 4 cannot be correct.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 5

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

If you're a girl in Heaven, you don't get out much. When we leave, it's to go to the post office to fill out the deposit forms for our mothers' government-scheme bank accounts, or to the market where we've been sent for onions or tomatoes.

Makes it hard to remember that there is a world out there that is not the same as ours.

Joy goes out even less than the rest of us. When she leaves the muddy paths of Heaven, she leaves more than just tin roofs and hospital sludge. She leaves a fortress, a kingdom she built herself. Subject by subject, brick by brick.

Last year, when the health worker put Joy on the scale and told her she was underweight (just like the rest of us), Selvi Aunty took her to the hospital to get the iron pills the government is distributing to adolescent girls.

When the nurse asked for Joy's paperwork, Selvi Aunty handed over her birth certificate.

"Beti, I think you brought the wrong one," the nurse said. Purple lab coat over a red-checkered sari. North Indian convent-school voice coated with the congratulations she must get for helping backward women, starving girls.

"This looks like it's for your son. Do you have a child named Anand?"

"That's right," Selvi Aunty said. Joy sat straight backed and stone-faced, a granite statuette.

"This is Anand. He's Joy now."

"This is Anand?" the nurse asked.

"Yes," Selvi Aunty said. "We were reborn. As Christians. Anand has become Joy."

"Really, you people will stop at nothing for government hand-outs," the nurse said.

"What do you mean?" Selvi Aunty asked. Joy, though, pressed the balls of her feet into the ground, readying herself to leave.

"Like you don't know," the nurse said. "This scheme is for girls! The lengths you'll go to for some extra rations. Really. Get a job."

"I have a job," Selvi Aunty said. "Four jobs at four different houses. And Joy is a girl. But anyway, what does it matter? She's underweight. The health worker said so. What's that word? Malnourished."

"I can't help you," the nurse said, waving her off. "Take your son elsewhere. And put some proper clothes on him."

Joy stood up then. Regally declared, "Come on, Amma. Don't bother with this woman."

But Selvi Aunty wasn't done yet. She leaned across the table and stared into the nurse's eyes like a cobra hypnotizing its prey.

"Not my son," she said quietly. "My daughter. Who is ten times the woman you will ever be."

Q. As mentioned in the passage, why does Aunty Selvi take Joy to the hospital?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 5 The correct answer is option b. This is stated in this line: "Last year, when the health worker put Joy on the scale and told her she was underweight (just like the rest of us), Selvi Aunty took her to the hospital to get the iron pills the government is distributing to adolescent girls."
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 6

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

If you're a girl in Heaven, you don't get out much. When we leave, it's to go to the post office to fill out the deposit forms for our mothers' government-scheme bank accounts, or to the market where we've been sent for onions or tomatoes.

Makes it hard to remember that there is a world out there that is not the same as ours.

Joy goes out even less than the rest of us. When she leaves the muddy paths of Heaven, she leaves more than just tin roofs and hospital sludge. She leaves a fortress, a kingdom she built herself. Subject by subject, brick by brick.

Last year, when the health worker put Joy on the scale and told her she was underweight (just like the rest of us), Selvi Aunty took her to the hospital to get the iron pills the government is distributing to adolescent girls.

When the nurse asked for Joy's paperwork, Selvi Aunty handed over her birth certificate.

"Beti, I think you brought the wrong one," the nurse said. Purple lab coat over a red-checkered sari. North Indian convent-school voice coated with the congratulations she must get for helping backward women, starving girls.

"This looks like it's for your son. Do you have a child named Anand?"

"That's right," Selvi Aunty said. Joy sat straight backed and stone-faced, a granite statuette.

"This is Anand. He's Joy now."

"This is Anand?" the nurse asked.

"Yes," Selvi Aunty said. "We were reborn. As Christians. Anand has become Joy."

"Really, you people will stop at nothing for government hand-outs," the nurse said.

"What do you mean?" Selvi Aunty asked. Joy, though, pressed the balls of her feet into the ground, readying herself to leave.

"Like you don't know," the nurse said. "This scheme is for girls! The lengths you'll go to for some extra rations. Really. Get a job."

"I have a job," Selvi Aunty said. "Four jobs at four different houses. And Joy is a girl. But anyway, what does it matter? She's underweight. The health worker said so. What's that word? Malnourished."

"I can't help you," the nurse said, waving her off. "Take your son elsewhere. And put some proper clothes on him."

Joy stood up then. Regally declared, "Come on, Amma. Don't bother with this woman."

But Selvi Aunty wasn't done yet. She leaned across the table and stared into the nurse's eyes like a cobra hypnotizing its prey.

"Not my son," she said quietly. "My daughter. Who is ten times the woman you will ever be."

Q. Based on the information set out in the passage, which of the following is most accurate?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 6 The correct answer is option 4. As per the author's description in the passage, we can infer that Selvi Aunty is extremely protective of Joy. This comes from her concern of the child, her treating Joy as she believes herself to be (a girl), her fighting with the nurse when he passes comments on the child. Other options cannot be inferred from the passage.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 7

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

If you're a girl in Heaven, you don't get out much. When we leave, it's to go to the post office to fill out the deposit forms for our mothers' government-scheme bank accounts, or to the market where we've been sent for onions or tomatoes.

Makes it hard to remember that there is a world out there that is not the same as ours.

Joy goes out even less than the rest of us. When she leaves the muddy paths of Heaven, she leaves more than just tin roofs and hospital sludge. She leaves a fortress, a kingdom she built herself. Subject by subject, brick by brick.

Last year, when the health worker put Joy on the scale and told her she was underweight (just like the rest of us), Selvi Aunty took her to the hospital to get the iron pills the government is distributing to adolescent girls.

When the nurse asked for Joy's paperwork, Selvi Aunty handed over her birth certificate.

"Beti, I think you brought the wrong one," the nurse said. Purple lab coat over a red-checkered sari. North Indian convent-school voice coated with the congratulations she must get for helping backward women, starving girls.

"This looks like it's for your son. Do you have a child named Anand?"

"That's right," Selvi Aunty said. Joy sat straight backed and stone-faced, a granite statuette.

"This is Anand. He's Joy now."

"This is Anand?" the nurse asked.

"Yes," Selvi Aunty said. "We were reborn. As Christians. Anand has become Joy."

"Really, you people will stop at nothing for government hand-outs," the nurse said.

"What do you mean?" Selvi Aunty asked. Joy, though, pressed the balls of her feet into the ground, readying herself to leave.

"Like you don't know," the nurse said. "This scheme is for girls! The lengths you'll go to for some extra rations. Really. Get a job."

"I have a job," Selvi Aunty said. "Four jobs at four different houses. And Joy is a girl. But anyway, what does it matter? She's underweight. The health worker said so. What's that word? Malnourished."

"I can't help you," the nurse said, waving her off. "Take your son elsewhere. And put some proper clothes on him."

Joy stood up then. Regally declared, "Come on, Amma. Don't bother with this woman."

But Selvi Aunty wasn't done yet. She leaned across the table and stared into the nurse's eyes like a cobra hypnotizing its prey.

"Not my son," she said quietly. "My daughter. Who is ten times the woman you will ever be."

Q. From the given passage, which of the following can we infer about Selvi Aunty?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 7 The correct answer is option a. This is based on the final paragraphs in which she stared hostilely into the nurse's eyes and then declared that Joy was a girl. From this, we can conclude that Selvi Aunty is convinced that Joy is a girl. This is further supported during the conversation with the nurse in which she continually asserts that Joy is a girl.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 8

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

After one particular show, I went up to chat with Jai. He did not return my greeting. A bit awkwardly I asked him, "Enjoyed the show?"

"Sure," he said and then snickered, "We love the entertainment but if you think any of these chaps are actually going to actually change because of your programmes, you are wrong."

"Why do you say that?" I asked him, not quite sure if I really wanted an answer. Jai started telling me his story. He was the son of a wealthy businessman from a posh South Delhi colony. He spoke disparagingly of his family, especially his father, and how he cared for none of them except his little sister. I listened.

We had made it a point not to ask any of the inmates why they were there. But Jai wanted to tell me anyway. He was in jail because he had become a contract killer and had gotten caught. He introduced us to his "friends" in the ward, unsmiling sidekicks who had gotten caught with him.

You see, a hierarchy existed in the ward. Those who had committed the worst crimes were at the top and those who travelled ticketless, at the bottom. He was obviously on top and the others were afraid of him.

About two months into our programmes, Jai asked us, "Are you getting paid for coming here? Why do you keep coming back?" I burst out laughing. We most certainly were not getting paid for visiting Tihar and I told him so. "Then why the hell do you keep coming?"

"Because you matter." said my guitarist friend who was standing next to me, very quietly.

Jai stared at him, shaking his head. He muttered a profanity under his breath and started walking away.

"Just one thing," I said, as I suddenly remembered something I had read. He paused and turned around. "They say anger is like acid. It does more harm to the vessel in which it is stored than to the object on which it is poured."

Jai started walking back to me very, very slowly. I suddenly regretted having said anything... I actually thought he was going to hit me. He stopped a foot and a half away from me. I braced myself. Then his eyes went red and filled up. He sat down, put his face in his hands and sobbed.

We didn't say anything for a really long time. Neither did his cronies.

"Yeah." He finally said. "That's true. Thanks."

I don't remember what else we spoke about that day but what I do remember is walking out of the prison thinking how the hardest and most cynical hearts may not actually be so.

Q. What does the word 'disparagingly' as used in the passage mean?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 8 The correct answer is option d. The author describes how Jai states that his father did not care for any other member of his family, except for his sister. From this, it can be inferred that whatever he said about his family was negative.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 9

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

After one particular show, I went up to chat with Jai. He did not return my greeting. A bit awkwardly I asked him, "Enjoyed the show?"

"Sure," he said and then snickered, "We love the entertainment but if you think any of these chaps are actually going to actually change because of your programmes, you are wrong."

"Why do you say that?" I asked him, not quite sure if I really wanted an answer. Jai started telling me his story. He was the son of a wealthy businessman from a posh South Delhi colony. He spoke disparagingly of his family, especially his father, and how he cared for none of them except his little sister. I listened.

We had made it a point not to ask any of the inmates why they were there. But Jai wanted to tell me anyway. He was in jail because he had become a contract killer and had gotten caught. He introduced us to his "friends" in the ward, unsmiling sidekicks who had gotten caught with him.

You see, a hierarchy existed in the ward. Those who had committed the worst crimes were at the top and those who travelled ticketless, at the bottom. He was obviously on top and the others were afraid of him.

About two months into our programmes, Jai asked us, "Are you getting paid for coming here? Why do you keep coming back?" I burst out laughing. We most certainly were not getting paid for visiting Tihar and I told him so. "Then why the hell do you keep coming?"

"Because you matter." said my guitarist friend who was standing next to me, very quietly.

Jai stared at him, shaking his head. He muttered a profanity under his breath and started walking away.

"Just one thing," I said, as I suddenly remembered something I had read. He paused and turned around. "They say anger is like acid. It does more harm to the vessel in which it is stored than to the object on which it is poured."

Jai started walking back to me very, very slowly. I suddenly regretted having said anything... I actually thought he was going to hit me. He stopped a foot and a half away from me. I braced myself. Then his eyes went red and filled up. He sat down, put his face in his hands and sobbed.

We didn't say anything for a really long time. Neither did his cronies.

"Yeah." He finally said. "That's true. Thanks."

I don't remember what else we spoke about that day but what I do remember is walking out of the prison thinking how the hardest and most cynical hearts may not actually be so.

Q. As mentioned in the passage, why did the author's friend tell Jai that he mattered?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 9 The correct answer is option 3. This is apparent in the sixth paragraph in which Jai asks the author and his friend repeatedly why they 'keep coming back?'
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 10

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

After one particular show, I went up to chat with Jai. He did not return my greeting. A bit awkwardly I asked him, "Enjoyed the show?"

"Sure," he said and then snickered, "We love the entertainment but if you think any of these chaps are actually going to actually change because of your programmes, you are wrong."

"Why do you say that?" I asked him, not quite sure if I really wanted an answer. Jai started telling me his story. He was the son of a wealthy businessman from a posh South Delhi colony. He spoke disparagingly of his family, especially his father, and how he cared for none of them except his little sister. I listened.

We had made it a point not to ask any of the inmates why they were there. But Jai wanted to tell me anyway. He was in jail because he had become a contract killer and had gotten caught. He introduced us to his "friends" in the ward, unsmiling sidekicks who had gotten caught with him.

You see, a hierarchy existed in the ward. Those who had committed the worst crimes were at the top and those who travelled ticketless, at the bottom. He was obviously on top and the others were afraid of him.

About two months into our programmes, Jai asked us, "Are you getting paid for coming here? Why do you keep coming back?" I burst out laughing. We most certainly were not getting paid for visiting Tihar and I told him so. "Then why the hell do you keep coming?"

"Because you matter." said my guitarist friend who was standing next to me, very quietly.

Jai stared at him, shaking his head. He muttered a profanity under his breath and started walking away.

"Just one thing," I said, as I suddenly remembered something I had read. He paused and turned around. "They say anger is like acid. It does more harm to the vessel in which it is stored than to the object on which it is poured."

Jai started walking back to me very, very slowly. I suddenly regretted having said anything... I actually thought he was going to hit me. He stopped a foot and a half away from me. I braced myself. Then his eyes went red and filled up. He sat down, put his face in his hands and sobbed.

We didn't say anything for a really long time. Neither did his cronies.

"Yeah." He finally said. "That's true. Thanks."

I don't remember what else we spoke about that day but what I do remember is walking out of the prison thinking how the hardest and most cynical hearts may not actually be so.

Q. Which of the following is implied by the author when he describes people in jail who have 'travelled ticketless'?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 10 The correct answer is option b. This is apparent from the fifth paragraph which states; 'Those who had committed the worst crimes were at the top and those who travelled ticketless, at the bottom.' Options a, c and d are examples of serious crimes and would therefore be the offenders of these crimes would be placed at the top, so these cannot be correct.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 11

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

After one particular show, I went up to chat with Jai. He did not return my greeting. A bit awkwardly I asked him, "Enjoyed the show?"

"Sure," he said and then snickered, "We love the entertainment but if you think any of these chaps are actually going to actually change because of your programmes, you are wrong."

"Why do you say that?" I asked him, not quite sure if I really wanted an answer. Jai started telling me his story. He was the son of a wealthy businessman from a posh South Delhi colony. He spoke disparagingly of his family, especially his father, and how he cared for none of them except his little sister. I listened.

We had made it a point not to ask any of the inmates why they were there. But Jai wanted to tell me anyway. He was in jail because he had become a contract killer and had gotten caught. He introduced us to his "friends" in the ward, unsmiling sidekicks who had gotten caught with him.

You see, a hierarchy existed in the ward. Those who had committed the worst crimes were at the top and those who travelled ticketless, at the bottom. He was obviously on top and the others were afraid of him.

About two months into our programmes, Jai asked us, "Are you getting paid for coming here? Why do you keep coming back?" I burst out laughing. We most certainly were not getting paid for visiting Tihar and I told him so. "Then why the hell do you keep coming?"

"Because you matter." said my guitarist friend who was standing next to me, very quietly.

Jai stared at him, shaking his head. He muttered a profanity under his breath and started walking away.

"Just one thing," I said, as I suddenly remembered something I had read. He paused and turned around. "They say anger is like acid. It does more harm to the vessel in which it is stored than to the object on which it is poured."

Jai started walking back to me very, very slowly. I suddenly regretted having said anything... I actually thought he was going to hit me. He stopped a foot and a half away from me. I braced myself. Then his eyes went red and filled up. He sat down, put his face in his hands and sobbed.

We didn't say anything for a really long time. Neither did his cronies.

"Yeah." He finally said. "That's true. Thanks."

I don't remember what else we spoke about that day but what I do remember is walking out of the prison thinking how the hardest and most cynical hearts may not actually be so.

Q. From the given passage, which of the following can we infer about Jai?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 11 The correct answer is option a. This can be inferred from the third paragraph in which Jai tells the author his story and further supported by the fact in which Jai agrees with the author's statement regarding anger is similar to acid. From here, the author concludes that Jai is actually not that cynical and is just playing at being tough and uncaring.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 12

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

After one particular show, I went up to chat with Jai. He did not return my greeting. A bit awkwardly I asked him, "Enjoyed the show?"

"Sure," he said and then snickered, "We love the entertainment but if you think any of these chaps are actually going to actually change because of your programmes, you are wrong."

"Why do you say that?" I asked him, not quite sure if I really wanted an answer. Jai started telling me his story. He was the son of a wealthy businessman from a posh South Delhi colony. He spoke disparagingly of his family, especially his father, and how he cared for none of them except his little sister. I listened.

We had made it a point not to ask any of the inmates why they were there. But Jai wanted to tell me anyway. He was in jail because he had become a contract killer and had gotten caught. He introduced us to his "friends" in the ward, unsmiling sidekicks who had gotten caught with him.

You see, a hierarchy existed in the ward. Those who had committed the worst crimes were at the top and those who travelled ticketless, at the bottom. He was obviously on top and the others were afraid of him.

About two months into our programmes, Jai asked us, "Are you getting paid for coming here? Why do you keep coming back?" I burst out laughing. We most certainly were not getting paid for visiting Tihar and I told him so. "Then why the hell do you keep coming?"

"Because you matter." said my guitarist friend who was standing next to me, very quietly.

Jai stared at him, shaking his head. He muttered a profanity under his breath and started walking away.

"Just one thing," I said, as I suddenly remembered something I had read. He paused and turned around. "They say anger is like acid. It does more harm to the vessel in which it is stored than to the object on which it is poured."

Jai started walking back to me very, very slowly. I suddenly regretted having said anything... I actually thought he was going to hit me. He stopped a foot and a half away from me. I braced myself. Then his eyes went red and filled up. He sat down, put his face in his hands and sobbed.

We didn't say anything for a really long time. Neither did his cronies.

"Yeah." He finally said. "That's true. Thanks."

I don't remember what else we spoke about that day but what I do remember is walking out of the prison thinking how the hardest and most cynical hearts may not actually be so.

Q. Which of the following can be inferred from the given passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 12 The correct answer is option b. This is evident in the final paragraph which states; 'I don't remember what else we spoke about that day but what I do remember is walking out of the prison thinking how the hardest and most cynical hearts may not actually be so.' This is also supported by the fact that Jai broke down and sobbed in response to the statement regarding anger and then thanked the author for making the statement.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 13

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Institutions in India seem to be acquiring new responsibilities. The University Grants Commission, the regulator of academic standards and other matters relating to higher education, is acquiring the mantle of director. Its directive to all higher education institutions to offer 40 per cent of their courses online on a government-mandated platform and not refuse any student mobility for credits thus acquired, however, comes in the guise of a regulation. Twenty per cent of online courses were permitted earlier; the leap in proportion and the pressure to comply manifest the Centre's desire to make education online. Saying that blended education benefits students more glosses over the grave problems that students and teachers face when in-person classes are not possible. The government is not unaware of the problems students experienced during the pandemic, such as unstable internet connections and regular access to computers and smartphones. Numerous students have been losing out. Strangely enough, the UGC feels that these issues can be ignored.

What is puzzling is the regulator's loss of interest in academic standards. Forcing every institution to break up their courses into online and offline components, with the students allowed to choose the online component from other universities, which, in turn, would be free to arrange the topic in their own way, would destroy coherence. Each institution, meanwhile, would be compelled to match 60 per cent of its course to complement what has been taught online. This regulation rides roughshod over the integrity of the courses as well as the autonomy of educational institutions. There can be no common denominator of division — a physics course cannot be broken up like a course in literature, say, or archaeology. Who will decide on the offline and online components? The UGC obviously does not lay much store by the teachers' belief that meaningful learning happens in in-person classes; online classes can support, not replace, the communication that takes place in a classroom. So it has directed educational institutions to upgrade their digital infrastructure in readiness for online courses. The matter of economics here is a bit obscure. What is certain, however, is that posts, both sanctioned and ad hoc, will shrink and disappear with online courses.

Q. Based on the reading of the passage, what perplexed the author?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 13 Refer to the line 'What is puzzling is the regulator's loss of interest in academic standards.' Hence, option 4 is the correct answer.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 14

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Institutions in India seem to be acquiring new responsibilities. The University Grants Commission, the regulator of academic standards and other matters relating to higher education, is acquiring the mantle of director. Its directive to all higher education institutions to offer 40 per cent of their courses online on a government-mandated platform and not refuse any student mobility for credits thus acquired, however, comes in the guise of a regulation. Twenty per cent of online courses were permitted earlier; the leap in proportion and the pressure to comply manifest the Centre's desire to make education online. Saying that blended education benefits students more glosses over the grave problems that students and teachers face when in-person classes are not possible. The government is not unaware of the problems students experienced during the pandemic, such as unstable internet connections and regular access to computers and smartphones. Numerous students have been losing out. Strangely enough, the UGC feels that these issues can be ignored.

What is puzzling is the regulator's loss of interest in academic standards. Forcing every institution to break up their courses into online and offline components, with the students allowed to choose the online component from other universities, which, in turn, would be free to arrange the topic in their own way, would destroy coherence. Each institution, meanwhile, would be compelled to match 60 per cent of its course to complement what has been taught online. This regulation rides roughshod over the integrity of the courses as well as the autonomy of educational institutions. There can be no common denominator of division — a physics course cannot be broken up like a course in literature, say, or archaeology. Who will decide on the offline and online components? The UGC obviously does not lay much store by the teachers' belief that meaningful learning happens in in-person classes; online classes can support, not replace, the communication that takes place in a classroom. So it has directed educational institutions to upgrade their digital infrastructure in readiness for online courses. The matter of economics here is a bit obscure. What is certain, however, is that posts, both sanctioned and ad hoc, will shrink and disappear with online courses.

Q. Which of the following questions is the author most likely to raise through the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 14 The hint can be drawn from 'What is puzzling is the regulator's loss of interest in academic standards. Forcing every...would destroy coherence.' This hints that option 1 and option 2 are correct.

Refer to the last few lines of the passage where the author highlighted the fact that online teaching would directly hamper standards of education. Also, online teaching will affect the number of sanctioned posts. Hence, option 4 is the right answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 15

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Institutions in India seem to be acquiring new responsibilities. The University Grants Commission, the regulator of academic standards and other matters relating to higher education, is acquiring the mantle of director. Its directive to all higher education institutions to offer 40 per cent of their courses online on a government-mandated platform and not refuse any student mobility for credits thus acquired, however, comes in the guise of a regulation. Twenty per cent of online courses were permitted earlier; the leap in proportion and the pressure to comply manifest the Centre's desire to make education online. Saying that blended education benefits students more glosses over the grave problems that students and teachers face when in-person classes are not possible. The government is not unaware of the problems students experienced during the pandemic, such as unstable internet connections and regular access to computers and smartphones. Numerous students have been losing out. Strangely enough, the UGC feels that these issues can be ignored.

What is puzzling is the regulator's loss of interest in academic standards. Forcing every institution to break up their courses into online and offline components, with the students allowed to choose the online component from other universities, which, in turn, would be free to arrange the topic in their own way, would destroy coherence. Each institution, meanwhile, would be compelled to match 60 per cent of its course to complement what has been taught online. This regulation rides roughshod over the integrity of the courses as well as the autonomy of educational institutions. There can be no common denominator of division — a physics course cannot be broken up like a course in literature, say, or archaeology. Who will decide on the offline and online components? The UGC obviously does not lay much store by the teachers' belief that meaningful learning happens in in-person classes; online classes can support, not replace, the communication that takes place in a classroom. So it has directed educational institutions to upgrade their digital infrastructure in readiness for online courses. The matter of economics here is a bit obscure. What is certain, however, is that posts, both sanctioned and ad hoc, will shrink and disappear with online courses.

Q. 'Blended education' mentioned in the passage refers to:

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 15 It is apparent that the author referred to 'online and offline education' while mentioning 'blended education' as the passage is related to offering 40% courses online and rest offline.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 16

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Institutions in India seem to be acquiring new responsibilities. The University Grants Commission, the regulator of academic standards and other matters relating to higher education, is acquiring the mantle of director. Its directive to all higher education institutions to offer 40 per cent of their courses online on a government-mandated platform and not refuse any student mobility for credits thus acquired, however, comes in the guise of a regulation. Twenty per cent of online courses were permitted earlier; the leap in proportion and the pressure to comply manifest the Centre's desire to make education online. Saying that blended education benefits students more glosses over the grave problems that students and teachers face when in-person classes are not possible. The government is not unaware of the problems students experienced during the pandemic, such as unstable internet connections and regular access to computers and smartphones. Numerous students have been losing out. Strangely enough, the UGC feels that these issues can be ignored.

What is puzzling is the regulator's loss of interest in academic standards. Forcing every institution to break up their courses into online and offline components, with the students allowed to choose the online component from other universities, which, in turn, would be free to arrange the topic in their own way, would destroy coherence. Each institution, meanwhile, would be compelled to match 60 per cent of its course to complement what has been taught online. This regulation rides roughshod over the integrity of the courses as well as the autonomy of educational institutions. There can be no common denominator of division — a physics course cannot be broken up like a course in literature, say, or archaeology. Who will decide on the offline and online components? The UGC obviously does not lay much store by the teachers' belief that meaningful learning happens in in-person classes; online classes can support, not replace, the communication that takes place in a classroom. So it has directed educational institutions to upgrade their digital infrastructure in readiness for online courses. The matter of economics here is a bit obscure. What is certain, however, is that posts, both sanctioned and ad hoc, will shrink and disappear with online courses.

Q. What is the central idea of the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 16 Option 1 represents the theme of the passage. The author highlighted UGC's major step of mandating higher education institutions to offer 40 per cent of their courses online on a government-mandated platform and mentions the drawbacks of it. Option 1 captures this idea. All other options highlight only one aspect of the passage, not the central idea.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 17

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Institutions in India seem to be acquiring new responsibilities. The University Grants Commission, the regulator of academic standards and other matters relating to higher education, is acquiring the mantle of director. Its directive to all higher education institutions to offer 40 per cent of their courses online on a government-mandated platform and not refuse any student mobility for credits thus acquired, however, comes in the guise of a regulation. Twenty per cent of online courses were permitted earlier; the leap in proportion and the pressure to comply manifest the Centre's desire to make education online. Saying that blended education benefits students more glosses over the grave problems that students and teachers face when in-person classes are not possible. The government is not unaware of the problems students experienced during the pandemic, such as unstable internet connections and regular access to computers and smartphones. Numerous students have been losing out. Strangely enough, the UGC feels that these issues can be ignored.

What is puzzling is the regulator's loss of interest in academic standards. Forcing every institution to break up their courses into online and offline components, with the students allowed to choose the online component from other universities, which, in turn, would be free to arrange the topic in their own way, would destroy coherence. Each institution, meanwhile, would be compelled to match 60 per cent of its course to complement what has been taught online. This regulation rides roughshod over the integrity of the courses as well as the autonomy of educational institutions. There can be no common denominator of division — a physics course cannot be broken up like a course in literature, say, or archaeology. Who will decide on the offline and online components? The UGC obviously does not lay much store by the teachers' belief that meaningful learning happens in in-person classes; online classes can support, not replace, the communication that takes place in a classroom. So it has directed educational institutions to upgrade their digital infrastructure in readiness for online courses. The matter of economics here is a bit obscure. What is certain, however, is that posts, both sanctioned and ad hoc, will shrink and disappear with online courses.

Q. What is the meaning of the phrase 'rides roughshod over' used in the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 17 The passage mentions 'This regulation rides roughshod over the integrity of the courses as well as the autonomy of educational institutions.' As per the passage, UGC ignored the aspect of autonomy of educational institutions by allowing students to choose the online component from other universities. Thus it can be inferred that here 'rides roughshod over' conveys the idea of ignoring something.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 18

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Centre has decided that awards, prizes and fellowships by various ministries and departments need a wholesale relook. The Ministry of Home Affairs, which is executing this directive, has moved much beyond its usual remit of awards for police officers and gallantry medals and irrupted into the world of scientific and medical research. India's scientific ministries recently made presentations to the Union Home Secretary, Ajay Bhalla, on awards given to scientists at different stages of their career. They also had to list out which were 'National Awards' and which were funded out of private endowments. Though a final call is yet to be taken, the quorum — and this consisted of the Secretaries, or the heads of each of these ministries — was of the opinion that most awards ought to be done away with and ministries could either retain only some of the National Awards or institute one or two 'high status' awards. The rationale for pruning, Mr. Bhalla has said, follows from a "vision" of Prime Minister Narendra Modi regarding "Transformation of the Awards Ecosystem". In 2018, Mr. Modi had said that his government had modified the system of the Padma awards and ensured it recognised ordinary people doing selfless work rather than well-known personalities who repeatedly bag them. The awards, Mr. Bhalla has said, ought to be restricted, and have a transparent selection process.

Awards and prizes recognise achievement, but in science and medical research, they are also meant to spur younger scientists towards loftier, imaginative goals. Unlike in sport — or even gallantry awards — where it is relatively easier to define a set of benchmarks and confer medals on achievers, scientific research is open ended, circuitous and — as the history of science reveals — punctuated by lucky breaks. It is possible to train talented youth to be Olympians or international cricketers but impossible to create an Einstein or a Chandrasekhar. Almost every Nobel laureate in the modern era has won various secondary prizes and recognition in their early career and every year; there is as much debate on who was omitted as on the person who won. Recognising early career potential will remain fraught with subjectivity and, with fewer awards on offer, could provoke increased discontent. Contrary to the Prime Minister's vision, fewer awards may actually miss many more promising talents and amplify epaulettes to the already decorated. Awards cost ministries money but the meeting did not discuss whether cutting costs was a factor in the rationalisation. As it is unclear what existing problem the new scheme solves, the Centre should reconsider the merits of its proposal.

Q. It can be said that the author

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 18 In the second paragraph, the author describes the role of 'awards' in spurring young scientists to aim towards loftier goals. Thus, he recognises scientific awards as an essential mechanism for motivation. In no way does the author think that the 'outcomes' of scientific experiments depend upon awards. Option 1 is incorrect. The author is arguing against the government's decision. So, option 3 is incorrect. The author himself does not have anything to do with correcting the criteria. So, option 2 is also incorrect.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 19

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Centre has decided that awards, prizes and fellowships by various ministries and departments need a wholesale relook. The Ministry of Home Affairs, which is executing this directive, has moved much beyond its usual remit of awards for police officers and gallantry medals and irrupted into the world of scientific and medical research. India's scientific ministries recently made presentations to the Union Home Secretary, Ajay Bhalla, on awards given to scientists at different stages of their career. They also had to list out which were 'National Awards' and which were funded out of private endowments. Though a final call is yet to be taken, the quorum — and this consisted of the Secretaries, or the heads of each of these ministries — was of the opinion that most awards ought to be done away with and ministries could either retain only some of the National Awards or institute one or two 'high status' awards. The rationale for pruning, Mr. Bhalla has said, follows from a "vision" of Prime Minister Narendra Modi regarding "Transformation of the Awards Ecosystem". In 2018, Mr. Modi had said that his government had modified the system of the Padma awards and ensured it recognised ordinary people doing selfless work rather than well-known personalities who repeatedly bag them. The awards, Mr. Bhalla has said, ought to be restricted, and have a transparent selection process.

Awards and prizes recognise achievement, but in science and medical research, they are also meant to spur younger scientists towards loftier, imaginative goals. Unlike in sport — or even gallantry awards — where it is relatively easier to define a set of benchmarks and confer medals on achievers, scientific research is open ended, circuitous and — as the history of science reveals — punctuated by lucky breaks. It is possible to train talented youth to be Olympians or international cricketers but impossible to create an Einstein or a Chandrasekhar. Almost every Nobel laureate in the modern era has won various secondary prizes and recognition in their early career and every year; there is as much debate on who was omitted as on the person who won. Recognising early career potential will remain fraught with subjectivity and, with fewer awards on offer, could provoke increased discontent. Contrary to the Prime Minister's vision, fewer awards may actually miss many more promising talents and amplify epaulettes to the already decorated. Awards cost ministries money but the meeting did not discuss whether cutting costs was a factor in the rationalisation. As it is unclear what existing problem the new scheme solves, the Centre should reconsider the merits of its proposal.

Q. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 19 Only option 2 can be inferred. The answer can be inferred from 'Awards cost ministries money . . . whether cutting costs was a factor in the rationalisation. As it is unclear what existing problem . . . reconsider the merits of its proposal'. Thus, the author may agree with revamping the award system, just not on the basis of reducing the awards to save costs. Option 1 cannot be inferred as there is no such reference whether Nobel laureates directly attribute their success to the awards they received when young.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 20

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Centre has decided that awards, prizes and fellowships by various ministries and departments need a wholesale relook. The Ministry of Home Affairs, which is executing this directive, has moved much beyond its usual remit of awards for police officers and gallantry medals and irrupted into the world of scientific and medical research. India's scientific ministries recently made presentations to the Union Home Secretary, Ajay Bhalla, on awards given to scientists at different stages of their career. They also had to list out which were 'National Awards' and which were funded out of private endowments. Though a final call is yet to be taken, the quorum — and this consisted of the Secretaries, or the heads of each of these ministries — was of the opinion that most awards ought to be done away with and ministries could either retain only some of the National Awards or institute one or two 'high status' awards. The rationale for pruning, Mr. Bhalla has said, follows from a "vision" of Prime Minister Narendra Modi regarding "Transformation of the Awards Ecosystem". In 2018, Mr. Modi had said that his government had modified the system of the Padma awards and ensured it recognised ordinary people doing selfless work rather than well-known personalities who repeatedly bag them. The awards, Mr. Bhalla has said, ought to be restricted, and have a transparent selection process.

Awards and prizes recognise achievement, but in science and medical research, they are also meant to spur younger scientists towards loftier, imaginative goals. Unlike in sport — or even gallantry awards — where it is relatively easier to define a set of benchmarks and confer medals on achievers, scientific research is open ended, circuitous and — as the history of science reveals — punctuated by lucky breaks. It is possible to train talented youth to be Olympians or international cricketers but impossible to create an Einstein or a Chandrasekhar. Almost every Nobel laureate in the modern era has won various secondary prizes and recognition in their early career and every year; there is as much debate on who was omitted as on the person who won. Recognising early career potential will remain fraught with subjectivity and, with fewer awards on offer, could provoke increased discontent. Contrary to the Prime Minister's vision, fewer awards may actually miss many more promising talents and amplify epaulettes to the already decorated. Awards cost ministries money but the meeting did not discuss whether cutting costs was a factor in the rationalisation. As it is unclear what existing problem the new scheme solves, the Centre should reconsider the merits of its proposal.

Q. The government wants to increase the _________ of the award recipients by ________ the number of awards.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 20 It is evident from the passage that the government wants to 'restrict' the number of awards so that only a few 'high status' (quality) awards remain. The government is proposing to give awards only to the 'best'; however, more people may be missed as a result of reduction in the number of awards. Thus, option 1 is the answer. Other options do not fit the context.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 21

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Centre has decided that awards, prizes and fellowships by various ministries and departments need a wholesale relook. The Ministry of Home Affairs, which is executing this directive, has moved much beyond its usual remit of awards for police officers and gallantry medals and irrupted into the world of scientific and medical research. India's scientific ministries recently made presentations to the Union Home Secretary, Ajay Bhalla, on awards given to scientists at different stages of their career. They also had to list out which were 'National Awards' and which were funded out of private endowments. Though a final call is yet to be taken, the quorum — and this consisted of the Secretaries, or the heads of each of these ministries — was of the opinion that most awards ought to be done away with and ministries could either retain only some of the National Awards or institute one or two 'high status' awards. The rationale for pruning, Mr. Bhalla has said, follows from a "vision" of Prime Minister Narendra Modi regarding "Transformation of the Awards Ecosystem". In 2018, Mr. Modi had said that his government had modified the system of the Padma awards and ensured it recognised ordinary people doing selfless work rather than well-known personalities who repeatedly bag them. The awards, Mr. Bhalla has said, ought to be restricted, and have a transparent selection process.

Awards and prizes recognise achievement, but in science and medical research, they are also meant to spur younger scientists towards loftier, imaginative goals. Unlike in sport — or even gallantry awards — where it is relatively easier to define a set of benchmarks and confer medals on achievers, scientific research is open ended, circuitous and — as the history of science reveals — punctuated by lucky breaks. It is possible to train talented youth to be Olympians or international cricketers but impossible to create an Einstein or a Chandrasekhar. Almost every Nobel laureate in the modern era has won various secondary prizes and recognition in their early career and every year; there is as much debate on who was omitted as on the person who won. Recognising early career potential will remain fraught with subjectivity and, with fewer awards on offer, could provoke increased discontent. Contrary to the Prime Minister's vision, fewer awards may actually miss many more promising talents and amplify epaulettes to the already decorated. Awards cost ministries money but the meeting did not discuss whether cutting costs was a factor in the rationalisation. As it is unclear what existing problem the new scheme solves, the Centre should reconsider the merits of its proposal.

Q. Which of the following words means the same as 'circuitous'?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 21 The word 'circuitous' means 'complicated and not direct'. Thus, 'indirect' is its synonym. The author describes that scientific research is indirect and not straightforward; thus, it needs criteria different from other areas for the purpose of awards. Option 1 is the answer.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 22

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Centre has decided that awards, prizes and fellowships by various ministries and departments need a wholesale relook. The Ministry of Home Affairs, which is executing this directive, has moved much beyond its usual remit of awards for police officers and gallantry medals and irrupted into the world of scientific and medical research. India's scientific ministries recently made presentations to the Union Home Secretary, Ajay Bhalla, on awards given to scientists at different stages of their career. They also had to list out which were 'National Awards' and which were funded out of private endowments. Though a final call is yet to be taken, the quorum — and this consisted of the Secretaries, or the heads of each of these ministries — was of the opinion that most awards ought to be done away with and ministries could either retain only some of the National Awards or institute one or two 'high status' awards. The rationale for pruning, Mr. Bhalla has said, follows from a "vision" of Prime Minister Narendra Modi regarding "Transformation of the Awards Ecosystem". In 2018, Mr. Modi had said that his government had modified the system of the Padma awards and ensured it recognised ordinary people doing selfless work rather than well-known personalities who repeatedly bag them. The awards, Mr. Bhalla has said, ought to be restricted, and have a transparent selection process.

Awards and prizes recognise achievement, but in science and medical research, they are also meant to spur younger scientists towards loftier, imaginative goals. Unlike in sport — or even gallantry awards — where it is relatively easier to define a set of benchmarks and confer medals on achievers, scientific research is open ended, circuitous and — as the history of science reveals — punctuated by lucky breaks. It is possible to train talented youth to be Olympians or international cricketers but impossible to create an Einstein or a Chandrasekhar. Almost every Nobel laureate in the modern era has won various secondary prizes and recognition in their early career and every year; there is as much debate on who was omitted as on the person who won. Recognising early career potential will remain fraught with subjectivity and, with fewer awards on offer, could provoke increased discontent. Contrary to the Prime Minister's vision, fewer awards may actually miss many more promising talents and amplify epaulettes to the already decorated. Awards cost ministries money but the meeting did not discuss whether cutting costs was a factor in the rationalisation. As it is unclear what existing problem the new scheme solves, the Centre should reconsider the merits of its proposal.

Q. Which of the following serves as the conclusion of the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 22 The author, in the whole passage, advocates for not reducing the number of science awards. The scientific awards are awarded based on factors and criteria significantly different from those of sports or other awards. The amplified benefits, in terms of encouragement and recognition of potential, are much more than the 'costs' associated. Option 3 best describes this idea.

Option 1 is a supporting fact instead of the conclusion. Option 2 is incorrect as the 'scope and prize' is not the main topic under discussion, it is the argument that science awards should not be cut down. Similarly, 'comprehensive rationalisation' does not get support from the passage.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 23

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Social justice and gender equality are not just nice terms. They have to be taught, imbibed and lived as early as possible. Translation holds hands with science, philosophy, medicine, sociology, religion, and gender and caste studies and militates against homogenisation and promotion of any single ideology, value system or agenda. Languages are intimately linked with the culture and history of the region of their origin and are the most private and yet most public of things. Luminous thoughts that inspire people to a better life are expressed through this medium as are malign campaigns that can bring whole civilisations to the brink. Convoluted rules that can remote control and shackle for life, or words that can empower and sustain a movement for generations — both are facilitated by language. How can we harness this force and build a better India over the next quarter century?

Increased globalisation and immigration have made people aware of cultural differences, which, a century ago did not matter much because we did not have to engage with them as much as we need to today. Since we all live in translational cultures, when words like "global citizen" are used in almost every context, isn't the understanding of what it really means to be equipped for global dialogue missing? Everywhere in the world moral monism is working against cultural pluralism with a steep rise in intolerance and an addiction to indignation pervading the metaspace.

We urgently need a programme of education for national understanding because local ignorance about ourselves and our country is astounding. Even most educated people have no idea of the most urgent social issues facing the nation because they have never been trained to look beyond their personal needs or comfort zones. Worse, they have been raised to feel that this is the way things are meant to be. So, we have a dangerous combination of indifference to people different from ourselves, and a conviction that in order to win someone else has to lose. This can and should be altered by training teachers committed to the promotion of peace and equality to hold value education classes through translated works.

There is next to nothing in our educational system that emphasises looking inward to look beyond the self. The pattern of schooling focuses fiercely on the material world and neglects the intangible aspects of our socio-culture, something which has to change if we don't want to unwittingly sell our souls to the supermarket or fall into amnesia about our past. For those who are concerned about India's stability 25 years from today, I suggest we invest in two things for which we have rich resources: Translation into and out of Indian languages and ethics education in schools and colleges. India at 100 can be a reality if we focus on soft powers: The language of peace, and our multilinguality.

Q. In the last paragraph, the author considers the current education to be

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 23 The answer can be inferred from 'There is next to nothing in our educational system that emphasises looking inward to look beyond the self. The pattern of schooling focuses fiercely on the material world and neglects the intangible aspects of our socio-culture'. The author regards education as being too focused on external and material aspects and rarely on 'inward' looking aspects. Thus, option 1 is the answer. Other options do not find support from the passage.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 24

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Social justice and gender equality are not just nice terms. They have to be taught, imbibed and lived as early as possible. Translation holds hands with science, philosophy, medicine, sociology, religion, and gender and caste studies and militates against homogenisation and promotion of any single ideology, value system or agenda. Languages are intimately linked with the culture and history of the region of their origin and are the most private and yet most public of things. Luminous thoughts that inspire people to a better life are expressed through this medium as are malign campaigns that can bring whole civilisations to the brink. Convoluted rules that can remote control and shackle for life, or words that can empower and sustain a movement for generations — both are facilitated by language. How can we harness this force and build a better India over the next quarter century?

Increased globalisation and immigration have made people aware of cultural differences, which, a century ago did not matter much because we did not have to engage with them as much as we need to today. Since we all live in translational cultures, when words like "global citizen" are used in almost every context, isn't the understanding of what it really means to be equipped for global dialogue missing? Everywhere in the world moral monism is working against cultural pluralism with a steep rise in intolerance and an addiction to indignation pervading the metaspace.

We urgently need a programme of education for national understanding because local ignorance about ourselves and our country is astounding. Even most educated people have no idea of the most urgent social issues facing the nation because they have never been trained to look beyond their personal needs or comfort zones. Worse, they have been raised to feel that this is the way things are meant to be. So, we have a dangerous combination of indifference to people different from ourselves, and a conviction that in order to win someone else has to lose. This can and should be altered by training teachers committed to the promotion of peace and equality to hold value education classes through translated works.

There is next to nothing in our educational system that emphasises looking inward to look beyond the self. The pattern of schooling focuses fiercely on the material world and neglects the intangible aspects of our socio-culture, something which has to change if we don't want to unwittingly sell our souls to the supermarket or fall into amnesia about our past. For those who are concerned about India's stability 25 years from today, I suggest we invest in two things for which we have rich resources: Translation into and out of Indian languages and ethics education in schools and colleges. India at 100 can be a reality if we focus on soft powers: The language of peace, and our multilinguality.

Q. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 24 Only option 3 can be inferred from 'Everywhere in the world moral monism is working against cultural pluralism with a steep rise in intolerance and an addiction to indignation pervading the metaspace' in the second paragraph. 'Metaspace' refers to space beyond physical realm. Option 2 is incorrect as our realisation of such 'differences' is a recent phenomenon because of globalisation. Differences were existent even earlier. Option 1 cannot be inferred.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 25

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Social justice and gender equality are not just nice terms. They have to be taught, imbibed and lived as early as possible. Translation holds hands with science, philosophy, medicine, sociology, religion, and gender and caste studies and militates against homogenisation and promotion of any single ideology, value system or agenda. Languages are intimately linked with the culture and history of the region of their origin and are the most private and yet most public of things. Luminous thoughts that inspire people to a better life are expressed through this medium as are malign campaigns that can bring whole civilisations to the brink. Convoluted rules that can remote control and shackle for life, or words that can empower and sustain a movement for generations — both are facilitated by language. How can we harness this force and build a better India over the next quarter century?

Increased globalisation and immigration have made people aware of cultural differences, which, a century ago did not matter much because we did not have to engage with them as much as we need to today. Since we all live in translational cultures, when words like "global citizen" are used in almost every context, isn't the understanding of what it really means to be equipped for global dialogue missing? Everywhere in the world moral monism is working against cultural pluralism with a steep rise in intolerance and an addiction to indignation pervading the metaspace.

We urgently need a programme of education for national understanding because local ignorance about ourselves and our country is astounding. Even most educated people have no idea of the most urgent social issues facing the nation because they have never been trained to look beyond their personal needs or comfort zones. Worse, they have been raised to feel that this is the way things are meant to be. So, we have a dangerous combination of indifference to people different from ourselves, and a conviction that in order to win someone else has to lose. This can and should be altered by training teachers committed to the promotion of peace and equality to hold value education classes through translated works.

There is next to nothing in our educational system that emphasises looking inward to look beyond the self. The pattern of schooling focuses fiercely on the material world and neglects the intangible aspects of our socio-culture, something which has to change if we don't want to unwittingly sell our souls to the supermarket or fall into amnesia about our past. For those who are concerned about India's stability 25 years from today, I suggest we invest in two things for which we have rich resources: Translation into and out of Indian languages and ethics education in schools and colleges. India at 100 can be a reality if we focus on soft powers: The language of peace, and our multilinguality.

Q. From 'Luminous thoughts that inspire . . . bring whole civilisations to the brink', which of the following can be concluded?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 25 Since 'language' is described as being capable of being used both as a positive tool (to inspire) and as a negative tool (malign campaigns), it can be termed a double edged sword. Thus, option 2 is the answer. Option 1 is extraneous to the passage. We cannot infer anything about misunderstanding from the given statement. So, option 3 is incorrect. Option 4 is incorrect as language can simply be inferred to be capable enough of being used both positively and negatively; 'bridging' the divide cannot be inferred.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 26

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Social justice and gender equality are not just nice terms. They have to be taught, imbibed and lived as early as possible. Translation holds hands with science, philosophy, medicine, sociology, religion, and gender and caste studies and militates against homogenisation and promotion of any single ideology, value system or agenda. Languages are intimately linked with the culture and history of the region of their origin and are the most private and yet most public of things. Luminous thoughts that inspire people to a better life are expressed through this medium as are malign campaigns that can bring whole civilisations to the brink. Convoluted rules that can remote control and shackle for life, or words that can empower and sustain a movement for generations — both are facilitated by language. How can we harness this force and build a better India over the next quarter century?

Increased globalisation and immigration have made people aware of cultural differences, which, a century ago did not matter much because we did not have to engage with them as much as we need to today. Since we all live in translational cultures, when words like "global citizen" are used in almost every context, isn't the understanding of what it really means to be equipped for global dialogue missing? Everywhere in the world moral monism is working against cultural pluralism with a steep rise in intolerance and an addiction to indignation pervading the metaspace.

We urgently need a programme of education for national understanding because local ignorance about ourselves and our country is astounding. Even most educated people have no idea of the most urgent social issues facing the nation because they have never been trained to look beyond their personal needs or comfort zones. Worse, they have been raised to feel that this is the way things are meant to be. So, we have a dangerous combination of indifference to people different from ourselves, and a conviction that in order to win someone else has to lose. This can and should be altered by training teachers committed to the promotion of peace and equality to hold value education classes through translated works.

There is next to nothing in our educational system that emphasises looking inward to look beyond the self. The pattern of schooling focuses fiercely on the material world and neglects the intangible aspects of our socio-culture, something which has to change if we don't want to unwittingly sell our souls to the supermarket or fall into amnesia about our past. For those who are concerned about India's stability 25 years from today, I suggest we invest in two things for which we have rich resources: Translation into and out of Indian languages and ethics education in schools and colleges. India at 100 can be a reality if we focus on soft powers: The language of peace, and our multilinguality.

Q. The tone of the last paragraph is:

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 26 In the third last line - 'For those who are concerned about India's stability 25 years from today, I suggest we invest in two things for which we have rich resources: Translation into and out of Indian languages and ethics education in schools and colleges.' Here, author is optimistic about the future of India. Option 1 is incorrect because 'boastful' means showing excessive pride. Option 2 is incorrect as author is not apologetic anywhere, instead he/she is motivating other by stating positive about India. Option 4 is incorrect as author is not showing superior attitude. Thus, option 3 is the answer.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 27

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Social justice and gender equality are not just nice terms. They have to be taught, imbibed and lived as early as possible. Translation holds hands with science, philosophy, medicine, sociology, religion, and gender and caste studies and militates against homogenisation and promotion of any single ideology, value system or agenda. Languages are intimately linked with the culture and history of the region of their origin and are the most private and yet most public of things. Luminous thoughts that inspire people to a better life are expressed through this medium as are malign campaigns that can bring whole civilisations to the brink. Convoluted rules that can remote control and shackle for life, or words that can empower and sustain a movement for generations — both are facilitated by language. How can we harness this force and build a better India over the next quarter century?

Increased globalisation and immigration have made people aware of cultural differences, which, a century ago did not matter much because we did not have to engage with them as much as we need to today. Since we all live in translational cultures, when words like "global citizen" are used in almost every context, isn't the understanding of what it really means to be equipped for global dialogue missing? Everywhere in the world moral monism is working against cultural pluralism with a steep rise in intolerance and an addiction to indignation pervading the metaspace.

We urgently need a programme of education for national understanding because local ignorance about ourselves and our country is astounding. Even most educated people have no idea of the most urgent social issues facing the nation because they have never been trained to look beyond their personal needs or comfort zones. Worse, they have been raised to feel that this is the way things are meant to be. So, we have a dangerous combination of indifference to people different from ourselves, and a conviction that in order to win someone else has to lose. This can and should be altered by training teachers committed to the promotion of peace and equality to hold value education classes through translated works.

There is next to nothing in our educational system that emphasises looking inward to look beyond the self. The pattern of schooling focuses fiercely on the material world and neglects the intangible aspects of our socio-culture, something which has to change if we don't want to unwittingly sell our souls to the supermarket or fall into amnesia about our past. For those who are concerned about India's stability 25 years from today, I suggest we invest in two things for which we have rich resources: Translation into and out of Indian languages and ethics education in schools and colleges. India at 100 can be a reality if we focus on soft powers: The language of peace, and our multilinguality.

Q. Which of the following words is farthest in meaning to the word given below?

Indignation

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 27 'Indignation' means 'anger or annoyance'. 'Contentment' means a state of happiness and satisfaction. Thus, they are antonyms of each other. Thus, the author states that distress and anger has spilled beyond the physical realm.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 28

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

There has been a tendency for long to tag the word "mythical" with the Saraswati river. The constant tagging has its purpose. Whenever a reader now reads the word Saraswati, his/her mind automatically adds the word mythical, even if the word is actually missing in print. This brings us to the question: Was Saraswati really a mythical river that existed only in the imagination of the writers and sages who composed the Vedas? Saraswati is among the most discussed rivers in the context of Indian history, the waters of which once flowed from the Himalayas to the Arabian Sea, separate from the other historically famous Indus river. Besides the river being mentioned repeatedly in the Vedas, Puranas, and the epics, in the first half of the 19th century, James Tod, an officer with the British East India company while documenting his extensive travels and explorations of Rajasthan, called it the "lost river of the desert", and detailing its route said the river originated somewhere in the Siwalik Himalayas. It was a few years later in 1855 that French geographer Louis Vivien de Saint-Martin first pointed out specifically that Ghaggar river was the remnant of the Rig Vedic Saraswati river. He made his derivations after studying various reports on the wide dry river bed lying between the Sutlej and the Yamuna rivers which were made by British topographers. That area was also exactly the location where Rig Veda mentioned the Saraswati river to be.

Later, in 1874 (Oldham, CF), after more extensive studies, concluded that the course of the 'lost river of the desert' or Saraswati was indeed the present route of the Ghaggar-Hakra river that lies between Akalgarh-Tohana (Punjab in India), and Khangarh in Pakistan. Oldham made his conclusions based on extensive studies of the now mostly dry river beds and surrounding landscapes, from both on ground explorations and reading survey maps.

Archaeologists, such as Cunningham, M. A. Stein, Mortimer Wheeler, A. Ghosh, etc. have all agreed with the Ghaggar river being the Saraswati river. Post-Independence excavations in the 1950s headed by Amalananda Ghosh in Saraswati (Ghaggar) and Drishadvati (Chautang) led to the discovery of hundreds of Harappan era sites in the Ghaggar river basin. In 1974, on the Pakistani side, archaeologist Mohammad Rafique Mughal found 171 sites of the mature Harappan phase in the Cholistan desert, thus documenting the fact that Sarasvati basin (Ghaggar–Hakra) totalled more than 360 sites of the mature phase, which then accounted for nearly one-third (32 percent) of the 1,200 known such sites in the entire Harappan region. In Gujarat, S. R. Rao discovered a few more sites including the famous Lothal port town. When all the numbers are added, it gives a whopping figure of 2,378 Harappan sites. Looking at the figures, it is evident why the change of name from the Indus Valley civilisation to the Saraswati Indus/Sindhu civilisation for India's ancient most culture is an appropriate one.

Q. In the context of the passage, which of the following is least likely to be used to tag Saraswati?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 28 It is evident from the very beginning of the passage that Saraswati has been tagged for a long time as mythical. Fictional, imaginary and illusive are synonyms of mythical. Veritable, which means being in fact the thing named and not false, unreal, or imaginary', is the antonym and least likely to be used to tag Saraswati in the context of the passage.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 29

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

There has been a tendency for long to tag the word "mythical" with the Saraswati river. The constant tagging has its purpose. Whenever a reader now reads the word Saraswati, his/her mind automatically adds the word mythical, even if the word is actually missing in print. This brings us to the question: Was Saraswati really a mythical river that existed only in the imagination of the writers and sages who composed the Vedas? Saraswati is among the most discussed rivers in the context of Indian history, the waters of which once flowed from the Himalayas to the Arabian Sea, separate from the other historically famous Indus river. Besides the river being mentioned repeatedly in the Vedas, Puranas, and the epics, in the first half of the 19th century, James Tod, an officer with the British East India company while documenting his extensive travels and explorations of Rajasthan, called it the "lost river of the desert", and detailing its route said the river originated somewhere in the Siwalik Himalayas. It was a few years later in 1855 that French geographer Louis Vivien de Saint-Martin first pointed out specifically that Ghaggar river was the remnant of the Rig Vedic Saraswati river. He made his derivations after studying various reports on the wide dry river bed lying between the Sutlej and the Yamuna rivers which were made by British topographers. That area was also exactly the location where Rig Veda mentioned the Saraswati river to be.

Later, in 1874 (Oldham, CF), after more extensive studies, concluded that the course of the 'lost river of the desert' or Saraswati was indeed the present route of the Ghaggar-Hakra river that lies between Akalgarh-Tohana (Punjab in India), and Khangarh in Pakistan. Oldham made his conclusions based on extensive studies of the now mostly dry river beds and surrounding landscapes, from both on ground explorations and reading survey maps.

Archaeologists, such as Cunningham, M. A. Stein, Mortimer Wheeler, A. Ghosh, etc. have all agreed with the Ghaggar river being the Saraswati river. Post-Independence excavations in the 1950s headed by Amalananda Ghosh in Saraswati (Ghaggar) and Drishadvati (Chautang) led to the discovery of hundreds of Harappan era sites in the Ghaggar river basin. In 1974, on the Pakistani side, archaeologist Mohammad Rafique Mughal found 171 sites of the mature Harappan phase in the Cholistan desert, thus documenting the fact that Sarasvati basin (Ghaggar–Hakra) totalled more than 360 sites of the mature phase, which then accounted for nearly one-third (32 percent) of the 1,200 known such sites in the entire Harappan region. In Gujarat, S. R. Rao discovered a few more sites including the famous Lothal port town. When all the numbers are added, it gives a whopping figure of 2,378 Harappan sites. Looking at the figures, it is evident why the change of name from the Indus Valley civilisation to the Saraswati Indus/Sindhu civilisation for India's ancient most culture is an appropriate one.

Q. The author is trying to ________ the change in the name of Indus valley civilisation by ______ the discovery of hundreds of Harappan sites.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 29 In the whole passage, the author is stating different facts to show the presence of Saraswati river. In the last third line of last paragraph, author is justifying the change of name from the Indus Valley civilisation to the Saraswati Indus/Sindhu civilisation by stating the discovery of large number of Harrapan sites. Thus, option 1 is the correct answer.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 30

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

There has been a tendency for long to tag the word "mythical" with the Saraswati river. The constant tagging has its purpose. Whenever a reader now reads the word Saraswati, his/her mind automatically adds the word mythical, even if the word is actually missing in print. This brings us to the question: Was Saraswati really a mythical river that existed only in the imagination of the writers and sages who composed the Vedas? Saraswati is among the most discussed rivers in the context of Indian history, the waters of which once flowed from the Himalayas to the Arabian Sea, separate from the other historically famous Indus river. Besides the river being mentioned repeatedly in the Vedas, Puranas, and the epics, in the first half of the 19th century, James Tod, an officer with the British East India company while documenting his extensive travels and explorations of Rajasthan, called it the "lost river of the desert", and detailing its route said the river originated somewhere in the Siwalik Himalayas. It was a few years later in 1855 that French geographer Louis Vivien de Saint-Martin first pointed out specifically that Ghaggar river was the remnant of the Rig Vedic Saraswati river. He made his derivations after studying various reports on the wide dry river bed lying between the Sutlej and the Yamuna rivers which were made by British topographers. That area was also exactly the location where Rig Veda mentioned the Saraswati river to be.

Later, in 1874 (Oldham, CF), after more extensive studies, concluded that the course of the 'lost river of the desert' or Saraswati was indeed the present route of the Ghaggar-Hakra river that lies between Akalgarh-Tohana (Punjab in India), and Khangarh in Pakistan. Oldham made his conclusions based on extensive studies of the now mostly dry river beds and surrounding landscapes, from both on ground explorations and reading survey maps.

Archaeologists, such as Cunningham, M. A. Stein, Mortimer Wheeler, A. Ghosh, etc. have all agreed with the Ghaggar river being the Saraswati river. Post-Independence excavations in the 1950s headed by Amalananda Ghosh in Saraswati (Ghaggar) and Drishadvati (Chautang) led to the discovery of hundreds of Harappan era sites in the Ghaggar river basin. In 1974, on the Pakistani side, archaeologist Mohammad Rafique Mughal found 171 sites of the mature Harappan phase in the Cholistan desert, thus documenting the fact that Sarasvati basin (Ghaggar–Hakra) totalled more than 360 sites of the mature phase, which then accounted for nearly one-third (32 percent) of the 1,200 known such sites in the entire Harappan region. In Gujarat, S. R. Rao discovered a few more sites including the famous Lothal port town. When all the numbers are added, it gives a whopping figure of 2,378 Harappan sites. Looking at the figures, it is evident why the change of name from the Indus Valley civilisation to the Saraswati Indus/Sindhu civilisation for India's ancient most culture is an appropriate one.

Q. Which of the following is the conclusion of the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 30 The author presents various examples, facts and evidence put forward by numerous historians confirming the presence of proof of the Saraswati river. The author's notion is also evident from the last line of the passage where he states 'why the change of name . . . appropriate one'. Thus, the author concludes that there is enough factual evidence to confirm Saraswati's presence. Option 2 is incorrect as it does not answer the main question. It fails to answer if the Saraswati river is indeed mythical or not. Option 4 is a general fact and does not pertain to the main idea. Option 1 is incorrect as no comparison is being made.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 31

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

There has been a tendency for long to tag the word "mythical" with the Saraswati river. The constant tagging has its purpose. Whenever a reader now reads the word Saraswati, his/her mind automatically adds the word mythical, even if the word is actually missing in print. This brings us to the question: Was Saraswati really a mythical river that existed only in the imagination of the writers and sages who composed the Vedas? Saraswati is among the most discussed rivers in the context of Indian history, the waters of which once flowed from the Himalayas to the Arabian Sea, separate from the other historically famous Indus river. Besides the river being mentioned repeatedly in the Vedas, Puranas, and the epics, in the first half of the 19th century, James Tod, an officer with the British East India company while documenting his extensive travels and explorations of Rajasthan, called it the "lost river of the desert", and detailing its route said the river originated somewhere in the Siwalik Himalayas. It was a few years later in 1855 that French geographer Louis Vivien de Saint-Martin first pointed out specifically that Ghaggar river was the remnant of the Rig Vedic Saraswati river. He made his derivations after studying various reports on the wide dry river bed lying between the Sutlej and the Yamuna rivers which were made by British topographers. That area was also exactly the location where Rig Veda mentioned the Saraswati river to be.

Later, in 1874 (Oldham, CF), after more extensive studies, concluded that the course of the 'lost river of the desert' or Saraswati was indeed the present route of the Ghaggar-Hakra river that lies between Akalgarh-Tohana (Punjab in India), and Khangarh in Pakistan. Oldham made his conclusions based on extensive studies of the now mostly dry river beds and surrounding landscapes, from both on ground explorations and reading survey maps.

Archaeologists, such as Cunningham, M. A. Stein, Mortimer Wheeler, A. Ghosh, etc. have all agreed with the Ghaggar river being the Saraswati river. Post-Independence excavations in the 1950s headed by Amalananda Ghosh in Saraswati (Ghaggar) and Drishadvati (Chautang) led to the discovery of hundreds of Harappan era sites in the Ghaggar river basin. In 1974, on the Pakistani side, archaeologist Mohammad Rafique Mughal found 171 sites of the mature Harappan phase in the Cholistan desert, thus documenting the fact that Sarasvati basin (Ghaggar–Hakra) totalled more than 360 sites of the mature phase, which then accounted for nearly one-third (32 percent) of the 1,200 known such sites in the entire Harappan region. In Gujarat, S. R. Rao discovered a few more sites including the famous Lothal port town. When all the numbers are added, it gives a whopping figure of 2,378 Harappan sites. Looking at the figures, it is evident why the change of name from the Indus Valley civilisation to the Saraswati Indus/Sindhu civilisation for India's ancient most culture is an appropriate one.

Q. From the passage it is evident that the change of name from the Indus Valley civilisation to the Saraswati Indus civilisation is appropriate:

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 31 The author presents a lot of facts to show the early presence of the Saraswati river, but in the last few lines of the last paragraph, it is mentioned, 'When all the numbers are added, it gives a whopping figure of 2,378 Harappan sites. Looking at the figures it is clearly evident why the change of name from the Indus Valley civilisation to the Saraswati Indus/Sindhu civilisation for India's ancient most culture is an appropriate one.' Thus, option 3 is the answer. Other options are not appropriate in the context.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 32

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

There has been a tendency for long to tag the word "mythical" with the Saraswati river. The constant tagging has its purpose. Whenever a reader now reads the word Saraswati, his/her mind automatically adds the word mythical, even if the word is actually missing in print. This brings us to the question: Was Saraswati really a mythical river that existed only in the imagination of the writers and sages who composed the Vedas? Saraswati is among the most discussed rivers in the context of Indian history, the waters of which once flowed from the Himalayas to the Arabian Sea, separate from the other historically famous Indus river. Besides the river being mentioned repeatedly in the Vedas, Puranas, and the epics, in the first half of the 19th century, James Tod, an officer with the British East India company while documenting his extensive travels and explorations of Rajasthan, called it the "lost river of the desert", and detailing its route said the river originated somewhere in the Siwalik Himalayas. It was a few years later in 1855 that French geographer Louis Vivien de Saint-Martin first pointed out specifically that Ghaggar river was the remnant of the Rig Vedic Saraswati river. He made his derivations after studying various reports on the wide dry river bed lying between the Sutlej and the Yamuna rivers which were made by British topographers. That area was also exactly the location where Rig Veda mentioned the Saraswati river to be.

Later, in 1874 (Oldham, CF), after more extensive studies, concluded that the course of the 'lost river of the desert' or Saraswati was indeed the present route of the Ghaggar-Hakra river that lies between Akalgarh-Tohana (Punjab in India), and Khangarh in Pakistan. Oldham made his conclusions based on extensive studies of the now mostly dry river beds and surrounding landscapes, from both on ground explorations and reading survey maps.

Archaeologists, such as Cunningham, M. A. Stein, Mortimer Wheeler, A. Ghosh, etc. have all agreed with the Ghaggar river being the Saraswati river. Post-Independence excavations in the 1950s headed by Amalananda Ghosh in Saraswati (Ghaggar) and Drishadvati (Chautang) led to the discovery of hundreds of Harappan era sites in the Ghaggar river basin. In 1974, on the Pakistani side, archaeologist Mohammad Rafique Mughal found 171 sites of the mature Harappan phase in the Cholistan desert, thus documenting the fact that Sarasvati basin (Ghaggar–Hakra) totalled more than 360 sites of the mature phase, which then accounted for nearly one-third (32 percent) of the 1,200 known such sites in the entire Harappan region. In Gujarat, S. R. Rao discovered a few more sites including the famous Lothal port town. When all the numbers are added, it gives a whopping figure of 2,378 Harappan sites. Looking at the figures, it is evident why the change of name from the Indus Valley civilisation to the Saraswati Indus/Sindhu civilisation for India's ancient most culture is an appropriate one.

Q. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 32 In the whole passage, Ghaggar-Hakra river has been described as the remnant of the Saraswati river and the presence of Saraswati was documented in the first half of 19th century. In 1855, French geographer first pointed out specifically that Ghaggar river was the remnant of the Rig Vedic Saraswati river. Thus, option 4 is the correct answer.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 33

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Eminent rocket scientist S. Somanath has been appointed the new chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) as well as the Space Secretary. His appointment as the Space Secretary and the Space Commission Chairman is for a combined tenure of three years from the date of joining of the post. The post of the ISRO chairman, the Space Secretary and the Space Commission chief is usually held by one person only.

Mr. Somanath is the 10th chairman of ISRO. He was Director of Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC). Mr. Somanath took charge as the VSSC's head on January 22, 2018, after a two and a half years stint as the Director of Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), Valiamala, Thiruvananathapuram. Previously, he served as the Associate Director (Projects) of Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre and also as the Project Director of GSLV Mk-III launch vehicle. Mr. Somanath is an expert in the area of system engineering of launch vehicles.

Somanath did his B Tech in Mechanical Engineering from TKM college of engineering, Kollam, and Masters in Aerospace Engineering from Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, with specialisation in structures, dynamics and control. He was a gold medalist.

Q. Where is ISRO headquartered?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 33 The Indian Space Research Organisation is the national space agency of India, headquartered in Bengaluru, Karnataka. It operates under the Department of Space (DOS) which is directly overseen by the Prime Minister of India.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 34

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Eminent rocket scientist S. Somanath has been appointed the new chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) as well as the Space Secretary. His appointment as the Space Secretary and the Space Commission Chairman is for a combined tenure of three years from the date of joining of the post. The post of the ISRO chairman, the Space Secretary and the Space Commission chief is usually held by one person only.

Mr. Somanath is the 10th chairman of ISRO. He was Director of Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC). Mr. Somanath took charge as the VSSC's head on January 22, 2018, after a two and a half years stint as the Director of Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), Valiamala, Thiruvananathapuram. Previously, he served as the Associate Director (Projects) of Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre and also as the Project Director of GSLV Mk-III launch vehicle. Mr. Somanath is an expert in the area of system engineering of launch vehicles.

Somanath did his B Tech in Mechanical Engineering from TKM college of engineering, Kollam, and Masters in Aerospace Engineering from Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, with specialisation in structures, dynamics and control. He was a gold medalist.

Q. Consider the following statements about Gaganyaan mission of ISRO and mark the correct statement.

Statement I: Gaganyaan space mission was first announced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2018.

Statement II: ISRO's heavy-lift launcher GSLV Mk III has been identified for the mission.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 34 Gaganyaan is an Indian crewed orbital spacecraft intended to be the formative spacecraft of the Indian Human Spaceflight Programme. ISRO's heavy-lift launcher GSLV Mk III has been identified for the mission. The space mission was first announced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2018 in his Independence Day address to the nation.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 35

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Eminent rocket scientist S. Somanath has been appointed the new chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) as well as the Space Secretary. His appointment as the Space Secretary and the Space Commission Chairman is for a combined tenure of three years from the date of joining of the post. The post of the ISRO chairman, the Space Secretary and the Space Commission chief is usually held by one person only.

Mr. Somanath is the 10th chairman of ISRO. He was Director of Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC). Mr. Somanath took charge as the VSSC's head on January 22, 2018, after a two and a half years stint as the Director of Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), Valiamala, Thiruvananathapuram. Previously, he served as the Associate Director (Projects) of Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre and also as the Project Director of GSLV Mk-III launch vehicle. Mr. Somanath is an expert in the area of system engineering of launch vehicles.

Somanath did his B Tech in Mechanical Engineering from TKM college of engineering, Kollam, and Masters in Aerospace Engineering from Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, with specialisation in structures, dynamics and control. He was a gold medalist.

Q. Whom did S. Somanath succeed as the Chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation in 2022?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 35 S. Somanath is an Indian aerospace engineer and rocket technologist. In January 2022, he was chosen to succeed K. Sivan as the Chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation. Sivan was appointed the chief of ISRO in January 2018. Under his chairmanship, ISRO launched Chandrayaan 2.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 36

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Eminent rocket scientist S. Somanath has been appointed the new chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) as well as the Space Secretary. His appointment as the Space Secretary and the Space Commission Chairman is for a combined tenure of three years from the date of joining of the post. The post of the ISRO chairman, the Space Secretary and the Space Commission chief is usually held by one person only.

Mr. Somanath is the 10th chairman of ISRO. He was Director of Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC). Mr. Somanath took charge as the VSSC's head on January 22, 2018, after a two and a half years stint as the Director of Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), Valiamala, Thiruvananathapuram. Previously, he served as the Associate Director (Projects) of Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre and also as the Project Director of GSLV Mk-III launch vehicle. Mr. Somanath is an expert in the area of system engineering of launch vehicles.

Somanath did his B Tech in Mechanical Engineering from TKM college of engineering, Kollam, and Masters in Aerospace Engineering from Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, with specialisation in structures, dynamics and control. He was a gold medalist.

Q. Which among the following is incorrect about ISRO?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 36 The Indian Space Research Organisation is the national space agency of India. ISRO has the world's largest constellation of remote-sensing satellites and operates the two satellite navigation systems GAGAN and NAVIC. It has sent two missions to the Moon and one to Mars.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 37

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Eminent rocket scientist S. Somanath has been appointed the new chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) as well as the Space Secretary. His appointment as the Space Secretary and the Space Commission Chairman is for a combined tenure of three years from the date of joining of the post. The post of the ISRO chairman, the Space Secretary and the Space Commission chief is usually held by one person only.

Mr. Somanath is the 10th chairman of ISRO. He was Director of Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC). Mr. Somanath took charge as the VSSC's head on January 22, 2018, after a two and a half years stint as the Director of Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), Valiamala, Thiruvananathapuram. Previously, he served as the Associate Director (Projects) of Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre and also as the Project Director of GSLV Mk-III launch vehicle. Mr. Somanath is an expert in the area of system engineering of launch vehicles.

Somanath did his B Tech in Mechanical Engineering from TKM college of engineering, Kollam, and Masters in Aerospace Engineering from Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, with specialisation in structures, dynamics and control. He was a gold medalist.

Q.Who among the following has served the longest term, of 12 years, as Chairman of ISRO?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 37 Satish Dhawan has served the longest term, i.e. for 12 years, as the Chairman of Indian Space Research Organisation. He is known for his work on fluid dynamics and his tenure as longest serving chief of ISRO. His era marked with India attaining orbital launch capability in 1980 for the first time and start of INSAT program which became base for further development of spacecraft technologies.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 38

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi inaugurated 'Chauri Chaura' centenary celebrations at Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh through video conference. The day marks 100 years of the 'Chauri Chaura' incident, a landmark event in the country's fight for independence. The Prime Minister also released a postal stamp dedicated to the Chauri Chaura centenary event. Governor of Uttar Pradesh and Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh were also present on the occasion.

Saluting the brave martyrs, the Prime Minister said the sacrifice made at Chauri Chaura gave a new direction to the country's freedom struggle. He said the incident which happened hundred years ago in Chauri Chaura was not just an arson incident but the message of Chauri Chaura was far wider. Under what circumstances arson happened, what were the reasons are equally important. He said due importance is now being given to the historical struggle of Chauri Chaura in our country's history. He said starting today, along with Chauri Chaura, every village will remember the heroic sacrifices in the events going to be held throughout the year. He said having such a celebration at a time, when the country is entering its 75th year of independence will make it even more relevant. He lamented at the lack of discussion about the martyrs of Chauri Chaura. He said the martyrs may not have figured prominently in the pages of history, but their blood shed for freedom is definitely in the country's soil.

The Prime Minister urged the people to remember the efforts of Baba Raghavdas and Mahamana Madan Mohan Malaviya due to which around 150 freedom fighters were saved from hanging on this special day. He expressed happiness that students were also involved in this campaign which would increase their awareness about many untold aspects of freedom struggle. He said the Ministry of Education has invited young writers on the completion of 75 years of independence to write a book on freedom fighters to showcase unsung heroes of freedom struggle. He lauded the efforts of the Uttar Pradesh government for the programmes organised to connect to the local arts and culture as a tribute to our freedom fighters.

Q. The Chauri Chaura incident led to the subsequent withdrawal of which of the following movements?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 38 The Chauri Chaura incident took place on 4th February, 1922 at Chauri Chaura in the Gorakhpur district of the United Province (modern Uttar Pradesh) in British India, when a large group of protesters participating in the Non-Cooperation Movement clashed with police who opened fire. The incident led to the death of three civilians and 22 policemen. Mahatma Gandhi, who was strictly against violence, halted the Non-Cooperation Movement on the national level on 12th February, 1922, as a direct result of this incident.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 39

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi inaugurated 'Chauri Chaura' centenary celebrations at Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh through video conference. The day marks 100 years of the 'Chauri Chaura' incident, a landmark event in the country's fight for independence. The Prime Minister also released a postal stamp dedicated to the Chauri Chaura centenary event. Governor of Uttar Pradesh and Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh were also present on the occasion.

Saluting the brave martyrs, the Prime Minister said the sacrifice made at Chauri Chaura gave a new direction to the country's freedom struggle. He said the incident which happened hundred years ago in Chauri Chaura was not just an arson incident but the message of Chauri Chaura was far wider. Under what circumstances arson happened, what were the reasons are equally important. He said due importance is now being given to the historical struggle of Chauri Chaura in our country's history. He said starting today, along with Chauri Chaura, every village will remember the heroic sacrifices in the events going to be held throughout the year. He said having such a celebration at a time, when the country is entering its 75th year of independence will make it even more relevant. He lamented at the lack of discussion about the martyrs of Chauri Chaura. He said the martyrs may not have figured prominently in the pages of history, but their blood shed for freedom is definitely in the country's soil.

The Prime Minister urged the people to remember the efforts of Baba Raghavdas and Mahamana Madan Mohan Malaviya due to which around 150 freedom fighters were saved from hanging on this special day. He expressed happiness that students were also involved in this campaign which would increase their awareness about many untold aspects of freedom struggle. He said the Ministry of Education has invited young writers on the completion of 75 years of independence to write a book on freedom fighters to showcase unsung heroes of freedom struggle. He lauded the efforts of the Uttar Pradesh government for the programmes organised to connect to the local arts and culture as a tribute to our freedom fighters.

Q. In the Chauri Chaura incident, people were protesting against

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 39 In the Chauri Chaura incident, volunteers participating in Non-Cooperation Movement led by a retired Army soldier named Bhagwan Ahir protested against high food prices and liquor sale in the marketplace. They were beaten by the police and many of their leaders were arrested and detained at the Chauri Chaura police station. In retaliation, the demonstrators attacked and set fire to a police station, killing all of its occupants.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 40

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi inaugurated 'Chauri Chaura' centenary celebrations at Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh through video conference. The day marks 100 years of the 'Chauri Chaura' incident, a landmark event in the country's fight for independence. The Prime Minister also released a postal stamp dedicated to the Chauri Chaura centenary event. Governor of Uttar Pradesh and Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh were also present on the occasion.

Saluting the brave martyrs, the Prime Minister said the sacrifice made at Chauri Chaura gave a new direction to the country's freedom struggle. He said the incident which happened hundred years ago in Chauri Chaura was not just an arson incident but the message of Chauri Chaura was far wider. Under what circumstances arson happened, what were the reasons are equally important. He said due importance is now being given to the historical struggle of Chauri Chaura in our country's history. He said starting today, along with Chauri Chaura, every village will remember the heroic sacrifices in the events going to be held throughout the year. He said having such a celebration at a time, when the country is entering its 75th year of independence will make it even more relevant. He lamented at the lack of discussion about the martyrs of Chauri Chaura. He said the martyrs may not have figured prominently in the pages of history, but their blood shed for freedom is definitely in the country's soil.

The Prime Minister urged the people to remember the efforts of Baba Raghavdas and Mahamana Madan Mohan Malaviya due to which around 150 freedom fighters were saved from hanging on this special day. He expressed happiness that students were also involved in this campaign which would increase their awareness about many untold aspects of freedom struggle. He said the Ministry of Education has invited young writers on the completion of 75 years of independence to write a book on freedom fighters to showcase unsung heroes of freedom struggle. He lauded the efforts of the Uttar Pradesh government for the programmes organised to connect to the local arts and culture as a tribute to our freedom fighters.

Q. Governor of Uttar Pradesh, as in 2022, is:

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 40 Anandiben Mafatbhai Patel is an Indian politician serving as the current Governor of Uttar Pradesh.She also served as Governor of Madhya Pradesh. She has served as the first female Chief Minister of Gujarat. She was a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party since 1987.

Yogi Adityanath is the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 41

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi inaugurated 'Chauri Chaura' centenary celebrations at Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh through video conference. The day marks 100 years of the 'Chauri Chaura' incident, a landmark event in the country's fight for independence. The Prime Minister also released a postal stamp dedicated to the Chauri Chaura centenary event. Governor of Uttar Pradesh and Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh were also present on the occasion.

Saluting the brave martyrs, the Prime Minister said the sacrifice made at Chauri Chaura gave a new direction to the country's freedom struggle. He said the incident which happened hundred years ago in Chauri Chaura was not just an arson incident but the message of Chauri Chaura was far wider. Under what circumstances arson happened, what were the reasons are equally important. He said due importance is now being given to the historical struggle of Chauri Chaura in our country's history. He said starting today, along with Chauri Chaura, every village will remember the heroic sacrifices in the events going to be held throughout the year. He said having such a celebration at a time, when the country is entering its 75th year of independence will make it even more relevant. He lamented at the lack of discussion about the martyrs of Chauri Chaura. He said the martyrs may not have figured prominently in the pages of history, but their blood shed for freedom is definitely in the country's soil.

The Prime Minister urged the people to remember the efforts of Baba Raghavdas and Mahamana Madan Mohan Malaviya due to which around 150 freedom fighters were saved from hanging on this special day. He expressed happiness that students were also involved in this campaign which would increase their awareness about many untold aspects of freedom struggle. He said the Ministry of Education has invited young writers on the completion of 75 years of independence to write a book on freedom fighters to showcase unsung heroes of freedom struggle. He lauded the efforts of the Uttar Pradesh government for the programmes organised to connect to the local arts and culture as a tribute to our freedom fighters.

Q. Which of the following statements is/are not true?

i) Due to the Chauri Chaura incident, British authorities declared Charter Act in and around Chauri Chaura.

(ii) The Chauri Chaura incident led to the death of three civilians and 22 policemen

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 41 In 1922, the town was the site of the Chauri Chaura incident in which police shot and killed several demonstrators who were participating in the Non-Cooperation Movement and a police station was set on fire by the protesters, resulting in the deaths of at least 22 policemen. In response to the killing of the police, British authorities declared martial law in and around Chauri Chaura. Several raids were conducted and hundreds of people were arrested.

Hence, statement (i) is incorrect and statement (ii) is correct.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 42

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi inaugurated 'Chauri Chaura' centenary celebrations at Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh through video conference. The day marks 100 years of the 'Chauri Chaura' incident, a landmark event in the country's fight for independence. The Prime Minister also released a postal stamp dedicated to the Chauri Chaura centenary event. Governor of Uttar Pradesh and Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh were also present on the occasion.

Saluting the brave martyrs, the Prime Minister said the sacrifice made at Chauri Chaura gave a new direction to the country's freedom struggle. He said the incident which happened hundred years ago in Chauri Chaura was not just an arson incident but the message of Chauri Chaura was far wider. Under what circumstances arson happened, what were the reasons are equally important. He said due importance is now being given to the historical struggle of Chauri Chaura in our country's history. He said starting today, along with Chauri Chaura, every village will remember the heroic sacrifices in the events going to be held throughout the year. He said having such a celebration at a time, when the country is entering its 75th year of independence will make it even more relevant. He lamented at the lack of discussion about the martyrs of Chauri Chaura. He said the martyrs may not have figured prominently in the pages of history, but their blood shed for freedom is definitely in the country's soil.

The Prime Minister urged the people to remember the efforts of Baba Raghavdas and Mahamana Madan Mohan Malaviya due to which around 150 freedom fighters were saved from hanging on this special day. He expressed happiness that students were also involved in this campaign which would increase their awareness about many untold aspects of freedom struggle. He said the Ministry of Education has invited young writers on the completion of 75 years of independence to write a book on freedom fighters to showcase unsung heroes of freedom struggle. He lauded the efforts of the Uttar Pradesh government for the programmes organised to connect to the local arts and culture as a tribute to our freedom fighters.

Q. The Chauri Chaura incident took place in British India at Chauri Chaura in 1922. Chauri Chaura is a place in ______district of the modern Uttar Pradesh.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 42 The Chauri Chaura incident took place, in British India, on February 4, 1922 at Chauri Chaura. Chauri Chaura is a place in Gorakhpur district of the modern Uttar Pradesh. A total of 225 people were brought to trial at Gorakhpur Sessions Court of Judge H. E. Holmes, on charges of "rioting and arson" in conjunction with the Chauri Chaura affair.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 43

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

This year's Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine - awarded to the researchers David Julius from the University of California, San Francisco and Ardem Patapoutian from Scripps Research in La Jolla, California, respectively - recognises their seminal work.

The Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2021 is awarded for an efficient, precise, cheap, fast and environmentally friendly way to develop new molecules using a simple yet novel concept of catalysis - asymmetric organocatalysis.

Added to this, two journalists won the Nobel Peace Prize for defending freedom of expression. It was awarded to journalists Maria Ressa and Dmitry Muratov.

Q. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2021 for the development of asymmetric organocatalysis to

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 43 German scientist Benjamin List of the Max Planck Institute and Scotland-born scientist David W.C. MacMillan of Princeton University jointly won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2021. They won it for their development of a precise new tool for molecular construction: organocatalysis. This has had a great impact on pharmaceutical research, and has made chemistry greener.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 44

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

This year's Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine - awarded to the researchers David Julius from the University of California, San Francisco and Ardem Patapoutian from Scripps Research in La Jolla, California, respectively - recognises their seminal work.

The Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2021 is awarded for an efficient, precise, cheap, fast and environmentally friendly way to develop new molecules using a simple yet novel concept of catalysis - asymmetric organocatalysis.

Added to this, two journalists won the Nobel Peace Prize for defending freedom of expression. It was awarded to journalists Maria Ressa and Dmitry Muratov.

Q. Who won the Nobel Prize in Physics for 2021?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 44 The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2021 was awarded "for groundbreaking contributions to our understanding of complex systems" with one half jointly to Syukuro Manabe and Klaus Hasselmann "for the physical modelling of Earth's climate, quantifying variability and reliably predicting global warming" and the other half to Giorgio Parisi "for the discovery of the interplay of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems from atomic to planetary scales."
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 45

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

This year's Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine - awarded to the researchers David Julius from the University of California, San Francisco and Ardem Patapoutian from Scripps Research in La Jolla, California, respectively - recognises their seminal work.

The Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2021 is awarded for an efficient, precise, cheap, fast and environmentally friendly way to develop new molecules using a simple yet novel concept of catalysis - asymmetric organocatalysis.

Added to this, two journalists won the Nobel Peace Prize for defending freedom of expression. It was awarded to journalists Maria Ressa and Dmitry Muratov.

Q. The 2021 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded for:

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 45 Nobel Prize is presented in six different fields - Physics, Chemistry, Literature, Economic Sciences, Physiology or Medicine and Peace Prize. The winners take home a gold medal, diploma and grand prize money of 10 million Swedish Kronor.

In 2021, David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian, won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries of receptors for temperature and touch.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 46

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

This year's Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine - awarded to the researchers David Julius from the University of California, San Francisco and Ardem Patapoutian from Scripps Research in La Jolla, California, respectively - recognises their seminal work.

The Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2021 is awarded for an efficient, precise, cheap, fast and environmentally friendly way to develop new molecules using a simple yet novel concept of catalysis - asymmetric organocatalysis.

Added to this, two journalists won the Nobel Peace Prize for defending freedom of expression. It was awarded to journalists Maria Ressa and Dmitry Muratov.

Q. Maria Ressa was awarded the 2021 Nobel Peace Prize jointly with Dmitry Muratov to safeguard freedom of expression, which is a precondition for democracy and lasting peace. To which country did she belong?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 46 Maria Ressa, born in Manila, Philippines, won the 2021 Nobel peace prize jointly with Dmitry Andreyevich Muratov. Maria Ressa uses freedom of expression to expose abuse of power, use of violence and growing authoritarianism in her native country, Philippines. In 2012, she co-founded Rappler, a digital media company for investigative journalism. As a journalist and the Rappler's CEO, Ressa has shown herself to be a fearless defender of freedom of expression.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 47

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

This year's Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine - awarded to the researchers David Julius from the University of California, San Francisco and Ardem Patapoutian from Scripps Research in La Jolla, California, respectively - recognises their seminal work.

The Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2021 is awarded for an efficient, precise, cheap, fast and environmentally friendly way to develop new molecules using a simple yet novel concept of catalysis - asymmetric organocatalysis.

Added to this, two journalists won the Nobel Peace Prize for defending freedom of expression. It was awarded to journalists Maria Ressa and Dmitry Muratov.

Q. Who won the Nobel Prize in Literature for 2021?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 47 For Chemistry, Physics and Economic Sciences, Nobel Prize is given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Karolinska Institute confers the Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine, and the Swedish Academy gives the prize for literature.

Nobel Prize in Literature for 2021 was given to Tanzanian-born novelist Abdulrazak Gurnah for his uncompromising and compassionate penetration of the effects of colonialism and the fate of the refugee in the gulf between cultures and continents.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 48

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Tightening the anti money-laundering law, the government stated that a property will be considered as tainted if it relates to any offence on the basis of which a Prevention of Money Laundering Act case has been slapped.

The definitions were brought in the form of amendments to the Finance Bill, 2019 in the Lok Sabha, which was later approved by the House by a voice vote.

According to the amendments brought by Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman, "a person shall be guilty of offence of Money Laundering if such person is found to have directly or indirectly attempted to indulge or knowingly assisted or knowingly is a party or is actually involved" in "concealment, or possession, or acquisition, or use, or projecting as untainted property or claiming as untainted property."

The Prevention of Money Laundering Act would not only include property obtained from the PMLA offence but also any property which may "directly or indirectly" be obtained as a result of any criminal activity related to the scheduled offence on the basis of which a money laundering case is filed.

Further, entities would be accused of Money Laundering when they conceal, possess, acquire, use, and project or claim a property as untainted.

The government brought eight amendments to the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA), of which six are explanations to the existing clauses. The minister said explanations are being brought to certain existing clauses to remove the "confusion, grey area or ambiguity which might exist" in the vintage Act.

Speaking in the Lok Sabha, Finanace Minister said that out of eight amendments, one relates to deletion of a proviso. "A new proviso is being added to only make sure that where a case exists in one court and the hearings are going on there, and proceedings are happening in another court also, these two cannot be clubbed together and treated as one".

Q. Against which minister was breach of privilege motion passed in 2021, in response to 2-minute silence in the light of the death of farmers who lost their life in the ongoing protest by farmers against the firm laws?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 48 Rahul Gandhi led his party members and others for a 2-minute silence in the light of the death of farmers who lost their life in the ongoing protest by farmers against the firm laws. Following this, BJP MP Sanjay Jaiswal and P. P. Chaudhary alleged Rahul Gandhi with the claim that he has shown an unparliamentary behaviour and passed the breach of privilege motion against him.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 49

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Tightening the anti money-laundering law, the government stated that a property will be considered as tainted if it relates to any offence on the basis of which a Prevention of Money Laundering Act case has been slapped.

The definitions were brought in the form of amendments to the Finance Bill, 2019 in the Lok Sabha, which was later approved by the House by a voice vote.

According to the amendments brought by Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman, "a person shall be guilty of offence of Money Laundering if such person is found to have directly or indirectly attempted to indulge or knowingly assisted or knowingly is a party or is actually involved" in "concealment, or possession, or acquisition, or use, or projecting as untainted property or claiming as untainted property."

The Prevention of Money Laundering Act would not only include property obtained from the PMLA offence but also any property which may "directly or indirectly" be obtained as a result of any criminal activity related to the scheduled offence on the basis of which a money laundering case is filed.

Further, entities would be accused of Money Laundering when they conceal, possess, acquire, use, and project or claim a property as untainted.

The government brought eight amendments to the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA), of which six are explanations to the existing clauses. The minister said explanations are being brought to certain existing clauses to remove the "confusion, grey area or ambiguity which might exist" in the vintage Act.

Speaking in the Lok Sabha, Finanace Minister said that out of eight amendments, one relates to deletion of a proviso. "A new proviso is being added to only make sure that where a case exists in one court and the hearings are going on there, and proceedings are happening in another court also, these two cannot be clubbed together and treated as one".

Q. Who was the first Finance Minister of India?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 49 Sir Ramasamy Chetty Kandasamy Shanmukham Chetty KCIE (17 October, 1892 - 5 May, 1953) was an Indian lawyer, economist and politician who served as independent India's first Finance Minister from 1947 to 1949.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 50

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Tightening the anti money-laundering law, the government stated that a property will be considered as tainted if it relates to any offence on the basis of which a Prevention of Money Laundering Act case has been slapped.

The definitions were brought in the form of amendments to the Finance Bill, 2019 in the Lok Sabha, which was later approved by the House by a voice vote.

According to the amendments brought by Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman, "a person shall be guilty of offence of Money Laundering if such person is found to have directly or indirectly attempted to indulge or knowingly assisted or knowingly is a party or is actually involved" in "concealment, or possession, or acquisition, or use, or projecting as untainted property or claiming as untainted property."

The Prevention of Money Laundering Act would not only include property obtained from the PMLA offence but also any property which may "directly or indirectly" be obtained as a result of any criminal activity related to the scheduled offence on the basis of which a money laundering case is filed.

Further, entities would be accused of Money Laundering when they conceal, possess, acquire, use, and project or claim a property as untainted.

The government brought eight amendments to the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA), of which six are explanations to the existing clauses. The minister said explanations are being brought to certain existing clauses to remove the "confusion, grey area or ambiguity which might exist" in the vintage Act.

Speaking in the Lok Sabha, Finanace Minister said that out of eight amendments, one relates to deletion of a proviso. "A new proviso is being added to only make sure that where a case exists in one court and the hearings are going on there, and proceedings are happening in another court also, these two cannot be clubbed together and treated as one".

Q. Which of the following has been defined under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 50 The term 'proceeds of crime', which is an essential ingredient of Money Laundering has been defined under Section 2(u) of Prevention of Money Laundering Act, and it means and includes

Any property, derived or obtained, directly or indirectly, by any person as a result of criminal activity relating to a scheduled offence or value of any such property, or where the property is taken or held outside the country, when the property equivalent in value held within the country.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 51

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Tightening the anti money-laundering law, the government stated that a property will be considered as tainted if it relates to any offence on the basis of which a Prevention of Money Laundering Act case has been slapped.

The definitions were brought in the form of amendments to the Finance Bill, 2019 in the Lok Sabha, which was later approved by the House by a voice vote.

According to the amendments brought by Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman, "a person shall be guilty of offence of Money Laundering if such person is found to have directly or indirectly attempted to indulge or knowingly assisted or knowingly is a party or is actually involved" in "concealment, or possession, or acquisition, or use, or projecting as untainted property or claiming as untainted property."

The Prevention of Money Laundering Act would not only include property obtained from the PMLA offence but also any property which may "directly or indirectly" be obtained as a result of any criminal activity related to the scheduled offence on the basis of which a money laundering case is filed.

Further, entities would be accused of Money Laundering when they conceal, possess, acquire, use, and project or claim a property as untainted.

The government brought eight amendments to the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA), of which six are explanations to the existing clauses. The minister said explanations are being brought to certain existing clauses to remove the "confusion, grey area or ambiguity which might exist" in the vintage Act.

Speaking in the Lok Sabha, Finanace Minister said that out of eight amendments, one relates to deletion of a proviso. "A new proviso is being added to only make sure that where a case exists in one court and the hearings are going on there, and proceedings are happening in another court also, these two cannot be clubbed together and treated as one".

Q. Consider the following statements and mark the correct option.

Assertion (A): Lok Sabha passed the Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Bill, 2021.

Reason (R): Government is working in direction of making India a big hub for domestic and international arbitration.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 51 Lok Sabha passed the Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Bill, 2021, on February 12, 2021 by voice vote. The law minister highlighted that India wants to be an excellent hub for the arbitration. So, the government has passed the bill and is working in direction of making India a big hub for domestic and international arbitration.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 52

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Tightening the anti money-laundering law, the government stated that a property will be considered as tainted if it relates to any offence on the basis of which a Prevention of Money Laundering Act case has been slapped.

The definitions were brought in the form of amendments to the Finance Bill, 2019 in the Lok Sabha, which was later approved by the House by a voice vote.

According to the amendments brought by Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman, "a person shall be guilty of offence of Money Laundering if such person is found to have directly or indirectly attempted to indulge or knowingly assisted or knowingly is a party or is actually involved" in "concealment, or possession, or acquisition, or use, or projecting as untainted property or claiming as untainted property."

The Prevention of Money Laundering Act would not only include property obtained from the PMLA offence but also any property which may "directly or indirectly" be obtained as a result of any criminal activity related to the scheduled offence on the basis of which a money laundering case is filed.

Further, entities would be accused of Money Laundering when they conceal, possess, acquire, use, and project or claim a property as untainted.

The government brought eight amendments to the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA), of which six are explanations to the existing clauses. The minister said explanations are being brought to certain existing clauses to remove the "confusion, grey area or ambiguity which might exist" in the vintage Act.

Speaking in the Lok Sabha, Finanace Minister said that out of eight amendments, one relates to deletion of a proviso. "A new proviso is being added to only make sure that where a case exists in one court and the hearings are going on there, and proceedings are happening in another court also, these two cannot be clubbed together and treated as one".

Q. Name the money laundering case in which former Finance Minister P. Chidambaram was arrested by Enforcement Directorate.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 52 Congress leader P. Chidambaram was arrested in the INX MEDIA case by Enforcement Directorate. ED claimed that he used the office for personal gains and laundered the proceeds of crime. The case was registered by the CBI on May 15, 2017, alleging irregularities in a Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) clearance granted to the INX MEDIA group for receiving overseas funds of Rs. 305 crore in 2007, during Chidambaram's tenure as Finance Minister.

Chidambaram was first arrested by the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) in the INX MEDIA corruption case.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 53

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

As the Taliban's campaign to reconquer Afghanistan was gathering pace in June, hundreds of people were dying in the fighting, and tens of thousands were fleeing. Danish Siddiqui, a 38-year-old star photojournalist for Reuters based in New Delhi, decided he wanted to help cover the story, telling a boss: "If we don't go, who will?"

On Sunday, July 11, Siddiqui arrived at a base of the Afghan Special Forces in the southern city of Kandahar.

On Tuesday, July 13, Siddiqui joined a successful mission to rescue a policeman who was surrounded by insurgents. His convoy was returning when it came under fire from rocket-propelled grenades.

The Humvee he was travelling in was hit by one of the RPGs. Siddiqui captured on video the flash and jolt as a grenade struck the side of his vehicle and the commandos up front drove through the barrage. His images and report of the mission went on the Reuters wire, and he later shared the action on Twitter.

Three days later, Siddiqui and two Afghan commandos were killed in a Taliban attack while on another mission, a failed attempt to retake the key border town of Spin Boldak.

Q. As per a report by the international non-profit organisation 'Reporters Without Borders' (RSF), which country had the most number of journalists in captivity in 2021?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 53 In a report, the international non-profit organisation 'Reporters Without Borders' (RSF) has described China as the country with the most number of journalists in captivity. The report said that at least 127 journalists have been detained by China. Journalists have been detained for reporting and publishing issues deemed 'sensitive' by the ruling Communist Party of China. According to Reporters Without Borders, these journalists also include professional and non-professional media persons.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 54

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

As the Taliban's campaign to reconquer Afghanistan was gathering pace in June, hundreds of people were dying in the fighting, and tens of thousands were fleeing. Danish Siddiqui, a 38-year-old star photojournalist for Reuters based in New Delhi, decided he wanted to help cover the story, telling a boss: "If we don't go, who will?"

On Sunday, July 11, Siddiqui arrived at a base of the Afghan Special Forces in the southern city of Kandahar.

On Tuesday, July 13, Siddiqui joined a successful mission to rescue a policeman who was surrounded by insurgents. His convoy was returning when it came under fire from rocket-propelled grenades.

The Humvee he was travelling in was hit by one of the RPGs. Siddiqui captured on video the flash and jolt as a grenade struck the side of his vehicle and the commandos up front drove through the barrage. His images and report of the mission went on the Reuters wire, and he later shared the action on Twitter.

Three days later, Siddiqui and two Afghan commandos were killed in a Taliban attack while on another mission, a failed attempt to retake the key border town of Spin Boldak.

Q. Which of the following is/are true for the War in Afghanistan, a conflict that ended in 2021?

A. After the Taliban government refused to hand over terrorist leader Osama bin Laden, the United States invaded Afghanistan in 2002.

B. It was the longest war in United States history, surpassing the Vietnam War (1955–1975) by approximately five months.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 54 Only statement B is true.

The War in Afghanistan was a conflict that took place from 2001 to 2021 in the Central Asian country of Afghanistan. It began when the United States and its allies invaded Afghanistan and toppled the Taliban-ruled Islamic Emirate. The war ended with the Taliban regaining power after 19 years and 10 months-long insurgency against allied NATO and Afghan Armed Forces. It was the longest war in United States history, surpassing the Vietnam War (1955–1975) by approximately five months. The war started when after the Taliban government refused to hand over terrorist leader Osama bin Laden in the wake of Al-Qaeda's September 11, 2001, attacks, the United States invaded Afghanistan.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 55

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

As the Taliban's campaign to reconquer Afghanistan was gathering pace in June, hundreds of people were dying in the fighting, and tens of thousands were fleeing. Danish Siddiqui, a 38-year-old star photojournalist for Reuters based in New Delhi, decided he wanted to help cover the story, telling a boss: "If we don't go, who will?"

On Sunday, July 11, Siddiqui arrived at a base of the Afghan Special Forces in the southern city of Kandahar.

On Tuesday, July 13, Siddiqui joined a successful mission to rescue a policeman who was surrounded by insurgents. His convoy was returning when it came under fire from rocket-propelled grenades.

The Humvee he was travelling in was hit by one of the RPGs. Siddiqui captured on video the flash and jolt as a grenade struck the side of his vehicle and the commandos up front drove through the barrage. His images and report of the mission went on the Reuters wire, and he later shared the action on Twitter.

Three days later, Siddiqui and two Afghan commandos were killed in a Taliban attack while on another mission, a failed attempt to retake the key border town of Spin Boldak.

Q. Danish Siddiqui started his career as a correspondent for which Newspaper?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 55 Siddiqui started his career as a correspondent for the Hindustan Times before shifting to the TV Today Network. He switched to photojournalism and joined Reuters as an intern in 2010. Since July 2021, he had been serving as an embedded journalist with the Afghan Special Forces to document the Taliban offensive, in what was his last assignment.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 56

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

As the Taliban's campaign to reconquer Afghanistan was gathering pace in June, hundreds of people were dying in the fighting, and tens of thousands were fleeing. Danish Siddiqui, a 38-year-old star photojournalist for Reuters based in New Delhi, decided he wanted to help cover the story, telling a boss: "If we don't go, who will?"

On Sunday, July 11, Siddiqui arrived at a base of the Afghan Special Forces in the southern city of Kandahar.

On Tuesday, July 13, Siddiqui joined a successful mission to rescue a policeman who was surrounded by insurgents. His convoy was returning when it came under fire from rocket-propelled grenades.

The Humvee he was travelling in was hit by one of the RPGs. Siddiqui captured on video the flash and jolt as a grenade struck the side of his vehicle and the commandos up front drove through the barrage. His images and report of the mission went on the Reuters wire, and he later shared the action on Twitter.

Three days later, Siddiqui and two Afghan commandos were killed in a Taliban attack while on another mission, a failed attempt to retake the key border town of Spin Boldak.

Q. Danish Siddiqui, in 2018, received the Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography, as part of the Reuters team, for documenting the Rohingya refugee crisis. Which of the following is false for the Pulitzer Prize?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 56 Statement 4 is false.

The Pulitzer Prize is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine, online journalism, literature and musical composition within the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of Joseph Pulitzer, who had made his fortune as a newspaper publisher, and is administered by Columbia University. Prizes are awarded yearly in twenty-one categories. In twenty of the categories, each winner receives a certificate and a US $15,000 cash award (raised from $10,000 in 2017). The winner in the public service category is awarded a gold medal.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 57

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

As the Taliban's campaign to reconquer Afghanistan was gathering pace in June, hundreds of people were dying in the fighting, and tens of thousands were fleeing. Danish Siddiqui, a 38-year-old star photojournalist for Reuters based in New Delhi, decided he wanted to help cover the story, telling a boss: "If we don't go, who will?"

On Sunday, July 11, Siddiqui arrived at a base of the Afghan Special Forces in the southern city of Kandahar.

On Tuesday, July 13, Siddiqui joined a successful mission to rescue a policeman who was surrounded by insurgents. His convoy was returning when it came under fire from rocket-propelled grenades.

The Humvee he was travelling in was hit by one of the RPGs. Siddiqui captured on video the flash and jolt as a grenade struck the side of his vehicle and the commandos up front drove through the barrage. His images and report of the mission went on the Reuters wire, and he later shared the action on Twitter.

Three days later, Siddiqui and two Afghan commandos were killed in a Taliban attack while on another mission, a failed attempt to retake the key border town of Spin Boldak.

Q. Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country bordered by:

Choose the incorrect statement.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 58

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

As a part of Prime Minister Street Vendor's AtmaNirbhar Nidhi (PM SVANidhi) Scheme, the MoHUA entered into an MoU with Zomato, one of the largest online platforms for ordering and delivery of food in India, to onboard street food vendors on its food-tech platform. This will give street food vendors online access to thousands of consumers and help these vendors grow their businesses. Further, the MoHUA launched the mobile application "PM SVANidhi se Samriddhi" for socio-economic profiling of PM SVANidhi beneficiaries and their families to link them to various central government schemes.

The MoU with Zomato was exchanged between Shri Sanjay Kumar, Joint Secretary, MoHUA and Shri Mohit Sardana, Chief Operating Officer, Zomato, in the presence of Shri Durga Shanker Mishra, Secretary, MoHUA, and officials of Zomato and the Ministry. State Mission Directors of DAY-NULM from Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Punjab participated in the ceremony through video conferencing facility. Covid-19 pandemic has restricted consumers from stepping out and forced them to follow physical distancing norms. In the given scenario, it is important to connect street food vendors with technology enabled platforms to help them grow their business, thus helping them gain financially.

In a first of its kind initiative, the MoHUA entered into an MoU with Swiggy on October 5, 2020 and it is now joining hands with Zomato to empower street food vendors with digital technology and facilitate greater income earning opportunities by being present on a popular food-tech platforms.

Q. Which of the following statements is not correct regarding the memorandum signed between the MoHUA and Swiggy?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 58 The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs and Zomato signed an MoU under the Prime Minister Street Vendor's AtmaNirbhar Nidhi (PM SVANidhi) Scheme.

According to this MoU, the MoHUA and Zomato ran a pilot programme initially by onboarding 300 vendors.

These vendors were selected from across six cities, namely, Patna, Bhopal, Nagpur, Ludhiana, Vadodara and Raipur.

Under the MoU, it was decided to onboard the street food vendors on the food-tech platform of Zomato.

They were given training on technology and partner app usage, menu digitisation, pricing, and hygiene and packaging.

Hence, option 2 is correct.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 59

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

As a part of Prime Minister Street Vendor's AtmaNirbhar Nidhi (PM SVANidhi) Scheme, the MoHUA entered into an MoU with Zomato, one of the largest online platforms for ordering and delivery of food in India, to onboard street food vendors on its food-tech platform. This will give street food vendors online access to thousands of consumers and help these vendors grow their businesses. Further, the MoHUA launched the mobile application "PM SVANidhi se Samriddhi" for socio-economic profiling of PM SVANidhi beneficiaries and their families to link them to various central government schemes.

The MoU with Zomato was exchanged between Shri Sanjay Kumar, Joint Secretary, MoHUA and Shri Mohit Sardana, Chief Operating Officer, Zomato, in the presence of Shri Durga Shanker Mishra, Secretary, MoHUA, and officials of Zomato and the Ministry. State Mission Directors of DAY-NULM from Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Punjab participated in the ceremony through video conferencing facility. Covid-19 pandemic has restricted consumers from stepping out and forced them to follow physical distancing norms. In the given scenario, it is important to connect street food vendors with technology enabled platforms to help them grow their business, thus helping them gain financially.

In a first of its kind initiative, the MoHUA entered into an MoU with Swiggy on October 5, 2020 and it is now joining hands with Zomato to empower street food vendors with digital technology and facilitate greater income earning opportunities by being present on a popular food-tech platforms.

Q. As per the MoU, street vendors were empowered with the PAN and ______ registration.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 59 The street vendors were helped with PAN and Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) registration, training on technology/partner app usage, menu digitisation, pricing, hygiene and packaging.

Food Safety and Standards Authority of India is an autonomous body established under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 60

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

As a part of Prime Minister Street Vendor's AtmaNirbhar Nidhi (PM SVANidhi) Scheme, the MoHUA entered into an MoU with Zomato, one of the largest online platforms for ordering and delivery of food in India, to onboard street food vendors on its food-tech platform. This will give street food vendors online access to thousands of consumers and help these vendors grow their businesses. Further, the MoHUA launched the mobile application "PM SVANidhi se Samriddhi" for socio-economic profiling of PM SVANidhi beneficiaries and their families to link them to various central government schemes.

The MoU with Zomato was exchanged between Shri Sanjay Kumar, Joint Secretary, MoHUA and Shri Mohit Sardana, Chief Operating Officer, Zomato, in the presence of Shri Durga Shanker Mishra, Secretary, MoHUA, and officials of Zomato and the Ministry. State Mission Directors of DAY-NULM from Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Punjab participated in the ceremony through video conferencing facility. Covid-19 pandemic has restricted consumers from stepping out and forced them to follow physical distancing norms. In the given scenario, it is important to connect street food vendors with technology enabled platforms to help them grow their business, thus helping them gain financially.

In a first of its kind initiative, the MoHUA entered into an MoU with Swiggy on October 5, 2020 and it is now joining hands with Zomato to empower street food vendors with digital technology and facilitate greater income earning opportunities by being present on a popular food-tech platforms.

Q. Who is the CEO of Zomato?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 60 Zomato is an Indian restaurant aggregator and food delivery start-up founded by Pankaj Chaddah and Deepinder Goyal in 2008.

Deepinder Goyal is the CEO of Zomato.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 61

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

As a part of Prime Minister Street Vendor's AtmaNirbhar Nidhi (PM SVANidhi) Scheme, the MoHUA entered into an MoU with Zomato, one of the largest online platforms for ordering and delivery of food in India, to onboard street food vendors on its food-tech platform. This will give street food vendors online access to thousands of consumers and help these vendors grow their businesses. Further, the MoHUA launched the mobile application "PM SVANidhi se Samriddhi" for socio-economic profiling of PM SVANidhi beneficiaries and their families to link them to various central government schemes.

The MoU with Zomato was exchanged between Shri Sanjay Kumar, Joint Secretary, MoHUA and Shri Mohit Sardana, Chief Operating Officer, Zomato, in the presence of Shri Durga Shanker Mishra, Secretary, MoHUA, and officials of Zomato and the Ministry. State Mission Directors of DAY-NULM from Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Punjab participated in the ceremony through video conferencing facility. Covid-19 pandemic has restricted consumers from stepping out and forced them to follow physical distancing norms. In the given scenario, it is important to connect street food vendors with technology enabled platforms to help them grow their business, thus helping them gain financially.

In a first of its kind initiative, the MoHUA entered into an MoU with Swiggy on October 5, 2020 and it is now joining hands with Zomato to empower street food vendors with digital technology and facilitate greater income earning opportunities by being present on a popular food-tech platforms.

Q. Which of the following statements does not explain the benefit of the PM SVANidhi Scheme for street food vendors?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 61 The scheme was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 1st June, 2020. It was launched to help street vendors. Under the scheme, street vendors are provided with a capital loan of Rs. 10,000 at subsidised interest rates for one year. The scheme is available to street vendors in rural and urban areas. The scheme was implemented by Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI).

The MoHUA launched the mobile application "PM SVANidhi se Samriddhi" for socio-economic profiling of PM SVANidhi beneficiaries and their families to link them to various central government schemes.

So, all options except the fourth one provide the benefits of the PM SVANidhi Scheme.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 62

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

As a part of Prime Minister Street Vendor's AtmaNirbhar Nidhi (PM SVANidhi) Scheme, the MoHUA entered into an MoU with Zomato, one of the largest online platforms for ordering and delivery of food in India, to onboard street food vendors on its food-tech platform. This will give street food vendors online access to thousands of consumers and help these vendors grow their businesses. Further, the MoHUA launched the mobile application "PM SVANidhi se Samriddhi" for socio-economic profiling of PM SVANidhi beneficiaries and their families to link them to various central government schemes.

The MoU with Zomato was exchanged between Shri Sanjay Kumar, Joint Secretary, MoHUA and Shri Mohit Sardana, Chief Operating Officer, Zomato, in the presence of Shri Durga Shanker Mishra, Secretary, MoHUA, and officials of Zomato and the Ministry. State Mission Directors of DAY-NULM from Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Punjab participated in the ceremony through video conferencing facility. Covid-19 pandemic has restricted consumers from stepping out and forced them to follow physical distancing norms. In the given scenario, it is important to connect street food vendors with technology enabled platforms to help them grow their business, thus helping them gain financially.

In a first of its kind initiative, the MoHUA entered into an MoU with Swiggy on October 5, 2020 and it is now joining hands with Zomato to empower street food vendors with digital technology and facilitate greater income earning opportunities by being present on a popular food-tech platforms.

Q. Which of the following states secured the top ranking in all categories of the PM SVANidhi Scheme?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 62 The Uttar Pradesh government secured the top ranking in all categories of the PM SVANidhi Scheme. The categories were sanction, applications and disbursements of loans. More than seven cities from the state found their top place in the list. They were Lucknow, Varanasi, Aligarh, Allahabad, Ghaziabad, Gorakhpur and Kanpur.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 63

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

National Stock Exchange of India (NSE) in collaboration with Bengaluru-based startup has launched NSE-Shine, a blockchain platform for gold bullion. The platform will provide a data framework for bullion bar integrity for settlement of Gold derivatives contracts. The India Gold Policy Centre (IGPC) at the Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad (IIM-A) and the Indian Bullion and Jewellers' Association (IBJA) have worked closely with the NSE to develop this blockchain-based platform.

The features on the platform would help create a bullion repository for all bullion bars produced by NSE-approved refiners as per the NSE Refiner Standards (NRS).

Q. In case of 22 Karat gold, what is the actual content of gold in it?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 63 22 Karat gold is 91.67 per cent pure gold. The 22 Karat gold is mostly used for making jewellery. In 22 Karat gold, 22 parts of the metal are gold and the rest two comprised of metals like silver, zinc, nickel, and other alloys. Mixing alloys makes the jewellery durable because it brings hardness to the gold.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 64

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

National Stock Exchange of India (NSE) in collaboration with Bengaluru-based startup has launched NSE-Shine, a blockchain platform for gold bullion. The platform will provide a data framework for bullion bar integrity for settlement of Gold derivatives contracts. The India Gold Policy Centre (IGPC) at the Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad (IIM-A) and the Indian Bullion and Jewellers' Association (IBJA) have worked closely with the NSE to develop this blockchain-based platform.

The features on the platform would help create a bullion repository for all bullion bars produced by NSE-approved refiners as per the NSE Refiner Standards (NRS).

Q. What is the interest rate in a Sovereign Gold Bond Scheme?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 64 The bond under this scheme has a fixed interest rate of 2.5 percent per annum on the amount of initial investment. Interest will be credited semi-annually to the bank account of the investor and the last interest will be payable on maturity along with the principal.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 65

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

National Stock Exchange of India (NSE) in collaboration with Bengaluru-based startup has launched NSE-Shine, a blockchain platform for gold bullion. The platform will provide a data framework for bullion bar integrity for settlement of Gold derivatives contracts. The India Gold Policy Centre (IGPC) at the Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad (IIM-A) and the Indian Bullion and Jewellers' Association (IBJA) have worked closely with the NSE to develop this blockchain-based platform.

The features on the platform would help create a bullion repository for all bullion bars produced by NSE-approved refiners as per the NSE Refiner Standards (NRS).

Q. What is the name of Bengaluru-based startup which has launched NSE-Shine?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 65 Bengaluru-based startup Chainflux has launched NSE-Shine, a blockchain platform for gold bullion. Chainflux is one of the top R&D blockchain firms in India. The platform will provide a data framework for bullion bar integrity for settlement of Gold derivatives contracts.The India Gold Policy Centre (IGPC) at the Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad (IIM-A) and the Indian Bullion and Jewellers' Association (IBJA) have worked closely with the NSE and Chainflux to develop this blockchain-based platform.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 66

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

National Stock Exchange of India (NSE) in collaboration with Bengaluru-based startup has launched NSE-Shine, a blockchain platform for gold bullion. The platform will provide a data framework for bullion bar integrity for settlement of Gold derivatives contracts. The India Gold Policy Centre (IGPC) at the Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad (IIM-A) and the Indian Bullion and Jewellers' Association (IBJA) have worked closely with the NSE to develop this blockchain-based platform.

The features on the platform would help create a bullion repository for all bullion bars produced by NSE-approved refiners as per the NSE Refiner Standards (NRS).

Q. Under Sovereign Gold Bond (SGB) scheme, what is the Bond's tenor?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 66 Sovereign Gold Bond (SGB) are government securities denominated in grams of gold. Investors have to pay the issue price in cash and the bonds will be redeemed in cash on maturity. The Bond is issued by Reserve Bank on behalf of the Government of India. The tenor of the Bond will be for a period of 8 years with an exit option in the 5th, 6th and 7th years, to be exercised on the interest payment dates.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 67

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

National Stock Exchange of India (NSE) in collaboration with Bengaluru-based startup has launched NSE-Shine, a blockchain platform for gold bullion. The platform will provide a data framework for bullion bar integrity for settlement of Gold derivatives contracts. The India Gold Policy Centre (IGPC) at the Indian Institute of Management - Ahmedabad (IIM-A) and the Indian Bullion and Jewellers' Association (IBJA) have worked closely with the NSE to develop this blockchain-based platform.

The features on the platform would help create a bullion repository for all bullion bars produced by NSE-approved refiners as per the NSE Refiner Standards (NRS).

Q. Blockchain technology is impacting a variety of sectors and has application in many areas. Identify the area(s) from the options given below.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 67 Blockchain technology has possible use in many areas ranging from cryptocurrencies, smart contracts, financial services, games, energy trading, supply chain, anti-counterfeiting, healthcare and military operations.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 68

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Centre announced that the Citizenship (Amendment) Act will come into force from January 10, 2020.10, In a gazette notification, the Union home ministry said the act under which non-Muslim refugees from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan will be given Indian citizenship, will come into force from January 10.

"In exercise of the powers conferred by subsection (2) of the section 11 of the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 (47 of 2019 ), the Central government hereby appoints the 10th day of January 2020, as the date on which the provisions of the said Act shall come into force," the government notification said. It amended the Citizenship Act of 1955 by providing a path to Indian citizenship for members of Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi, and Christian religious minorities, who had fled persecution from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan before December 2014.The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2019 was passed by Parliament on Wednesday December 11, 2019, with the Rajya Sabha voting 125−99 in favour of the Bill.

CAA won't apply to areas under the sixth schedule of the Constitution - which deals with autonomous tribal dominated regions in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram. The bill will also not apply to states that have the inner-line permit regime (Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Mizoram). The passage came amidst large scale protests in Assam, where the military had to be called in to control protesting crowds, despite assurances from the Centre that special measures will be taken under clause 6 of the 1985 Assam Accord to address Assamese concerns.

The Lok Sabha had approved the Bill by a significant majority on December 2, 2019. The legislation applies to those who were "forced or compelled to seek shelter in India due to persecution on the ground of religion". It aims to protect such people from proceedings of illegal migration. The cut-off date for citizenship was December 31, 2014 which means the applicant should have entered India on or before that date. Indian citizenship, under previous law, was given either to those born in India or if they have resided in the country for a minimum of 11 years.

Q. The Citizenship (Amendment) Act is for religious minority groups persecuted in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh does not include ______.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 68 Amendment of the Citizenship Act of 19551955 by providing a path to Indian citizenship for members of Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi, and Christian religious minorities, who had fled persecution from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan before December 2014.2014.

Hence, the correct answer is Jews.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 69

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Centre announced that the Citizenship (Amendment) Act will come into force from January 10, 2020.10, 2020. In a gazette notification, the Union home ministry said the act under which non-Muslim refugees from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan will be given Indian citizenship, will come into force from January 10.

"In exercise of the powers conferred by subsection (2) of the section 11 of the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 (47 of 2019 ), the Central government hereby appoints the 10th day of January 2020, as the date on which the provisions of the said Act shall come into force," the government notification said. It amended the Citizenship Act of 1955 by providing a path to Indian citizenship for members of Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi, and Christian religious minorities, who had fled persecution from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan before December 2014.The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2019 was passed by Parliament on Wednesday December 11, 2019, with the Rajya Sabha voting 125−99 in favour of the Bill.

CAA won't apply to areas under the sixth schedule of the Constitution - which deals with autonomous tribal dominated regions in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram. The bill will also not apply to states that have the inner-line permit regime (Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Mizoram). The passage came amidst large scale protests in Assam, where the military had to be called in to control protesting crowds, despite assurances from the Centre that special measures will be taken under clause 6 of the 1985 Assam Accord to address Assamese concerns.

The Lok Sabha had approved the Bill by a significant majority on December 2, 2019. The legislation applies to those who were "forced or compelled to seek shelter in India due to persecution on the ground of religion". It aims to protect such people from proceedings of illegal migration. The cut-off date for citizenship was December 31, 2014 which means the applicant should have entered India on or before that date. Indian citizenship, under previous law, was given either to those born in India or if they have resided in the country for a minimum of 11 years.

Q. What was the time to reside in India for eligibility of citizenship by naturalization under the Citizenship Act of 1955 ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 69 According to question,

Indian citizenship, under previous law, was given either to those born in India or if they have resided in the country for a minimum of 11 years.

Hence, the correct answer is 11 years.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 70

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Centre announced that the Citizenship (Amendment) Act will come into force from January 10, 2020.10, 2020. In a gazette notification, the Union home ministry said the act under which non-Muslim refugees from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan will be given Indian citizenship, will come into force from January 10.

"In exercise of the powers conferred by subsection (2) of the section 11 of the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 (47 of 2019 ), the Central government hereby appoints the 10th day of January 2020, as the date on which the provisions of the said Act shall come into force," the government notification said. It amended the Citizenship Act of 1955 by providing a path to Indian citizenship for members of Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi, and Christian religious minorities, who had fled persecution from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan before December 2014.The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2019 was passed by Parliament on Wednesday December 11, 2019, with the Rajya Sabha voting 125−99 in favour of the Bill.

CAA won't apply to areas under the sixth schedule of the Constitution - which deals with autonomous tribal dominated regions in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram. The bill will also not apply to states that have the inner-line permit regime (Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Mizoram). The passage came amidst large scale protests in Assam, where the military had to be called in to control protesting crowds, despite assurances from the Centre that special measures will be taken under clause 6 of the 1985 Assam Accord to address Assamese concerns.

The Lok Sabha had approved the Bill by a significant majority on December 2, 2019. The legislation applies to those who were "forced or compelled to seek shelter in India due to persecution on the ground of religion". It aims to protect such people from proceedings of illegal migration. The cut-off date for citizenship was December 31, 2014 which means the applicant should have entered India on or before that date. Indian citizenship, under previous law, was given either to those born in India or if they have resided in the country for a minimum of 11 years.

Q.On which date the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill was passed.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 70 According to question,

The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2019 was passed by Parliament on Wednesday December 11, 2019 with the Rajya Sabha voting 125−99 in favour of the Bill.The Centre announced that the Citizenship (Amendment) Act will come into force from January 10, 2020. In a gazette notification, the Union home ministry said the act under which non-Muslim refugees from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan will be given Indian citizenship, will come into force from January 10.

Hence, the correct answer is December 11, 2019.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 71

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Centre announced that the Citizenship (Amendment) Act will come into force from January 10, 2020.10, 2020. In a gazette notification, the Union home ministry said the act under which non-Muslim refugees from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan will be given Indian citizenship, will come into force from January 10.

"In exercise of the powers conferred by subsection (2) of the section 11 of the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 (47 of 2019 ), the Central government hereby appoints the 10th day of January 2020, as the date on which the provisions of the said Act shall come into force," the government notification said. It amended the Citizenship Act of 1955 by providing a path to Indian citizenship for members of Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi, and Christian religious minorities, who had fled persecution from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan before December 2014.The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2019 was passed by Parliament on Wednesday December 11, 2019, with the Rajya Sabha voting 125−99 in favour of the Bill.

CAA won't apply to areas under the sixth schedule of the Constitution - which deals with autonomous tribal dominated regions in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram. The bill will also not apply to states that have the inner-line permit regime (Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Mizoram). The passage came amidst large scale protests in Assam, where the military had to be called in to control protesting crowds, despite assurances from the Centre that special measures will be taken under clause 6 of the 1985 Assam Accord to address Assamese concerns.

The Lok Sabha had approved the Bill by a significant majority on December 2, 2019. The legislation applies to those who were "forced or compelled to seek shelter in India due to persecution on the ground of religion". It aims to protect such people from proceedings of illegal migration. The cut-off date for citizenship was December 31, 2014 which means the applicant should have entered India on or before that date. Indian citizenship, under previous law, was given either to those born in India or if they have resided in the country for a minimum of 11 years.

Q. What do you understand by the Cut-off date for citizenship ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 71 According to question,

The legislation applies to those who were "forced or compelled to seek shelter in India due to persecution on the ground of religion". It aims to protect such people from proceedings of illegal migration. The cut-off date for citizenship was December which means the applicant should have entered India on or before that date.

Hence, the correct answer is Migrants who entered India on or before this date

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 72

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Madras High Court has dismissed a case filed by a person challenging two consecutive orders passed by courts directing him to pay maintenance of Rs.5000 a month to his aged mother under Section 125 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (Order for maintenance of wives, children and parents).

Justice PN. Prakash said he did not find any manifest illegality in the order passed by a judicial magistrate court in Salem in 2012 and confirmed by a sessions court in 2014 while dismissing a revision petition preferred by the man under Section 397 of the CrPC (calling for records to exercise powers of revision). The judge pointed out that an order by a judicial or metropolitan magistrate for payment of monthly maintenance to parents, wife or children could be challenged by way of a criminal revision petition either before a High Court or a sessions court. After the petitioner moves a revision application before the High Court or the sessions court, no further application by the same person could be entertained by either of the courts.There was a specific bar on it under Section 397(3) of CrPC.

In an attempt to overcome such a bar, the present petitioner preferred an application before the High Court under Section 482 of the CrPC (inherent power of the High Court to prevent abuse of process of any court or to secure the ends of justice). Holding the course adopted by the petitioner as not maintainable, Justice Prakash said petitions under Section 482 could be entertained by the High Court only if there was a manifest illegality in the orders passed by the courts below. "In the present case, this court does not find any such illegality.The mother-son relationship is not disputed.Only the quantum of maintenance is challenged. This is a question of fact, which has been gone into by the two courts below," the judge said, and dismissed the case.

Q. Under which writ can the High Court call records from the lower courts for review ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 72 According to question,

Under Section 397397of the CrPC (calling for records to exercise powers of revision). The judge pointed out that an order by a judicial or metropolitan magistrate for payment of monthly maintenance to parents, wife or children could be challenged by way of a criminal revision petition either before a High Court or a Sessions court.

Hence, the correct answer is Certiorari.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 73

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Madras High Court has dismissed a case filed by a person challenging two consecutive orders passed by courts directing him to pay maintenance of Rs.5000 a month to his aged mother under Section 125 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (Order for maintenance of wives, children and parents).

Justice PN. Prakash said he did not find any manifest illegality in the order passed by a judicial magistrate court in Salem in 2012 and confirmed by a sessions court in 2014 while dismissing a revision petition preferred by the man under Section 397 of the CrPC (calling for records to exercise powers of revision). The judge pointed out that an order by a judicial or metropolitan magistrate for payment of monthly maintenance to parents, wife or children could be challenged by way of a criminal revision petition either before a High Court or a sessions court. After the petitioner moves a revision application before the High Court or the sessions court, no further application by the same person could be entertained by either of the courts.There was a specific bar on it under Section 397(3) of CrPC.

In an attempt to overcome such a bar, the present petitioner preferred an application before the High Court under Section 482 of the CrPC (inherent power of the High Court to prevent abuse of process of any court or to secure the ends of justice). Holding the course adopted by the petitioner as not maintainable, Justice Prakash said petitions under Section 482 could be entertained by the High Court only if there was a manifest illegality in the orders passed by the courts below. "In the present case, this court does not find any such illegality.The mother-son relationship is not disputed.Only the quantum of maintenance is challenged. This is a question of fact, which has been gone into by the two courts below," the judge said, and dismissed the case.

Q. "Revisional powers belong to supervisory jurisdiction of a superior court." What can a High Court do in case of revision ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 73 According to question,

Petitions under Section 482482 could be entertained by the High Court only if there was a manifest illegality in the orders passed by the courts below.

Hence, the correct answer is The court has to confine to the legality and propriety of the findings and also whether the subordinate court has kept itself within the bounds of its jurisdiction including whether the court has failed to exercise the jurisdiction vested in it.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 74

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Madras High Court has dismissed a case filed by a person challenging two consecutive orders passed by courts directing him to pay maintenance of Rs.5000 a month to his aged mother under Section 125 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (Order for maintenance of wives, children and parents).

Justice PN. Prakash said he did not find any manifest illegality in the order passed by a judicial magistrate court in Salem in 2012 and confirmed by a sessions court in 2014 while dismissing a revision petition preferred by the man under Section 397 of the CrPC (calling for records to exercise powers of revision). The judge pointed out that an order by a judicial or metropolitan magistrate for payment of monthly maintenance to parents, wife or children could be challenged by way of a criminal revision petition either before a High Court or a sessions court. After the petitioner moves a revision application before the High Court or the sessions court, no further application by the same person could be entertained by either of the courts.There was a specific bar on it under Section 397(3) of CrPC.

In an attempt to overcome such a bar, the present petitioner preferred an application before the High Court under Section 482 of the CrPC (inherent power of the High Court to prevent abuse of process of any court or to secure the ends of justice). Holding the course adopted by the petitioner as not maintainable, Justice Prakash said petitions under Section 482 could be entertained by the High Court only if there was a manifest illegality in the orders passed by the courts below. "In the present case, this court does not find any such illegality.The mother-son relationship is not disputed.Only the quantum of maintenance is challenged. This is a question of fact, which has been gone into by the two courts below," the judge said, and dismissed the case.

Q. Vikash instituted a criminal proceeding which manifests his malafide motive with an ulterior motive for wreaking vengeance on Rajesh, the accused and with a view to spite him due to personal grudge. The trial court passed an order in favour of Vikash and awarded Rajesh a penalty of 22 years of jail term. Rajesh filed a petition in High Court under section 482482 CrPC. What will happen now.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 74 According to question,

Trial court verdict was in favour of Vikash and awarded Rajesh a penalty of 2 years of jail term. Rajesh filed a petition in High Court under section 482482CrPC. Petitions under Under Section482482 could be entertained by the High Court only if there was a manifest illegality in the orders passed by the courts below. "In the present case, this court does not find any such illegality.

Thus, High court will entertain the petition and rule in favour of Rajesh.

Hence the correct answer is High court will entertain the petition and rule in favour of Rajesh.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 75

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Madras High Court has dismissed a case filed by a person challenging two consecutive orders passed by courts directing him to pay maintenance of Rs.5000 a month to his aged mother under Section 125 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (Order for maintenance of wives, children and parents).

Justice PN. Prakash said he did not find any manifest illegality in the order passed by a judicial magistrate court in Salem in 2012 and confirmed by a sessions court in 2014 while dismissing a revision petition preferred by the man under Section 397 of the CrPC (calling for records to exercise powers of revision). The judge pointed out that an order by a judicial or metropolitan magistrate for payment of monthly maintenance to parents, wife or children could be challenged by way of a criminal revision petition either before a High Court or a sessions court. After the petitioner moves a revision application before the High Court or the sessions court, no further application by the same person could be entertained by either of the courts.There was a specific bar on it under Section 397(3) of CrPC.

In an attempt to overcome such a bar, the present petitioner preferred an application before the High Court under Section 482 of the CrPC (inherent power of the High Court to prevent abuse of process of any court or to secure the ends of justice). Holding the course adopted by the petitioner as not maintainable, Justice Prakash said petitions under Section 482 could be entertained by the High Court only if there was a manifest illegality in the orders passed by the courts below. "In the present case, this court does not find any such illegality.The mother-son relationship is not disputed.Only the quantum of maintenance is challenged. This is a question of fact, which has been gone into by the two courts below," the judge said, and dismissed the case.

Q. Sumanta is married to Sunita and has 3 children- Rajdeep,Rajrupa and Rajendrani. Also Gitarani, mother of Sumanta, is also alive with no means to sustain herself. In the year 2019 Sumanta left his wife Sunita who is dependent on him. Now to whom does Sumanta have to pay maintenance ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 75 According to Section 125 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, This code provides that any person who has sufficient means to maintain himself cannot deny the maintenance to the wife, children, and parents if they are not able to maintain themselves.

Hence, in accordance with the above provision, Sumanta shall have to pay maintenance to Sunita, Rajdeep, Rajrupa, Rajendrani and Gitarani.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 76

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Madras High Court has dismissed a case filed by a person challenging two consecutive orders passed by courts directing him to pay maintenance of Rs.5000 a month to his aged mother under Section 125 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (Order for maintenance of wives, children and parents).

Justice PN. Prakash said he did not find any manifest illegality in the order passed by a judicial magistrate court in Salem in 2012 and confirmed by a sessions court in 2014 while dismissing a revision petition preferred by the man under Section 397 of the CrPC (calling for records to exercise powers of revision). The judge pointed out that an order by a judicial or metropolitan magistrate for payment of monthly maintenance to parents, wife or children could be challenged by way of a criminal revision petition either before a High Court or a sessions court. After the petitioner moves a revision application before the High Court or the sessions court, no further application by the same person could be entertained by either of the courts.There was a specific bar on it under Section 397(3) of CrPC.

In an attempt to overcome such a bar, the present petitioner preferred an application before the High Court under Section 482 of the CrPC (inherent power of the High Court to prevent abuse of process of any court or to secure the ends of justice). Holding the course adopted by the petitioner as not maintainable, Justice Prakash said petitions under Section 482 could be entertained by the High Court only if there was a manifest illegality in the orders passed by the courts below. "In the present case, this court does not find any such illegality.The mother-son relationship is not disputed.Only the quantum of maintenance is challenged. This is a question of fact, which has been gone into by the two courts below," the judge said, and dismissed the case.

Q. As per section 482482 CrPC the decision given by High court is:

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 76 According to the Section 482 of the CrPC The powers of the High Court are partly administrative and partly judicial. This section was added as the High Courts were unable to render complete justice even if in a given case the illegality was palpable and apparent.

The section envisages 3 circumstances in which the inherent jurisdiction may be exercised, namely, "to give effect to an order under CrPC, to prevent abuse of the process of the court, and to secure the ends of justice".

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 77

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

To deal with sexual assaults and exploitation over children, the government has established special law, POCSO Act,2012.The said Act sanctions every recognised offences of sexual abuse against children by prescribing stringent punishment keeping in mind the gravity of the offence.

The POCSO Amendment Act,2019 was enacted to enhance the punishment up to the death penalty and to curb child pornography. However, the amendment seems to be arbitrary and vague.

Section 4(2) of the POCSO Act, which was inserted by the POCSO Amendment Act of 2019 provides for a classification that is unreasonable and is in violation of Article 14 of the Constitution. Article 14 provides for the "equal protection of laws". It prohibits class legislation but permits reasonable classification of persons or things. The classic nexus test as outlined in the Anwar Ali Sarkar case is;

"To pass the test of permissible classification two conditions must be fulfilled viz.

(I) That the classification must be founded on an intelligible differentia which distinguishes those that are grouped together from others left out of the group, and

(II) That the differentia must have a rational relation to the objects sought to be achieved by the Act. The differentia which is the basis of the classification and the object of the Act are distinct and what is necessary is that there must be nexus between them."

Before the POCSO Act was passed in 2019 the punishment for committing penetrative sexual assault as per POCSO Act 2012 was from seven years imprisonment till life and also fine. The Act of 2019 increased the minimum term of punishment from 'seven' to 'ten' years.

Now, the new amendment provides punishment for the offenders who commit penetrative sexual assault on a child below sixteen years of age. By inserting this, the legislature makes a classification between a child who is below sixteen years of age and a child who is above the age of sixteen, but below eighteen. However, the legislature has defined a "child" as 'any person below the age of eighteen years', for this Act. Thus, the above classification should be a reasonable classification since it has been made within the same group, i.e., 'children'.

There can be no intelligible differentia in this classification. The differentia in this classification is vague, since there is an uncertainty in determining the age of maturity factor. It is to be noted that the differentia must have a rational relation to the objects sought to be achieved by the Act.

This classification gives way for the thought that raping a child below sixteen years is a graver offence, whereas on the other hand raping a child of sixteen or seventeen years of age, who may have the same maturity as some children belonging to the other class is not considered to be a graver offence. This classification thus, is unreasonable and hence violative of Article 14.

Section 11 and 12 of the POCSO Act provides for the provisions regarding sexual harassment and punishment therefore. Section 11 states as "A person is said to commit sexual harassment of a child when such person with sexual intent..." Also, it has been provided that any question which involves "sexual intent" shall be a question of fact. It is an ascertained fact that the question involving intention is very difficult to prove before the Court of law. Also, there arises a question whether an offender performs the acts listed in Section 11 without sexual intention, will it not amount to sexual harassment? Even Section 354 A of the Indian Penal Code, which describes Sexual Harassment does not use the term "sexual intent", since it is not a mandatory requirement for committing sexual harassment. Thus, the term sexual intent creates a loophole in Section 11 of the Act, which will favour the offenders.

Q. What is the view author is trying to attribute in this paragraph ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 77 According to question,

The, differentia which is the basis of the classification and the object of the Act are distinct and what is necessary is that there must be nexus between them.

Hence, the correct answer is The differentia created by the new amendment, is not in conformity with the rules laid down in Anwar Ali Sarkar case.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 78

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

To deal with sexual assaults and exploitation over children, the government has established special law, POCSO Act,2012.The said Act sanctions every recognised offences of sexual abuse against children by prescribing stringent punishment keeping in mind the gravity of the offence.

The POCSO Amendment Act,2019 was enacted to enhance the punishment up to the death penalty and to curb child pornography. However, the amendment seems to be arbitrary and vague.

Section 4(2) of the POCSO Act, which was inserted by the POCSO Amendment Act of 2019 provides for a classification that is unreasonable and is in violation of Article 14 of the Constitution. Article 14 provides for the "equal protection of laws". It prohibits class legislation but permits reasonable classification of persons or things. The classic nexus test as outlined in the Anwar Ali Sarkar case is;

"To pass the test of permissible classification two conditions must be fulfilled viz.

(I) That the classification must be founded on an intelligible differentia which distinguishes those that are grouped together from others left out of the group, and

(II) That the differentia must have a rational relation to the objects sought to be achieved by the Act. The differentia which is the basis of the classification and the object of the Act are distinct and what is necessary is that there must be nexus between them."

Before the POCSO Act was passed in 2019 the punishment for committing penetrative sexual assault as per POCSO Act 2012 was from seven years imprisonment till life and also fine. The Act of 2019 increased the minimum term of punishment from 'seven' to 'ten' years.

Now, the new amendment provides punishment for the offenders who commit penetrative sexual assault on a child below sixteen years of age. By inserting this, the legislature makes a classification between a child who is below sixteen years of age and a child who is above the age of sixteen, but below eighteen. However, the legislature has defined a "child" as 'any person below the age of eighteen years', for this Act. Thus, the above classification should be a reasonable classification since it has been made within the same group, i.e., 'children'.

There can be no intelligible differentia in this classification. The differentia in this classification is vague, since there is an uncertainty in determining the age of maturity factor. It is to be noted that the differentia must have a rational relation to the objects sought to be achieved by the Act.

This classification gives way for the thought that raping a child below sixteen years is a graver offence, whereas on the other hand raping a child of sixteen or seventeen years of age, who may have the same maturity as some children belonging to the other class is not considered to be a graver offence. This classification thus, is unreasonable and hence violative of Article 14.

Section 11 and 12 of the POCSO Act provides for the provisions regarding sexual harassment and punishment therefore. Section 11 states as "A person is said to commit sexual harassment of a child when such person with sexual intent..." Also, it has been provided that any question which involves "sexual intent" shall be a question of fact. It is an ascertained fact that the question involving intention is very difficult to prove before the Court of law. Also, there arises a question whether an offender performs the acts listed in Section 11 without sexual intention, will it not amount to sexual harassment? Even Section 354 A of the Indian Penal Code, which describes Sexual Harassment does not use the term "sexual intent", since it is not a mandatory requirement for committing sexual harassment. Thus, the term sexual intent creates a loophole in Section 11 of the Act, which will favour the offenders.

Q. Mr. X,X, the uncle of a girl 'A''A' of aged 99 years, is charged under the POCSO Act 20192019 of sexually assaulting A at his home in the absence of his parents. A gives a statement to the police that his uncle touched him inappropriately during many occasions and on the concerned day, he offered him a chocolate if A agrees to kiss him on his cheek. Mr. XX claimed that the said act was completely out of love and affection as his uncle and he had no intention to sexually harass A.A. According to the new amendment, the question of intention is

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 78 Section 1111and 1212 of the POCSO Act provides for the provisions regarding sexual harassment and punishment therefore. Section 1111 states as "A person is said to commit sexual harassment of a child when such person with sexual intent..." Also, it has been provided that any question which involves "sexual intent" shall be a question of fact. It is an ascertained fact that the question involving intention is very difficult to prove before the Court of law. Also, there arises a question whether an offender performs the acts list

Hence, the correct answer is Relevant and can be proved with facts associated with the accused.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 79

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

To deal with sexual assaults and exploitation over children, the government has established special law, POCSO Act,2012.The said Act sanctions every recognised offences of sexual abuse against children by prescribing stringent punishment keeping in mind the gravity of the offence.

The POCSO Amendment Act,2019 was enacted to enhance the punishment up to the death penalty and to curb child pornography. However, the amendment seems to be arbitrary and vague.

Section 4(2) of the POCSO Act, which was inserted by the POCSO Amendment Act of 2019 provides for a classification that is unreasonable and is in violation of Article 14 of the Constitution. Article 14 provides for the "equal protection of laws". It prohibits class legislation but permits reasonable classification of persons or things. The classic nexus test as outlined in the Anwar Ali Sarkar case is;

"To pass the test of permissible classification two conditions must be fulfilled viz.

(I) That the classification must be founded on an intelligible differentia which distinguishes those that are grouped together from others left out of the group, and

(II) That the differentia must have a rational relation to the objects sought to be achieved by the Act. The differentia which is the basis of the classification and the object of the Act are distinct and what is necessary is that there must be nexus between them."

Before the POCSO Act was passed in 2019 the punishment for committing penetrative sexual assault as per POCSO Act 2012 was from seven years imprisonment till life and also fine. The Act of 2019 increased the minimum term of punishment from 'seven' to 'ten' years.

Now, the new amendment provides punishment for the offenders who commit penetrative sexual assault on a child below sixteen years of age. By inserting this, the legislature makes a classification between a child who is below sixteen years of age and a child who is above the age of sixteen, but below eighteen. However, the legislature has defined a "child" as 'any person below the age of eighteen years', for this Act. Thus, the above classification should be a reasonable classification since it has been made within the same group, i.e., 'children'.

There can be no intelligible differentia in this classification. The differentia in this classification is vague, since there is an uncertainty in determining the age of maturity factor. It is to be noted that the differentia must have a rational relation to the objects sought to be achieved by the Act.

This classification gives way for the thought that raping a child below sixteen years is a graver offence, whereas on the other hand raping a child of sixteen or seventeen years of age, who may have the same maturity as some children belonging to the other class is not considered to be a graver offence. This classification thus, is unreasonable and hence violative of Article 14.

Section 11 and 12 of the POCSO Act provides for the provisions regarding sexual harassment and punishment therefore. Section 11 states as "A person is said to commit sexual harassment of a child when such person with sexual intent..." Also, it has been provided that any question which involves "sexual intent" shall be a question of fact. It is an ascertained fact that the question involving intention is very difficult to prove before the Court of law. Also, there arises a question whether an offender performs the acts listed in Section 11 without sexual intention, will it not amount to sexual harassment? Even Section 354 A of the Indian Penal Code, which describes Sexual Harassment does not use the term "sexual intent", since it is not a mandatory requirement for committing sexual harassment. Thus, the term sexual intent creates a loophole in Section 11 of the Act, which will favour the offenders.

Q. Why does the author calls the differentia vague ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 79 According to question,

There can be no intelligible differentia in this classification. The differentia in this classification is vague, since there is an uncertainty in determining the age of maturity factor. It is to be noted that the differentia must have a rational relation to the objects sought to be achieved by the Act.This classification gives way for the thought that raping a child below sixteen years is a graver offence, whereas on the other hand raping a child of sixteen or seventeen years of age, who may have the same maturity as some children belonging to the other class is not considered to be a graver offense. This classification thus, is unreasonable and hence violative of Article 14.

Hence, the correct answer is Both (a) and (b) are correct.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 80

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

To deal with sexual assaults and exploitation over children, the government has established special law, POCSO Act,2012.The said Act sanctions every recognised offences of sexual abuse against children by prescribing stringent punishment keeping in mind the gravity of the offence.

The POCSO Amendment Act,2019 was enacted to enhance the punishment up to the death penalty and to curb child pornography. However, the amendment seems to be arbitrary and vague.

Section 4(2) of the POCSO Act, which was inserted by the POCSO Amendment Act of 2019 provides for a classification that is unreasonable and is in violation of Article 14 of the Constitution. Article 14 provides for the "equal protection of laws". It prohibits class legislation but permits reasonable classification of persons or things. The classic nexus test as outlined in the Anwar Ali Sarkar case is;

"To pass the test of permissible classification two conditions must be fulfilled viz.

(I) That the classification must be founded on an intelligible differentia which distinguishes those that are grouped together from others left out of the group, and

(II) That the differentia must have a rational relation to the objects sought to be achieved by the Act. The differentia which is the basis of the classification and the object of the Act are distinct and what is necessary is that there must be nexus between them."

Before the POCSO Act was passed in 2019 the punishment for committing penetrative sexual assault as per POCSO Act 2012 was from seven years imprisonment till life and also fine. The Act of 2019 increased the minimum term of punishment from 'seven' to 'ten' years.

Now, the new amendment provides punishment for the offenders who commit penetrative sexual assault on a child below sixteen years of age. By inserting this, the legislature makes a classification between a child who is below sixteen years of age and a child who is above the age of sixteen, but below eighteen. However, the legislature has defined a "child" as 'any person below the age of eighteen years', for this Act. Thus, the above classification should be a reasonable classification since it has been made within the same group, i.e., 'children'.

There can be no intelligible differentia in this classification. The differentia in this classification is vague, since there is an uncertainty in determining the age of maturity factor. It is to be noted that the differentia must have a rational relation to the objects sought to be achieved by the Act.

This classification gives way for the thought that raping a child below sixteen years is a graver offence, whereas on the other hand raping a child of sixteen or seventeen years of age, who may have the same maturity as some children belonging to the other class is not considered to be a graver offence. This classification thus, is unreasonable and hence violative of Article 14.

Section 11 and 12 of the POCSO Act provides for the provisions regarding sexual harassment and punishment therefore. Section 11 states as "A person is said to commit sexual harassment of a child when such person with sexual intent..." Also, it has been provided that any question which involves "sexual intent" shall be a question of fact. It is an ascertained fact that the question involving intention is very difficult to prove before the Court of law. Also, there arises a question whether an offender performs the acts listed in Section 11 without sexual intention, will it not amount to sexual harassment? Even Section 354 A of the Indian Penal Code, which describes Sexual Harassment does not use the term "sexual intent", since it is not a mandatory requirement for committing sexual harassment. Thus, the term sexual intent creates a loophole in Section 11 of the Act, which will favour the offenders.

Q. If the age of AA is 1919 years, what will be the relevancy of the question of intention of Mr. X ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 80 According to question,

Since the age of A is 1919 years which is above 1818 years.

This law applies to the child under the age of 1818 years.

Hence this law does not apply and is irrelevant.

The correct answer is The question of intention is not relevant.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 81

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

To deal with sexual assaults and exploitation over children, the government has established special law, POCSO Act,2012.The said Act sanctions every recognised offences of sexual abuse against children by prescribing stringent punishment keeping in mind the gravity of the offence.

The POCSO Amendment Act,2019 was enacted to enhance the punishment up to the death penalty and to curb child pornography. However, the amendment seems to be arbitrary and vague.

Section 4(2) of the POCSO Act, which was inserted by the POCSO Amendment Act of 2019 provides for a classification that is unreasonable and is in violation of Article 14 of the Constitution. Article 14 provides for the "equal protection of laws". It prohibits class legislation but permits reasonable classification of persons or things. The classic nexus test as outlined in the Anwar Ali Sarkar case is;

"To pass the test of permissible classification two conditions must be fulfilled viz.

(I) That the classification must be founded on an intelligible differentia which distinguishes those that are grouped together from others left out of the group, and

(II) That the differentia must have a rational relation to the objects sought to be achieved by the Act. The differentia which is the basis of the classification and the object of the Act are distinct and what is necessary is that there must be nexus between them."

Before the POCSO Act was passed in 2019 the punishment for committing penetrative sexual assault as per POCSO Act 2012 was from seven years imprisonment till life and also fine. The Act of 2019 increased the minimum term of punishment from 'seven' to 'ten' years.

Now, the new amendment provides punishment for the offenders who commit penetrative sexual assault on a child below sixteen years of age. By inserting this, the legislature makes a classification between a child who is below sixteen years of age and a child who is above the age of sixteen, but below eighteen. However, the legislature has defined a "child" as 'any person below the age of eighteen years', for this Act. Thus, the above classification should be a reasonable classification since it has been made within the same group, i.e., 'children'.

There can be no intelligible differentia in this classification. The differentia in this classification is vague, since there is an uncertainty in determining the age of maturity factor. It is to be noted that the differentia must have a rational relation to the objects sought to be achieved by the Act.

This classification gives way for the thought that raping a child below sixteen years is a graver offence, whereas on the other hand raping a child of sixteen or seventeen years of age, who may have the same maturity as some children belonging to the other class is not considered to be a graver offence. This classification thus, is unreasonable and hence violative of Article 14.

Section 11 and 12 of the POCSO Act provides for the provisions regarding sexual harassment and punishment therefore. Section 11 states as "A person is said to commit sexual harassment of a child when such person with sexual intent..." Also, it has been provided that any question which involves "sexual intent" shall be a question of fact. It is an ascertained fact that the question involving intention is very difficult to prove before the Court of law. Also, there arises a question whether an offender performs the acts listed in Section 11 without sexual intention, will it not amount to sexual harassment? Even Section 354 A of the Indian Penal Code, which describes Sexual Harassment does not use the term "sexual intent", since it is not a mandatory requirement for committing sexual harassment. Thus, the term sexual intent creates a loophole in Section 11 of the Act, which will favour the offenders.

Q. The new amendment provides punishment for the offenders who commit penetrative sexual assault on a child

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 81 Before the POCSO Act was passed in 20192019, the punishment for committing penetrative sexual assault as per POCSO Act 20122012 was from seven years imprisonment till life and also fine.

The new amendment provides punishment for the offenders who commit penetrative sexual assault on a child below sixteen years of age. By inserting this, the legislature makes a classification between a child who is below sixteen years of age

Hence, the correct answer is below 1616 years.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 82

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Indian contract act came into force on 11 September 1872.1872. It was enacted mainly with a view to ensure reasonable fulfilment of expectations created by the promises of the parties and also enforcement of obligations prescribed by an agreement between the parties.

A contract is an agreement having a lawful object entered into voluntarily by two or more parties, each of whom intends to create one or more legal obligations between them. The elements of a contract are "offer" and 'acceptance' by "competent persons" having legal capacity who exchanges "consideration" to create "mutuality" of obligation.

Every person who is competent to contract and who attained the age of majority, according to the law and who is of sound mind and the person who is not disqualified by any of the law.

Section 1111 tells that a minor is not competent to a contract. Following cases will tell you more about the evolution of contracts entered by minors :

Mohiri Bibi Vs. Dharmodas Ghose :

The plaintiff was a minor who mortgaged his property in favour of the defendant, who was a moneylender to secure a loan of Rs.20,000.The moneylender knew that the plaintiff is a minor. The plaintiff brought an action against the defendant stating that he was a minor when the mortgage was executed by him and, therefore, the mortgage was void and inoperative and the same should be cancelled.

Judgement :

The Privy Council held that the minors' contract is void. The combined effect of sections 10 and 11 renders the minor contract completely void. According to the Privy Council, only a person who is of the age of the majority is competent to contract. Moreover, the minor didn't misrepresent his age or acted in bad intention. Minor, therefore, cannot be forced to repay the loan amount, and also the property mortgaged should be returned to the minor.

Doctrine of Restitution:

The minor is forced to restore the property of goods which he gets by misrepresenting his age provided that it is traceable in the possession of the minor. If it is not traced or it has been sold or converted to his own use by the minor, then he cannot be held liable to repay the value of it because it would amount to the enforcement of a void agreement. Leslie Ltd Vs.Sheil :

A minor fraudulently represented that he was a major and the plaintiff lent him Rs.200. The action to recover the money was failed. The court of the appeal held that the defendant was under no equitable liability to pay the plaintiff. The plaintiff relied upon the doctrine of restitution that the defendant was bound by that doctrine to restore the ill-gotten gains. It was held that the defendant cannot be forced to restore Rs.400 as the contract was void and the doctrine of restitution was not applicable. The doctrine of restitution will not apply where the money given cannot be traced back to minors.

Q. A minor, Ms. Anamika misrepresented herself as a major and bought a guitar on loan. The guitar was duly delivered at her home by the shopkeeper. Later, Ms. Anamika refused to pay the price and claimed the defence of minority and she can neither be forced to pay the price of the guitar nor to return the guitar to the shopkeeper. After reading the above passage, what is the correct decision ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 82 According to question,

The minor is forced to restore the property of goods which he gets by misrepresenting his age provided that it is traceable in the possession of the minor. If it is not traced or it has been sold or converted to his own use by the minor, then he cannot be held liable to repay the value of it because it would amount to the enforcement of a void agreement.

Hence, the answer is "the contract is void, and the court can direct the minor to restore the guitar to the shopkeeper".

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 83

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Indian contract act came into force on 11 September 1872.1872. It was enacted mainly with a view to ensure reasonable fulfilment of expectations created by the promises of the parties and also enforcement of obligations prescribed by an agreement between the parties.

A contract is an agreement having a lawful object entered into voluntarily by two or more parties, each of whom intends to create one or more legal obligations between them. The elements of a contract are "offer" and 'acceptance' by "competent persons" having legal capacity who exchanges "consideration" to create "mutuality" of obligation.

Every person who is competent to contract and who attained the age of majority, according to the law and who is of sound mind and the person who is not disqualified by any of the law.

Section 1111 tells that a minor is not competent to a contract. Following cases will tell you more about the evolution of contracts entered by minors :

Mohiri Bibi Vs. Dharmodas Ghose :

The plaintiff was a minor who mortgaged his property in favour of the defendant, who was a moneylender to secure a loan of Rs.20,000.The moneylender knew that the plaintiff is a minor. The plaintiff brought an action against the defendant stating that he was a minor when the mortgage was executed by him and, therefore, the mortgage was void and inoperative and the same should be cancelled.

Judgement :

The Privy Council held that the minors' contract is void. The combined effect of sections 10 and 11 renders the minor contract completely void. According to the Privy Council, only a person who is of the age of the majority is competent to contract. Moreover, the minor didn't misrepresent his age or acted in bad intention. Minor, therefore, cannot be forced to repay the loan amount, and also the property mortgaged should be returned to the minor.

Doctrine of Restitution:

The minor is forced to restore the property of goods which he gets by misrepresenting his age provided that it is traceable in the possession of the minor. If it is not traced or it has been sold or converted to his own use by the minor, then he cannot be held liable to repay the value of it because it would amount to the enforcement of a void agreement. Leslie Ltd Vs.Sheil :

A minor fraudulently represented that he was a major and the plaintiff lent him Rs.200. The action to recover the money was failed. The court of the appeal held that the defendant was under no equitable liability to pay the plaintiff. The plaintiff relied upon the doctrine of restitution that the defendant was bound by that doctrine to restore the ill-gotten gains. It was held that the defendant cannot be forced to restore Rs.400 as the contract was void and the doctrine of restitution was not applicable. The doctrine of restitution will not apply where the money given cannot be traced back to minors.

Q. Who among the following is a competent person to enter into a contract ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 83 According to Indian Contract Act, 1872 Contract is an agreement having a lawful object entered into voluntarily by two or more parties, each of whom intends to create one or more legal obligations between them. The elements of a contract are "offer" and "acceptance' by competent persons having legal capacity who exchanges consideration to create mutuality of obligation.

Every person who is competent to contract are:

  • Who has attained the age of majority according to the law

  • Who is of sound mind

  • The person who is not disqualified by any of the law.

Hence, according to the above provision Ms. Gita who is a physically handicapped person is competent to enter into a contract.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 84

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Indian contract act came into force on 11 September 1872.1872. It was enacted mainly with a view to ensure reasonable fulfilment of expectations created by the promises of the parties and also enforcement of obligations prescribed by an agreement between the parties.

A contract is an agreement having a lawful object entered into voluntarily by two or more parties, each of whom intends to create one or more legal obligations between them. The elements of a contract are "offer" and 'acceptance' by "competent persons" having legal capacity who exchanges "consideration" to create "mutuality" of obligation.

Every person who is competent to contract and who attained the age of majority, according to the law and who is of sound mind and the person who is not disqualified by any of the law.

Section 1111 tells that a minor is not competent to a contract. Following cases will tell you more about the evolution of contracts entered by minors :

Mohiri Bibi Vs. Dharmodas Ghose :

The plaintiff was a minor who mortgaged his property in favour of the defendant, who was a moneylender to secure a loan of Rs.20,000.The moneylender knew that the plaintiff is a minor. The plaintiff brought an action against the defendant stating that he was a minor when the mortgage was executed by him and, therefore, the mortgage was void and inoperative and the same should be cancelled.

Judgement :

The Privy Council held that the minors' contract is void. The combined effect of sections 10 and 11 renders the minor contract completely void. According to the Privy Council, only a person who is of the age of the majority is competent to contract. Moreover, the minor didn't misrepresent his age or acted in bad intention. Minor, therefore, cannot be forced to repay the loan amount, and also the property mortgaged should be returned to the minor.

Doctrine of Restitution:

The minor is forced to restore the property of goods which he gets by misrepresenting his age provided that it is traceable in the possession of the minor. If it is not traced or it has been sold or converted to his own use by the minor, then he cannot be held liable to repay the value of it because it would amount to the enforcement of a void agreement. Leslie Ltd Vs.Sheil :

A minor fraudulently represented that he was a major and the plaintiff lent him Rs.200. The action to recover the money was failed. The court of the appeal held that the defendant was under no equitable liability to pay the plaintiff. The plaintiff relied upon the doctrine of restitution that the defendant was bound by that doctrine to restore the ill-gotten gains. It was held that the defendant cannot be forced to restore Rs.400 as the contract was void and the doctrine of restitution was not applicable. The doctrine of restitution will not apply where the money given cannot be traced back to minors.

Q. Which one of the following is not an important element of a legal contract ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 84 According to Indian Contract Act, 1872 A contract is an agreement having a lawful object entered into voluntarily by two or more parties. A contract is valid and legally binding if the following six essential elements are present:
  • Offer

  • Acceptance

  • Consideration

  • Intention to create legal relations

  • Legality and Capacity

  • Certainty

According to the above provision there is no such requirement for adequate amount of consideration to enforce the legality of a contract.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 85

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Indian contract act came into force on 11 September 1872.1872. It was enacted mainly with a view to ensure reasonable fulfilment of expectations created by the promises of the parties and also enforcement of obligations prescribed by an agreement between the parties.

A contract is an agreement having a lawful object entered into voluntarily by two or more parties, each of whom intends to create one or more legal obligations between them. The elements of a contract are "offer" and 'acceptance' by "competent persons" having legal capacity who exchanges "consideration" to create "mutuality" of obligation.

Every person who is competent to contract and who attained the age of majority, according to the law and who is of sound mind and the person who is not disqualified by any of the law.

Section 1111 tells that a minor is not competent to a contract. Following cases will tell you more about the evolution of contracts entered by minors :

Mohiri Bibi Vs. Dharmodas Ghose :

The plaintiff was a minor who mortgaged his property in favour of the defendant, who was a moneylender to secure a loan of Rs.20,000.The moneylender knew that the plaintiff is a minor. The plaintiff brought an action against the defendant stating that he was a minor when the mortgage was executed by him and, therefore, the mortgage was void and inoperative and the same should be cancelled.

Judgement :

The Privy Council held that the minors' contract is void. The combined effect of sections 10 and 11 renders the minor contract completely void. According to the Privy Council, only a person who is of the age of the majority is competent to contract. Moreover, the minor didn't misrepresent his age or acted in bad intention. Minor, therefore, cannot be forced to repay the loan amount, and also the property mortgaged should be returned to the minor.

Doctrine of Restitution:

The minor is forced to restore the property of goods which he gets by misrepresenting his age provided that it is traceable in the possession of the minor. If it is not traced or it has been sold or converted to his own use by the minor, then he cannot be held liable to repay the value of it because it would amount to the enforcement of a void agreement. Leslie Ltd Vs.Sheil :

A minor fraudulently represented that he was a major and the plaintiff lent him Rs.200. The action to recover the money was failed. The court of the appeal held that the defendant was under no equitable liability to pay the plaintiff. The plaintiff relied upon the doctrine of restitution that the defendant was bound by that doctrine to restore the ill-gotten gains. It was held that the defendant cannot be forced to restore Rs.400 as the contract was void and the doctrine of restitution was not applicable. The doctrine of restitution will not apply where the money given cannot be traced back to minors.

Q. In the case of Leslie Ltd. Vs. Sheil, why was the defendant not held liable to return the money ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 85 According to question, this option is the most appropriate,

A minor fraudulently represented that he was a major and the plaintiff lent him 200200 . The action to recover the money was failed. The court of the appeal held that the defendant was under no equitable liability to pay the plaintiff. The doctrine of restitution will not apply where the money given cannot be traced back to minors.

Hence, the answer Both (b) and (c) are correct.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 86

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The Indian contract act came into force on 11 September 1872.1872. It was enacted mainly with a view to ensure reasonable fulfilment of expectations created by the promises of the parties and also enforcement of obligations prescribed by an agreement between the parties.

A contract is an agreement having a lawful object entered into voluntarily by two or more parties, each of whom intends to create one or more legal obligations between them. The elements of a contract are "offer" and 'acceptance' by "competent persons" having legal capacity who exchanges "consideration" to create "mutuality" of obligation.

Every person who is competent to contract and who attained the age of majority, according to the law and who is of sound mind and the person who is not disqualified by any of the law.

Section 1111 tells that a minor is not competent to a contract. Following cases will tell you more about the evolution of contracts entered by minors :

Mohiri Bibi Vs. Dharmodas Ghose :

The plaintiff was a minor who mortgaged his property in favour of the defendant, who was a moneylender to secure a loan of Rs.20,000.The moneylender knew that the plaintiff is a minor. The plaintiff brought an action against the defendant stating that he was a minor when the mortgage was executed by him and, therefore, the mortgage was void and inoperative and the same should be cancelled.

Judgement :

The Privy Council held that the minors' contract is void. The combined effect of sections 10 and 11 renders the minor contract completely void. According to the Privy Council, only a person who is of the age of the majority is competent to contract. Moreover, the minor didn't misrepresent his age or acted in bad intention. Minor, therefore, cannot be forced to repay the loan amount, and also the property mortgaged should be returned to the minor.

Doctrine of Restitution:

The minor is forced to restore the property of goods which he gets by misrepresenting his age provided that it is traceable in the possession of the minor. If it is not traced or it has been sold or converted to his own use by the minor, then he cannot be held liable to repay the value of it because it would amount to the enforcement of a void agreement. Leslie Ltd Vs.Sheil :

A minor fraudulently represented that he was a major and the plaintiff lent him Rs.200. The action to recover the money was failed. The court of the appeal held that the defendant was under no equitable liability to pay the plaintiff. The plaintiff relied upon the doctrine of restitution that the defendant was bound by that doctrine to restore the ill-gotten gains. It was held that the defendant cannot be forced to restore Rs.400 as the contract was void and the doctrine of restitution was not applicable. The doctrine of restitution will not apply where the money given cannot be traced back to minors.

Q. Which of the following is not true in light of the above passage ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 86 Section 11 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872 states that Every person is competent to contract who is of the age of majority according to the law to which he is subject and who is of sound mind and is not disqualified from contracting by any law to which he is subject.

Although, as a general rule, a contract with minors is void, we must keep in mind the following rules as well:

1) A contract with a minor is void and, hence, no obligations can ever arise on him thereunder.

2) The minor party cannot ratify the contract upon attaining majority unless a law specifically allows this.

3) No court can allow specific performance of a contract with minors because it is void altogether.

4) The Partnership Act also prohibits minors from becoming partners in a firm. They can, however, receive the benefits of partnership and ratify the same upon attaining majority.

5) The rule of estoppel under evidence law does not apply to minors under contractual obligations. In other words, even if a minor forms a contract claiming majority age, legal obligations cannot arise against him.

6) Parents or guardians of minors can name them in contracts only if it benefits them. But even in this case, the minor cannot be personally liable.

Hence, according to the above provisions the answer "A minor can enter into a contract and make wrongful gains" is correct.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 87

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The COVID-1919 pandemic damage is taking the bottom out of commercial contracts. It is becoming commercially impracticable to perform such contracts. Is the pandemic an 'act of god' ? Does it amount to a force majeure event ? Has it made performance impossible ? Is a party to a contract relieved from its obligation to perform, as the COVID-1919 instigated lockdown amounts to a material adverse event ? What will be the economic consequences if we default on our obligations and commit a breach ?

To perform such contracts, on the other hand, is to invite financial disaster. Like Hamlet, to perform or not to perform is the question agitating the minds of CEO's, CFO's and general counsel of India's corporates. Long term commitments to purchase goods or render services have suddenly become commercially unveil. The coveted acquisition that seemed so lucrative has turned into a nightmare. A single breach may trigger several such breaches through multiple, interlinked contracts. Corporate reputations and carefully cultivated long-term business relationships are at stake.

Request for extending time and forbearance in performance will soon turn into nasty correspondence and, subsequently, legal notices being exchanged. Most of these contracts contain an arbitration clause, with reference to a three-member arbitral tribunal. If the counterparty to the dispute is not interested in expeditious disposal, the constitution of such tribunal itself can be a long drawn-out affair. Meanwhile, if interim orders are required to be obtained, the parties will be compelled to approach a court of law. This translates into multiple legal proceedings before different fora, and mounting cost of litigation.

Cash flows are the biggest victims of this crisis. At the same time, when commercial stakes are so high, most corporates would like to avail of the best possible professional assistance. Success fees are not legally permissible in India. At the same time, law firms can't be expected to provide credit to clients for work done as also third-party liability like payment of fees to senior counsel.

To compound matters, the jurisprudence on the subject in India is hardly enlightening. If there is no express provision in the contract for force majeure, Indian law ordinarily does not imply such a clause. The same goes for material adverse change (MAC) clauses in a contract. The doctrine of commercial impracticability to perform a contract, developed under New York law, has not found much favour with the Indian Supreme Court. The legal outcome of such disputes is, therefore, anybody's guess.

Needless to add, the time taken in arriving at a final determination of such a dispute can be horrendously long. Even if an arbitral tribunal publishes its award fairly quickly, challenges to such an award before the high court and the Supreme Court are inevitable.

The privy council has caustically observed that the trouble of a litigant in India begins when he gets hold of a decree. To implement or execute such a judgment is another long-drawn-out process. In this Kafkaesque scenario, the litigants could well become sick or insolvent. In these circumstances, is there a practical commercial solution before a corporate embarks upon a highly unproductive litigation? Courts highly encourage mediation.

Unlike arbitration, mediation is not legally binding. However, in the current scenario, formal mediation may not work so effectively. Disputing parties to a contract may, instead, explore obtaining a dispassionate view of the dispute from a seasoned person having commercial experience and knowledge, not necessarily a lawyer. What is required is a creative commercial solution to the dispute. Courts do not rewrite contracts for the parties.

However, such an informal mediator can rewrite and redesign the contract that causes minimal damage or disruption to both disputing parties. Of course, if such a mediation effort fails, the contracting parties are at liberty to litigate. Such an exercise is bound to narrow differences and result in a solution that may have escaped both the contracting parties.

Q. Why is the time taken in arriving at a final determination of such kind of disputes can be horrendously long ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 87 This is the appropriate option for the given question.

The doctrine of commercial impracticability to perform a contract, developed under New York law, has not found much favour with the Indian Supreme Court. The legal outcome of is anybody's guess.Thus, such a dispute can be long. Even if an arbitral tribunal publishes its award quickly, challenges to such an award before the high court and the Supreme Court are inevitable.

Therefore, the correct answer is because of the availability of the option to further challenge the award before higher courts.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 88

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The COVID-1919 pandemic damage is taking the bottom out of commercial contracts. It is becoming commercially impracticable to perform such contracts. Is the pandemic an 'act of god' ? Does it amount to a force majeure event ? Has it made performance impossible ? Is a party to a contract relieved from its obligation to perform, as the COVID-1919 instigated lockdown amounts to a material adverse event ? What will be the economic consequences if we default on our obligations and commit a breach ?

To perform such contracts, on the other hand, is to invite financial disaster. Like Hamlet, to perform or not to perform is the question agitating the minds of CEO's, CFO's and general counsel of India's corporates. Long term commitments to purchase goods or render services have suddenly become commercially unveil. The coveted acquisition that seemed so lucrative has turned into a nightmare. A single breach may trigger several such breaches through multiple, interlinked contracts. Corporate reputations and carefully cultivated long-term business relationships are at stake.

Request for extending time and forbearance in performance will soon turn into nasty correspondence and, subsequently, legal notices being exchanged. Most of these contracts contain an arbitration clause, with reference to a three-member arbitral tribunal. If the counterparty to the dispute is not interested in expeditious disposal, the constitution of such tribunal itself can be a long drawn-out affair. Meanwhile, if interim orders are required to be obtained, the parties will be compelled to approach a court of law. This translates into multiple legal proceedings before different fora, and mounting cost of litigation.

Cash flows are the biggest victims of this crisis. At the same time, when commercial stakes are so high, most corporates would like to avail of the best possible professional assistance. Success fees are not legally permissible in India. At the same time, law firms can't be expected to provide credit to clients for work done as also third-party liability like payment of fees to senior counsel.

To compound matters, the jurisprudence on the subject in India is hardly enlightening. If there is no express provision in the contract for force majeure, Indian law ordinarily does not imply such a clause. The same goes for material adverse change (MAC) clauses in a contract. The doctrine of commercial impracticability to perform a contract, developed under New York law, has not found much favour with the Indian Supreme Court. The legal outcome of such disputes is, therefore, anybody's guess.

Needless to add, the time taken in arriving at a final determination of such a dispute can be horrendously long. Even if an arbitral tribunal publishes its award fairly quickly, challenges to such an award before the high court and the Supreme Court are inevitable.

The privy council has caustically observed that the trouble of a litigant in India begins when he gets hold of a decree. To implement or execute such a judgment is another long-drawn-out process. In this Kafkaesque scenario, the litigants could well become sick or insolvent. In these circumstances, is there a practical commercial solution before a corporate embarks upon a highly unproductive litigation? Courts highly encourage mediation.

Unlike arbitration, mediation is not legally binding. However, in the current scenario, formal mediation may not work so effectively. Disputing parties to a contract may, instead, explore obtaining a dispassionate view of the dispute from a seasoned person having commercial experience and knowledge, not necessarily a lawyer. What is required is a creative commercial solution to the dispute. Courts do not rewrite contracts for the parties.

However, such an informal mediator can rewrite and redesign the contract that causes minimal damage or disruption to both disputing parties. Of course, if such a mediation effort fails, the contracting parties are at liberty to litigate. Such an exercise is bound to narrow differences and result in a solution that may have escaped both the contracting parties.

Q. Which of the following provisions have not found much importance in Indian Contract Law ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 88 The doctrine of commercial impracticability arises when a party cannot perform their obligations under the contract due to an uncontrollable event that makes it extremely difficult (but not impossible) to perform.If both the parties subsequently cannot agree to alter the terms of the contract, or cancel the contract, it becomes necessary to prove to a court the commercial impracticability of performing the specific obligations under the contract.

Hence, this is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 89

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The COVID-1919 pandemic damage is taking the bottom out of commercial contracts. It is becoming commercially impracticable to perform such contracts. Is the pandemic an 'act of god' ? Does it amount to a force majeure event ? Has it made performance impossible ? Is a party to a contract relieved from its obligation to perform, as the COVID-1919 instigated lockdown amounts to a material adverse event ? What will be the economic consequences if we default on our obligations and commit a breach ?

To perform such contracts, on the other hand, is to invite financial disaster. Like Hamlet, to perform or not to perform is the question agitating the minds of CEO's, CFO's and general counsel of India's corporates. Long term commitments to purchase goods or render services have suddenly become commercially unveil. The coveted acquisition that seemed so lucrative has turned into a nightmare. A single breach may trigger several such breaches through multiple, interlinked contracts. Corporate reputations and carefully cultivated long-term business relationships are at stake.

Request for extending time and forbearance in performance will soon turn into nasty correspondence and, subsequently, legal notices being exchanged. Most of these contracts contain an arbitration clause, with reference to a three-member arbitral tribunal. If the counterparty to the dispute is not interested in expeditious disposal, the constitution of such tribunal itself can be a long drawn-out affair. Meanwhile, if interim orders are required to be obtained, the parties will be compelled to approach a court of law. This translates into multiple legal proceedings before different fora, and mounting cost of litigation.

Cash flows are the biggest victims of this crisis. At the same time, when commercial stakes are so high, most corporates would like to avail of the best possible professional assistance. Success fees are not legally permissible in India. At the same time, law firms can't be expected to provide credit to clients for work done as also third-party liability like payment of fees to senior counsel.

To compound matters, the jurisprudence on the subject in India is hardly enlightening. If there is no express provision in the contract for force majeure, Indian law ordinarily does not imply such a clause. The same goes for material adverse change (MAC) clauses in a contract. The doctrine of commercial impracticability to perform a contract, developed under New York law, has not found much favour with the Indian Supreme Court. The legal outcome of such disputes is, therefore, anybody's guess.

Needless to add, the time taken in arriving at a final determination of such a dispute can be horrendously long. Even if an arbitral tribunal publishes its award fairly quickly, challenges to such an award before the high court and the Supreme Court are inevitable.

The privy council has caustically observed that the trouble of a litigant in India begins when he gets hold of a decree. To implement or execute such a judgment is another long-drawn-out process. In this Kafkaesque scenario, the litigants could well become sick or insolvent. In these circumstances, is there a practical commercial solution before a corporate embarks upon a highly unproductive litigation? Courts highly encourage mediation.

Unlike arbitration, mediation is not legally binding. However, in the current scenario, formal mediation may not work so effectively. Disputing parties to a contract may, instead, explore obtaining a dispassionate view of the dispute from a seasoned person having commercial experience and knowledge, not necessarily a lawyer. What is required is a creative commercial solution to the dispute. Courts do not rewrite contracts for the parties.

However, such an informal mediator can rewrite and redesign the contract that causes minimal damage or disruption to both disputing parties. Of course, if such a mediation effort fails, the contracting parties are at liberty to litigate. Such an exercise is bound to narrow differences and result in a solution that may have escaped both the contracting parties.

Q. What is the main issue discussed in this passage ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 89 This is the correct answer for the given question.

According to passage, COVID-19 Pandemic damage is taking the bottom out of commercial contracts. It is becoming commercially impracticable to perform such contracts.To perform such contracts is to invite financial disaster.

Therefore, the correct answer is Effect on commercial contracts due to pandemic COVID - along with some suggestions.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 90

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The COVID-1919 pandemic damage is taking the bottom out of commercial contracts. It is becoming commercially impracticable to perform such contracts. Is the pandemic an 'act of god' ? Does it amount to a force majeure event ? Has it made performance impossible ? Is a party to a contract relieved from its obligation to perform, as the COVID-1919 instigated lockdown amounts to a material adverse event ? What will be the economic consequences if we default on our obligations and commit a breach ?

To perform such contracts, on the other hand, is to invite financial disaster. Like Hamlet, to perform or not to perform is the question agitating the minds of CEO's, CFO's and general counsel of India's corporates. Long term commitments to purchase goods or render services have suddenly become commercially unveil. The coveted acquisition that seemed so lucrative has turned into a nightmare. A single breach may trigger several such breaches through multiple, interlinked contracts. Corporate reputations and carefully cultivated long-term business relationships are at stake.

Request for extending time and forbearance in performance will soon turn into nasty correspondence and, subsequently, legal notices being exchanged. Most of these contracts contain an arbitration clause, with reference to a three-member arbitral tribunal. If the counterparty to the dispute is not interested in expeditious disposal, the constitution of such tribunal itself can be a long drawn-out affair. Meanwhile, if interim orders are required to be obtained, the parties will be compelled to approach a court of law. This translates into multiple legal proceedings before different fora, and mounting cost of litigation.

Cash flows are the biggest victims of this crisis. At the same time, when commercial stakes are so high, most corporates would like to avail of the best possible professional assistance. Success fees are not legally permissible in India. At the same time, law firms can't be expected to provide credit to clients for work done as also third-party liability like payment of fees to senior counsel.

To compound matters, the jurisprudence on the subject in India is hardly enlightening. If there is no express provision in the contract for force majeure, Indian law ordinarily does not imply such a clause. The same goes for material adverse change (MAC) clauses in a contract. The doctrine of commercial impracticability to perform a contract, developed under New York law, has not found much favour with the Indian Supreme Court. The legal outcome of such disputes is, therefore, anybody's guess.

Needless to add, the time taken in arriving at a final determination of such a dispute can be horrendously long. Even if an arbitral tribunal publishes its award fairly quickly, challenges to such an award before the high court and the Supreme Court are inevitable.

The privy council has caustically observed that the trouble of a litigant in India begins when he gets hold of a decree. To implement or execute such a judgment is another long-drawn-out process. In this Kafkaesque scenario, the litigants could well become sick or insolvent. In these circumstances, is there a practical commercial solution before a corporate embarks upon a highly unproductive litigation? Courts highly encourage mediation.

Unlike arbitration, mediation is not legally binding. However, in the current scenario, formal mediation may not work so effectively. Disputing parties to a contract may, instead, explore obtaining a dispassionate view of the dispute from a seasoned person having commercial experience and knowledge, not necessarily a lawyer. What is required is a creative commercial solution to the dispute. Courts do not rewrite contracts for the parties.

However, such an informal mediator can rewrite and redesign the contract that causes minimal damage or disruption to both disputing parties. Of course, if such a mediation effort fails, the contracting parties are at liberty to litigate. Such an exercise is bound to narrow differences and result in a solution that may have escaped both the contracting parties.

Q. Which of the following creative commercial solution is provided by the writer to the parties ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 90 This is the correct option for the given question.

Practical commercial solution before a corporate embarks upon a highly unproductive litigation. Court encourages mediation.Unlike arbitration, mediation is not legally binding. Formal mediation may not work so effectively. In this case However, such an informal mediator can rewrite and redesign the contract that causes minimal damage or disruption to both disputing parties.

Therefore, the correct answer is Parties should opt for rewriting of contracts through an informal mediator.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 91

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The COVID-1919 pandemic damage is taking the bottom out of commercial contracts. It is becoming commercially impracticable to perform such contracts. Is the pandemic an 'act of god' ? Does it amount to a force majeure event ? Has it made performance impossible ? Is a party to a contract relieved from its obligation to perform, as the COVID-1919 instigated lockdown amounts to a material adverse event ? What will be the economic consequences if we default on our obligations and commit a breach ?

To perform such contracts, on the other hand, is to invite financial disaster. Like Hamlet, to perform or not to perform is the question agitating the minds of CEO's, CFO's and general counsel of India's corporates. Long term commitments to purchase goods or render services have suddenly become commercially unveil. The coveted acquisition that seemed so lucrative has turned into a nightmare. A single breach may trigger several such breaches through multiple, interlinked contracts. Corporate reputations and carefully cultivated long-term business relationships are at stake.

Request for extending time and forbearance in performance will soon turn into nasty correspondence and, subsequently, legal notices being exchanged. Most of these contracts contain an arbitration clause, with reference to a three-member arbitral tribunal. If the counterparty to the dispute is not interested in expeditious disposal, the constitution of such tribunal itself can be a long drawn-out affair. Meanwhile, if interim orders are required to be obtained, the parties will be compelled to approach a court of law. This translates into multiple legal proceedings before different fora, and mounting cost of litigation.

Cash flows are the biggest victims of this crisis. At the same time, when commercial stakes are so high, most corporates would like to avail of the best possible professional assistance. Success fees are not legally permissible in India. At the same time, law firms can't be expected to provide credit to clients for work done as also third-party liability like payment of fees to senior counsel.

To compound matters, the jurisprudence on the subject in India is hardly enlightening. If there is no express provision in the contract for force majeure, Indian law ordinarily does not imply such a clause. The same goes for material adverse change (MAC) clauses in a contract. The doctrine of commercial impracticability to perform a contract, developed under New York law, has not found much favour with the Indian Supreme Court. The legal outcome of such disputes is, therefore, anybody's guess.

Needless to add, the time taken in arriving at a final determination of such a dispute can be horrendously long. Even if an arbitral tribunal publishes its award fairly quickly, challenges to such an award before the high court and the Supreme Court are inevitable.

The privy council has caustically observed that the trouble of a litigant in India begins when he gets hold of a decree. To implement or execute such a judgment is another long-drawn-out process. In this Kafkaesque scenario, the litigants could well become sick or insolvent. In these circumstances, is there a practical commercial solution before a corporate embarks upon a highly unproductive litigation? Courts highly encourage mediation.

Unlike arbitration, mediation is not legally binding. However, in the current scenario, formal mediation may not work so effectively. Disputing parties to a contract may, instead, explore obtaining a dispassionate view of the dispute from a seasoned person having commercial experience and knowledge, not necessarily a lawyer. What is required is a creative commercial solution to the dispute. Courts do not rewrite contracts for the parties.

However, such an informal mediator can rewrite and redesign the contract that causes minimal damage or disruption to both disputing parties. Of course, if such a mediation effort fails, the contracting parties are at liberty to litigate. Such an exercise is bound to narrow differences and result in a solution that may have escaped both the contracting parties.

Q. Why is it so that the trouble of a litigant in India begins when he gets hold of a decree ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 91 The expression ‘execution' means enforcement or implementation of the order or judgement passed by the Court. A Decree means an operation or conclusiveness of a judgement and the execution of a Decree is complete when the decree-holder gets satisfied as to its enforcement against the judgement-debtor. The executing court cannot question the validity of a Decree or entertain an objection as to the legality or otherwise of the Decree. It must take the Decree as it stands and executes it according to its terms. The executing court must abide by the directions contained in the Decree.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 92

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Apart from offences relating to humans, state, marriage and public tranquillity, the Indian Penal Code contains. offences against properties also. Chapter 1717 of the Code contains these provisions. Such offences include crimes like theft, extortion, robbery, dacoity and other aggravated forms of these crimes. Theft under IPC is generally the most basic and common offence against properties.

Section 378378 of the IPC defines theft as, "Whoever, intending to take dishonestly any movable property out of the possession of any person without that person's consent, moves that property to such taking, is said to commit theft".

Shweta Tiwari is an excellent artist and is married to one named Deepak Tiwari who owns a factory. They have a son Anshuman and is taken care of by a nanny, Puja because Shweta has to travel a lot for her art work. Anshuman has grown up to be a fine gentleman with a degree in data analysis and works in a MNC. After Mr, Deepak passed away Shweta moved in with her son, her daughter-in-law, Sagnika and granddaughter Suparna. Shweta soon became ill and therefore bedridden for several months but continued her paintings. In those months, she never liked any person to meet her and mostly remained alone except for her help Sumitra. After she died Anshuman told Sumitra to clean up her room and throw away any rubbish that may be there. Sumitra found out some old clothes and jewelleries which she gave back to him and also found out her paintings- the good ones were hung up on the wall and the faded ones were discarded on the orders of Anshuman. So Sumitra took all the garbage to the municipality rubbish dump. Before finally dumping Sumitra decided to finally check all the bags to make sure that no valuables are thrown away and while doing so she found two beautiful paintings in between two sheets of paper in the stack of newspapers. She thought that Anshuman probably wouldn't want this old painting back, especially because it was torn in several places and the colour was fading. Sumitra liked the paintings very much and as a sign of her master she took the painting home, mounted it on a wooden frame and hung it on the wall of her drawing room. She was completely unaware of the fact that the painting was an old 'masterpiece, and worth twenty thousand rupees. Before mounting the painting, Sumitra made some modifications do it does not get torn from the sides. By doing so, she made its professional 'restoration very difficult and thereby reduced its value by half. Malti, a jealous neighbour of Sumitra, came to know that the painting belonged to Anshuman. With the motive of returning the painting to him, Malti climbed through an open window into to barge into Sumitra's room when she was away one afternoon and removed the painting from her house.

Q. Is Sumitra guilty of criminal offence?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 92 According to question , this option is the appropriate answer,

Anshunan asked her to throw everything and she didn't have any information about the value of painting.

So, it was not her intention.

Hence, the correct answer is No, she is not guilty of criminal offence as she did not intentionally impair the value of the painting.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 93

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Apart from offences relating to humans, state, marriage and public tranquillity, the Indian Penal Code contains. offences against properties also. Chapter 1717 of the Code contains these provisions. Such offences include crimes like theft, extortion, robbery, dacoity and other aggravated forms of these crimes. Theft under IPC is generally the most basic and common offence against properties.

Section 378378 of the IPC defines theft as, "Whoever, intending to take dishonestly any movable property out of the possession of any person without that person's consent, moves that property to such taking, is said to commit theft".

Shweta Tiwari is an excellent artist and is married to one named Deepak Tiwari who owns a factory. They have a son Anshuman and is taken care of by a nanny, Puja because Shweta has to travel a lot for her art work. Anshuman has grown up to be a fine gentleman with a degree in data analysis and works in a MNC. After Mr, Deepak passed away Shweta moved in with her son, her daughter-in-law, Sagnika and granddaughter Suparna. Shweta soon became ill and therefore bedridden for several months but continued her paintings. In those months, she never liked any person to meet her and mostly remained alone except for her help Sumitra. After she died Anshuman told Sumitra to clean up her room and throw away any rubbish that may be there. Sumitra found out some old clothes and jewelleries which she gave back to him and also found out her paintings- the good ones were hung up on the wall and the faded ones were discarded on the orders of Anshuman. So Sumitra took all the garbage to the municipality rubbish dump. Before finally dumping Sumitra decided to finally check all the bags to make sure that no valuables are thrown away and while doing so she found two beautiful paintings in between two sheets of paper in the stack of newspapers. She thought that Anshuman probably wouldn't want this old painting back, especially because it was torn in several places and the colour was fading. Sumitra liked the paintings very much and as a sign of her master she took the painting home, mounted it on a wooden frame and hung it on the wall of her drawing room. She was completely unaware of the fact that the painting was an old 'masterpiece, and worth twenty thousand rupees. Before mounting the painting, Sumitra made some modifications do it does not get torn from the sides. By doing so, she made its professional 'restoration very difficult and thereby reduced its value by half. Malti, a jealous neighbour of Sumitra, came to know that the painting belonged to Anshuman. With the motive of returning the painting to him, Malti climbed through an open window into to barge into Sumitra's room when she was away one afternoon and removed the painting from her house.

Q. Is Malti guilty of theft?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 93 According to question , this option is the appropriate answer,

According to section 378378, IPC defines theft as, "Whoever, intending to take dishonestly any movable property out of the possession of any person without that person's consent, moves that property to such taking, is said to commit theft".

Malti intentionally did this.

Hence, the correct answer is Yes, Malti is guilty of theft as she took the painting out of the house of Sumitra without her consent.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 94

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Apart from offences relating to humans, state, marriage and public tranquillity, the Indian Penal Code contains. offences against properties also. Chapter 1717 of the Code contains these provisions. Such offences include crimes like theft, extortion, robbery, dacoity and other aggravated forms of these crimes. Theft under IPC is generally the most basic and common offence against properties.

Section 378378 of the IPC defines theft as, "Whoever, intending to take dishonestly any movable property out of the possession of any person without that person's consent, moves that property to such taking, is said to commit theft".

Shweta Tiwari is an excellent artist and is married to one named Deepak Tiwari who owns a factory. They have a son Anshuman and is taken care of by a nanny, Puja because Shweta has to travel a lot for her art work. Anshuman has grown up to be a fine gentleman with a degree in data analysis and works in a MNC. After Mr, Deepak passed away Shweta moved in with her son, her daughter-in-law, Sagnika and granddaughter Suparna. Shweta soon became ill and therefore bedridden for several months but continued her paintings. In those months, she never liked any person to meet her and mostly remained alone except for her help Sumitra. After she died Anshuman told Sumitra to clean up her room and throw away any rubbish that may be there. Sumitra found out some old clothes and jewelleries which she gave back to him and also found out her paintings- the good ones were hung up on the wall and the faded ones were discarded on the orders of Anshuman. So Sumitra took all the garbage to the municipality rubbish dump. Before finally dumping Sumitra decided to finally check all the bags to make sure that no valuables are thrown away and while doing so she found two beautiful paintings in between two sheets of paper in the stack of newspapers. She thought that Anshuman probably wouldn't want this old painting back, especially because it was torn in several places and the colour was fading. Sumitra liked the paintings very much and as a sign of her master she took the painting home, mounted it on a wooden frame and hung it on the wall of her drawing room. She was completely unaware of the fact that the painting was an old 'masterpiece, and worth twenty thousand rupees. Before mounting the painting, Sumitra made some modifications do it does not get torn from the sides. By doing so, she made its professional 'restoration very difficult and thereby reduced its value by half. Malti, a jealous neighbour of Sumitra, came to know that the painting belonged to Anshuman. With the motive of returning the painting to him, Malti climbed through an open window into to barge into Sumitra's room when she was away one afternoon and removed the painting from her house.

Q. Has Sumitra committed theft?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 94 Sumitra has not commited the crime as his master asked her to dump everything. He thougt the paintings are worthless or of zero value.

Hence, the correct answer is No, Sumitra has not committed theft because she had taken painting on consent of Anshuman.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 95

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Apart from offences relating to humans, state, marriage and public tranquillity, the Indian Penal Code contains. offences against properties also. Chapter 1717 of the Code contains these provisions. Such offences include crimes like theft, extortion, robbery, dacoity and other aggravated forms of these crimes. Theft under IPC is generally the most basic and common offence against properties.

Section 378378 of the IPC defines theft as, "Whoever, intending to take dishonestly any movable property out of the possession of any person without that person's consent, moves that property to such taking, is said to commit theft".

Shweta Tiwari is an excellent artist and is married to one named Deepak Tiwari who owns a factory. They have a son Anshuman and is taken care of by a nanny, Puja because Shweta has to travel a lot for her art work. Anshuman has grown up to be a fine gentleman with a degree in data analysis and works in a MNC. After Mr, Deepak passed away Shweta moved in with her son, her daughter-in-law, Sagnika and granddaughter Suparna. Shweta soon became ill and therefore bedridden for several months but continued her paintings. In those months, she never liked any person to meet her and mostly remained alone except for her help Sumitra. After she died Anshuman told Sumitra to clean up her room and throw away any rubbish that may be there. Sumitra found out some old clothes and jewelleries which she gave back to him and also found out her paintings- the good ones were hung up on the wall and the faded ones were discarded on the orders of Anshuman. So Sumitra took all the garbage to the municipality rubbish dump. Before finally dumping Sumitra decided to finally check all the bags to make sure that no valuables are thrown away and while doing so she found two beautiful paintings in between two sheets of paper in the stack of newspapers. She thought that Anshuman probably wouldn't want this old painting back, especially because it was torn in several places and the colour was fading. Sumitra liked the paintings very much and as a sign of her master she took the painting home, mounted it on a wooden frame and hung it on the wall of her drawing room. She was completely unaware of the fact that the painting was an old 'masterpiece, and worth twenty thousand rupees. Before mounting the painting, Sumitra made some modifications do it does not get torn from the sides. By doing so, she made its professional 'restoration very difficult and thereby reduced its value by half. Malti, a jealous neighbour of Sumitra, came to know that the painting belonged to Anshuman. With the motive of returning the painting to him, Malti climbed through an open window into to barge into Sumitra's room when she was away one afternoon and removed the painting from her house.

Q. If Sumitra had discovered the painting before leaving house of Anshuman rather than at the rubbish dump, would she have been guilty of theft in this case?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 95 According to question , this option is the appropriate answer,

Since, Anshuman told Sumitra to clean up her room and throw away any rubbish that may be there.She found out her paintings- the good ones were hung up on the wall and the faded ones were discarded on the orders of Anshuman. So Sumitra took all the garbage to the municipality rubbish dump. Before finally dumping Sumitra decided to finally check all the bags to make sure that no valuables are thrown away and while doing so she found two beautiful paintings in between two sheets of paper in the stack of newspapers. She thought that Anshuman probably wouldn't want this old painting back, especially because it was torn in several places and the colour was fading. Sumitra liked the paintings very much and as a sign of her master she took the painting home, mounted it on a wooden frame and hung it on the wall of her drawing room. She was completely unaware of the fact that the painting was an old 'masterpiece, and worth twenty thousand rupees. Before mounting the painting, Sumitra made some modifications do it does not get torn from the sides. By doing so, she made its professional 'restoration very difficult and thereby reduced its value by half.

Since he ordered her to dump her.

Hence, the correct answer is No, she would be guilty of theft of the painting as Anshuman had already told her to dump it.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 96

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Apart from offences relating to humans, state, marriage and public tranquillity, the Indian Penal Code contains. offences against properties also. Chapter 1717 of the Code contains these provisions. Such offences include crimes like theft, extortion, robbery, dacoity and other aggravated forms of these crimes. Theft under IPC is generally the most basic and common offence against properties.

Section 378378 of the IPC defines theft as, "Whoever, intending to take dishonestly any movable property out of the possession of any person without that person's consent, moves that property to such taking, is said to commit theft".

Shweta Tiwari is an excellent artist and is married to one named Deepak Tiwari who owns a factory. They have a son Anshuman and is taken care of by a nanny, Puja because Shweta has to travel a lot for her art work. Anshuman has grown up to be a fine gentleman with a degree in data analysis and works in a MNC. After Mr, Deepak passed away Shweta moved in with her son, her daughter-in-law, Sagnika and granddaughter Suparna. Shweta soon became ill and therefore bedridden for several months but continued her paintings. In those months, she never liked any person to meet her and mostly remained alone except for her help Sumitra. After she died Anshuman told Sumitra to clean up her room and throw away any rubbish that may be there. Sumitra found out some old clothes and jewelleries which she gave back to him and also found out her paintings- the good ones were hung up on the wall and the faded ones were discarded on the orders of Anshuman. So Sumitra took all the garbage to the municipality rubbish dump. Before finally dumping Sumitra decided to finally check all the bags to make sure that no valuables are thrown away and while doing so she found two beautiful paintings in between two sheets of paper in the stack of newspapers. She thought that Anshuman probably wouldn't want this old painting back, especially because it was torn in several places and the colour was fading. Sumitra liked the paintings very much and as a sign of her master she took the painting home, mounted it on a wooden frame and hung it on the wall of her drawing room. She was completely unaware of the fact that the painting was an old 'masterpiece, and worth twenty thousand rupees. Before mounting the painting, Sumitra made some modifications do it does not get torn from the sides. By doing so, she made its professional 'restoration very difficult and thereby reduced its value by half. Malti, a jealous neighbour of Sumitra, came to know that the painting belonged to Anshuman. With the motive of returning the painting to him, Malti climbed through an open window into to barge into Sumitra's room when she was away one afternoon and removed the painting from her house.

Q. Which of the following propositions could be inferred from the facts and the rules specified

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 96 Malti, a jealous neighbour of Sumitra, came to know that the painting belonged to Anshuman. With the motive of returning the painting to him, Malti climbed through an open window into to barge into Sumitra's room when she was away one afternoon and removed the painting from her house.

Under section 378378, it is theft

Hence, the correct answer is Malti is guilty of criminal offence, as she has stolen the picture.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 97

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

In a significant move, the Supreme Court has observed that provisions of Section 498 A.498 A. of the Indian Penal Code or the anti-dowry law were being increasingly misused by plaintiffs. Taking cognizance of the fact that the law was being used as a weapon rather than a protective shield, the apex court directed state governments to instruct police not to automatically carry out arrests on the mere lodging of a complaint.

There's no denying that Section 498 A498 A was enacted with the commendable aim of cracking down on dowry deaths and cruelty against women in their matrimonial homes. However, by making provisions of the law too stringent, the pendulum has swung too far in the other direction whereby the innocent can be victimized. Several women's rights groups have also acknowledged the draconian nature of the stipulation that allows for automatic arrests, including of women, without bail. In many cases the accused include the plaintiff's women in-laws who are ailing or residing outside the country. Such charges are brought with the malafide intention of harassing the spouse's family. Add to this loose wording that takes cognizance even of mental abuse, and it is easy to see why Section 498 A498 A is susceptible to misuse.

Against this backdrop, it is welcome that the Supreme Court has directed the police to first satisfy themselves of the necessity for arrest under Section 4141 of the Criminal Procedure Code before making arrests in anti-dowry cases. Further, the magistrate too would have to record its satisfaction before authorizing detention of the accused. In this regard, there is an urgent need to review our approach towards gender crime laws in general.

Hitherto the dominant thinking has been to ramp up the quantum of punishment or stringency of prosecution or even to reverse the basic assumption of Indian jurisprudence that one is innocent until proven guilty, in order. to serve as a deterrent against gender crimes. This approach does little to protect genuine victims but allows those with means to manipulate the law. The law should make a strict distinction, for example, between rape and voluntary sex between consenting adults. Nuanced laws that recognize the degree of offence and recommend commensurate, punishment - along with their consistent enforcement - are the only way to boost genuine reporting of gender crimes and ensure justice.

Q. What does the section 498 A498 A of Indian Penal Code provides for

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 97 According to question, this option is the appropriate answer,

The Section-498A of Indian Penal Code provides for all the protection against all the crime for women like dowry, crime of cruelty, protection against mental abuse.

Hence, the correct answer is all of the above.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 98

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

In a significant move, the Supreme Court has observed that provisions of Section 498 A.498 A. of the Indian Penal Code or the anti-dowry law were being increasingly misused by plaintiffs. Taking cognizance of the fact that the law was being used as a weapon rather than a protective shield, the apex court directed state governments to instruct police not to automatically carry out arrests on the mere lodging of a complaint.

There's no denying that Section 498 A498 A was enacted with the commendable aim of cracking down on dowry deaths and cruelty against women in their matrimonial homes. However, by making provisions of the law too stringent, the pendulum has swung too far in the other direction whereby the innocent can be victimized. Several women's rights groups have also acknowledged the draconian nature of the stipulation that allows for automatic arrests, including of women, without bail. In many cases the accused include the plaintiff's women in-laws who are ailing or residing outside the country. Such charges are brought with the malafide intention of harassing the spouse's family. Add to this loose wording that takes cognizance even of mental abuse, and it is easy to see why Section 498 A498 A is susceptible to misuse.

Against this backdrop, it is welcome that the Supreme Court has directed the police to first satisfy themselves of the necessity for arrest under Section 4141 of the Criminal Procedure Code before making arrests in anti-dowry cases. Further, the magistrate too would have to record its satisfaction before authorizing detention of the accused. In this regard, there is an urgent need to review our approach towards gender crime laws in general.

Hitherto the dominant thinking has been to ramp up the quantum of punishment or stringency of prosecution or even to reverse the basic assumption of Indian jurisprudence that one is innocent until proven guilty, in order. to serve as a deterrent against gender crimes. This approach does little to protect genuine victims but allows those with means to manipulate the law. The law should make a strict distinction, for example, between rape and voluntary sex between consenting adults. Nuanced laws that recognize the degree of offence and recommend commensurate, punishment - along with their consistent enforcement - are the only way to boost genuine reporting of gender crimes and ensure justice.

Q. For making any arrests under section 498 A498 A of the Indian Penal Code, who among the following have to be satisfied that there exists a necessity for arrest ?

Explanation

According to question, this option is the appropriate answer,

Since any crime against women is under section 498 A498 A which is used a lot nowadays.

Police and Magistrate needs to be satisfied before making any arrest on basis of this FIR so that no party can misuse the provisions of this section.

Hence, the correct answer is Both (a) and (b).

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 99

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

In a significant move, the Supreme Court has observed that provisions of Section 498 A.498 A. of the Indian Penal Code or the anti-dowry law were being increasingly misused by plaintiffs. Taking cognizance of the fact that the law was being used as a weapon rather than a protective shield, the apex court directed state governments to instruct police not to automatically carry out arrests on the mere lodging of a complaint.

There's no denying that Section 498 A498 A was enacted with the commendable aim of cracking down on dowry deaths and cruelty against women in their matrimonial homes. However, by making provisions of the law too stringent, the pendulum has swung too far in the other direction whereby the innocent can be victimized. Several women's rights groups have also acknowledged the draconian nature of the stipulation that allows for automatic arrests, including of women, without bail. In many cases the accused include the plaintiff's women in-laws who are ailing or residing outside the country. Such charges are brought with the malafide intention of harassing the spouse's family. Add to this loose wording that takes cognizance even of mental abuse, and it is easy to see why Section 498 A498 A is susceptible to misuse.

Against this backdrop, it is welcome that the Supreme Court has directed the police to first satisfy themselves of the necessity for arrest under Section 4141 of the Criminal Procedure Code before making arrests in anti-dowry cases. Further, the magistrate too would have to record its satisfaction before authorizing detention of the accused. In this regard, there is an urgent need to review our approach towards gender crime laws in general.

Hitherto the dominant thinking has been to ramp up the quantum of punishment or stringency of prosecution or even to reverse the basic assumption of Indian jurisprudence that one is innocent until proven guilty, in order. to serve as a deterrent against gender crimes. This approach does little to protect genuine victims but allows those with means to manipulate the law. The law should make a strict distinction, for example, between rape and voluntary sex between consenting adults. Nuanced laws that recognize the degree of offence and recommend commensurate, punishment - along with their consistent enforcement - are the only way to boost genuine reporting of gender crimes and ensure justice.

Q. What is the basic assumption in the jurisprudence of Indian criminal law ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 99 According to question , this option is the appropriate answer,

The Supreme Court has directed the police to first satisfy themselves of the necessity for arrest under Section 4141 of the Criminal Procedure Code before making arrests in anti-dowry cases. Further, the magistrate too would have to record its satisfaction before authorizing detention of the accused. In this regard, there is an urgent need to review our approach towards gender crime laws in general.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 100

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

In a significant move, the Supreme Court has observed that provisions of Section 498 A.498 A. of the Indian Penal Code or the anti-dowry law were being increasingly misused by plaintiffs. Taking cognizance of the fact that the law was being used as a weapon rather than a protective shield, the apex court directed state governments to instruct police not to automatically carry out arrests on the mere lodging of a complaint.

There's no denying that Section 498 A498 A was enacted with the commendable aim of cracking down on dowry deaths and cruelty against women in their matrimonial homes. However, by making provisions of the law too stringent, the pendulum has swung too far in the other direction whereby the innocent can be victimized. Several women's rights groups have also acknowledged the draconian nature of the stipulation that allows for automatic arrests, including of women, without bail. In many cases the accused include the plaintiff's women in-laws who are ailing or residing outside the country. Such charges are brought with the malafide intention of harassing the spouse's family. Add to this loose wording that takes cognizance even of mental abuse, and it is easy to see why Section 498 A498 A is susceptible to misuse.

Against this backdrop, it is welcome that the Supreme Court has directed the police to first satisfy themselves of the necessity for arrest under Section 4141 of the Criminal Procedure Code before making arrests in anti-dowry cases. Further, the magistrate too would have to record its satisfaction before authorizing detention of the accused. In this regard, there is an urgent need to review our approach towards gender crime laws in general.

Hitherto the dominant thinking has been to ramp up the quantum of punishment or stringency of prosecution or even to reverse the basic assumption of Indian jurisprudence that one is innocent until proven guilty, in order. to serve as a deterrent against gender crimes. This approach does little to protect genuine victims but allows those with means to manipulate the law. The law should make a strict distinction, for example, between rape and voluntary sex between consenting adults. Nuanced laws that recognize the degree of offence and recommend commensurate, punishment - along with their consistent enforcement - are the only way to boost genuine reporting of gender crimes and ensure justice.

Q. Under Section-498A of the Indian Penal Code, who among the following can be charged of an offence ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 100 According to question, this option is the appropriate answer,

If all the members of family is harassing the women then all the members can be held responsible for the crime even if they don't live with women or are in some other city or home.

Hence, the correct answer is all the family members whether or not residing with the victim.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 101

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

In a significant move, the Supreme Court has observed that provisions of Section 498 A.498 A. of the Indian Penal Code or the anti-dowry law were being increasingly misused by plaintiffs. Taking cognizance of the fact that the law was being used as a weapon rather than a protective shield, the apex court directed state governments to instruct police not to automatically carry out arrests on the mere lodging of a complaint.

There's no denying that Section 498 A498 A was enacted with the commendable aim of cracking down on dowry deaths and cruelty against women in their matrimonial homes. However, by making provisions of the law too stringent, the pendulum has swung too far in the other direction whereby the innocent can be victimized. Several women's rights groups have also acknowledged the draconian nature of the stipulation that allows for automatic arrests, including of women, without bail. In many cases the accused include the plaintiff's women in-laws who are ailing or residing outside the country. Such charges are brought with the malafide intention of harassing the spouse's family. Add to this loose wording that takes cognizance even of mental abuse, and it is easy to see why Section 498 A498 A is susceptible to misuse.

Against this backdrop, it is welcome that the Supreme Court has directed the police to first satisfy themselves of the necessity for arrest under Section 4141 of the Criminal Procedure Code before making arrests in anti-dowry cases. Further, the magistrate too would have to record its satisfaction before authorizing detention of the accused. In this regard, there is an urgent need to review our approach towards gender crime laws in general.

Hitherto the dominant thinking has been to ramp up the quantum of punishment or stringency of prosecution or even to reverse the basic assumption of Indian jurisprudence that one is innocent until proven guilty, in order. to serve as a deterrent against gender crimes. This approach does little to protect genuine victims but allows those with means to manipulate the law. The law should make a strict distinction, for example, between rape and voluntary sex between consenting adults. Nuanced laws that recognize the degree of offence and recommend commensurate, punishment - along with their consistent enforcement - are the only way to boost genuine reporting of gender crimes and ensure justice.

Q. Amita, who has been married to Amit for one year has lodged a complaint under section 498 A498 A of Indian Penal Code against his husband, mother-in-law and sister-in-law. She used to reside in Delhi with her husband and mother-in-law and third accused, her sister-in-law used to reside in Bangalore. Can a charge be made against the sister-in-law who resides in Bangalore for the cruelty that happened in Delhi ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 101 According to Section 498A of Indian Penal Code , Any Indian wife and her relative can file 498A on her husband, his parents, sisters, brothers, grandparents, uncles, aunts, cousins, wives of brothers, and other relatives.

In the given case: Amita, who has been married to Amit for one year has lodged a complaint against his husband, mother-in-law and sister-in-law who is not living with her.

But the charge against sister-in-law be will depend on the discretion of the Police.

Hence, the correct answer is Depend on the discretion of the Police

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 102

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Rule of law, the mechanism, process, institution, practice, or norm that supports the equality of all citizens before the law, secures a non-arbitrary form of government, and more generally prevents the arbitrary use of power. Arbitrariness is typical of various forms of despotism, absolutism, authoritarianism, and totalitarianism. Despotic governments include even highly institutionalised forms of rule in which the entity at the apex of the power structure (such as a king, a junta, or a party committee) is capable of acting without the constraint of law when it wishes to do so. Ideas about the rule of law have been central to political and legal thought since at least the 4th4th Century BCE, when Aristotle distinguished "the rule of law" from "that of any individual." In the 18th18thCentury the French political philosopher Montesquieu elaborated a doctrine of the rule of law that contrasted the legitimate authority of monarchs with the caprice of despots. It has since profoundly influenced Western liberal thought.

In general, the rule of law implies that the creation of laws, their enforcement, and the relationships among legal rules are themselves legally regulated, so that no one-including the most highly placed official-is above the law. The legal constraint on rulers means that the government is subject to existing laws as much as its citizens are. Thus, a closely related notion is the idea of equality before the law, which holds that no "legal" person shall enjoy privileges that are not extended to all and that no person shall be immune from legal sanctions. In addition, the application and adjudication of legal rules by various governing officials are to be impartial and consistent across equivalent cases, made blindly without taking into consideration the class, status, or relative power among disputants. In order for those ideas to have any real purchase, moreover, there should be in place some legal apparatus for compelling officials to submit to the law.

For such reasons, the rule of law is best seen not as a blueprint for institutional design but as a value, or cluster of values, that might inform such a design and that can therefore be pursued in a variety of ways. Nonetheless, several rather simple and generalised institutional insights follow from the idea that those who judge the legality of exercises of power should not be the same as those who exercise it. For instance, a typical rule-of-law state will institutionalise some means of shielding legal officials from interference, political or otherwise, that threatens their independence. Accordingly, the institutional separation of the judiciary from other branches of government is commonly thought to be an important feature of rule-of-law states. Other measures to ensure fair access to legal institutions may also be important for rule-of-law regimes. In addition, a binding written constitution is widely believed to aid the rule of law and has been adopted by most states of the world.

The President of the country of Denverska supported a communal riot based on religion but did not take any part in any protest marches that vandalized the city. When Omar Sahib, a devotee of the Futu religion, gathered all the members of the Futu religion to stop the communal riot and held the President responsible for the riot, the President declared emergency in the country of Denverska on ground of national security and seized all the power to himself. Can the President be held liable in the court of law for inciting violence ?

Q. Mr. XX filed a petition in High Court challenging sec 5151 of the Helskiny Premises Tenancy Act, 20202020 on the ground of being violative of Fundamental Rights. The High Court ruled in favour of Mr. XX and declared section 5151 to be ultra vires. In order to correct the unjust law, the court also keeping in mind the legislative intent amended the section 5151 so as do away with the faulty part.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 102 This is the correct option for the given question.

Since the section 5151 Leads to violation of fundamental rights. Hence, it needs to be amended, but the high court has no power.

Hence, the correct answer is the High Court has no power to amend the law, and it is the Legislature who has the duty to legislate.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 103

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Rule of law, the mechanism, process, institution, practice, or norm that supports the equality of all citizens before the law, secures a non-arbitrary form of government, and more generally prevents the arbitrary use of power. Arbitrariness is typical of various forms of despotism, absolutism, authoritarianism, and totalitarianism. Despotic governments include even highly institutionalised forms of rule in which the entity at the apex of the power structure (such as a king, a junta, or a party committee) is capable of acting without the constraint of law when it wishes to do so. Ideas about the rule of law have been central to political and legal thought since at least the 4th4th Century BCE, when Aristotle distinguished "the rule of law" from "that of any individual." In the 18th18thCentury the French political philosopher Montesquieu elaborated a doctrine of the rule of law that contrasted the legitimate authority of monarchs with the caprice of despots. It has since profoundly influenced Western liberal thought.

In general, the rule of law implies that the creation of laws, their enforcement, and the relationships among legal rules are themselves legally regulated, so that no one-including the most highly placed official-is above the law. The legal constraint on rulers means that the government is subject to existing laws as much as its citizens are. Thus, a closely related notion is the idea of equality before the law, which holds that no "legal" person shall enjoy privileges that are not extended to all and that no person shall be immune from legal sanctions. In addition, the application and adjudication of legal rules by various governing officials are to be impartial and consistent across equivalent cases, made blindly without taking into consideration the class, status, or relative power among disputants. In order for those ideas to have any real purchase, moreover, there should be in place some legal apparatus for compelling officials to submit to the law.

For such reasons, the rule of law is best seen not as a blueprint for institutional design but as a value, or cluster of values, that might inform such a design and that can therefore be pursued in a variety of ways. Nonetheless, several rather simple and generalised institutional insights follow from the idea that those who judge the legality of exercises of power should not be the same as those who exercise it. For instance, a typical rule-of-law state will institutionalise some means of shielding legal officials from interference, political or otherwise, that threatens their independence. Accordingly, the institutional separation of the judiciary from other branches of government is commonly thought to be an important feature of rule-of-law states. Other measures to ensure fair access to legal institutions may also be important for rule-of-law regimes. In addition, a binding written constitution is widely believed to aid the rule of law and has been adopted by most states of the world.

The President of the country of Denverska supported a communal riot based on religion but did not take any part in any protest marches that vandalized the city. When Omar Sahib, a devotee of the Futu religion, gathered all the members of the Futu religion to stop the communal riot and held the President responsible for the riot, the President declared emergency in the country of Denverska on ground of national security and seized all the power to himself. Can the President be held liable in the court of law for inciting violence ?

Q. Ms. Srimati Patil, a government employee, in charge of issuing tender and selecting a bidding company for the construction of water pipelines in the district of Hathway took a bribe from ABCABC Company for selecting them for the construction work. XYZXYZ Company who was another company bidding for the work filed a petition accusing Ms. Srimati Patil.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 103 This is the correct option for the given question.

Since Ms. Patil is government employee who issues tender and took bribe for issuing the tender to that company.

Taking bribe is an offence.

Hence, the correct answer is She will be held liable as accepting bribe is not a part of his official duty.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 104

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Rule of law, the mechanism, process, institution, practice, or norm that supports the equality of all citizens before the law, secures a non-arbitrary form of government, and more generally prevents the arbitrary use of power. Arbitrariness is typical of various forms of despotism, absolutism, authoritarianism, and totalitarianism. Despotic governments include even highly institutionalised forms of rule in which the entity at the apex of the power structure (such as a king, a junta, or a party committee) is capable of acting without the constraint of law when it wishes to do so. Ideas about the rule of law have been central to political and legal thought since at least the 4th4th Century BCE, when Aristotle distinguished "the rule of law" from "that of any individual." In the 18th18thCentury the French political philosopher Montesquieu elaborated a doctrine of the rule of law that contrasted the legitimate authority of monarchs with the caprice of despots. It has since profoundly influenced Western liberal thought.

In general, the rule of law implies that the creation of laws, their enforcement, and the relationships among legal rules are themselves legally regulated, so that no one-including the most highly placed official-is above the law. The legal constraint on rulers means that the government is subject to existing laws as much as its citizens are. Thus, a closely related notion is the idea of equality before the law, which holds that no "legal" person shall enjoy privileges that are not extended to all and that no person shall be immune from legal sanctions. In addition, the application and adjudication of legal rules by various governing officials are to be impartial and consistent across equivalent cases, made blindly without taking into consideration the class, status, or relative power among disputants. In order for those ideas to have any real purchase, moreover, there should be in place some legal apparatus for compelling officials to submit to the law.

For such reasons, the rule of law is best seen not as a blueprint for institutional design but as a value, or cluster of values, that might inform such a design and that can therefore be pursued in a variety of ways. Nonetheless, several rather simple and generalised institutional insights follow from the idea that those who judge the legality of exercises of power should not be the same as those who exercise it. For instance, a typical rule-of-law state will institutionalise some means of shielding legal officials from interference, political or otherwise, that threatens their independence. Accordingly, the institutional separation of the judiciary from other branches of government is commonly thought to be an important feature of rule-of-law states. Other measures to ensure fair access to legal institutions may also be important for rule-of-law regimes. In addition, a binding written constitution is widely believed to aid the rule of law and has been adopted by most states of the world.

The President of the country of Denverska supported a communal riot based on religion but did not take any part in any protest marches that vandalized the city. When Omar Sahib, a devotee of the Futu religion, gathered all the members of the Futu religion to stop the communal riot and held the President responsible for the riot, the President declared emergency in the country of Denverska on ground of national security and seized all the power to himself. Can the President be held liable in the court of law for inciting violence ?

Q. The President of the country of Denverska supported a communal riot based on religion but did not take any part in any protest marches that vandalized the city. When Omar Sahib, a devotee of the Futu religion, gathered all the members of the Futu religion to stop the communal riot and held the President responsible for the riot, the President declared emergency in the country of Denverska on ground of national security and seized all the power to himself. Can the President be held liable in the court of law for inciting violence ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 104 This is the correct option for the given question.

Binding written constitution is widely believed to aid the rule of law and has been adopted by most states of the world.Thus in the given situation in the question above president can be held liable.

Hence, the correct answer is the President can be held liable since the concept that the crown can do no wrong is no longer in vogue.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 105

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Rule of law, the mechanism, process, institution, practice, or norm that supports the equality of all citizens before the law, secures a non-arbitrary form of government, and more generally prevents the arbitrary use of power. Arbitrariness is typical of various forms of despotism, absolutism, authoritarianism, and totalitarianism. Despotic governments include even highly institutionalised forms of rule in which the entity at the apex of the power structure (such as a king, a junta, or a party committee) is capable of acting without the constraint of law when it wishes to do so. Ideas about the rule of law have been central to political and legal thought since at least the 4th4th Century BCE, when Aristotle distinguished "the rule of law" from "that of any individual." In the 18th18thCentury the French political philosopher Montesquieu elaborated a doctrine of the rule of law that contrasted the legitimate authority of monarchs with the caprice of despots. It has since profoundly influenced Western liberal thought.

In general, the rule of law implies that the creation of laws, their enforcement, and the relationships among legal rules are themselves legally regulated, so that no one-including the most highly placed official-is above the law. The legal constraint on rulers means that the government is subject to existing laws as much as its citizens are. Thus, a closely related notion is the idea of equality before the law, which holds that no "legal" person shall enjoy privileges that are not extended to all and that no person shall be immune from legal sanctions. In addition, the application and adjudication of legal rules by various governing officials are to be impartial and consistent across equivalent cases, made blindly without taking into consideration the class, status, or relative power among disputants. In order for those ideas to have any real purchase, moreover, there should be in place some legal apparatus for compelling officials to submit to the law.

For such reasons, the rule of law is best seen not as a blueprint for institutional design but as a value, or cluster of values, that might inform such a design and that can therefore be pursued in a variety of ways. Nonetheless, several rather simple and generalised institutional insights follow from the idea that those who judge the legality of exercises of power should not be the same as those who exercise it. For instance, a typical rule-of-law state will institutionalise some means of shielding legal officials from interference, political or otherwise, that threatens their independence. Accordingly, the institutional separation of the judiciary from other branches of government is commonly thought to be an important feature of rule-of-law states. Other measures to ensure fair access to legal institutions may also be important for rule-of-law regimes. In addition, a binding written constitution is widely believed to aid the rule of law and has been adopted by most states of the world.

The President of the country of Denverska supported a communal riot based on religion but did not take any part in any protest marches that vandalized the city. When Omar Sahib, a devotee of the Futu religion, gathered all the members of the Futu religion to stop the communal riot and held the President responsible for the riot, the President declared emergency in the country of Denverska on ground of national security and seized all the power to himself. Can the President be held liable in the court of law for inciting violence ?

Q. Keeping in mind the above passage what do you think about the rule of Hitler and his Nazi Party in Germany ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 105 This is the correct option for the given question.

Adolf Hitler was appointed chancellor of Germany in 19331933 following a series of electoral victories by the Nazi Party. He ruled absolutely until his death by suicide in April 19451945. Upon achieving power, Hitler smashed the nation’s democratic institutions and transformed Germany into a war state intent on conquering Europe for the benefit of the so-called Aryan race.

Hence, the correct answer is It was a despotic government as all the powers were cumulated in the hand of Hitler who acted arbitrarily.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 106

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Rule of law, the mechanism, process, institution, practice, or norm that supports the equality of all citizens before the law, secures a non-arbitrary form of government, and more generally prevents the arbitrary use of power. Arbitrariness is typical of various forms of despotism, absolutism, authoritarianism, and totalitarianism. Despotic governments include even highly institutionalised forms of rule in which the entity at the apex of the power structure (such as a king, a junta, or a party committee) is capable of acting without the constraint of law when it wishes to do so. Ideas about the rule of law have been central to political and legal thought since at least the 4th4th Century BCE, when Aristotle distinguished "the rule of law" from "that of any individual." In the 18th18thCentury the French political philosopher Montesquieu elaborated a doctrine of the rule of law that contrasted the legitimate authority of monarchs with the caprice of despots. It has since profoundly influenced Western liberal thought.

In general, the rule of law implies that the creation of laws, their enforcement, and the relationships among legal rules are themselves legally regulated, so that no one-including the most highly placed official-is above the law. The legal constraint on rulers means that the government is subject to existing laws as much as its citizens are. Thus, a closely related notion is the idea of equality before the law, which holds that no "legal" person shall enjoy privileges that are not extended to all and that no person shall be immune from legal sanctions. In addition, the application and adjudication of legal rules by various governing officials are to be impartial and consistent across equivalent cases, made blindly without taking into consideration the class, status, or relative power among disputants. In order for those ideas to have any real purchase, moreover, there should be in place some legal apparatus for compelling officials to submit to the law.

For such reasons, the rule of law is best seen not as a blueprint for institutional design but as a value, or cluster of values, that might inform such a design and that can therefore be pursued in a variety of ways. Nonetheless, several rather simple and generalised institutional insights follow from the idea that those who judge the legality of exercises of power should not be the same as those who exercise it. For instance, a typical rule-of-law state will institutionalise some means of shielding legal officials from interference, political or otherwise, that threatens their independence. Accordingly, the institutional separation of the judiciary from other branches of government is commonly thought to be an important feature of rule-of-law states. Other measures to ensure fair access to legal institutions may also be important for rule-of-law regimes. In addition, a binding written constitution is widely believed to aid the rule of law and has been adopted by most states of the world.

The President of the country of Denverska supported a communal riot based on religion but did not take any part in any protest marches that vandalized the city. When Omar Sahib, a devotee of the Futu religion, gathered all the members of the Futu religion to stop the communal riot and held the President responsible for the riot, the President declared emergency in the country of Denverska on ground of national security and seized all the power to himself. Can the President be held liable in the court of law for inciting violence ?

Q. Migrants from which of the following country is not included in Citizenship Act ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 106 According to question,

The Centre announced that the Citizenship (Amendment) Act will come into force from January 10,2020. In a gazette notification, the Union home ministry said the act under which non-Muslim refugees from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan will be given Indian citizenship, will come into force from January 10.

Hence, the correct answer is Sri Lanka.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 107

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

At the end of March 2020 2020 , a poll found that in societies locked down to combat Covid-1919, almost 40%40% of young men said they felt the absence of live sport more keenly than any other deprivation, including going outside. Those pining for some action received their first proper fix for two months on Saturday, as the German equivalent of the Premier League reopened behind closed doors. The Bundesliga is the first major football league to try to resume the interrupted season. In France, it was decided to curtail championships and award trophies on the basis of matches already played. In the Netherlands, the season was simply voided. The unfortunate players and supporters of SCSC Cambuur, who were 11 points clear at the top of the second division, are understandably miffed.

The English Premier League is fretfully keeping its fingers crossed, hoping that Germany's experiment in "biosecure" football works. The richest football league in the world hopes to relaunch its own competition sometime in June. Whether that is desirable or feasible has been the subject of fierce debate. If Project Restart is given the go-ahead this week, players are expected to begin non-contact training together, but the planning process has been fraught with difficulty. Some players have voiced deep reservations over safety. Protocols have yet to be finalised for a second phase, when full training will recommence. There is also concern that, after a long and unusual layoff, players have no hope of reaching proper match fitness before June. A glut of summer injuries might therefore accompany the 92 fixtures scheduled for empty stadiums, during a hectic seven-week period. The foreign secretary, Dominic Raab, has suggested that the completion of the Premier League season would "lift the spirits of the nation".

Q. What can be inferred from the lines- "Whether that is desirable or feasible has been the subject of fierce debate"?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 107 According to the given passage,

'The English Premier League is fretfully keeping its fingers crossed, hoping that Germany's experiment in "biosecure " football works. The richest football league in the world hopes to relaunch its own competition sometime in June.'

Hence,'As the English Premier League wishes to restart its matches during the pandemic, it is apprehensive about the safety and fitness of the players who would be training and playing together.' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 108

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

At the end of March 2020 2020 , a poll found that in societies locked down to combat Covid-1919, almost 40%40% of young men said they felt the absence of live sport more keenly than any other deprivation, including going outside. Those pining for some action received their first proper fix for two months on Saturday, as the German equivalent of the Premier League reopened behind closed doors. The Bundesliga is the first major football league to try to resume the interrupted season. In France, it was decided to curtail championships and award trophies on the basis of matches already played. In the Netherlands, the season was simply voided. The unfortunate players and supporters of SCSC Cambuur, who were 11 points clear at the top of the second division, are understandably miffed.

The English Premier League is fretfully keeping its fingers crossed, hoping that Germany's experiment in "biosecure" football works. The richest football league in the world hopes to relaunch its own competition sometime in June. Whether that is desirable or feasible has been the subject of fierce debate. If Project Restart is given the go-ahead this week, players are expected to begin non-contact training together, but the planning process has been fraught with difficulty. Some players have voiced deep reservations over safety. Protocols have yet to be finalised for a second phase, when full training will recommence. There is also concern that, after a long and unusual layoff, players have no hope of reaching proper match fitness before June. A glut of summer injuries might therefore accompany the 92 fixtures scheduled for empty stadiums, during a hectic seven-week period. The foreign secretary, Dominic Raab, has suggested that the completion of the Premier League season would "lift the spirits of the nation".

Q. Given below are the statements that can be TRUE in the context of the passage. Select the option/ options that contain(s) the correct answer.

I. Dominic Raab suggested that completion of the Premier Leagues matches would lift the morale of the nation.

II. SC Cambuur is the Football Club of the Netherlands.

III. The English Premier League is the richest football in the entire world.

IV. A poll found that in societies locked down to combat Covid-19, almost 40% of young men said they do feel the absence of live sport than any other deprivation, including going outside.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 108 The foreign secretary, Dominic Raab, has suggested that the completion of the Premier League season would "lift the spirits of the nation".

The unfortunate players and supporters of SC Cambuur who were 1111 points clear at the top of the second division, are understandably miffed.

The English Premier League is fretfully keeping its fingers crossed, hoping that Germany's experiment in "biosecure" football works. The richest football league in the world hopes to relaunch its own competition sometime in June.A poll found that in societies locked down to combat Covid-1919 almost young men said they felt the absence of live sport more keenly than any other deprivation, including going outside.

Hence, 'I,II,III and IV' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 109

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

At the end of March 2020 2020 , a poll found that in societies locked down to combat Covid-1919, almost 40%40% of young men said they felt the absence of live sport more keenly than any other deprivation, including going outside. Those pining for some action received their first proper fix for two months on Saturday, as the German equivalent of the Premier League reopened behind closed doors. The Bundesliga is the first major football league to try to resume the interrupted season. In France, it was decided to curtail championships and award trophies on the basis of matches already played. In the Netherlands, the season was simply voided. The unfortunate players and supporters of SCSC Cambuur, who were 11 points clear at the top of the second division, are understandably miffed.

The English Premier League is fretfully keeping its fingers crossed, hoping that Germany's experiment in "biosecure" football works. The richest football league in the world hopes to relaunch its own competition sometime in June. Whether that is desirable or feasible has been the subject of fierce debate. If Project Restart is given the go-ahead this week, players are expected to begin non-contact training together, but the planning process has been fraught with difficulty. Some players have voiced deep reservations over safety. Protocols have yet to be finalised for a second phase, when full training will recommence. There is also concern that, after a long and unusual layoff, players have no hope of reaching proper match fitness before June. A glut of summer injuries might therefore accompany the 92 fixtures scheduled for empty stadiums, during a hectic seven-week period. The foreign secretary, Dominic Raab, has suggested that the completion of the Premier League season would "lift the spirits of the nation".

Q. As per the passage, which country decided not to start any of the Football League matches after the initial lockdown during COVID 19?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 109 As mentioned in the passage,

'The Bundesliga is the first major football league to try to resume the interrupted season. In France, it was decided to curtail championships and award trophies on the basis of matches already played. In the Netherlands, the season was simply voided'.

Hence, "The Netherlands" is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 110

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

At the end of March 2020 2020 , a poll found that in societies locked down to combat Covid-1919, almost 40%40% of young men said they felt the absence of live sport more keenly than any other deprivation, including going outside. Those pining for some action received their first proper fix for two months on Saturday, as the German equivalent of the Premier League reopened behind closed doors. The Bundesliga is the first major football league to try to resume the interrupted season. In France, it was decided to curtail championships and award trophies on the basis of matches already played. In the Netherlands, the season was simply voided. The unfortunate players and supporters of SCSC Cambuur, who were 11 points clear at the top of the second division, are understandably miffed.

The English Premier League is fretfully keeping its fingers crossed, hoping that Germany's experiment in "biosecure" football works. The richest football league in the world hopes to relaunch its own competition sometime in June. Whether that is desirable or feasible has been the subject of fierce debate. If Project Restart is given the go-ahead this week, players are expected to begin non-contact training together, but the planning process has been fraught with difficulty. Some players have voiced deep reservations over safety. Protocols have yet to be finalised for a second phase, when full training will recommence. There is also concern that, after a long and unusual layoff, players have no hope of reaching proper match fitness before June. A glut of summer injuries might therefore accompany the 92 fixtures scheduled for empty stadiums, during a hectic seven-week period. The foreign secretary, Dominic Raab, has suggested that the completion of the Premier League season would "lift the spirits of the nation".

Q. "If Project Restart is given the go-ahead this week, players are expected to begin non-contact training together". Which of the following statements serves as a plausible explanation for the same?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 110 According to the given passage,

'If Project Restart is given the go-ahead this week, players are expected to begin non-contact training together, but the planning process has been fraught with difficulty. Some players have voiced deep reservations over safety. Protocols have yet to be finalised for a second phase, when full training will recommence.'

Hence, "The players would be happy to restart the matches after a long gap during the pandemic." is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 111

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

At the end of March 2020 2020 , a poll found that in societies locked down to combat Covid-1919, almost 40%40% of young men said they felt the absence of live sport more keenly than any other deprivation, including going outside. Those pining for some action received their first proper fix for two months on Saturday, as the German equivalent of the Premier League reopened behind closed doors. The Bundesliga is the first major football league to try to resume the interrupted season. In France, it was decided to curtail championships and award trophies on the basis of matches already played. In the Netherlands, the season was simply voided. The unfortunate players and supporters of SCSC Cambuur, who were 11 points clear at the top of the second division, are understandably miffed.

The English Premier League is fretfully keeping its fingers crossed, hoping that Germany's experiment in "biosecure" football works. The richest football league in the world hopes to relaunch its own competition sometime in June. Whether that is desirable or feasible has been the subject of fierce debate. If Project Restart is given the go-ahead this week, players are expected to begin non-contact training together, but the planning process has been fraught with difficulty. Some players have voiced deep reservations over safety. Protocols have yet to be finalised for a second phase, when full training will recommence. There is also concern that, after a long and unusual layoff, players have no hope of reaching proper match fitness before June. A glut of summer injuries might therefore accompany the 92 fixtures scheduled for empty stadiums, during a hectic seven-week period. The foreign secretary, Dominic Raab, has suggested that the completion of the Premier League season would "lift the spirits of the nation".

Q. As per the author, the 92 92 matches are being planned to be played in how many days?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 111 As mentioned in the passage,

'A glut of summer injuries might therefore accompany the 92 fixtures scheduled for empty stadiums, during a hectic seven-week period.'

Hence,'Approximately 28 days' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 112

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

In the year of the COVID-19 pandemic, it should surprise no one that the National Green Tribunal has prohibited the sale and use of firecrackers during Deepavali in the National Capital Region of Delhi and in urban centres that recorded poor or worse air quality in November last year. The directions expand on Supreme Court orders issued in the past, and provide some concessions to cities and towns that have moderate or better air quality, by allowing "green crackers" and specified hours for bursting. These stipulations are to extend to Christmas and New Year if the ban continues beyond November. The N.G.T. took note that Odisha, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Chandigarh, the Delhi Pollution Control Committee and the Calcutta High Court had already responded to deteriorating environmental conditions by banning firecrackers this year.

The tribunal's reasoning giving primacy to the precautionary principle in sustainable development over employment and revenue losses is understandable. As the impact of COVID-19 became clear in March, and there were fears of a case surge during the winter, it was incumbent on the Centre to work with States and resolutely prevent the burning of farm stubble ahead of Deepavali. This annual phenomenon unfailingly fouls the air across northern and eastern India, and imposes heavy health and productivity costs. In the absence of pollution from agricultural residue, there might have been some room for a limited quantity of firecrackers, although climatic conditions at this time of year, of low temperature and atmospheric circulation, would still leave many in distress. Only damage control is possible now, including steps to address the concerns of the fireworks' industry.

Q. Which of the following is true as per the passage above?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 112 As mentioned in the passage,

It was incumbent on the Centre to work with States and resolutely prevent the burning of farm stubble ahead of Deepavali.

Hence, 'The Centre should have worked with States and resolutely prevented the burning of farm stubble ahead of Deepavali.' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 113

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

In the year of the COVID-19 pandemic, it should surprise no one that the National Green Tribunal has prohibited the sale and use of firecrackers during Deepavali in the National Capital Region of Delhi and in urban centres that recorded poor or worse air quality in November last year. The directions expand on Supreme Court orders issued in the past, and provide some concessions to cities and towns that have moderate or better air quality, by allowing "green crackers" and specified hours for bursting. These stipulations are to extend to Christmas and New Year if the ban continues beyond November. The N.G.T. took note that Odisha, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Chandigarh, the Delhi Pollution Control Committee and the Calcutta High Court had already responded to deteriorating environmental conditions by banning firecrackers this year.

The tribunal's reasoning giving primacy to the precautionary principle in sustainable development over employment and revenue losses is understandable. As the impact of COVID-19 became clear in March, and there were fears of a case surge during the winter, it was incumbent on the Centre to work with States and resolutely prevent the burning of farm stubble ahead of Deepavali. This annual phenomenon unfailingly fouls the air across northern and eastern India, and imposes heavy health and productivity costs. In the absence of pollution from agricultural residue, there might have been some room for a limited quantity of firecrackers, although climatic conditions at this time of year, of low temperature and atmospheric circulation, would still leave many in distress. Only damage control is possible now, including steps to address the concerns of the fireworks' industry.

Q. What can be inferred from the lines- "The tribunal's reasoning giving primacy to the precautionary principle in sustainable development over employment and revenue losses is understandable" from the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 113 As is mentioned in the passage that the tribunal's reasoning giving primacy to the precautionary principle in sustainable development over employment and revenue losses is understandable.

Hence, 'NGT wants to give importance to the precautionary principle over employment and revenue losses.' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 114

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

In the year of the COVID-19 pandemic, it should surprise no one that the National Green Tribunal has prohibited the sale and use of firecrackers during Deepavali in the National Capital Region of Delhi and in urban centres that recorded poor or worse air quality in November last year. The directions expand on Supreme Court orders issued in the past, and provide some concessions to cities and towns that have moderate or better air quality, by allowing "green crackers" and specified hours for bursting. These stipulations are to extend to Christmas and New Year if the ban continues beyond November. The N.G.T. took note that Odisha, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Chandigarh, the Delhi Pollution Control Committee and the Calcutta High Court had already responded to deteriorating environmental conditions by banning firecrackers this year.

The tribunal's reasoning giving primacy to the precautionary principle in sustainable development over employment and revenue losses is understandable. As the impact of COVID-19 became clear in March, and there were fears of a case surge during the winter, it was incumbent on the Centre to work with States and resolutely prevent the burning of farm stubble ahead of Deepavali. This annual phenomenon unfailingly fouls the air across northern and eastern India, and imposes heavy health and productivity costs. In the absence of pollution from agricultural residue, there might have been some room for a limited quantity of firecrackers, although climatic conditions at this time of year, of low temperature and atmospheric circulation, would still leave many in distress. Only damage control is possible now, including steps to address the concerns of the fireworks' industry.

Q. On the basis of which data, the NGT has prohibited the sale and use of firecrackers during Deepavali in the National Capital Region of Delhi and in urban centres this year?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 114 As it is mentioned in the first paragraph of the passage,

In the year of the COVID-19 pandemic, it should surprise no one that the National Green Tribunal has prohibited the sale and use of firecrackers during Deepavali in the National Capital Region of Delhi and in urban centres that recorded poor or worse air quality in November last year.

Hence, by concluding we can say that,

Hence, 'On the basis of the data of air pollution of the year 2019 is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 115

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

In the year of the COVID-19 pandemic, it should surprise no one that the National Green Tribunal has prohibited the sale and use of firecrackers during Deepavali in the National Capital Region of Delhi and in urban centres that recorded poor or worse air quality in November last year. The directions expand on Supreme Court orders issued in the past, and provide some concessions to cities and towns that have moderate or better air quality, by allowing "green crackers" and specified hours for bursting. These stipulations are to extend to Christmas and New Year if the ban continues beyond November. The N.G.T. took note that Odisha, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Chandigarh, the Delhi Pollution Control Committee and the Calcutta High Court had already responded to deteriorating environmental conditions by banning firecrackers this year.

The tribunal's reasoning giving primacy to the precautionary principle in sustainable development over employment and revenue losses is understandable. As the impact of COVID-19 became clear in March, and there were fears of a case surge during the winter, it was incumbent on the Centre to work with States and resolutely prevent the burning of farm stubble ahead of Deepavali. This annual phenomenon unfailingly fouls the air across northern and eastern India, and imposes heavy health and productivity costs. In the absence of pollution from agricultural residue, there might have been some room for a limited quantity of firecrackers, although climatic conditions at this time of year, of low temperature and atmospheric circulation, would still leave many in distress. Only damage control is possible now, including steps to address the concerns of the fireworks' industry.

Q. Which of the following statements is against the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 115 As mentioned in the second paragraph of the passage,

'Supreme Court orders issued in the past, and provide some concessions to cities and towns that have moderate or better air quality, by allowing "green crackers" and specified hours for bursting. These stipulations are to extend to Christmas and New Year if the ban continues beyond November. The NGT took note that Odisha, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Chandigarh, the Delhi Pollution Control Committee and the Calcutta High Court had already responded to deteriorating environmental conditions by banning firecrackers this year.'

Hence, 'The ban might cover all states of India if the ban continues after November also.' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 116

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

In the year of the COVID-19 pandemic, it should surprise no one that the National Green Tribunal has prohibited the sale and use of firecrackers during Deepavali in the National Capital Region of Delhi and in urban centres that recorded poor or worse air quality in November last year. The directions expand on Supreme Court orders issued in the past, and provide some concessions to cities and towns that have moderate or better air quality, by allowing "green crackers" and specified hours for bursting. These stipulations are to extend to Christmas and New Year if the ban continues beyond November. The N.G.T. took note that Odisha, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Chandigarh, the Delhi Pollution Control Committee and the Calcutta High Court had already responded to deteriorating environmental conditions by banning firecrackers this year.

The tribunal's reasoning giving primacy to the precautionary principle in sustainable development over employment and revenue losses is understandable. As the impact of COVID-19 became clear in March, and there were fears of a case surge during the winter, it was incumbent on the Centre to work with States and resolutely prevent the burning of farm stubble ahead of Deepavali. This annual phenomenon unfailingly fouls the air across northern and eastern India, and imposes heavy health and productivity costs. In the absence of pollution from agricultural residue, there might have been some room for a limited quantity of firecrackers, although climatic conditions at this time of year, of low temperature and atmospheric circulation, would still leave many in distress. Only damage control is possible now, including steps to address the concerns of the fireworks' industry.

Q. "This annual phenomenon unfailingly fouls the air across northern and eastern India, and imposes heavy health and productivity costs"- Which annual phenomenon is the author discussing here?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 116 As it is mentioned in the passage,

It was incumbent on the Centre to work with States and resolutely prevent the burning of farm stubble ahead of Deepavali. This annual phenomenon unfailingly fouls the air across northern and eastern India, and imposes heavy health and productivity costs.

Hence, 'Burning of farm stubble' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 117

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

Soapy's hopes for the winter were not very high. He was not thinking of sailing away on a ship. He was not thinking of southern skies, or of the Bay of Naples. Three months in the prison on Blackwell's Island was what he wanted. Three months of food every day and a bed every night, three months safe from the cold north wind and safe from cops. This seemed to Soapy the most desirable thing in the world. For years Blackwell's Island had been his winter home. Richer New Yorkers made their large plans to go to Florida or to the shore of the Mediterranean Sea each winter. Soapy made his small plans for going to the Island. And now the time had come. Three big newspapers, some under his coat and some over his legs, had not kept him warm during the night in the park. So Soapy was thinking of the Island. There were places in the city where he could go and ask for food and a bed.

These would be given to him. He could move from one building to another, and he would be taken care of through the winter. But he liked Blackwell's Island better. Soapy's spirit was proud. If he went to any of these places, there were certain things he had to do. In one way or another, he would have to pay for what they gave him. They would not ask him for money. But they would make him wash his whole body. They would make him answer questions; they would want to know everything about his life. No. Prison was better than that. The prison had rules that he would have to follow. But in prison a gentleman's own life was still his own life. Soapy, having decided to go to the Island, at once began to move towards his desire.

Q. Which of the following statements weakens the argument that Soapy's hopes for the winter were not very high?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 117 As mentioned in the passage,

Soapy's hopes for the winter were not very high. He was not thinking of sailing away on a ship. He was not thinking of southern skies, or of the Bay of Naples.

Hence, 'Soapy wanted to sail across the sea in a beautiful ship having all amenities.' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 7 - Question 118