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Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9


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150 Questions MCQ Test Mock Test Series for CLAT | Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9

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Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 1

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

Ask people about barbershop music and they'll generally conjure a familiar image : four old men in bow-striped vests and straw hats, swaying with canes, warbling standards in earnest. Hello my baby, hello my darling, hello my ragtime gal!

The image is not completely absurd. In the nascent days of the Barbershop Harmony Society - an organization founded in 1938 that preserves and promotes barbershop music - these hallmarks were common. But in the eight decades since the organization was founded, bow-striped vests have given way to crisp suits; standards are still sung, but so are contemporary hits; and decorative canes have been banished to the unused props bin. There are men from all generations, including kids and teens and hipster 20 -somethings, their moustaches fitting right in. And, yes, there are women.

I've known about the female barbershop organization, Sweet Adelines International, my entire life - my grandma has been a member for 50 years and counting. But as a kid, barbershop was an abstraction to me, shaded in coolness. When my grandma talked about her barbershop singing, I envisioned women older than I ever imagined becoming, crooning listlessly in retirement homes. But then, when I was ten, my mom re-joined (she had been a member before I was born), and I attended my first regional contest to watch her compete with her quartet.

The competition stage looked like something out of Broadway : glaring spotlight, thick curtain, stage lights that shifted colour for each performer. Two giant jumbotron screens displayed the action to those who couldn't see, as if this were a sports game featuring the fearsome battle of flashy costumes and four-part harmony.

As I watched each quartet enter and exit the vast stage - all decked out in matching sequined gowns, singing in rigorously rehearsed synchronicity and displaying carefully planned choreography moves - I felt my stomach drop. I couldn't fathom my shy mother, who often broke out into an anxiety rash during social gatherings, being so openly expressive in front of hundreds of people. Would her voice quiver? Would her eyes open wide, like a deer in the spotlight? Would she choke?

From the moment she stepped on stage, I knew I didn't need to worry. She was not just comfortable, but confident: stride brisk, smile wide, voice perfectly controlled. As the quartet finished their ballad with a hushed "Smile my honey dear, while I kiss away each tear/or else I shall be melancholy too," the arena became pin-drop silent, then erupted into rapturous applause.

The experience was, in a word, thrilling - especially once the quartet ended up taking second place, turning my mom into, for all intents and purposes, a star.

Q. What was the author's age when her mom re-joined the female barbershop organization?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 1 According to the question, we see that at the time when his mother re-joined the female Barbershop, she was 10 years old. Her mother was a member of the same organization even before she was born.

Hence, 10 years is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 2

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

Ask people about barbershop music and they'll generally conjure a familiar image : four old men in bow-striped vests and straw hats, swaying with canes, warbling standards in earnest. Hello my baby, hello my darling, hello my ragtime gal!

The image is not completely absurd. In the nascent days of the Barbershop Harmony Society - an organization founded in 1938 that preserves and promotes barbershop music - these hallmarks were common. But in the eight decades since the organization was founded, bow-striped vests have given way to crisp suits; standards are still sung, but so are contemporary hits; and decorative canes have been banished to the unused props bin. There are men from all generations, including kids and teens and hipster 20 -somethings, their moustaches fitting right in. And, yes, there are women.

I've known about the female barbershop organization, Sweet Adelines International, my entire life - my grandma has been a member for 50 years and counting. But as a kid, barbershop was an abstraction to me, shaded in coolness. When my grandma talked about her barbershop singing, I envisioned women older than I ever imagined becoming, crooning listlessly in retirement homes. But then, when I was ten, my mom re-joined (she had been a member before I was born), and I attended my first regional contest to watch her compete with her quartet.

The competition stage looked like something out of Broadway : glaring spotlight, thick curtain, stage lights that shifted colour for each performer. Two giant jumbotron screens displayed the action to those who couldn't see, as if this were a sports game featuring the fearsome battle of flashy costumes and four-part harmony.

As I watched each quartet enter and exit the vast stage - all decked out in matching sequined gowns, singing in rigorously rehearsed synchronicity and displaying carefully planned choreography moves - I felt my stomach drop. I couldn't fathom my shy mother, who often broke out into an anxiety rash during social gatherings, being so openly expressive in front of hundreds of people. Would her voice quiver? Would her eyes open wide, like a deer in the spotlight? Would she choke?

From the moment she stepped on stage, I knew I didn't need to worry. She was not just comfortable, but confident: stride brisk, smile wide, voice perfectly controlled. As the quartet finished their ballad with a hushed "Smile my honey dear, while I kiss away each tear/or else I shall be melancholy too," the arena became pin-drop silent, then erupted into rapturous applause.

The experience was, in a word, thrilling - especially once the quartet ended up taking second place, turning my mom into, for all intents and purposes, a star.

Q. Which of the following defines the correct meaning of "jumbotron screens"?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 2 According to the passage, we see that the meaning of the words jumbotron screens is the giant screen that was being displayed so that the action could be displayed to the people who couldn't see it.

Hence, 'giant screens' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 3

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

Ask people about barbershop music and they'll generally conjure a familiar image : four old men in bow-striped vests and straw hats, swaying with canes, warbling standards in earnest. Hello my baby, hello my darling, hello my ragtime gal!

The image is not completely absurd. In the nascent days of the Barbershop Harmony Society - an organization founded in 19381938 that preserves and promotes barbershop music - these hallmarks were common. But in the eight decades since the organization was founded, bow-striped vests have given way to crisp suits; standards are still sung, but so are contemporary hits; and decorative canes have been banished to the unused props bin. There are men from all generations, including kids and teens and hipster 2020 -somethings, their moustaches fitting right in. And, yes, there are women.

I've known about the female barbershop organization, Sweet Adelines International, my entire life - my grandma has been a member for 5050 years and counting. But as a kid, barbershop was an abstraction to me, shaded in coolness. When my grandma talked about her barbershop singing, I envisioned women older than I ever imagined becoming, crooning listlessly in retirement homes. But then, when I was ten, my mom re-joined (she had been a member before I was born), and I attended my first regional contest to watch her compete with her quartet.

The competition stage looked like something out of Broadway : glaring spotlight, thick curtain, stage lights that shifted colour for each performer. Two giant jumbotron screens displayed the action to those who couldn't see, as if this were a sports game featuring the fearsome battle of flashy costumes and four-part harmony.

As I watched each quartet enter and exit the vast stage - all decked out in matching sequined gowns, singing in rigorously rehearsed synchronicity and displaying carefully planned choreography moves - I felt my stomach drop. I couldn't fathom my shy mother, who often broke out into an anxiety rash during social gatherings, being so openly expressive in front of hundreds of people. Would her voice quiver? Would her eyes open wide, like a deer in the spotlight? Would she choke?

From the moment she stepped on stage, I knew I didn't need to worry. She was not just comfortable, but confident: stride brisk, smile wide, voice perfectly controlled. As the quartet finished their ballad with a hushed "Smile my honey dear, while I kiss away each tear/or else I shall be melancholy too," the arena became pin-drop silent, then erupted into rapturous applause.

The experience was, in a word, thrilling - especially once the quartet ended up taking second place, turning my mom into, for all intents and purposes, a star.

Q. The Barbershop Harmony Society was found to promote

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 3 According to the given passage above, we see that the passage indicates about the barbershop and the barbershop harmony society was found to promote the barbershop music.

Hence, 'barbershop music' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 4

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

Ask people about barbershop music and they'll generally conjure a familiar image : four old men in bow-striped vests and straw hats, swaying with canes, warbling standards in earnest. Hello my baby, hello my darling, hello my ragtime gal!

The image is not completely absurd. In the nascent days of the Barbershop Harmony Society - an organization founded in 19381938 that preserves and promotes barbershop music - these hallmarks were common. But in the eight decades since the organization was founded, bow-striped vests have given way to crisp suits; standards are still sung, but so are contemporary hits; and decorative canes have been banished to the unused props bin. There are men from all generations, including kids and teens and hipster 2020 -somethings, their moustaches fitting right in. And, yes, there are women.

I've known about the female barbershop organization, Sweet Adelines International, my entire life - my grandma has been a member for 5050 years and counting. But as a kid, barbershop was an abstraction to me, shaded in coolness. When my grandma talked about her barbershop singing, I envisioned women older than I ever imagined becoming, crooning listlessly in retirement homes. But then, when I was ten, my mom re-joined (she had been a member before I was born), and I attended my first regional contest to watch her compete with her quartet.

The competition stage looked like something out of Broadway : glaring spotlight, thick curtain, stage lights that shifted colour for each performer. Two giant jumbotron screens displayed the action to those who couldn't see, as if this were a sports game featuring the fearsome battle of flashy costumes and four-part harmony.

As I watched each quartet enter and exit the vast stage - all decked out in matching sequined gowns, singing in rigorously rehearsed synchronicity and displaying carefully planned choreography moves - I felt my stomach drop. I couldn't fathom my shy mother, who often broke out into an anxiety rash during social gatherings, being so openly expressive in front of hundreds of people. Would her voice quiver? Would her eyes open wide, like a deer in the spotlight? Would she choke?

From the moment she stepped on stage, I knew I didn't need to worry. She was not just comfortable, but confident: stride brisk, smile wide, voice perfectly controlled. As the quartet finished their ballad with a hushed "Smile my honey dear, while I kiss away each tear/or else I shall be melancholy too," the arena became pin-drop silent, then erupted into rapturous applause.

The experience was, in a word, thrilling - especially once the quartet ended up taking second place, turning my mom into, for all intents and purposes, a star.

Q. At the starting of passage author is talking about the

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 4 At the beginning of the passage, we see that the author is talking and giving descriptions about the image of the barbershop music shop, giving full description to the readers.

Hence, 'Image of barbershop music' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 5

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

Ask people about barbershop music and they'll generally conjure a familiar image : four old men in bow-striped vests and straw hats, swaying with canes, warbling standards in earnest. Hello my baby, hello my darling, hello my ragtime gal!

The image is not completely absurd. In the nascent days of the Barbershop Harmony Society - an organization founded in 19381938 that preserves and promotes barbershop music - these hallmarks were common. But in the eight decades since the organization was founded, bow-striped vests have given way to crisp suits; standards are still sung, but so are contemporary hits; and decorative canes have been banished to the unused props bin. There are men from all generations, including kids and teens and hipster 2020 -somethings, their moustaches fitting right in. And, yes, there are women.

I've known about the female barbershop organization, Sweet Adelines International, my entire life - my grandma has been a member for 5050 years and counting. But as a kid, barbershop was an abstraction to me, shaded in coolness. When my grandma talked about her barbershop singing, I envisioned women older than I ever imagined becoming, crooning listlessly in retirement homes. But then, when I was ten, my mom re-joined (she had been a member before I was born), and I attended my first regional contest to watch her compete with her quartet.

The competition stage looked like something out of Broadway : glaring spotlight, thick curtain, stage lights that shifted colour for each performer. Two giant jumbotron screens displayed the action to those who couldn't see, as if this were a sports game featuring the fearsome battle of flashy costumes and four-part harmony.

As I watched each quartet enter and exit the vast stage - all decked out in matching sequined gowns, singing in rigorously rehearsed synchronicity and displaying carefully planned choreography moves - I felt my stomach drop. I couldn't fathom my shy mother, who often broke out into an anxiety rash during social gatherings, being so openly expressive in front of hundreds of people. Would her voice quiver? Would her eyes open wide, like a deer in the spotlight? Would she choke?

From the moment she stepped on stage, I knew I didn't need to worry. She was not just comfortable, but confident: stride brisk, smile wide, voice perfectly controlled. As the quartet finished their ballad with a hushed "Smile my honey dear, while I kiss away each tear/or else I shall be melancholy too," the arena became pin-drop silent, then erupted into rapturous applause.

The experience was, in a word, thrilling - especially once the quartet ended up taking second place, turning my mom into, for all intents and purposes, a star.

Q. In what context "Fatham" is used in the statement "I couldn't fathom my shy mother, who often broke out into an anxiety rash during social gatherings, being so openly expressive in front of hundreds of people" by the author?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 5 In the passage, we see that the use of word 'fatham' is basically done when she coulnt understand why her mother feels shy and could often broke out into anxiety in the social gatherings.

Hence, 'to understand' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 6

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

About forty-five hundred years ago, not long after the completion of the Great Pyramid at Giza, a seed of Pinus longaeva, the Great Basin bristlecone pine, landed on a steep slope in what are now known as the White Mountains, in eastern California. The seed may have travelled there on a gust of wind, its flight aided by a wing like attachment to the nut or it could have been planted by a bird known as the Clark's nutcracker, which likes to hide pine seeds in caches; nutcrackers have phenomenal spatial memory and can recall thousands of such caches. This seed, however, lay undisturbed. On a moist day in fall, or in the wake of melting snows in spring, a seedling appeared above ground-a stubby one-inch stem with a tuft of bright-green shoots.

Most seedlings die within a year; the mortality rate is more than ninety-nine per cent. The survivors are sometimes seen growing in the shadow of a fallen tree. The landscape of the Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest, as this area of the White Mountains is called, is littered with fragments of dead trees-trunks, limbs, roots, and smaller chunks. Pinus longaeva grows exclusively in subalpine regions of the Great Basin, which stretches from the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada to the Wasatch Range, in Utah. Conditions are generally too arid for the dead wood to rot; instead, it erodes, sanded down like rock. The remnants may harbour nutrients and fungi that help new trees grow. Bristlecones rise from the bones of their ancestors-a city within a cemetery.

Coast redwoods and giant sequoias, California's gargantuan world-record-holding trees, can grow fifty feet or more in their first twenty years. Bristlecones rise agonizingly slowly. After four or five years, the seedling on the steep slope would have been just a few inches higher, sprouting needles in place of the embryonic shoots. The needles are a deep green, tough, resinous, and closely bunched, in groups of five. On a mature tree, they live for fifty years or more. Decades may have passed before the tree was human height, and decades more before it resembled a conventional pine. Bristlecone saplings grow straight up, with relatively sparse foliage, looking like undernourished Christmas trees. After a few hundred years-by which time the Old Kingdom of Egypt had fallen-it was probably forty or fifty feet in height.

Many tree species live for hundreds of years. A smaller but not inconsiderable number, including the sequoias and certain yews, oaks, cypresses, and junipers, survive for thousands. Once a bristlecone has established itself in the unforgiving conditions of the White Mountains, it can last almost indefinitely. The trees tend to grow some distance from one another, so fires almost never destroy an entire stand. Because only a few other plant species can handle the dry, cold climate, the bristlecones face little competition. Unlike most plants, they tolerate dolomite soil, which is composed of a chalky type of limestone that is heavily alkaline and low in nutrients. As for insect threats, bristlecone wood is so dense that mountain-pine beetles and other pests can rarely burrow their way into it.

Q. Pinus longaeva grows exclusively in which reason?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 6 According to the passage given above, we see that the seed of the Pinuslongaeva, which is the Great Basin bristlecone pine is grown in the subalpine regions of the Great Basin, which stretches from the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada to the Wasatch Range, in Utah. Conditions are generally too arid.

Hence, 'subalpine regions of the Great Basin' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 7

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

About forty-five hundred years ago, not long after the completion of the Great Pyramid at Giza, a seed of Pinus longaeva, the Great Basin bristlecone pine, landed on a steep slope in what are now known as the White Mountains, in eastern California. The seed may have travelled there on a gust of wind, its flight aided by a wing like attachment to the nut or it could have been planted by a bird known as the Clark's nutcracker, which likes to hide pine seeds in caches; nutcrackers have phenomenal spatial memory and can recall thousands of such caches. This seed, however, lay undisturbed. On a moist day in fall, or in the wake of melting snows in spring, a seedling appeared above ground-a stubby one-inch stem with a tuft of bright-green shoots.

Most seedlings die within a year; the mortality rate is more than ninety-nine per cent. The survivors are sometimes seen growing in the shadow of a fallen tree. The landscape of the Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest, as this area of the White Mountains is called, is littered with fragments of dead trees-trunks, limbs, roots, and smaller chunks. Pinus longaeva grows exclusively in subalpine regions of the Great Basin, which stretches from the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada to the Wasatch Range, in Utah. Conditions are generally too arid for the dead wood to rot; instead, it erodes, sanded down like rock. The remnants may harbour nutrients and fungi that help new trees grow. Bristlecones rise from the bones of their ancestors-a city within a cemetery.

Coast redwoods and giant sequoias, California's gargantuan world-record-holding trees, can grow fifty feet or more in their first twenty years. Bristlecones rise agonizingly slowly. After four or five years, the seedling on the steep slope would have been just a few inches higher, sprouting needles in place of the embryonic shoots. The needles are a deep green, tough, resinous, and closely bunched, in groups of five. On a mature tree, they live for fifty years or more. Decades may have passed before the tree was human height, and decades more before it resembled a conventional pine. Bristlecone saplings grow straight up, with relatively sparse foliage, looking like undernourished Christmas trees. After a few hundred years-by which time the Old Kingdom of Egypt had fallen-it was probably forty or fifty feet in height.

Many tree species live for hundreds of years. A smaller but not inconsiderable number, including the sequoias and certain yews, oaks, cypresses, and junipers, survive for thousands. Once a bristlecone has established itself in the unforgiving conditions of the White Mountains, it can last almost indefinitely. The trees tend to grow some distance from one another, so fires almost never destroy an entire stand. Because only a few other plant species can handle the dry, cold climate, the bristlecones face little competition. Unlike most plants, they tolerate dolomite soil, which is composed of a chalky type of limestone that is heavily alkaline and low in nutrients. As for insect threats, bristlecone wood is so dense that mountain-pine beetles and other pests can rarely burrow their way into it.

Q. Which of the following species of tree do not survive for thousands of years?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 7 According to the passage given above, we see that the spruce is a species of tree that does not survive for thousands of years. They are coniferous evergreen trees.

Hence, 'spruce' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 8

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

About forty-five hundred years ago, not long after the completion of the Great Pyramid at Giza, a seed of Pinus longaeva, the Great Basin bristlecone pine, landed on a steep slope in what are now known as the White Mountains, in eastern California. The seed may have travelled there on a gust of wind, its flight aided by a wing like attachment to the nut or it could have been planted by a bird known as the Clark's nutcracker, which likes to hide pine seeds in caches; nutcrackers have phenomenal spatial memory and can recall thousands of such caches. This seed, however, lay undisturbed. On a moist day in fall, or in the wake of melting snows in spring, a seedling appeared above ground-a stubby one-inch stem with a tuft of bright-green shoots.

Most seedlings die within a year; the mortality rate is more than ninety-nine per cent. The survivors are sometimes seen growing in the shadow of a fallen tree. The landscape of the Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest, as this area of the White Mountains is called, is littered with fragments of dead trees-trunks, limbs, roots, and smaller chunks. Pinus longaeva grows exclusively in subalpine regions of the Great Basin, which stretches from the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada to the Wasatch Range, in Utah. Conditions are generally too arid for the dead wood to rot; instead, it erodes, sanded down like rock. The remnants may harbour nutrients and fungi that help new trees grow. Bristlecones rise from the bones of their ancestors-a city within a cemetery.

Coast redwoods and giant sequoias, California's gargantuan world-record-holding trees, can grow fifty feet or more in their first twenty years. Bristlecones rise agonizingly slowly. After four or five years, the seedling on the steep slope would have been just a few inches higher, sprouting needles in place of the embryonic shoots. The needles are a deep green, tough, resinous, and closely bunched, in groups of five. On a mature tree, they live for fifty years or more. Decades may have passed before the tree was human height, and decades more before it resembled a conventional pine. Bristlecone saplings grow straight up, with relatively sparse foliage, looking like undernourished Christmas trees. After a few hundred years-by which time the Old Kingdom of Egypt had fallen-it was probably forty or fifty feet in height.

Many tree species live for hundreds of years. A smaller but not inconsiderable number, including the sequoias and certain yews, oaks, cypresses, and junipers, survive for thousands. Once a bristlecone has established itself in the unforgiving conditions of the White Mountains, it can last almost indefinitely. The trees tend to grow some distance from one another, so fires almost never destroy an entire stand. Because only a few other plant species can handle the dry, cold climate, the bristlecones face little competition. Unlike most plants, they tolerate dolomite soil, which is composed of a chalky type of limestone that is heavily alkaline and low in nutrients. As for insect threats, bristlecone wood is so dense that mountain-pine beetles and other pests can rarely burrow their way into it.

Q. According to author what is the mortality rate of seedlings?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 8 According to the passage given above, it is very clear that the mortality rate of the seedlings in those areas is 99%. Whereas the survivors are only those that grow in the shadow of the big grown trees.

Hence, '99% is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 9

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

About forty-five hundred years ago, not long after the completion of the Great Pyramid at Giza, a seed of Pinus longaeva, the Great Basin bristlecone pine, landed on a steep slope in what are now known as the White Mountains, in eastern California. The seed may have travelled there on a gust of wind, its flight aided by a wing like attachment to the nut or it could have been planted by a bird known as the Clark's nutcracker, which likes to hide pine seeds in caches; nutcrackers have phenomenal spatial memory and can recall thousands of such caches. This seed, however, lay undisturbed. On a moist day in fall, or in the wake of melting snows in spring, a seedling appeared above ground-a stubby one-inch stem with a tuft of bright-green shoots.

Most seedlings die within a year; the mortality rate is more than ninety-nine per cent. The survivors are sometimes seen growing in the shadow of a fallen tree. The landscape of the Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest, as this area of the White Mountains is called, is littered with fragments of dead trees-trunks, limbs, roots, and smaller chunks. Pinus longaeva grows exclusively in subalpine regions of the Great Basin, which stretches from the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada to the Wasatch Range, in Utah. Conditions are generally too arid for the dead wood to rot; instead, it erodes, sanded down like rock. The remnants may harbour nutrients and fungi that help new trees grow. Bristlecones rise from the bones of their ancestors-a city within a cemetery.

Coast redwoods and giant sequoias, California's gargantuan world-record-holding trees, can grow fifty feet or more in their first twenty years. Bristlecones rise agonizingly slowly. After four or five years, the seedling on the steep slope would have been just a few inches higher, sprouting needles in place of the embryonic shoots. The needles are a deep green, tough, resinous, and closely bunched, in groups of five. On a mature tree, they live for fifty years or more. Decades may have passed before the tree was human height, and decades more before it resembled a conventional pine. Bristlecone saplings grow straight up, with relatively sparse foliage, looking like undernourished Christmas trees. After a few hundred years-by which time the Old Kingdom of Egypt had fallen-it was probably forty or fifty feet in height.

Many tree species live for hundreds of years. A smaller but not inconsiderable number, including the sequoias and certain yews, oaks, cypresses, and junipers, survive for thousands. Once a bristlecone has established itself in the unforgiving conditions of the White Mountains, it can last almost indefinitely. The trees tend to grow some distance from one another, so fires almost never destroy an entire stand. Because only a few other plant species can handle the dry, cold climate, the bristlecones face little competition. Unlike most plants, they tolerate dolomite soil, which is composed of a chalky type of limestone that is heavily alkaline and low in nutrients. As for insect threats, bristlecone wood is so dense that mountain-pine beetles and other pests can rarely burrow their way into it.

Q. Coast redwoods and giant sequoias, California's gargantuan world-record-holding trees, can grow fifty feet or more in their first _________.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 9 According to the passage given above, we see that these trees i.e Coast redwoods and giant sequoias have a world record of growing fifty feets for more than twenty years(20).

Hence, '20 years' is the correct answer

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 10

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

About forty-five hundred years ago, not long after the completion of the Great Pyramid at Giza, a seed of Pinus longaeva, the Great Basin bristlecone pine, landed on a steep slope in what are now known as the White Mountains, in eastern California. The seed may have travelled there on a gust of wind, its flight aided by a wing like attachment to the nut or it could have been planted by a bird known as the Clark's nutcracker, which likes to hide pine seeds in caches; nutcrackers have phenomenal spatial memory and can recall thousands of such caches. This seed, however, lay undisturbed. On a moist day in fall, or in the wake of melting snows in spring, a seedling appeared above ground-a stubby one-inch stem with a tuft of bright-green shoots.

Most seedlings die within a year; the mortality rate is more than ninety-nine per cent. The survivors are sometimes seen growing in the shadow of a fallen tree. The landscape of the Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest, as this area of the White Mountains is called, is littered with fragments of dead trees-trunks, limbs, roots, and smaller chunks. Pinus longaeva grows exclusively in subalpine regions of the Great Basin, which stretches from the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada to the Wasatch Range, in Utah. Conditions are generally too arid for the dead wood to rot; instead, it erodes, sanded down like rock. The remnants may harbour nutrients and fungi that help new trees grow. Bristlecones rise from the bones of their ancestors-a city within a cemetery.

Coast redwoods and giant sequoias, California's gargantuan world-record-holding trees, can grow fifty feet or more in their first twenty years. Bristlecones rise agonizingly slowly. After four or five years, the seedling on the steep slope would have been just a few inches higher, sprouting needles in place of the embryonic shoots. The needles are a deep green, tough, resinous, and closely bunched, in groups of five. On a mature tree, they live for fifty years or more. Decades may have passed before the tree was human height, and decades more before it resembled a conventional pine. Bristlecone saplings grow straight up, with relatively sparse foliage, looking like undernourished Christmas trees. After a few hundred years-by which time the Old Kingdom of Egypt had fallen-it was probably forty or fifty feet in height.

Many tree species live for hundreds of years. A smaller but not inconsiderable number, including the sequoias and certain yews, oaks, cypresses, and junipers, survive for thousands. Once a bristlecone has established itself in the unforgiving conditions of the White Mountains, it can last almost indefinitely. The trees tend to grow some distance from one another, so fires almost never destroy an entire stand. Because only a few other plant species can handle the dry, cold climate, the bristlecones face little competition. Unlike most plants, they tolerate dolomite soil, which is composed of a chalky type of limestone that is heavily alkaline and low in nutrients. As for insect threats, bristlecone wood is so dense that mountain-pine beetles and other pests can rarely burrow their way into it.

Q. What is the name of Great Basin bristlecone pine?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 10 According to the passage given above, we see that Pinus longaeva is a long-lived species of bristlecone pine tree found in the higher mountains of California, Nevada, and Utah. These species of pine trees have the name of Great Basin bristlecone pine

Hence, 'pinus longaeva' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 11

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

Every year, a handful of people are honoured and elevated to a reputed title, the 'Nobel Laureate', which distinguishes them from others. Celebrated as one of the most coveted awards, the Nobel Prize is widely regarded as the crowning achievement of mankind that marks its scientific, economic, literary, and political excellence. No other award can match them in prestige. And while most people are aware of its existence, relatively few people know about Alfred Nobel, the genius who laid the foundation of these annually distributed awards. There is an often-repeated story regarding his creation, an interesting tale that highlights the underlying reason that persuaded him to devote his fortune to charity. Alfred Bernhard Nobel, an engineer and inventor, was born on October 21st, 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden. Right since his initial days, he was intensely curious being with a natural affinity for problem-solving. He was deeply interested in studying chemistry and was fascinated with Nitroglycerine due to its unpredictable and highly explosive nature. Despite the scientific community's aversion to Nitroglycerine, the young man's mind was determined to tame the explosive and turn it into a commercially usable blasting agent. In the 1860s, the chemist experimented with controlled explosions looking for a stable combination. However, in 1864, just when he had a feeling that he was on the cusp of an invention that would change the world, a tragedy struck his company. A vat of nitroglycerin overheated and resulted in an explosion killing five people, including his younger brother, Emil. Alfred himself suffered minor injuries in the disaster. Rather than being put off working with nitroglycerin, Alfred threw himself into trying to find a safe way to detonate the chemical. To give up now would be, in his view, to allow his brother to have died in vain. He continued his work and produced 'Dynamite', a safer to handle explosive. He was soon granted patents for his invention in Europe and the US. Dynamite, the first safely manageable explosive became Nobel's big business. It turned out to be an immediate success, with engineering companies from all over the world clamouring to get their hands on it. Afterall, controlled explosions found numerous uses, including mining, canal cutting, tunnel blasting, and more. Business boomed and numerous factories and plants were set up across the USA and Europe. Soon money started rolling in and virtually overnight, Alfred amassed fortune beyond anyone's extreme imagination. He kept refining dynamite continually and later created even stronger and safer explosives. Nobel spent most of his time tinkering with chemicals and held 355355 patents in explosives and synthetic materials.

Apart from mechanical workshops, he now set up armament factories producing cannon shells and other fearinspiring weapons of war. The explosives created by Nobel spread rapidly around the world and brought great benefits to engineering and mining. But inevitably, they were also used intensively for war. He often quoted, "As soon as nations will find that in one instant, whole armies can be utterly destroyed, they surely will abide in golden peace." Alfred considered himself to be a pacifist and strongly believed that his weapons would create deterrence, ultimately proving to be a boon to mankind. This, however, was a gross miscalculation. Wars continued, and nations didn't recoil. His inventions failed to change the course of the world. His faith in mankind was sadly misplaced.

Q. As per the passage, why did Alfred considered him a pacifist?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 11 According to the passage, we see that Alfred considered himself as a person who thinks that war and violence are unjustifiable. Moreover, he also thinks that all his inventions are boon to mankind and he wanted to discourage the concept of war.

Hence, 'he wanted to deter war' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 12

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

Every year, a handful of people are honoured and elevated to a reputed title, the 'Nobel Laureate', which distinguishes them from others. Celebrated as one of the most coveted awards, the Nobel Prize is widely regarded as the crowning achievement of mankind that marks its scientific, economic, literary, and political excellence. No other award can match them in prestige. And while most people are aware of its existence, relatively few people know about Alfred Nobel, the genius who laid the foundation of these annually distributed awards. There is an often-repeated story regarding his creation, an interesting tale that highlights the underlying reason that persuaded him to devote his fortune to charity. Alfred Bernhard Nobel, an engineer and inventor, was born on October 21st, 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden. Right since his initial days, he was intensely curious being with a natural affinity for problem-solving. He was deeply interested in studying chemistry and was fascinated with Nitroglycerine due to its unpredictable and highly explosive nature. Despite the scientific community's aversion to Nitroglycerine, the young man's mind was determined to tame the explosive and turn it into a commercially usable blasting agent. In the 1860s, the chemist experimented with controlled explosions looking for a stable combination. However, in 1864, just when he had a feeling that he was on the cusp of an invention that would change the world, a tragedy struck his company. A vat of nitroglycerin overheated and resulted in an explosion killing five people, including his younger brother, Emil. Alfred himself suffered minor injuries in the disaster. Rather than being put off working with nitroglycerin, Alfred threw himself into trying to find a safe way to detonate the chemical. To give up now would be, in his view, to allow his brother to have died in vain. He continued his work and produced 'Dynamite', a safer to handle explosive. He was soon granted patents for his invention in Europe and the US. Dynamite, the first safely manageable explosive became Nobel's big business. It turned out to be an immediate success, with engineering companies from all over the world clamouring to get their hands on it. Afterall, controlled explosions found numerous uses, including mining, canal cutting, tunnel blasting, and more. Business boomed and numerous factories and plants were set up across the USA and Europe. Soon money started rolling in and virtually overnight, Alfred amassed fortune beyond anyone's extreme imagination. He kept refining dynamite continually and later created even stronger and safer explosives. Nobel spent most of his time tinkering with chemicals and held 355355 patents in explosives and synthetic materials.

Apart from mechanical workshops, he now set up armament factories producing cannon shells and other fearinspiring weapons of war. The explosives created by Nobel spread rapidly around the world and brought great benefits to engineering and mining. But inevitably, they were also used intensively for war. He often quoted, "As soon as nations will find that in one instant, whole armies can be utterly destroyed, they surely will abide in golden peace." Alfred considered himself to be a pacifist and strongly believed that his weapons would create deterrence, ultimately proving to be a boon to mankind. This, however, was a gross miscalculation. Wars continued, and nations didn't recoil. His inventions failed to change the course of the world. His faith in mankind was sadly misplaced.

Q. As per the passage, what did Alfred Nobel expect from various countries after they knew about his inventions?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 12 As per the passage, we come to know that Alfred Nobel expected that the country should live in peace and shouldn't use the dynamites. But nothing happened as per what he thought and all of the countries use it.

Hence, 'he expected them to live in peace and be dreaded by the use of dynamites' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 13

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

Every year, a handful of people are honoured and elevated to a reputed title, the 'Nobel Laureate', which distinguishes them from others. Celebrated as one of the most coveted awards, the Nobel Prize is widely regarded as the crowning achievement of mankind that marks its scientific, economic, literary, and political excellence. No other award can match them in prestige. And while most people are aware of its existence, relatively few people know about Alfred Nobel, the genius who laid the foundation of these annually distributed awards. There is an often-repeated story regarding his creation, an interesting tale that highlights the underlying reason that persuaded him to devote his fortune to charity. Alfred Bernhard Nobel, an engineer and inventor, was born on October 21st, 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden. Right since his initial days, he was intensely curious being with a natural affinity for problem-solving. He was deeply interested in studying chemistry and was fascinated with Nitroglycerine due to its unpredictable and highly explosive nature. Despite the scientific community's aversion to Nitroglycerine, the young man's mind was determined to tame the explosive and turn it into a commercially usable blasting agent. In the 1860s, the chemist experimented with controlled explosions looking for a stable combination. However, in 1864, just when he had a feeling that he was on the cusp of an invention that would change the world, a tragedy struck his company. A vat of nitroglycerin overheated and resulted in an explosion killing five people, including his younger brother, Emil. Alfred himself suffered minor injuries in the disaster. Rather than being put off working with nitroglycerin, Alfred threw himself into trying to find a safe way to detonate the chemical. To give up now would be, in his view, to allow his brother to have died in vain. He continued his work and produced 'Dynamite', a safer to handle explosive. He was soon granted patents for his invention in Europe and the US. Dynamite, the first safely manageable explosive became Nobel's big business. It turned out to be an immediate success, with engineering companies from all over the world clamouring to get their hands on it. Afterall, controlled explosions found numerous uses, including mining, canal cutting, tunnel blasting, and more. Business boomed and numerous factories and plants were set up across the USA and Europe. Soon money started rolling in and virtually overnight, Alfred amassed fortune beyond anyone's extreme imagination. He kept refining dynamite continually and later created even stronger and safer explosives. Nobel spent most of his time tinkering with chemicals and held 355355 patents in explosives and synthetic materials.

Apart from mechanical workshops, he now set up armament factories producing cannon shells and other fearinspiring weapons of war. The explosives created by Nobel spread rapidly around the world and brought great benefits to engineering and mining. But inevitably, they were also used intensively for war. He often quoted, "As soon as nations will find that in one instant, whole armies can be utterly destroyed, they surely will abide in golden peace." Alfred considered himself to be a pacifist and strongly believed that his weapons would create deterrence, ultimately proving to be a boon to mankind. This, however, was a gross miscalculation. Wars continued, and nations didn't recoil. His inventions failed to change the course of the world. His faith in mankind was sadly misplaced.

Q. According to the passage, how did Alfred lose Emil?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 13 In the passage, we see that Alfred lost Emil when he was on the end of an invention that would have changed the world, then a tragedy happened and everything changed. A barrel of nitroglycerin got overheated which resulted in an explosion killing five people, including his younger brother, Emil whereas Alfred himself suffered minor injuries in the disaster.

Hence, 'one of the experiments went wrong' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 14

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

Every year, a handful of people are honoured and elevated to a reputed title, the 'Nobel Laureate', which distinguishes them from others. Celebrated as one of the most coveted awards, the Nobel Prize is widely regarded as the crowning achievement of mankind that marks its scientific, economic, literary, and political excellence. No other award can match them in prestige. And while most people are aware of its existence, relatively few people know about Alfred Nobel, the genius who laid the foundation of these annually distributed awards. There is an often-repeated story regarding his creation, an interesting tale that highlights the underlying reason that persuaded him to devote his fortune to charity. Alfred Bernhard Nobel, an engineer and inventor, was born on October 21st, 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden. Right since his initial days, he was intensely curious being with a natural affinity for problem-solving. He was deeply interested in studying chemistry and was fascinated with Nitroglycerine due to its unpredictable and highly explosive nature. Despite the scientific community's aversion to Nitroglycerine, the young man's mind was determined to tame the explosive and turn it into a commercially usable blasting agent. In the 1860s, the chemist experimented with controlled explosions looking for a stable combination. However, in 1864, just when he had a feeling that he was on the cusp of an invention that would change the world, a tragedy struck his company. A vat of nitroglycerin overheated and resulted in an explosion killing five people, including his younger brother, Emil. Alfred himself suffered minor injuries in the disaster. Rather than being put off working with nitroglycerin, Alfred threw himself into trying to find a safe way to detonate the chemical. To give up now would be, in his view, to allow his brother to have died in vain. He continued his work and produced 'Dynamite', a safer to handle explosive. He was soon granted patents for his invention in Europe and the US. Dynamite, the first safely manageable explosive became Nobel's big business. It turned out to be an immediate success, with engineering companies from all over the world clamouring to get their hands on it. Afterall, controlled explosions found numerous uses, including mining, canal cutting, tunnel blasting, and more. Business boomed and numerous factories and plants were set up across the USA and Europe. Soon money started rolling in and virtually overnight, Alfred amassed fortune beyond anyone's extreme imagination. He kept refining dynamite continually and later created even stronger and safer explosives. Nobel spent most of his time tinkering with chemicals and held 355355 patents in explosives and synthetic materials.

Apart from mechanical workshops, he now set up armament factories producing cannon shells and other fearinspiring weapons of war. The explosives created by Nobel spread rapidly around the world and brought great benefits to engineering and mining. But inevitably, they were also used intensively for war. He often quoted, "As soon as nations will find that in one instant, whole armies can be utterly destroyed, they surely will abide in golden peace." Alfred considered himself to be a pacifist and strongly believed that his weapons would create deterrence, ultimately proving to be a boon to mankind. This, however, was a gross miscalculation. Wars continued, and nations didn't recoil. His inventions failed to change the course of the world. His faith in mankind was sadly misplaced.

Q. As per the question, why did Alfred's faith in mankind reduced ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 14 In the passage, we come to know that the Alfred's faith in mankind reduced as he considered himself to be a pacemaker and strongly believed that his weapons would create preclusion, ultimately proving to be a boon to mankind.

Hence, 'the inventions became a boon to mankind' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 15

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

Every year, a handful of people are honoured and elevated to a reputed title, the 'Nobel Laureate', which distinguishes them from others. Celebrated as one of the most coveted awards, the Nobel Prize is widely regarded as the crowning achievement of mankind that marks its scientific, economic, literary, and political excellence. No other award can match them in prestige. And while most people are aware of its existence, relatively few people know about Alfred Nobel, the genius who laid the foundation of these annually distributed awards. There is an often-repeated story regarding his creation, an interesting tale that highlights the underlying reason that persuaded him to devote his fortune to charity. Alfred Bernhard Nobel, an engineer and inventor, was born on October 21st, 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden. Right since his initial days, he was intensely curious being with a natural affinity for problem-solving. He was deeply interested in studying chemistry and was fascinated with Nitroglycerine due to its unpredictable and highly explosive nature. Despite the scientific community's aversion to Nitroglycerine, the young man's mind was determined to tame the explosive and turn it into a commercially usable blasting agent. In the 1860s, the chemist experimented with controlled explosions looking for a stable combination. However, in 1864, just when he had a feeling that he was on the cusp of an invention that would change the world, a tragedy struck his company. A vat of nitroglycerin overheated and resulted in an explosion killing five people, including his younger brother, Emil. Alfred himself suffered minor injuries in the disaster. Rather than being put off working with nitroglycerin, Alfred threw himself into trying to find a safe way to detonate the chemical. To give up now would be, in his view, to allow his brother to have died in vain. He continued his work and produced 'Dynamite', a safer to handle explosive. He was soon granted patents for his invention in Europe and the US. Dynamite, the first safely manageable explosive became Nobel's big business. It turned out to be an immediate success, with engineering companies from all over the world clamouring to get their hands on it. Afterall, controlled explosions found numerous uses, including mining, canal cutting, tunnel blasting, and more. Business boomed and numerous factories and plants were set up across the USA and Europe. Soon money started rolling in and virtually overnight, Alfred amassed fortune beyond anyone's extreme imagination. He kept refining dynamite continually and later created even stronger and safer explosives. Nobel spent most of his time tinkering with chemicals and held 355355 patents in explosives and synthetic materials.

Apart from mechanical workshops, he now set up armament factories producing cannon shells and other fearinspiring weapons of war. The explosives created by Nobel spread rapidly around the world and brought great benefits to engineering and mining. But inevitably, they were also used intensively for war. He often quoted, "As soon as nations will find that in one instant, whole armies can be utterly destroyed, they surely will abide in golden peace." Alfred considered himself to be a pacifist and strongly believed that his weapons would create deterrence, ultimately proving to be a boon to mankind. This, however, was a gross miscalculation. Wars continued, and nations didn't recoil. His inventions failed to change the course of the world. His faith in mankind was sadly misplaced.

Q. According to the passage, who started the process of the prestigious Nobel Prizes?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 15 In the passage, we come to know that the Nobel Prizes were started by Alfred Bernhard. He was a Swedish chemist, businessman and well known for his invention in dynamite and an explosive device called a blasting cap, which inaugurated the modern use of high explosives.

Hence, 'Alfred Bernhard' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 16

Direction: Read the passage carefully in order to answer the questions.

Novelist and Kendra Sahitya Akademi Award-winner KR Meera makes no bones about the fact that writing comes from repression and women experience it 10 times more than men. She considers women the true repository of stories and her critically acclaimed works reclaim that space. Her advice to budding women writers is to be fully vigilant about how masculinity insinuates itself into their world but also reassures them that for all their attempts at subjugation and slighting, the utmost men can do is envy women writers! She reminds us that every Women's Day is a day to dream of a world when every day is a women's day. "In that world, people won't desire to become more masculine but to become more humane," she says.

A few months ago, I met a man who tried to teach me how to write and what to write. He justified his right to do so saying, "you know, the one who eats the omelette is the right person to comment on the egg, not the hen". And I replied, 'but the hen alone can describe the pain and labour in conceiving and laying it, not the omelette eater. The moment the hen starts talking about her life, the concept of omelette might change altogether.'

Taking a cue from him, I think we can categorize the world's literature into two - omelette eaters' literature and hens' literature. I wish there is a cock's literature too, but I am afraid that it would be the same story which has been repeated over and again.

And why is it happening? May be the omelette eaters are truly uncomfortable listening to true stories of the conceived egg and the pain and labour of laying it. Maybe they are scared of losing their omelettes.

But whether they accept it or not, all the literature in this world is either of or about women only. Women have been the custodians of stories in all societies from time immemorial. Just think about the first story we have listened to. I bet it was told by a woman and not a man. But the first story you read in print had been invariably that of a man's. That explains it.

The number of women who write are far less than men writers because the women have been kept away from reading and writing all through history. Even today many are not allowed to read or write. Many have no access to publishing. That is why the Women's Day celebration is justified year after year. We need to remind us at least for a day that our due share of the world, its resources, its freedom, and its happiness is being denied. It is good that we have this day to remind the other half that whatever they enjoy is our rightful share.

Q. What is the meaning of the word 'insinuation' according to the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 16 According to the passage, we see that the word 'insinuation' means coming stealthily. It also means that some unpleasant hint or suggestion of something bad.

Hence, 'coming stealthy' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 17

Direction: Read the passage carefully in order to answer the questions.

Novelist and Kendra Sahitya Akademi Award-winner KR Meera makes no bones about the fact that writing comes from repression and women experience it 10 times more than men. She considers women the true repository of stories and her critically acclaimed works reclaim that space. Her advice to budding women writers is to be fully vigilant about how masculinity insinuates itself into their world but also reassures them that for all their attempts at subjugation and slighting, the utmost men can do is envy women writers! She reminds us that every Women's Day is a day to dream of a world when every day is a women's day. "In that world, people won't desire to become more masculine but to become more humane," she says.

A few months ago, I met a man who tried to teach me how to write and what to write. He justified his right to do so saying, "you know, the one who eats the omelette is the right person to comment on the egg, not the hen". And I replied, 'but the hen alone can describe the pain and labour in conceiving and laying it, not the omelette eater. The moment the hen starts talking about her life, the concept of omelette might change altogether.'

Taking a cue from him, I think we can categorize the world's literature into two - omelette eaters' literature and hens' literature. I wish there is a cock's literature too, but I am afraid that it would be the same story which has been repeated over and again.

And why is it happening? May be the omelette eaters are truly uncomfortable listening to true stories of the conceived egg and the pain and labour of laying it. Maybe they are scared of losing their omelettes.

But whether they accept it or not, all the literature in this world is either of or about women only. Women have been the custodians of stories in all societies from time immemorial. Just think about the first story we have listened to. I bet it was told by a woman and not a man. But the first story you read in print had been invariably that of a man's. That explains it.

The number of women who write are far less than men writers because the women have been kept away from reading and writing all through history. Even today many are not allowed to read or write. Many have no access to publishing. That is why the Women's Day celebration is justified year after year. We need to remind us at least for a day that our due share of the world, its resources, its freedom, and its happiness is being denied. It is good that we have this day to remind the other half that whatever they enjoy is our rightful share.

Q. From the passage, why are there fewer women writers as compared to men?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 17 The passage states that there are fewer women writers as compared to men because women have been kept away from reading and writing all through history.

Moreover, men alone do not allow women to write and compete with them.

Hence, 'men do not allow women to write and compete with them' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 18

Direction: Read the passage carefully in order to answer the questions.

Novelist and Kendra Sahitya Akademi Award-winner KR Meera makes no bones about the fact that writing comes from repression and women experience it 10 times more than men. She considers women the true repository of stories and her critically acclaimed works reclaim that space. Her advice to budding women writers is to be fully vigilant about how masculinity insinuates itself into their world but also reassures them that for all their attempts at subjugation and slighting, the utmost men can do is envy women writers! She reminds us that every Women's Day is a day to dream of a world when every day is a women's day. "In that world, people won't desire to become more masculine but to become more humane," she says.

A few months ago, I met a man who tried to teach me how to write and what to write. He justified his right to do so saying, "you know, the one who eats the omelette is the right person to comment on the egg, not the hen". And I replied, 'but the hen alone can describe the pain and labour in conceiving and laying it, not the omelette eater. The moment the hen starts talking about her life, the concept of omelette might change altogether.'

Taking a cue from him, I think we can categorize the world's literature into two - omelette eaters' literature and hens' literature. I wish there is a cock's literature too, but I am afraid that it would be the same story which has been repeated over and again.

And why is it happening? May be the omelette eaters are truly uncomfortable listening to true stories of the conceived egg and the pain and labour of laying it. Maybe they are scared of losing their omelettes.

But whether they accept it or not, all the literature in this world is either of or about women only. Women have been the custodians of stories in all societies from time immemorial. Just think about the first story we have listened to. I bet it was told by a woman and not a man. But the first story you read in print had been invariably that of a man's. That explains it.

The number of women who write are far less than men writers because the women have been kept away from reading and writing all through history. Even today many are not allowed to read or write. Many have no access to publishing. That is why the Women's Day celebration is justified year after year. We need to remind us at least for a day that our due share of the world, its resources, its freedom, and its happiness is being denied. It is good that we have this day to remind the other half that whatever they enjoy is our rightful share.

Q. Why women are the custodians of stories in all societies as given in the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 18 The passage tells us that the women are the custodians of stories in all societies because firstly, they are the first storytellers of our lives. Secondly, they are the real caretakers of the stories. Moreover, they have been treated like this from time immemorial.

Hence, 'both (b) and (c)' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 19

Direction: Read the passage carefully in order to answer the questions.

Novelist and Kendra Sahitya Akademi Award-winner KR Meera makes no bones about the fact that writing comes from repression and women experience it 10 times more than men. She considers women the true repository of stories and her critically acclaimed works reclaim that space. Her advice to budding women writers is to be fully vigilant about how masculinity insinuates itself into their world but also reassures them that for all their attempts at subjugation and slighting, the utmost men can do is envy women writers! She reminds us that every Women's Day is a day to dream of a world when every day is a women's day. "In that world, people won't desire to become more masculine but to become more humane," she says.

A few months ago, I met a man who tried to teach me how to write and what to write. He justified his right to do so saying, "you know, the one who eats the omelette is the right person to comment on the egg, not the hen". And I replied, 'but the hen alone can describe the pain and labour in conceiving and laying it, not the omelette eater. The moment the hen starts talking about her life, the concept of omelette might change altogether.'

Taking a cue from him, I think we can categorize the world's literature into two - omelette eaters' literature and hens' literature. I wish there is a cock's literature too, but I am afraid that it would be the same story which has been repeated over and again.

And why is it happening? May be the omelette eaters are truly uncomfortable listening to true stories of the conceived egg and the pain and labour of laying it. Maybe they are scared of losing their omelettes.

But whether they accept it or not, all the literature in this world is either of or about women only. Women have been the custodians of stories in all societies from time immemorial. Just think about the first story we have listened to. I bet it was told by a woman and not a man. But the first story you read in print had been invariably that of a man's. That explains it.

The number of women who write are far less than men writers because the women have been kept away from reading and writing all through history. Even today many are not allowed to read or write. Many have no access to publishing. That is why the Women's Day celebration is justified year after year. We need to remind us at least for a day that our due share of the world, its resources, its freedom, and its happiness is being denied. It is good that we have this day to remind the other half that whatever they enjoy is our rightful share.

Q. According to the passage, how did Meera categorize the world's literature in a real sense?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 19 According to the passage, we see that Meeracatagorize the world's literature in the real sense as omellete eaters literature and hens literature. It also signifies the Discoverer of the stories and the creator of the stories.

Hence, 'discoverer of stories and creator of the stories' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 20

Direction: Read the passage carefully in order to answer the questions.

Novelist and Kendra Sahitya Akademi Award-winner KR Meera makes no bones about the fact that writing comes from repression and women experience it 10 times more than men. She considers women the true repository of stories and her critically acclaimed works reclaim that space. Her advice to budding women writers is to be fully vigilant about how masculinity insinuates itself into their world but also reassures them that for all their attempts at subjugation and slighting, the utmost men can do is envy women writers! She reminds us that every Women's Day is a day to dream of a world when every day is a women's day. "In that world, people won't desire to become more masculine but to become more humane," she says.

A few months ago, I met a man who tried to teach me how to write and what to write. He justified his right to do so saying, "you know, the one who eats the omelette is the right person to comment on the egg, not the hen". And I replied, 'but the hen alone can describe the pain and labour in conceiving and laying it, not the omelette eater. The moment the hen starts talking about her life, the concept of omelette might change altogether.'

Taking a cue from him, I think we can categorize the world's literature into two - omelette eaters' literature and hens' literature. I wish there is a cock's literature too, but I am afraid that it would be the same story which has been repeated over and again.

And why is it happening? May be the omelette eaters are truly uncomfortable listening to true stories of the conceived egg and the pain and labour of laying it. Maybe they are scared of losing their omelettes.

But whether they accept it or not, all the literature in this world is either of or about women only. Women have been the custodians of stories in all societies from time immemorial. Just think about the first story we have listened to. I bet it was told by a woman and not a man. But the first story you read in print had been invariably that of a man's. That explains it.

The number of women who write are far less than men writers because the women have been kept away from reading and writing all through history. Even today many are not allowed to read or write. Many have no access to publishing. That is why the Women's Day celebration is justified year after year. We need to remind us at least for a day that our due share of the world, its resources, its freedom, and its happiness is being denied. It is good that we have this day to remind the other half that whatever they enjoy is our rightful share.

Q. According to the passage, what does KR Meera wants people to act on Women's day?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 20 The author through the passage wants the people to be humane on women's day. Her advice to budding women writers is to be fully vigilant about how masculinity implies itself into their world but also reassures them that for all their attempts at subjugation and slighting

Hence, 'to be humane' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 21

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

An old saying goes as 'the trees with the sweetest fruits get the most hit by stones thrown at them'. A simple sentence with quite a deep meaning. Usually the same happens with the most humble, down-to-earth people in our society. They are present in abundance around us. Just that sometimes they are visible to naked eyes whereas sometimes you have to peep behind the mask they carry all the time. This hard mask becomes a necessity to protect themselves to be hit in the face by those stones that I earlier talked of. Carrying this mask just means that they might be pretending to be strong-headed and practical on the outside but actually, they have a soft, emotional, delicate inside instinct. In almost everything that happens with them, they are the givers without expecting much in return. They are caring and adore the most living beings around them, regardless of their size or significance. But often it is really disheartening to see that they are the ones to be the most criticized and blamed at. Even being the most deserving of all the happiness they desire, they are the most suffering ones. Gradually, some of these slip into a dark web and struggle hard to come out. Then is that the magic of acceptance comes in the scene.

Now two things may happen. Either they will accept themselves as well as their adversities for whole life, or their patience and perseverance bring out their sweetest fruit which does all the miracle. In the former case, even if they are not very happy with life, they are content because of acceptance. This is much like getting out of that dark web and settle peacefully at the edge, even if not completely away from it. In the latter case, they completely bounce out and transform. An individual or a team walks into their lives, who perform the acceptance act and the magic happens. First of all, they feel the light emerging from within, which eventually spreads out and may even reflect over the whole world, shining like the brightest huge star above our head that we fondly call as 'Sun'.

Either kind of acceptance is really crucial and much-needed in today's world. We are living in a time where it's a fast life and everyone seems to be racing like blind. Some of us even don't mind running over others if need be. Also, that's why the speedy increase in cases of depression, etc. Obviously, many gems go overlooked in the mad rush.

Today, put an effort to give a check whether you have one such sweet-fruits-tree around you and if you have accepted it gracefully yet. If not yet, then when? If you are the one yourself, have you found your magician(s) yet?

Q. What is the message the author is trying to convey?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 21 The passage state that the message which the author is trying to convey is that acceptance is the magic. Either kind of acceptance is crucial and much-needed in today's world. We are living in a time where it's a fast life and everyone seems to be racing like blind.

Hence, 'acceptance is the magic' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 22

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

An old saying goes as 'the trees with the sweetest fruits get the most hit by stones thrown at them'. A simple sentence with quite a deep meaning. Usually the same happens with the most humble, down-to-earth people in our society. They are present in abundance around us. Just that sometimes they are visible to naked eyes whereas sometimes you have to peep behind the mask they carry all the time. This hard mask becomes a necessity to protect themselves to be hit in the face by those stones that I earlier talked of. Carrying this mask just means that they might be pretending to be strong-headed and practical on the outside but actually, they have a soft, emotional, delicate inside instinct. In almost everything that happens with them, they are the givers without expecting much in return. They are caring and adore the most living beings around them, regardless of their size or significance. But often it is really disheartening to see that they are the ones to be the most criticized and blamed at. Even being the most deserving of all the happiness they desire, they are the most suffering ones. Gradually, some of these slip into a dark web and struggle hard to come out. Then is that the magic of acceptance comes in the scene.

Now two things may happen. Either they will accept themselves as well as their adversities for whole life, or their patience and perseverance bring out their sweetest fruit which does all the miracle. In the former case, even if they are not very happy with life, they are content because of acceptance. This is much like getting out of that dark web and settle peacefully at the edge, even if not completely away from it. In the latter case, they completely bounce out and transform. An individual or a team walks into their lives, who perform the acceptance act and the magic happens. First of all, they feel the light emerging from within, which eventually spreads out and may even reflect over the whole world, shining like the brightest huge star above our head that we fondly call as 'Sun'.

Either kind of acceptance is really crucial and much-needed in today's world. We are living in a time where it's a fast life and everyone seems to be racing like blind. Some of us even don't mind running over others if need be. Also, that's why the speedy increase in cases of depression, etc. Obviously, many gems go overlooked in the mad rush.

Today, put an effort to give a check whether you have one such sweet-fruits-tree around you and if you have accepted it gracefully yet. If not yet, then when? If you are the one yourself, have you found your magician(s) yet?

Q. Which of the following word is not a synonym of instinct?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 22 The passage state that the synonym of instinct is the inner tendency, hunch and divination.

Whereas, the synonym of outlandish is eccentric.

Hence, 'outlandish' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 23

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

An old saying goes as 'the trees with the sweetest fruits get the most hit by stones thrown at them'. A simple sentence with quite a deep meaning. Usually the same happens with the most humble, down-to-earth people in our society. They are present in abundance around us. Just that sometimes they are visible to naked eyes whereas sometimes you have to peep behind the mask they carry all the time. This hard mask becomes a necessity to protect themselves to be hit in the face by those stones that I earlier talked of. Carrying this mask just means that they might be pretending to be strong-headed and practical on the outside but actually, they have a soft, emotional, delicate inside instinct. In almost everything that happens with them, they are the givers without expecting much in return. They are caring and adore the most living beings around them, regardless of their size or significance. But often it is really disheartening to see that they are the ones to be the most criticized and blamed at. Even being the most deserving of all the happiness they desire, they are the most suffering ones. Gradually, some of these slip into a dark web and struggle hard to come out. Then is that the magic of acceptance comes in the scene.

Now two things may happen. Either they will accept themselves as well as their adversities for whole life, or their patience and perseverance bring out their sweetest fruit which does all the miracle. In the former case, even if they are not very happy with life, they are content because of acceptance. This is much like getting out of that dark web and settle peacefully at the edge, even if not completely away from it. In the latter case, they completely bounce out and transform. An individual or a team walks into their lives, who perform the acceptance act and the magic happens. First of all, they feel the light emerging from within, which eventually spreads out and may even reflect over the whole world, shining like the brightest huge star above our head that we fondly call as 'Sun'.

Either kind of acceptance is really crucial and much-needed in today's world. We are living in a time where it's a fast life and everyone seems to be racing like blind. Some of us even don't mind running over others if need be. Also, that's why the speedy increase in cases of depression, etc. Obviously, many gems go overlooked in the mad rush.

Today, put an effort to give a check whether you have one such sweet-fruits-tree around you and if you have accepted it gracefully yet. If not yet, then when? If you are the one yourself, have you found your magician(s) yet?

Q. Which of the following word is similar to abundance?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 23 The word 'abundance' means a very large quantity of something, whereas profusion means the abundance or large quantity of something.

Therefore, the word which is similar to abundance is profusion.

Hence, 'profusion' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 24

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

An old saying goes as 'the trees with the sweetest fruits get the most hit by stones thrown at them'. A simple sentence with quite a deep meaning. Usually the same happens with the most humble, down-to-earth people in our society. They are present in abundance around us. Just that sometimes they are visible to naked eyes whereas sometimes you have to peep behind the mask they carry all the time. This hard mask becomes a necessity to protect themselves to be hit in the face by those stones that I earlier talked of. Carrying this mask just means that they might be pretending to be strong-headed and practical on the outside but actually, they have a soft, emotional, delicate inside instinct. In almost everything that happens with them, they are the givers without expecting much in return. They are caring and adore the most living beings around them, regardless of their size or significance. But often it is really disheartening to see that they are the ones to be the most criticized and blamed at. Even being the most deserving of all the happiness they desire, they are the most suffering ones. Gradually, some of these slip into a dark web and struggle hard to come out. Then is that the magic of acceptance comes in the scene.

Now two things may happen. Either they will accept themselves as well as their adversities for whole life, or their patience and perseverance bring out their sweetest fruit which does all the miracle. In the former case, even if they are not very happy with life, they are content because of acceptance. This is much like getting out of that dark web and settle peacefully at the edge, even if not completely away from it. In the latter case, they completely bounce out and transform. An individual or a team walks into their lives, who perform the acceptance act and the magic happens. First of all, they feel the light emerging from within, which eventually spreads out and may even reflect over the whole world, shining like the brightest huge star above our head that we fondly call as 'Sun'.

Either kind of acceptance is really crucial and much-needed in today's world. We are living in a time where it's a fast life and everyone seems to be racing like blind. Some of us even don't mind running over others if need be. Also, that's why the speedy increase in cases of depression, etc. Obviously, many gems go overlooked in the mad rush.

Today, put an effort to give a check whether you have one such sweet-fruits-tree around you and if you have accepted it gracefully yet. If not yet, then when? If you are the one yourself, have you found your magician(s) yet?

Q. How do these humble people transform and hit back?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 24 According to the passage, we see that the humble people transform and hit back because by taking the help of others. An individual or a team walks into their lives, who perform the acceptance act and the magic happens.

Hence, 'by taking the help of others' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 25

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

An old saying goes as 'the trees with the sweetest fruits get the most hit by stones thrown at them'. A simple sentence with quite a deep meaning. Usually the same happens with the most humble, down-to-earth people in our society. They are present in abundance around us. Just that sometimes they are visible to naked eyes whereas sometimes you have to peep behind the mask they carry all the time. This hard mask becomes a necessity to protect themselves to be hit in the face by those stones that I earlier talked of. Carrying this mask just means that they might be pretending to be strong-headed and practical on the outside but actually, they have a soft, emotional, delicate inside instinct. In almost everything that happens with them, they are the givers without expecting much in return. They are caring and adore the most living beings around them, regardless of their size or significance. But often it is really disheartening to see that they are the ones to be the most criticized and blamed at. Even being the most deserving of all the happiness they desire, they are the most suffering ones. Gradually, some of these slip into a dark web and struggle hard to come out. Then is that the magic of acceptance comes in the scene.

Now two things may happen. Either they will accept themselves as well as their adversities for whole life, or their patience and perseverance bring out their sweetest fruit which does all the miracle. In the former case, even if they are not very happy with life, they are content because of acceptance. This is much like getting out of that dark web and settle peacefully at the edge, even if not completely away from it. In the latter case, they completely bounce out and transform. An individual or a team walks into their lives, who perform the acceptance act and the magic happens. First of all, they feel the light emerging from within, which eventually spreads out and may even reflect over the whole world, shining like the brightest huge star above our head that we fondly call as 'Sun'.

Either kind of acceptance is really crucial and much-needed in today's world. We are living in a time where it's a fast life and everyone seems to be racing like blind. Some of us even don't mind running over others if need be. Also, that's why the speedy increase in cases of depression, etc. Obviously, many gems go overlooked in the mad rush.

Today, put an effort to give a check whether you have one such sweet-fruits-tree around you and if you have accepted it gracefully yet. If not yet, then when? If you are the one yourself, have you found your magician(s) yet?

Q. What does the magic of acceptance do?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 25 According to the passage, we see that the magic of acceptance does is that it helps to remain content no matter what comes in your life or in your way.

Hence, 'helps to remain content' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 26

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

Every Sunday morning I take a light jog around a park near my home. There's a lake located in one corner of the park. Each time I jog by this lake, I see the same elderly woman sitting at the water's edge with a small metal cage sitting beside her.

This past Sunday my curiosity got the best of me, so I stopped jogging and walked over to her. As I got closer, I realized that the metal cage was, in fact, a small trap. There were three turtles, unharmed, slowly walking around the base of the trap. She had a fourth turtle in her lap that she was carefully scrubbing with a sponge brush.

"Hello," I said. "I see you here every Sunday morning. If you don't mind my nosiness, I'd love to know what you're doing with these turtles."

She smiled. "I'm cleaning off their shells," she replied. "Anything on a turtle's shell, like algae or scum, reduces the turtle's ability to absorb heat and impedes its ability to swim. It can also corrode and weaken the shell over time."

"Wow! That's really nice of you!" I exclaimed.

She went on "I spend a couple of hours each Sunday morning, relaxing by this lake and helping these little guys out. It's my strange way of making a difference."

"But don't most freshwater turtles live their whole lives with algae and scum hanging from their shells?" I asked. "Yep, sadly, they do," she replied.

I scratched my head. "Well then, don't you think your time could be better spent? I mean, I think your efforts are kind and all, but freshwater turtles are living in lakes all around the world. And 99% of these turtles don't have kind people like you to help them clean off their shells. So, no offense... but how exactly are your localized efforts here truly making a difference?"

The woman giggled aloud. She then looked down at the turtle in her lap, scrubbed off the last piece of algae from its shell, and said, "Sweetie, if this little guy could talk, he'd tell you I just made all the difference in the world."

Q. Which of the following word is closest to giggling?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 26 The meaning of giggling is to laugh in a silly way that you cannot control because you are amused or nervous.

In the same way, a chuckle means to laugh quietly.

The meaning of the other words are:

Smirk: It means an unpleasant smile which you have when you are pleased with yourself or think you are very clever.

Frown: It means to show you are angry, serious, etc. by making lines appear on your forehead above your nose.

Roar: It means to make a loud, deep sound.

Hence, the correct answer is 'Chuckle'.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 27

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

Every Sunday morning I take a light jog around a park near my home. There's a lake located in one corner of the park. Each time I jog by this lake, I see the same elderly woman sitting at the water's edge with a small metal cage sitting beside her.

This past Sunday my curiosity got the best of me, so I stopped jogging and walked over to her. As I got closer, I realized that the metal cage was, in fact, a small trap. There were three turtles, unharmed, slowly walking around the base of the trap. She had a fourth turtle in her lap that she was carefully scrubbing with a sponge brush.

"Hello," I said. "I see you here every Sunday morning. If you don't mind my nosiness, I'd love to know what you're doing with these turtles."

She smiled. "I'm cleaning off their shells," she replied. "Anything on a turtle's shell, like algae or scum, reduces the turtle's ability to absorb heat and impedes its ability to swim. It can also corrode and weaken the shell over time."

"Wow! That's really nice of you!" I exclaimed.

She went on "I spend a couple of hours each Sunday morning, relaxing by this lake and helping these little guys out. It's my strange way of making a difference."

"But don't most freshwater turtles live their whole lives with algae and scum hanging from their shells?" I asked. "Yep, sadly, they do," she replied.

I scratched my head. "Well then, don't you think your time could be better spent? I mean, I think your efforts are kind and all, but freshwater turtles are living in lakes all around the world. And 99% of these turtles don't have kind people like you to help them clean off their shells. So, no offense... but how exactly are your localized efforts here truly making a difference?"

The woman giggled aloud. She then looked down at the turtle in her lap, scrubbed off the last piece of algae from its shell, and said, "Sweetie, if this little guy could talk, he'd tell you I just made all the difference in the world."

Q. What did the author think of the old lady's acts?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 27 According to the author, the act of the old lady was kind but it was not significant as turtle lives all around the world and 99%99% of them does not have such kind people around them to help them.

Hence, the correct answer is 'Kind but not significant'.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 28

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

Every Sunday morning I take a light jog around a park near my home. There's a lake located in one corner of the park. Each time I jog by this lake, I see the same elderly woman sitting at the water's edge with a small metal cage sitting beside her.

This past Sunday my curiosity got the best of me, so I stopped jogging and walked over to her. As I got closer, I realized that the metal cage was, in fact, a small trap. There were three turtles, unharmed, slowly walking around the base of the trap. She had a fourth turtle in her lap that she was carefully scrubbing with a sponge brush.

"Hello," I said. "I see you here every Sunday morning. If you don't mind my nosiness, I'd love to know what you're doing with these turtles."

She smiled. "I'm cleaning off their shells," she replied. "Anything on a turtle's shell, like algae or scum, reduces the turtle's ability to absorb heat and impedes its ability to swim. It can also corrode and weaken the shell over time."

"Wow! That's really nice of you!" I exclaimed.

She went on "I spend a couple of hours each Sunday morning, relaxing by this lake and helping these little guys out. It's my strange way of making a difference."

"But don't most freshwater turtles live their whole lives with algae and scum hanging from their shells?" I asked. "Yep, sadly, they do," she replied.

I scratched my head. "Well then, don't you think your time could be better spent? I mean, I think your efforts are kind and all, but freshwater turtles are living in lakes all around the world. And 99% of these turtles don't have kind people like you to help them clean off their shells. So, no offense... but how exactly are your localized efforts here truly making a difference?"

The woman giggled aloud. She then looked down at the turtle in her lap, scrubbed off the last piece of algae from its shell, and said, "Sweetie, if this little guy could talk, he'd tell you I just made all the difference in the world."

Q. What do you understand by nosiness?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 28 The word nosiness means the quality of being too interested in what other people are doing and wanting to discover too much about them.

The word inquisitiveness means the quality of wanting to discover as much as you can about things, sometimes in a way that annoys people.

Therefore, inquisitiveness is the synonym of nosiness.

Hence, the correct answer is 'inquisitiveness'.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 29

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

Every Sunday morning I take a light jog around a park near my home. There's a lake located in one corner of the park. Each time I jog by this lake, I see the same elderly woman sitting at the water's edge with a small metal cage sitting beside her.

This past Sunday my curiosity got the best of me, so I stopped jogging and walked over to her. As I got closer, I realized that the metal cage was, in fact, a small trap. There were three turtles, unharmed, slowly walking around the base of the trap. She had a fourth turtle in her lap that she was carefully scrubbing with a sponge brush.

"Hello," I said. "I see you here every Sunday morning. If you don't mind my nosiness, I'd love to know what you're doing with these turtles."

She smiled. "I'm cleaning off their shells," she replied. "Anything on a turtle's shell, like algae or scum, reduces the turtle's ability to absorb heat and impedes its ability to swim. It can also corrode and weaken the shell over time."

"Wow! That's really nice of you!" I exclaimed.

She went on "I spend a couple of hours each Sunday morning, relaxing by this lake and helping these little guys out. It's my strange way of making a difference."

"But don't most freshwater turtles live their whole lives with algae and scum hanging from their shells?" I asked. "Yep, sadly, they do," she replied.

I scratched my head. "Well then, don't you think your time could be better spent? I mean, I think your efforts are kind and all, but freshwater turtles are living in lakes all around the world. And 99% of these turtles don't have kind people like you to help them clean off their shells. So, no offense... but how exactly are your localized efforts here truly making a difference?"

The woman giggled aloud. She then looked down at the turtle in her lap, scrubbed off the last piece of algae from its shell, and said, "Sweetie, if this little guy could talk, he'd tell you I just made all the difference in the world."

Q. How does the algae hurt the turtles?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 29 According to the passage, we see that the old woman told the girl that algae on the turtle's shell reduce the ability of the turtle to absorb heat and also impedes its ability to swim. It can even corrode or weaken its shell over a period of time.

Hence, the correct answer is 'it hinders in the proper functioning of their body'.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 30

Direction: Read the passage carefully, in order to answer the question.

Every Sunday morning I take a light jog around a park near my home. There's a lake located in one corner of the park. Each time I jog by this lake, I see the same elderly woman sitting at the water's edge with a small metal cage sitting beside her.

This past Sunday my curiosity got the best of me, so I stopped jogging and walked over to her. As I got closer, I realized that the metal cage was, in fact, a small trap. There were three turtles, unharmed, slowly walking around the base of the trap. She had a fourth turtle in her lap that she was carefully scrubbing with a sponge brush.

"Hello," I said. "I see you here every Sunday morning. If you don't mind my nosiness, I'd love to know what you're doing with these turtles."

She smiled. "I'm cleaning off their shells," she replied. "Anything on a turtle's shell, like algae or scum, reduces the turtle's ability to absorb heat and impedes its ability to swim. It can also corrode and weaken the shell over time."

"Wow! That's really nice of you!" I exclaimed.

She went on "I spend a couple of hours each Sunday morning, relaxing by this lake and helping these little guys out. It's my strange way of making a difference."

"But don't most freshwater turtles live their whole lives with algae and scum hanging from their shells?" I asked. "Yep, sadly, they do," she replied.

I scratched my head. "Well then, don't you think your time could be better spent? I mean, I think your efforts are kind and all, but freshwater turtles are living in lakes all around the world. And 99% of these turtles don't have kind people like you to help them clean off their shells. So, no offense... but how exactly are your localized efforts here truly making a difference?"

The woman giggled aloud. She then looked down at the turtle in her lap, scrubbed off the last piece of algae from its shell, and said, "Sweetie, if this little guy could talk, he'd tell you I just made all the difference in the world."

Q. Why did the old woman clean turtles?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 30 From the passage, we see that the old woman cleans the turtles because she says that anything on a turtle's shell, like algae or scum, can reduce the ability of the turtle to absorb heat and its ability to swim. It can also corrode and weaken the shell over time.

So, she wanted to make a difference in the turtles' life.

Hence, 'she wanted to make a difference in the turtles' life' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 31

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Russia's invasion of Ukraine and the resulting economic fallout have thrown four million children into poverty across Eastern Europe and Central Asia, according to a United Nations body report. Children are bearing the heaviest burden of the economic crisis caused by the Ukraine war, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) said in a statement. Children from Russia and Ukraine have suffered the hardest since Moscow's war on its neighbour in February. The report, The impact of the war in Ukraine and subsequent economic downturn on child poverty in Eastern Europe, highlighted that children make up 25 per cent of the population but account for nearly 40 per cent of the additional 10.4 million people experiencing poverty this year. UNICEF obtained its conclusions from an analysis of 22 countries in the region. Russia has experienced the most significant increase in the number of children living in poverty, with an additional 2.8 million children now living in households below the poverty line. This accounts for nearly three-quarters of the total increase across the region, according to the children's body. Ukraine is home to half a million additional children living in poverty, the second largest share.

Q. The Kerch bridge, which was destroyed by a huge explosion in 2022, connects Russia with:

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 31 A key bridge linking the Crimean Peninsula with mainland Russia was severely damaged in a truck explosion in October 2022 putting at risk a key supply route for Russian soldiers fighting in Ukraine.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 32

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Russia's invasion of Ukraine and the resulting economic fallout have thrown four million children into poverty across Eastern Europe and Central Asia, according to a United Nations body report. Children are bearing the heaviest burden of the economic crisis caused by the Ukraine war, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) said in a statement. Children from Russia and Ukraine have suffered the hardest since Moscow's war on its neighbour in February. The report, The impact of the war in Ukraine and subsequent economic downturn on child poverty in Eastern Europe, highlighted that children make up 25 per cent of the population but account for nearly 40 per cent of the additional 10.4 million people experiencing poverty this year. UNICEF obtained its conclusions from an analysis of 22 countries in the region. Russia has experienced the most significant increase in the number of children living in poverty, with an additional 2.8 million children now living in households below the poverty line. This accounts for nearly three-quarters of the total increase across the region, according to the children's body. Ukraine is home to half a million additional children living in poverty, the second largest share.

Q. Poshan Abhiyaan, implemented by the Ministry of Women and Child Development, is India's flagship scheme to improve the nutritional outcomes of adolescents, children, pregnant women and lactating mothers. Who heads the Ministry of Women and Child Development?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 32 The Ministry of Women and Child Development, a branch of the Government of India, is an apex body for formulation and administration of the rules and regulations and laws relating to women and child development in India. The minister for the Ministry of Women and Child Development is Smriti Irani, as of 2022, having held the portfolio since May 31, 2019.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 33

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Russia's invasion of Ukraine and the resulting economic fallout have thrown four million children into poverty across Eastern Europe and Central Asia, according to a United Nations body report. Children are bearing the heaviest burden of the economic crisis caused by the Ukraine war, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) said in a statement. Children from Russia and Ukraine have suffered the hardest since Moscow's war on its neighbour in February. The report, The impact of the war in Ukraine and subsequent economic downturn on child poverty in Eastern Europe, highlighted that children make up 25 per cent of the population but account for nearly 40 per cent of the additional 10.4 million people experiencing poverty this year. UNICEF obtained its conclusions from an analysis of 22 countries in the region. Russia has experienced the most significant increase in the number of children living in poverty, with an additional 2.8 million children now living in households below the poverty line. This accounts for nearly three-quarters of the total increase across the region, according to the children's body. Ukraine is home to half a million additional children living in poverty, the second largest share.

Q. Ukraine was a part of Russia from 1922 to:

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 33 Ukraine was a part of Russia from 1922 to 1991 when Moscow was the capital of the USSR or Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Not only Ukraine but other countries, including Leningrad (Russian SFSR or Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic), Minsk (Byelorussian SSR or Soviet Socialist Republic), Tashkent (Uzbek SSR), Alma-Ata (Kazakh SSR), and Novosibirsk (Russian SFSR) were a part of the USSR.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 34

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Russia's invasion of Ukraine and the resulting economic fallout have thrown four million children into poverty across Eastern Europe and Central Asia, according to a United Nations body report. Children are bearing the heaviest burden of the economic crisis caused by the Ukraine war, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) said in a statement. Children from Russia and Ukraine have suffered the hardest since Moscow's war on its neighbour in February. The report, The impact of the war in Ukraine and subsequent economic downturn on child poverty in Eastern Europe, highlighted that children make up 25 per cent of the population but account for nearly 40 per cent of the additional 10.4 million people experiencing poverty this year. UNICEF obtained its conclusions from an analysis of 22 countries in the region. Russia has experienced the most significant increase in the number of children living in poverty, with an additional 2.8 million children now living in households below the poverty line. This accounts for nearly three-quarters of the total increase across the region, according to the children's body. Ukraine is home to half a million additional children living in poverty, the second largest share.

Q. Social polls have ranked Volodymyr Zelenskyy among Ukraine's greatest presidents. He has been serving as the _______ president of Ukraine since 2019.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 34 Volodymyr Oleksandrovych Zelenskyy is a Ukrainian politician and former comedian and actor who has been serving as the sixth president of Ukraine since 2019. Born to a Ukrainian Jewish family, Zelenskyy grew up as a native Russian speaker in Kryvyi Rih, a major city of Dnipropetrovsk Oblast in central Ukraine.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 35

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Russia's invasion of Ukraine and the resulting economic fallout have thrown four million children into poverty across Eastern Europe and Central Asia, according to a United Nations body report. Children are bearing the heaviest burden of the economic crisis caused by the Ukraine war, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) said in a statement. Children from Russia and Ukraine have suffered the hardest since Moscow's war on its neighbour in February. The report, The impact of the war in Ukraine and subsequent economic downturn on child poverty in Eastern Europe, highlighted that children make up 25 per cent of the population but account for nearly 40 per cent of the additional 10.4 million people experiencing poverty this year. UNICEF obtained its conclusions from an analysis of 22 countries in the region. Russia has experienced the most significant increase in the number of children living in poverty, with an additional 2.8 million children now living in households below the poverty line. This accounts for nearly three-quarters of the total increase across the region, according to the children's body. Ukraine is home to half a million additional children living in poverty, the second largest share.

Q. Consider the following statements and mark the correct option.

Statement I: United Nations Children's Fund was originally called United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund.

Statement II: United Nations Children's Fund is entirely funded by private donors.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 35 UNICEF, originally called the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund in full, now officially United Nations Children's Fund, is an agency of the United Nations responsible for providing humanitarian and developmental aid to children worldwide. The agency is among the most widespread and recognizable social welfare organizations in the world, with a presence in 192 countries and territories. UNICEF relies entirely on voluntary contributions from governments and private donors.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 36

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Indian and the US militaries conducted Tiger Triumph humanitarian assistance exercise on Thursday at India's Eastern Naval Command. The Tiger Triumph tabletop simulation was a comprehensive effort in which the Indian and the US military and diplomatic representatives coordinated a joint response to provide disaster relief services to a notional third country that experienced a super-cyclone, according to official release from US. India is an indispensable partner and leader in advancing stability and security throughout South Asia and the greater Indian Ocean Region. I am encouraged by the team's work on increasing interoperability and exercising bilateral agreements to develop and validate a multinational command and control model for humanitarian assistance in this region, said Major General McPhillips, Director of Strategic Planning and Policy at the US Indo-Pacific Command. This week's Tiger Triumph exercise was the second collaboration between the Indian and the US militaries to coordinate disaster relief in the region. The first exercise - took place over the course of nine days in November 2019 and featured more than 500 US Marines and sailors and approximately 1,200 Indian sailors, soldiers, and airmen.

Q. 'DefExpo 2022' is India's flagship exhibition on Land, Naval and Homeland Security systems. Where was the 12th edition of the biennial DefExpo held in 2022?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 36 The 12th edition of the biennial DefExpo was organized from October 18 to 22, 2022 in Gujarat. The theme for the DefExpo 2022 was 'Path to Pride', which is in line with the Indian Government's vision towards Atmanirbhar Bharat.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 37

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Indian and the US militaries conducted Tiger Triumph humanitarian assistance exercise on Thursday at India's Eastern Naval Command. The Tiger Triumph tabletop simulation was a comprehensive effort in which the Indian and the US military and diplomatic representatives coordinated a joint response to provide disaster relief services to a notional third country that experienced a super-cyclone, according to official release from US. India is an indispensable partner and leader in advancing stability and security throughout South Asia and the greater Indian Ocean Region. I am encouraged by the team's work on increasing interoperability and exercising bilateral agreements to develop and validate a multinational command and control model for humanitarian assistance in this region, said Major General McPhillips, Director of Strategic Planning and Policy at the US Indo-Pacific Command. This week's Tiger Triumph exercise was the second collaboration between the Indian and the US militaries to coordinate disaster relief in the region. The first exercise - took place over the course of nine days in November 2019 and featured more than 500 US Marines and sailors and approximately 1,200 Indian sailors, soldiers, and airmen.

Q. Who is Chief of the Naval Staff as of 2022?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 37 Admiral Radhakrishnan Hari Kumar PVSM, AVSM, VSM, ADC is a serving flag officer in the Indian Navy. He is the 25th Chief of the Naval Staff as of 2022. Previously, he served as the Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Western Naval Command.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 38

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Indian and the US militaries conducted Tiger Triumph humanitarian assistance exercise on Thursday at India's Eastern Naval Command. The Tiger Triumph tabletop simulation was a comprehensive effort in which the Indian and the US military and diplomatic representatives coordinated a joint response to provide disaster relief services to a notional third country that experienced a super-cyclone, according to official release from US. India is an indispensable partner and leader in advancing stability and security throughout South Asia and the greater Indian Ocean Region. I am encouraged by the team's work on increasing interoperability and exercising bilateral agreements to develop and validate a multinational command and control model for humanitarian assistance in this region, said Major General McPhillips, Director of Strategic Planning and Policy at the US Indo-Pacific Command. This week's Tiger Triumph exercise was the second collaboration between the Indian and the US militaries to coordinate disaster relief in the region. The first exercise - took place over the course of nine days in November 2019 and featured more than 500 US Marines and sailors and approximately 1,200 Indian sailors, soldiers, and airmen.

Q. Ports are an essential part of the maritime environment and are like hubs that link sea-routes with trade-routes on land. How many major ports does India have?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 38 Ports are an essential part of the maritime environment and are like hubs that link sea-routes with trade-routes on land. India has 12 major ports and 205 notified minor and intermediate ports. These ports handle 95% of India's international trade, and contribute in a significant way to the country's economy.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 39

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Indian and the US militaries conducted Tiger Triumph humanitarian assistance exercise on Thursday at India's Eastern Naval Command. The Tiger Triumph tabletop simulation was a comprehensive effort in which the Indian and the US military and diplomatic representatives coordinated a joint response to provide disaster relief services to a notional third country that experienced a super-cyclone, according to official release from US. India is an indispensable partner and leader in advancing stability and security throughout South Asia and the greater Indian Ocean Region. I am encouraged by the team's work on increasing interoperability and exercising bilateral agreements to develop and validate a multinational command and control model for humanitarian assistance in this region, said Major General McPhillips, Director of Strategic Planning and Policy at the US Indo-Pacific Command. This week's Tiger Triumph exercise was the second collaboration between the Indian and the US militaries to coordinate disaster relief in the region. The first exercise - took place over the course of nine days in November 2019 and featured more than 500 US Marines and sailors and approximately 1,200 Indian sailors, soldiers, and airmen.

Q. Which of the following are not the joint military exercises between India and the US?

(a) Vajra Prahar

(b) Yudh Abhyas

(c) Shakti Exercise

(d) Maitree Exercise

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 39 Shakti Exercise is a bilateral exercise between the armies of India and France. Exercise Maitree is a bilateral exercise between the Indian Army and the Royal Thai Army, started off in 2006.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 40

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Indian and the US militaries conducted Tiger Triumph humanitarian assistance exercise on Thursday at India's Eastern Naval Command. The Tiger Triumph tabletop simulation was a comprehensive effort in which the Indian and the US military and diplomatic representatives coordinated a joint response to provide disaster relief services to a notional third country that experienced a super-cyclone, according to official release from US. India is an indispensable partner and leader in advancing stability and security throughout South Asia and the greater Indian Ocean Region. I am encouraged by the team's work on increasing interoperability and exercising bilateral agreements to develop and validate a multinational command and control model for humanitarian assistance in this region, said Major General McPhillips, Director of Strategic Planning and Policy at the US Indo-Pacific Command. This week's Tiger Triumph exercise was the second collaboration between the Indian and the US militaries to coordinate disaster relief in the region. The first exercise - took place over the course of nine days in November 2019 and featured more than 500 US Marines and sailors and approximately 1,200 Indian sailors, soldiers, and airmen.

Q. Where was the Tiger Triumph exercise held in 2022?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 40 The Tiger Triumph exercise was jointly conducted by the United States and Indian militaries in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. The Tiger Triumph tabletop simulation was organized at India's Eastern Naval Command in Visakhapatnam from October 18 to 20, 2022. Its objective was to streamline diplomatic, operational, and logistical coordination between the two countries while responding to disasters.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 41

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Nihonshu is an alcoholic beverage also known as Japanese sake. The Embassy of Japan in New Delhi is seeking a Geographical Indication (GI) tag for nihonshu. It is also the first time a product from Japan has filed for a GI tag at the Geographical Indication Registry. In Japan, nihonshu is regarded as a valuable beverage. It is made from fermenting rice. For making nihonshu three main raw materials - rice, koji-kin (a type of fungal spore) and water - are required. The production of nihonshu follows an alcoholic fermentation method called parallel multiple fermentation and involves raw material treatment, koji making, starter culture making, mash making, pressing, heat sterilisation and bottling. The rice and koji used should originate in Japan. The Embassy of Japan, in the filing, also mentioned that in the past, the economy of Japan was based around rice, which was used as a sort of quasi-money before the establishment of a monetary economy in the Meiji period (1869-1912). As a result, nihonshu production was thoroughly under the government's control.

Q. Who is the Prime Minister of Japan as in 2022?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 41 Fumio Kishida is the Prime Minister of Japan as of 2022, replacing Yoshihide Suga on October 4, 2021. A member of the House of Representatives, he previously served as Minister for Foreign Affairs from 2012 to 2017 and as acting Minister of Defense in 2017.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 42

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Nihonshu is an alcoholic beverage also known as Japanese sake. The Embassy of Japan in New Delhi is seeking a Geographical Indication (GI) tag for nihonshu. It is also the first time a product from Japan has filed for a GI tag at the Geographical Indication Registry. In Japan, nihonshu is regarded as a valuable beverage. It is made from fermenting rice. For making nihonshu three main raw materials - rice, koji-kin (a type of fungal spore) and water - are required. The production of nihonshu follows an alcoholic fermentation method called parallel multiple fermentation and involves raw material treatment, koji making, starter culture making, mash making, pressing, heat sterilisation and bottling. The rice and koji used should originate in Japan. The Embassy of Japan, in the filing, also mentioned that in the past, the economy of Japan was based around rice, which was used as a sort of quasi-money before the establishment of a monetary economy in the Meiji period (1869-1912). As a result, nihonshu production was thoroughly under the government's control.

Q. Consider the following statements and mark the correct option.

Statement I: India, as a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO), enacted the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999.

Statement II: GIs have been defined under Article 22 (1) of the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 42 India, as a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO), enacted the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 which has come into force with effect from September 15, 2003. GIs have been defined under Article 22 (1) of the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement as: Indications which identify a good as originating in the territory of a member, or a region or a locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or characteristic of the good is essentially attributable to its geographic origin.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 43

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Nihonshu is an alcoholic beverage also known as Japanese sake. The Embassy of Japan in New Delhi is seeking a Geographical Indication (GI) tag for nihonshu. It is also the first time a product from Japan has filed for a GI tag at the Geographical Indication Registry. In Japan, nihonshu is regarded as a valuable beverage. It is made from fermenting rice. For making nihonshu three main raw materials - rice, koji-kin (a type of fungal spore) and water - are required. The production of nihonshu follows an alcoholic fermentation method called parallel multiple fermentation and involves raw material treatment, koji making, starter culture making, mash making, pressing, heat sterilisation and bottling. The rice and koji used should originate in Japan. The Embassy of Japan, in the filing, also mentioned that in the past, the economy of Japan was based around rice, which was used as a sort of quasi-money before the establishment of a monetary economy in the Meiji period (1869-1912). As a result, nihonshu production was thoroughly under the government's control.

Q. Which among the following became the first GI tagged product in India?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 43 The GI tag ensures that none other than those registered as authorised users (or at least those residing inside the geographic territory) are allowed to use the popular product name. Darjeeling tea became the first GI tagged product in India, in 2004-2005.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 44

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Nihonshu is an alcoholic beverage also known as Japanese sake. The Embassy of Japan in New Delhi is seeking a Geographical Indication (GI) tag for nihonshu. It is also the first time a product from Japan has filed for a GI tag at the Geographical Indication Registry. In Japan, nihonshu is regarded as a valuable beverage. It is made from fermenting rice. For making nihonshu three main raw materials - rice, koji-kin (a type of fungal spore) and water - are required. The production of nihonshu follows an alcoholic fermentation method called parallel multiple fermentation and involves raw material treatment, koji making, starter culture making, mash making, pressing, heat sterilisation and bottling. The rice and koji used should originate in Japan. The Embassy of Japan, in the filing, also mentioned that in the past, the economy of Japan was based around rice, which was used as a sort of quasi-money before the establishment of a monetary economy in the Meiji period (1869-1912). As a result, nihonshu production was thoroughly under the government's control.

Q. Which of the following has won the 'Most Popular GI' award in 2022?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 44 Telangana's Hyderabadi Haleem has won the 'Most Popular GI' award after beating other food items including Rasgulla, Bikaneri Bhujiya, and Ratlami Sev. In a rigid competition with more than 15 food items across the country with Geographical Indication (GI) status, the famous Hyderabadi Haleem has bagged the 'Most Popular GI' award.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 45

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Nihonshu is an alcoholic beverage also known as Japanese sake. The Embassy of Japan in New Delhi is seeking a Geographical Indication (GI) tag for nihonshu. It is also the first time a product from Japan has filed for a GI tag at the Geographical Indication Registry. In Japan, nihonshu is regarded as a valuable beverage. It is made from fermenting rice. For making nihonshu three main raw materials - rice, koji-kin (a type of fungal spore) and water - are required. The production of nihonshu follows an alcoholic fermentation method called parallel multiple fermentation and involves raw material treatment, koji making, starter culture making, mash making, pressing, heat sterilisation and bottling. The rice and koji used should originate in Japan. The Embassy of Japan, in the filing, also mentioned that in the past, the economy of Japan was based around rice, which was used as a sort of quasi-money before the establishment of a monetary economy in the Meiji period (1869-1912). As a result, nihonshu production was thoroughly under the government's control.

Q. GI tags are issued by the Geographical Indication Registry that comes under the:

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 45 GI tags are issued as per the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act,1999. This tag is issued by the Geographical Indication Registry under the Department of Industry Promotion and Internal Trade, Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 46

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

The robust recovery of India's economy from the profound shock of the covid pandemic has expectedly triggered debates about the nature of this recovery. While our economic recovery, as reflected in various supply and demand indicators, is acknowledged by many unbiased observers, an examination of its inclusivity is necessary. As an immediate response to the pandemic, the government put in place a bouquet of safety nets to cushion the impact on vulnerable sections of society and the business sector, including micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs). Support measures for MSMEs, such as the ECLGS and revision in the definition of MSMEs under the ambit of Atmanirbhar Bharat, helped the vulnerable ones sail through the crisis shock. The ECLGS, in particular, has in the last two years been of benefit to 11.3 million MSMEs, which have availed collateral-free loans amounting to Rs. 2.32 trillion. A recent CIBIL report (ECLGS Insights, August 2022) showed that the scheme has successfully supported MSMEs in facing the covid shock, with 83% of the borrowers that availed of the ECLGS being micro-enterprises.

Q. National Small Industries Corporation Limited (NSIC) is a nodal office for several schemes of the Ministry of MSME. It is a:

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 46 National Small Industries Corporation Limited (NSIC) is a Mini Ratna government agency established by the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, Government of India in 1955. It falls under Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises of India. NSIC is the nodal office for several schemes of Ministry of MSME such as Performance & Credit Rating, Single Point Registration, MSME Databank, National SC ST Hub, etc.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 47

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

The robust recovery of India's economy from the profound shock of the covid pandemic has expectedly triggered debates about the nature of this recovery. While our economic recovery, as reflected in various supply and demand indicators, is acknowledged by many unbiased observers, an examination of its inclusivity is necessary. As an immediate response to the pandemic, the government put in place a bouquet of safety nets to cushion the impact on vulnerable sections of society and the business sector, including micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs). Support measures for MSMEs, such as the ECLGS and revision in the definition of MSMEs under the ambit of Atmanirbhar Bharat, helped the vulnerable ones sail through the crisis shock. The ECLGS, in particular, has in the last two years been of benefit to 11.3 million MSMEs, which have availed collateral-free loans amounting to Rs. 2.32 trillion. A recent CIBIL report (ECLGS Insights, August 2022) showed that the scheme has successfully supported MSMEs in facing the covid shock, with 83% of the borrowers that availed of the ECLGS being micro-enterprises.

Q. Which bank provides assistance for Raising and Accelerating MSME Performance (RAMP) scheme to strengthen the MSME sector in India?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 47 Raising and Accelerating MSME Performance (RAMP) scheme is a World Bank-assisted central sector program to strengthen India's Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) sector. The program aims to improve access to market and credit, strengthen institutions, enhance Centre-state partnerships, address issues of delayed payments and greening of MSMEs, and ramp up implementation capacity and MSME coverage in states.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 48

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

The robust recovery of India's economy from the profound shock of the covid pandemic has expectedly triggered debates about the nature of this recovery. While our economic recovery, as reflected in various supply and demand indicators, is acknowledged by many unbiased observers, an examination of its inclusivity is necessary. As an immediate response to the pandemic, the government put in place a bouquet of safety nets to cushion the impact on vulnerable sections of society and the business sector, including micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs). Support measures for MSMEs, such as the ECLGS and revision in the definition of MSMEs under the ambit of Atmanirbhar Bharat, helped the vulnerable ones sail through the crisis shock. The ECLGS, in particular, has in the last two years been of benefit to 11.3 million MSMEs, which have availed collateral-free loans amounting to Rs. 2.32 trillion. A recent CIBIL report (ECLGS Insights, August 2022) showed that the scheme has successfully supported MSMEs in facing the covid shock, with 83% of the borrowers that availed of the ECLGS being micro-enterprises.

Q. Mark the incorrect statement about ECLGS.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 48 The Union Cabinet approved the Emergency Credit Line Guarantee Scheme in May 2020 and allowed additional funding of up to Rs. 3 lakh crores to different sectors, especially Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSME) and MUDRA borrowers. The scheme is a part of the AtmaNirbhar Bharat Abhiyan which was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi to make India a self-dependent country. Under the ECLGS, all loans sanctioned under the Guaranteed Emergency Credit Line (GECL) facility will be provided with additional credit.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 49

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

The robust recovery of India's economy from the profound shock of the covid pandemic has expectedly triggered debates about the nature of this recovery. While our economic recovery, as reflected in various supply and demand indicators, is acknowledged by many unbiased observers, an examination of its inclusivity is necessary. As an immediate response to the pandemic, the government put in place a bouquet of safety nets to cushion the impact on vulnerable sections of society and the business sector, including micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs). Support measures for MSMEs, such as the ECLGS and revision in the definition of MSMEs under the ambit of Atmanirbhar Bharat, helped the vulnerable ones sail through the crisis shock. The ECLGS, in particular, has in the last two years been of benefit to 11.3 million MSMEs, which have availed collateral-free loans amounting to Rs. 2.32 trillion. A recent CIBIL report (ECLGS Insights, August 2022) showed that the scheme has successfully supported MSMEs in facing the covid shock, with 83% of the borrowers that availed of the ECLGS being micro-enterprises.

Q. SIDBI is the apex regulatory body for overall licensing and regulation of MSME finance companies. Where is SIDBI headquartered?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 49 Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) is the apex regulatory body for overall licensing and regulation of micro, small and medium enterprise finance companies in India. It is under the jurisdiction of Ministry of Finance, Government of India headquartered at Lucknow and has its offices all over the country.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 50

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

The robust recovery of India's economy from the profound shock of the covid pandemic has expectedly triggered debates about the nature of this recovery. While our economic recovery, as reflected in various supply and demand indicators, is acknowledged by many unbiased observers, an examination of its inclusivity is necessary. As an immediate response to the pandemic, the government put in place a bouquet of safety nets to cushion the impact on vulnerable sections of society and the business sector, including micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs). Support measures for MSMEs, such as the ECLGS and revision in the definition of MSMEs under the ambit of Atmanirbhar Bharat, helped the vulnerable ones sail through the crisis shock. The ECLGS, in particular, has in the last two years been of benefit to 11.3 million MSMEs, which have availed collateral-free loans amounting to Rs. 2.32 trillion. A recent CIBIL report (ECLGS Insights, August 2022) showed that the scheme has successfully supported MSMEs in facing the covid shock, with 83% of the borrowers that availed of the ECLGS being micro-enterprises.

Q. Consider the following statements and mark the correct option.

Statement I: In September 2000, the Ministry of Small Scale Industries and Agro and Rural Industries was split into the Ministry of Small Scale Industries and the Ministry of Agro and Rural Industries.

Statement II: The Minister of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, as of 2022, is Narayan Rane.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 50 The Ministry of Small Scale Industries and Agro and Rural Industries was created in October 1999. In September 2001, the ministry was split into the Ministry of Small Scale Industries and the Ministry of Agro and Rural Industries. The Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises is the ministry in the Government of India. It is the apex executive body for the formulation and administration of rules, regulations and laws relating to micro, small and medium enterprises in India. The Minister of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, as of 2022, is Narayan Rane.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 51

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

November 1 is celebrated as the Chhattisgarh Foundation Day - or Chhattisgarh Rajyotsava - since 2000 when the Union government declared it an independent state. This year is the 23rd edition of the state's foundation day. Every year, the state government organises a five-day festival in the capital city Raipur, starting November 1. The festival showcases the culture and traditions of the state. This time, the chief minister's office announced that Raipur would host the 3rd National Tribal Dance Festival from November 1-3. On behalf of the chief minister, state representatives were visiting other states to personally invite the chief ministers, ministers and public representatives to the event. Tribal dance groups from all the states and union territories of India and some countries including Mozambique, Mongolia, Tongo, Russia, Indonesia and Maldives would be taking part in the National Tribal Dance Festival in Raipur. About 1,500 tribal artists will take part in the event of which 1,400 will be from India and the remaining 100 from the above countries. The festival will have competitions in two categories and prizes worth ₹20 lakh will be distributed to the winners. Cash prizes of ₹5 lakh, ₹3 lakh and ₹2 lakh will be awarded to the first, second and third positions respectively.

Q. Which is the largest state in India in terms of area?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 51 Rajasthan (342,239 sq km) is the largest state in India in terms of area. Rajasthan accounts for 10.4 percent of the country's total area.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 52

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

November 1 is celebrated as the Chhattisgarh Foundation Day - or Chhattisgarh Rajyotsava - since 2000 when the Union government declared it an independent state. This year is the 23rd edition of the state's foundation day. Every year, the state government organises a five-day festival in the capital city Raipur, starting November 1. The festival showcases the culture and traditions of the state. This time, the chief minister's office announced that Raipur would host the 3rd National Tribal Dance Festival from November 1-3. On behalf of the chief minister, state representatives were visiting other states to personally invite the chief ministers, ministers and public representatives to the event. Tribal dance groups from all the states and union territories of India and some countries including Mozambique, Mongolia, Tongo, Russia, Indonesia and Maldives would be taking part in the National Tribal Dance Festival in Raipur. About 1,500 tribal artists will take part in the event of which 1,400 will be from India and the remaining 100 from the above countries. The festival will have competitions in two categories and prizes worth ₹20 lakh will be distributed to the winners. Cash prizes of ₹5 lakh, ₹3 lakh and ₹2 lakh will be awarded to the first, second and third positions respectively.

Q. Which of the following states does not share border with Chhattisgarh?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 52 Chhattisgarh is bounded by the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand to the north and northeast, Odisha (Orissa) to the east, Telangana (formerly part of Andhra Pradesh) to the south, and Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh to the west.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 53

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

November 1 is celebrated as the Chhattisgarh Foundation Day - or Chhattisgarh Rajyotsava - since 2000 when the Union government declared it an independent state. This year is the 23rd edition of the state's foundation day. Every year, the state government organises a five-day festival in the capital city Raipur, starting November 1. The festival showcases the culture and traditions of the state. This time, the chief minister's office announced that Raipur would host the 3rd National Tribal Dance Festival from November 1-3. On behalf of the chief minister, state representatives were visiting other states to personally invite the chief ministers, ministers and public representatives to the event. Tribal dance groups from all the states and union territories of India and some countries including Mozambique, Mongolia, Tongo, Russia, Indonesia and Maldives would be taking part in the National Tribal Dance Festival in Raipur. About 1,500 tribal artists will take part in the event of which 1,400 will be from India and the remaining 100 from the above countries. The festival will have competitions in two categories and prizes worth ₹20 lakh will be distributed to the winners. Cash prizes of ₹5 lakh, ₹3 lakh and ₹2 lakh will be awarded to the first, second and third positions respectively.

Q. Consider the following statements and mark the correct option.

Statement I: In November 2000, three more Indian states were carved out, apart from Chhattisgarh.

Statement II: Area-wise, Chhattisgarh is the sixteenth largest state of India.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 53 On November 1, 10 and 15, 2000, three new states, India's 26th, 27th and 28th, came into being. Chhattisgarh which came first was carved out of Madhya Pradesh. Uttarakhand was separated from Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand, the last one, was carved out of Bihar. Area wise, Chhattisgarh is the tenth largest state and population wise, it is the sixteenth most populous state of the nation.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 54

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

November 1 is celebrated as the Chhattisgarh Foundation Day - or Chhattisgarh Rajyotsava - since 2000 when the Union government declared it an independent state. This year is the 23rd edition of the state's foundation day. Every year, the state government organises a five-day festival in the capital city Raipur, starting November 1. The festival showcases the culture and traditions of the state. This time, the chief minister's office announced that Raipur would host the 3rd National Tribal Dance Festival from November 1-3. On behalf of the chief minister, state representatives were visiting other states to personally invite the chief ministers, ministers and public representatives to the event. Tribal dance groups from all the states and union territories of India and some countries including Mozambique, Mongolia, Tongo, Russia, Indonesia and Maldives would be taking part in the National Tribal Dance Festival in Raipur. About 1,500 tribal artists will take part in the event of which 1,400 will be from India and the remaining 100 from the above countries. The festival will have competitions in two categories and prizes worth ₹20 lakh will be distributed to the winners. Cash prizes of ₹5 lakh, ₹3 lakh and ₹2 lakh will be awarded to the first, second and third positions respectively.

Q. Who is the Chief Minister of Chhattisgarh as of 2022?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 54 Bhupesh Baghel is an Indian politician serving Chief Minister of Chhattisgarh as of 2022. He is the third Chief Minister of Chhattisgarh. He was president of Chhattisgarh Pradesh Congress. He has been member of legislative assembly five times from Patan.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 55

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

November 1 is celebrated as the Chhattisgarh Foundation Day - or Chhattisgarh Rajyotsava - since 2000 when the Union government declared it an independent state. This year is the 23rd edition of the state's foundation day. Every year, the state government organises a five-day festival in the capital city Raipur, starting November 1. The festival showcases the culture and traditions of the state. This time, the chief minister's office announced that Raipur would host the 3rd National Tribal Dance Festival from November 1-3. On behalf of the chief minister, state representatives were visiting other states to personally invite the chief ministers, ministers and public representatives to the event. Tribal dance groups from all the states and union territories of India and some countries including Mozambique, Mongolia, Tongo, Russia, Indonesia and Maldives would be taking part in the National Tribal Dance Festival in Raipur. About 1,500 tribal artists will take part in the event of which 1,400 will be from India and the remaining 100 from the above countries. The festival will have competitions in two categories and prizes worth ₹20 lakh will be distributed to the winners. Cash prizes of ₹5 lakh, ₹3 lakh and ₹2 lakh will be awarded to the first, second and third positions respectively.

Q. Prior to being carved out as a separate state, Chhattisgarh was a part of:

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 55 Chhattisgarh is a landlocked state in Central India. It is the ninth largest state by area, and with a population of roughly 30 million, the seventeenth most populous. Formerly a part of Madhya Pradesh, it was granted statehood on November 1, 2000 with Raipur as the designated state capital.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 56

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

World Wetlands Day is observed every year to raise global awareness about the importance of wetlands, not only for people but the planet Earth as well.

The UN defines wetlands as ecosystems where water is the primary factor controlling the environment and the associated plant and animal life.

Though they cover only around 6 per cent of the Earth's land surface, 40 per cent of all plant and animal species live or breed in wetlands.

These wetlands, despite being critical for human survival, are disappearing three times faster than forests and are Earth's most threatened ecosystem.

According to the UN, 35 per cent of the world's wetlands have been lost in the last 50 years.

Human activities such as drainage, pollution, overfishing and overexploitation of resources pose a major danger to wetlands.

India has 46 Wetlands of International Importance. These cover 7.7 lakh hectares - or 4.6 per cent of India's geographical area - the highest in South Asia, according to a report of NGO Wetlands International.

Q. Match the following 'Wetlands of International Importance' with their location:

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 56 Correct matching

Thol Lake Wildlife Sanctuary - Gujarat

Asan Barrage - Uttarakhand

Sur Sarovar - Uttar Pradesh

Sultanpur National Park - Haryana

Thol Lake Wildlife Sanctuary: Thol Lake is an artificial lake near Thol village in Kadi in Mehsana District in the Indian state of Gujarat. It was constructed as an irrigation tank in 1912. It is a fresh water lake surrounded by marshes. It was declared the Thol Bird Sanctuary in 1988; it is a habitat to 150 species of birds, out of which, about 60% are waterbirds.

It was designated a Ramsar Wetland on 5 April, 2021.

Sultanpur National Park: Formerly Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary, it is located at Sultanpur village on Gurugram-Jhajjar highway, 15 km from Gurugram, Haryana and 50 km from Delhi in India. This covers approximately 142.52 hectares.

It was designated a Ramsar Wetland on 25 May, 2021.

Asan Barrage: It is a barrage in the Uttarakhand-Himachal Pradesh border region in Doon Valley, (Dehradun district), northern India, situated at the confluence of the Eastern Yamuna Canal and the Asan River and about 11 km (7 mi) from Dakpathar, and 28 km northwest of Dehradun in Uttarakhand. The barrage is 287.5m long and has water throughout the year which is fed from the river Asan and the discharge channel of the river Yamuna.

It was designated a Ramsar Wetland on 21 July, 2020.

Sur Sarovar: Also known as Keetham lake, Sur Sarovar is a scenic lake just outside Agra on the Agra - Delhi highway (NH 2). Keetham Lake is linked by Railway track at Keetham Railway Station and was declared as National Bird Sanctuary on 27 March, 1991 by U.P. Forest Department.

It was designated a Ramsar Wetland on 21 August, 2020.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 57

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

World Wetlands Day is observed every year to raise global awareness about the importance of wetlands, not only for people but the planet Earth as well.

The UN defines wetlands as ecosystems where water is the primary factor controlling the environment and the associated plant and animal life.

Though they cover only around 6 per cent of the Earth's land surface, 40 per cent of all plant and animal species live or breed in wetlands.

These wetlands, despite being critical for human survival, are disappearing three times faster than forests and are Earth's most threatened ecosystem.

According to the UN, 35 per cent of the world's wetlands have been lost in the last 50 years.

Human activities such as drainage, pollution, overfishing and overexploitation of resources pose a major danger to wetlands.

India has 46 Wetlands of International Importance. These cover 7.7 lakh hectares - or 4.6 per cent of India's geographical area - the highest in South Asia, according to a report of NGO Wetlands International.

Q. Which of the following statements is false about the Convention on Wetlands?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 57 The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance; especially as Waterfowl Habitat is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands. It is also known as the Convention on Wetlands. It is named after the Iranian city of Ramsar, on the Caspian Sea, where the treaty was signed on February 2, 1971.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 58

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

World Wetlands Day is observed every year to raise global awareness about the importance of wetlands, not only for people but the planet Earth as well.

The UN defines wetlands as ecosystems where water is the primary factor controlling the environment and the associated plant and animal life.

Though they cover only around 6 per cent of the Earth's land surface, 40 per cent of all plant and animal species live or breed in wetlands.

These wetlands, despite being critical for human survival, are disappearing three times faster than forests and are Earth's most threatened ecosystem.

According to the UN, 35 per cent of the world's wetlands have been lost in the last 50 years.

Human activities such as drainage, pollution, overfishing and overexploitation of resources pose a major danger to wetlands.

India has 46 Wetlands of International Importance. These cover 7.7 lakh hectares - or 4.6 per cent of India's geographical area - the highest in South Asia, according to a report of NGO Wetlands International.

Q. What was the theme for World Wetlands Day 2022?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 58 World Wetlands Day is celebrated annually on 2nd February. The day aims to raise global awareness about the vital role of wetlands for people and planet. This day also marks the date of the adoption of the Convention on Wetlands on February 2, 1971, in the Iranian city of Ramsar.

Each year a theme is selected to focus attention and help raise public awareness about the value of wetlands. The theme for World Wetlands Day 2022 was 'Wetlands Action for People and Nature'.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 59

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

World Wetlands Day is observed every year to raise global awareness about the importance of wetlands, not only for people but the planet Earth as well.

The UN defines wetlands as ecosystems where water is the primary factor controlling the environment and the associated plant and animal life.

Though they cover only around 6 per cent of the Earth's land surface, 40 per cent of all plant and animal species live or breed in wetlands.

These wetlands, despite being critical for human survival, are disappearing three times faster than forests and are Earth's most threatened ecosystem.

According to the UN, 35 per cent of the world's wetlands have been lost in the last 50 years.

Human activities such as drainage, pollution, overfishing and overexploitation of resources pose a major danger to wetlands.

India has 46 Wetlands of International Importance. These cover 7.7 lakh hectares - or 4.6 per cent of India's geographical area - the highest in South Asia, according to a report of NGO Wetlands International.

Q. Which of the following is not a benefit of wetlands?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 59 Wetlands are highly productive and biologically diverse systems that enhance water quality, control erosion, maintain stream flows, sequester carbon, and provide a home to at least one third of all threatened and endangered species.

Water Quality: Wetlands act as natural water purifiers, filtering sediment and absorbing many pollutants in surface waters. In some wetland systems, this cleansing function also enhances the quality of groundwater supplies.

Reduction of Coastal Storm Damage: Coastal wetlands help to blunt the force of major storms. For example, mangrove forests in south Florida and salt marshes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts reduce flooding, coastal erosion, and property damage during major storms.

Wildlife Habitat: Wetlands provide habitat for many species of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals that are uniquely adapted to aquatic environments. Upland wildlife like deer, elk and bears commonly use wetlands for food and shelter. Wetlands are particularly vital to many migratory bird species.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 60

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

World Wetlands Day is observed every year to raise global awareness about the importance of wetlands, not only for people but the planet Earth as well.

The UN defines wetlands as ecosystems where water is the primary factor controlling the environment and the associated plant and animal life.

Though they cover only around 6 per cent of the Earth's land surface, 40 per cent of all plant and animal species live or breed in wetlands.

These wetlands, despite being critical for human survival, are disappearing three times faster than forests and are Earth's most threatened ecosystem.

According to the UN, 35 per cent of the world's wetlands have been lost in the last 50 years.

Human activities such as drainage, pollution, overfishing and overexploitation of resources pose a major danger to wetlands.

India has 46 Wetlands of International Importance. These cover 7.7 lakh hectares - or 4.6 per cent of India's geographical area - the highest in South Asia, according to a report of NGO Wetlands International.

Q. Which of the following statements is false about the World Wetlands Day (WWD)?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 60 World Wetlands Day is celebrated on the second day of February every year, though it was not originally celebrated until 1997. The day aims to raise awareness about the crucial role played by wetlands for people and our planet.

The day February 2nd marks the anniversary of the adoption of the Convention on Wetlands in Ramsar, Iran in 1971.

The World Wetlands Day of the year 2022 was significant as this was the first time when the day was observed as a United Nations international day, following its adoption by the UN General Assembly on August 30, 2021.

The year '2022' marked 51 years of the Convention on Wetlands.

Two new Ramsar sites - Khijadiya wildlife sanctuary in Gujarat and Bakhira wildlife sanctuary in Uttar Pradesh - were announced on the occasion of World Wetlands Day at Sultanpur national park in Gurgaon on February 2, 2022.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 61

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

'Vyommitra', the humanoid designed and developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to fly aboard unmanned test missions ahead of the Gaganyaan human space-flight mission, is undergoing pre-flight ground tests at the ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU). Over the past few months, IISU has successfully integrated it with a computer 'brain' which enables it to 'read' control panels aboard the unmanned test flights and communicate with the ISRO ground stations, IISU director Sam Dayala Dev told. ISRO and IISU were in the news when they unveiled Vyommitra - the 'female' robot astronaut. Vyommitra is a half-humanoid lacking lower limbs. IISU was responsible for the design, development, and integration of the robot, while sister ISRO centre Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) at Thumba developed its fingers. The AI-enabled robot is designed to fly aboard a rocket, withstanding vibrations and shock during the flight, the IISU director said. It has been designed to resemble a human with facial expressions and speech and sight capabilities, he said.

Q. Which of the following statements is incorrect?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 61 The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), also called Mangalyaan was a space probe orbiting Mars since September 24, 2014. It was launched on November 5, 2013 by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It was India's first interplanetary mission and it made ISRO the fourth space agency to achieve Mars orbit, after Roscosmos, NASA, and the European Space Agency. It made India the first Asian nation to reach Martian orbit and the first nation in the world to do so on its maiden attempt.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 62

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

'Vyommitra', the humanoid designed and developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to fly aboard unmanned test missions ahead of the Gaganyaan human space-flight mission, is undergoing pre-flight ground tests at the ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU). Over the past few months, IISU has successfully integrated it with a computer 'brain' which enables it to 'read' control panels aboard the unmanned test flights and communicate with the ISRO ground stations, IISU director Sam Dayala Dev told. ISRO and IISU were in the news when they unveiled Vyommitra - the 'female' robot astronaut. Vyommitra is a half-humanoid lacking lower limbs. IISU was responsible for the design, development, and integration of the robot, while sister ISRO centre Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) at Thumba developed its fingers. The AI-enabled robot is designed to fly aboard a rocket, withstanding vibrations and shock during the flight, the IISU director said. It has been designed to resemble a human with facial expressions and speech and sight capabilities, he said.

Q. Consider the following statements about Gaganyaan mission and mark the correct option.

Statement I: Gaganyaan is ISRO's first human space flight programme.

Statement II: Gaganyaan is being designed to carry seven people to space for a period of seven days.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 62 Gaganyaan is an Indian crewed orbital spacecraft intended to be the formative spacecraft of the Indian Human Spaceflight Programme. The spacecraft is being designed to carry three people to space for a period of five to seven days. Gaganyaan is significant because it is the first indigenous mission that will send Indian astronauts to space. ISRO is developing the spacecraft and Russia is helping in the training of the astronauts. If it succeeds, India will be the fourth country to have sent a human to space, the other three being the US, Russia and China.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 63

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

'Vyommitra', the humanoid designed and developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to fly aboard unmanned test missions ahead of the Gaganyaan human space-flight mission, is undergoing pre-flight ground tests at the ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU). Over the past few months, IISU has successfully integrated it with a computer 'brain' which enables it to 'read' control panels aboard the unmanned test flights and communicate with the ISRO ground stations, IISU director Sam Dayala Dev told. ISRO and IISU were in the news when they unveiled Vyommitra - the 'female' robot astronaut. Vyommitra is a half-humanoid lacking lower limbs. IISU was responsible for the design, development, and integration of the robot, while sister ISRO centre Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) at Thumba developed its fingers. The AI-enabled robot is designed to fly aboard a rocket, withstanding vibrations and shock during the flight, the IISU director said. It has been designed to resemble a human with facial expressions and speech and sight capabilities, he said.

Q. Name India's first 3D humanoid robot that was developed by the A-SET Training and Research Institute in Delhi.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 63 Manav, India's first 3D humanoid robot, was developed by the A-SET Training and Research Institute in Delhi. This two-kilogram, two-foot humanoid is primarily intended for research purposes, and it has an integrated vision and sound processing capability that allows it to walk, talk, and dance only in response to human commands.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 64

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

'Vyommitra', the humanoid designed and developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to fly aboard unmanned test missions ahead of the Gaganyaan human space-flight mission, is undergoing pre-flight ground tests at the ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU). Over the past few months, IISU has successfully integrated it with a computer 'brain' which enables it to 'read' control panels aboard the unmanned test flights and communicate with the ISRO ground stations, IISU director Sam Dayala Dev told. ISRO and IISU were in the news when they unveiled Vyommitra - the 'female' robot astronaut. Vyommitra is a half-humanoid lacking lower limbs. IISU was responsible for the design, development, and integration of the robot, while sister ISRO centre Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) at Thumba developed its fingers. The AI-enabled robot is designed to fly aboard a rocket, withstanding vibrations and shock during the flight, the IISU director said. It has been designed to resemble a human with facial expressions and speech and sight capabilities, he said.

Q. Who is the ISRO Chief as in 2022?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 64 Since 1963, 11 people have been appointed as ISRO Chairpersons. S Somanath was appointed as the tenth ISRO Chief on January 12, 2022 by the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet (ACC). He succeeded K. Sivan who took the charge in January 2018.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 65

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

'Vyommitra', the humanoid designed and developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to fly aboard unmanned test missions ahead of the Gaganyaan human space-flight mission, is undergoing pre-flight ground tests at the ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU). Over the past few months, IISU has successfully integrated it with a computer 'brain' which enables it to 'read' control panels aboard the unmanned test flights and communicate with the ISRO ground stations, IISU director Sam Dayala Dev told. ISRO and IISU were in the news when they unveiled Vyommitra - the 'female' robot astronaut. Vyommitra is a half-humanoid lacking lower limbs. IISU was responsible for the design, development, and integration of the robot, while sister ISRO centre Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) at Thumba developed its fingers. The AI-enabled robot is designed to fly aboard a rocket, withstanding vibrations and shock during the flight, the IISU director said. It has been designed to resemble a human with facial expressions and speech and sight capabilities, he said.

Q. In which year was Vyommitra first unveiled?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 65 Vyommitra is a female-looking spacefaring humanoid robot being developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation to function on-board the Gaganyaan, a crewed orbital spacecraft. Vyommitra was first unveiled on January 22, 2020 at the Human Spaceflight and Exploration symposium in Bengaluru.
Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 66

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

In everyday usage, the word 'negligence' denotes mere carelessness. In legal sense it signifies failure to exercise standard of care which the doer as a reasonable man should have exercised in the circumstances. In general, there is a legal duty to take care when it was reasonably foreseeable that failure to do so was likely to cause injury. Negligence is a mode in which many kinds of harms may be caused by not taking such adequate precautions. One of the essential conditions of liability for negligence is that the defendant owed a legal duty towards the plaintiff. It must also be established that the defendant owed a duty of care towards the plaintiff. And that the plaintiff must prove that the defendant committed a breach of duty to take care or he failed to perform that duty. The damage caused to the plaintiff was the result of the breach of the duty. The harm may fall into following classes physical harm i.e. harm to body, harm to reputation, harm to property, i.e. land and buildings and rights and interests pertaining thereto, and his goods, economic loss and mental harm or nervous shock.

In an action for negligence following defences are available:

1. Contributory Negligence: It was the Common law rule that anyone who by his own negligence contributed to the injury of which he complains cannot maintain an action against another in respect of it. Because he will be considered in law to be an author of his wrong.

2. Act of God or Vis Major: It is such a direct, violent, sudden and irresistible act of nature as could not, by any amount of human foresight have been foreseen or if foreseen, could not by any amount of human care and skill, have been resisted. Such as storm, extraordinary fall of rain, extraordinary high tide, earthquake etc.

3. Inevitable Accident: Inevitable accident also works as a defence of negligence. An inevitable accident is that which could not possibly, be prevented by the exercise of ordinary care, caution and skill. It means accident physically unavoidable.

Q. G and H are neighbours having adjacent houses. Both of them have a pet dog and they can't stand each other. One day the dogs escaped through the gates and started to fight. Hearing loud barking's both G and H came out of their houses to see what was happening. While HH was trying to separate them, he accidentally hit G in his eye who was standing nearby. G sued H.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 66 This is the correct option for the given question.

According to given conditions in question, G and H are neighbours. While H was trying to separate the dogs, he accidentally hit G in his eye who was standing nearby. G sued H. In this case it was not intentional, Hence H cannot be sued. Also injury of G was not an intended act, thus H cannot be held liable.

Therefore, the correct answer is both (a) and (b).

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 67

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

In everyday usage, the word 'negligence' denotes mere carelessness. In legal sense it signifies failure to exercise standard of care which the doer as a reasonable man should have exercised in the circumstances. In general, there is a legal duty to take care when it was reasonably foreseeable that failure to do so was likely to cause injury. Negligence is a mode in which many kinds of harms may be caused by not taking such adequate precautions. One of the essential conditions of liability for negligence is that the defendant owed a legal duty towards the plaintiff. It must also be established that the defendant owed a duty of care towards the plaintiff. And that the plaintiff must prove that the defendant committed a breach of duty to take care or he failed to perform that duty. The damage caused to the plaintiff was the result of the breach of the duty. The harm may fall into following classes physical harm i.e. harm to body, harm to reputation, harm to property, i.e. land and buildings and rights and interests pertaining thereto, and his goods, economic loss and mental harm or nervous shock.

In an action for negligence following defences are available:

1. Contributory Negligence: It was the Common law rule that anyone who by his own negligence contributed to the injury of which he complains cannot maintain an action against another in respect of it. Because he will be considered in law to be an author of his wrong.

2. Act of God or Vis Major: It is such a direct, violent, sudden and irresistible act of nature as could not, by any amount of human foresight have been foreseen or if foreseen, could not by any amount of human care and skill, have been resisted. Such as storm, extraordinary fall of rain, extraordinary high tide, earthquake etc.

3. Inevitable Accident: Inevitable accident also works as a defence of negligence. An inevitable accident is that which could not possibly, be prevented by the exercise of ordinary care, caution and skill. It means accident physically unavoidable.

Q. Alia was a pregnant lady and was walking on the pavement. Suddenly a motor-cyclist after passing past her collided with a lorry at the distance of 15 yards from her and died instantly. Alia could see neither the deceased nor the accident but heard the loud bang noise. When she was passing the place she saw blood left on the road. Consequently, she suffered a nervous shock and gave birth to a still-born child of 8 months. She sued the representatives of the deceased motor-cyclist.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 67 This is the correct option for the given question.

According to conditions given in the question,

First of all, the deceased had no duty of care towards the plaintiff and hence she could not claim damages from him.The damage and the negligent act was unrelated and distant so she could not claim damage and also she as a sensitive lady suffered the damage which would not have happened normally. The plaintiff must prove that the defendant committed a breach of duty to take care or he failed to perform that duty. The damage caused to the plaintiff was the result of the breach of the duty. The harm may fall into following classes physical harm i.e. harm to body, harm to reputation, harm to property, i.e. land and buildings and rights and interests pertaining thereto, and his goods, economic loss and mental harm or nervous shock.

Therefore, the correct answer is All of the above.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 68

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

In everyday usage, the word 'negligence' denotes mere carelessness. In legal sense it signifies failure to exercise standard of care which the doer as a reasonable man should have exercised in the circumstances. In general, there is a legal duty to take care when it was reasonably foreseeable that failure to do so was likely to cause injury. Negligence is a mode in which many kinds of harms may be caused by not taking such adequate precautions. One of the essential conditions of liability for negligence is that the defendant owed a legal duty towards the plaintiff. It must also be established that the defendant owed a duty of care towards the plaintiff. And that the plaintiff must prove that the defendant committed a breach of duty to take care or he failed to perform that duty. The damage caused to the plaintiff was the result of the breach of the duty. The harm may fall into following classes physical harm i.e. harm to body, harm to reputation, harm to property, i.e. land and buildings and rights and interests pertaining thereto, and his goods, economic loss and mental harm or nervous shock.

In an action for negligence following defences are available:

1. Contributory Negligence: It was the Common law rule that anyone who by his own negligence contributed to the injury of which he complains cannot maintain an action against another in respect of it. Because he will be considered in law to be an author of his wrong.

2. Act of God or Vis Major: It is such a direct, violent, sudden and irresistible act of nature as could not, by any amount of human foresight have been foreseen or if foreseen, could not by any amount of human care and skill, have been resisted. Such as storm, extraordinary fall of rain, extraordinary high tide, earthquake etc.

3. Inevitable Accident: Inevitable accident also works as a defence of negligence. An inevitable accident is that which could not possibly, be prevented by the exercise of ordinary care, caution and skill. It means accident physically unavoidable.

Q. Alan was driving in the highway after drinking. Octavia was driving with the headlights turned off. They collided resulting in an injury on Octavia's head. Alan could avoid the collision, but because he was highly intoxicated, he was unable to do so. Octavia sued Alan for negligence. Will she succeed?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 68 This is the correct option for the given question.

Alan was driving in the highway after drinking. Octavia was driving with the headlights turned off. Both have neglected the rules and regulations of driving. They collided resulting in an injury on Octavia's head. Alan could avoid the collision, but because he was highly intoxicated, he was unable to do so. Octavia sued Alan for negligence. In the condition given in the question nobody can sue each other as it is a case of contributory negligence.

Therefore, the correct answer is No, because both of them contributed to the negligent act.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 69

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

In everyday usage, the word 'negligence' denotes mere carelessness. In legal sense it signifies failure to exercise standard of care which the doer as a reasonable man should have exercised in the circumstances. In general, there is a legal duty to take care when it was reasonably foreseeable that failure to do so was likely to cause injury. Negligence is a mode in which many kinds of harms may be caused by not taking such adequate precautions. One of the essential conditions of liability for negligence is that the defendant owed a legal duty towards the plaintiff. It must also be established that the defendant owed a duty of care towards the plaintiff. And that the plaintiff must prove that the defendant committed a breach of duty to take care or he failed to perform that duty. The damage caused to the plaintiff was the result of the breach of the duty. The harm may fall into following classes physical harm i.e. harm to body, harm to reputation, harm to property, i.e. land and buildings and rights and interests pertaining thereto, and his goods, economic loss and mental harm or nervous shock.

In an action for negligence following defences are available:

1. Contributory Negligence: It was the Common law rule that anyone who by his own negligence contributed to the injury of which he complains cannot maintain an action against another in respect of it. Because he will be considered in law to be an author of his wrong.

2. Act of God or Vis Major: It is such a direct, violent, sudden and irresistible act of nature as could not, by any amount of human foresight have been foreseen or if foreseen, could not by any amount of human care and skill, have been resisted. Such as storm, extraordinary fall of rain, extraordinary high tide, earthquake etc.

3. Inevitable Accident: Inevitable accident also works as a defence of negligence. An inevitable accident is that which could not possibly, be prevented by the exercise of ordinary care, caution and skill. It means accident physically unavoidable.

Q. J had a series of artificial reservoirs on his land which was constructed following accepted procedures and infrastructures and is maintained properly. In the lakes J used to carry on pisciculture and earned huge profit from it.Owing to an exceptional heavy rains, some of the reservoirs bursted and huge amount of water overflowed to nearby housings.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 69 This is the correct option for the given question.

In the condition given in the question all the precautions are taken. So, according to Act Of God Or Vis Major: It is such a direct, violent, sudden and irresistible act of nature as could not, by any amount of human foresight have been foreseen or if foreseen, could not by any amount of human care and skill, have been resisted such as storm, extraordinary fall of rain, extraordinary high tide, earthquake etc.

Therefore, the correct answer is - J was not liable as he followed all precautions to avoid accident.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 70

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

In everyday usage, the word 'negligence' denotes mere carelessness. In legal sense it signifies failure to exercise standard of care which the doer as a reasonable man should have exercised in the circumstances. In general, there is a legal duty to take care when it was reasonably foreseeable that failure to do so was likely to cause injury. Negligence is a mode in which many kinds of harms may be caused by not taking such adequate precautions. One of the essential conditions of liability for negligence is that the defendant owed a legal duty towards the plaintiff. It must also be established that the defendant owed a duty of care towards the plaintiff. And that the plaintiff must prove that the defendant committed a breach of duty to take care or he failed to perform that duty. The damage caused to the plaintiff was the result of the breach of the duty. The harm may fall into following classes physical harm i.e. harm to body, harm to reputation, harm to property, i.e. land and buildings and rights and interests pertaining thereto, and his goods, economic loss and mental harm or nervous shock.

In an action for negligence following defences are available:

1. Contributory Negligence: It was the Common law rule that anyone who by his own negligence contributed to the injury of which he complains cannot maintain an action against another in respect of it. Because he will be considered in law to be an author of his wrong.

2. Act of God or Vis Major: It is such a direct, violent, sudden and irresistible act of nature as could not, by any amount of human foresight have been foreseen or if foreseen, could not by any amount of human care and skill, have been resisted. Such as storm, extraordinary fall of rain, extraordinary high tide, earthquake etc.

3. Inevitable Accident: Inevitable accident also works as a defence of negligence. An inevitable accident is that which could not possibly, be prevented by the exercise of ordinary care, caution and skill. It means accident physically unavoidable.

Q. Act of God or Vis major is considered to be :

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 70 This is the correct option for the given question.

Act Of God Or Vis Major: It is such a direct, violent, sudden and irresistible act of nature as could not, by any amount of human foresight have been foreseen or if foreseen, could not by any amount of human care and skill, have been resisted. Such as storm, extraordinary fall of rain, extraordinary high tide, earthquake etc.

This is not predictable.

Therefore, the correct answer is Unforseeable phenomenon

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 71

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Vicarious liability deals with situations in which an individual has committed a tortious act whilst acting on behalf of another. The primary situation in which the concept will arise is one in which someone is acting on behalf of an employer. An explanation for this phenomenon can be seen in Dubai Aluminium Co Ltd v Salaam [2002] 3 WLR 1913 per Lord Nicholls:

"The underlying legal policy is based on the recognition that carrying on a business enterprise necessarily involves risk to others. It involves the risk that others will be harmed by wrongful acts committed by the agents through whom the business is carried on. When those risks ripen into loss, it is just that the business should be responsible for compensating the person who has been wronged."

Vicarious liability is a way in which any of the other torts can be attributed to a particular defendant, even if that defendant was not directly involved in the tort.

Establishing vicarious liability requires three primary criteria to be met. There must be a relationship of control, a tortious act, and that act must be in the course of employment. The courts will first look for a sufficiently close relationship between tortfeasor and third party before it allows vicarious liability to be imparted. The most commonly encountered relationship is employer-employee and a number of tests to distinguish between employees and contractors-

The first is the 'control test' involving who, exactly, is in control of the individual's work. The 'organisation' or 'integration test' distinguishes between people who sign 'contracts of service' and those who 'contract to provide services'. The 'economic reality test' is sometimes referred to as the 'multiple test' or the 'pragmatic test'. It involves examining the characteristics of the subject's work arrangements against a checklist of signs of conventional employment.

Once a sufficiently close relationship has been established, it must be shown that the individual has committed a tortious act. This is because no secondary liability can be imposed on a third party before someone acting on their behalf has attracted primary liability. This means that whether vicarious liability is possible depends on whether liability exists for the relevant tort.

An employer is not responsible for all of the acts one of their employees carries out. Instead, for vicarious liability to be possible, the tortious act must occur in the course of employment. If the relevant relationship is not employer employee, then the same principle applies but in a modified form. There are several categories of employment scenarios which can arise with regard to this element of vicarious liability.

Q. How do courts determine whether a person is an employee?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 71 This is the most appropriate answer to the question.

It mentions the courts will take into account all the facts of the case in order to determine whether or not a person is an employee.

The rest of the options stand invalid.

Hence, this is the correct option,.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 72

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Vicarious liability deals with situations in which an individual has committed a tortious act whilst acting on behalf of another. The primary situation in which the concept will arise is one in which someone is acting on behalf of an employer. An explanation for this phenomenon can be seen in Dubai Aluminium Co Ltd v Salaam [2002] 3 WLR 1913 per Lord Nicholls:

"The underlying legal policy is based on the recognition that carrying on a business enterprise necessarily involves risk to others. It involves the risk that others will be harmed by wrongful acts committed by the agents through whom the business is carried on. When those risks ripen into loss, it is just that the business should be responsible for compensating the person who has been wronged."

Vicarious liability is a way in which any of the other torts can be attributed to a particular defendant, even if that defendant was not directly involved in the tort.

Establishing vicarious liability requires three primary criteria to be met. There must be a relationship of control, a tortious act, and that act must be in the course of employment. The courts will first look for a sufficiently close relationship between tortfeasor and third party before it allows vicarious liability to be imparted. The most commonly encountered relationship is employer-employee and a number of tests to distinguish between employees and contractors-

The first is the 'control test' involving who, exactly, is in control of the individual's work. The 'organisation' or 'integration test' distinguishes between people who sign 'contracts of service' and those who 'contract to provide services'. The 'economic reality test' is sometimes referred to as the 'multiple test' or the 'pragmatic test'. It involves examining the characteristics of the subject's work arrangements against a checklist of signs of conventional employment.

Once a sufficiently close relationship has been established, it must be shown that the individual has committed a tortious act. This is because no secondary liability can be imposed on a third party before someone acting on their behalf has attracted primary liability. This means that whether vicarious liability is possible depends on whether liability exists for the relevant tort.

An employer is not responsible for all of the acts one of their employees carries out. Instead, for vicarious liability to be possible, the tortious act must occur in the course of employment. If the relevant relationship is not employer employee, then the same principle applies but in a modified form. There are several categories of employment scenarios which can arise with regard to this element of vicarious liability.

Q. A, an employee of GHC Company worked for a garage, which had petrol pumps outside and had a duty to assist in the movement of vehicles around the garage and also the drivers as they undertook tricky man oeuvres and while doing it negligently backed over B in a lorry. B sued the employer of A.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 72 The most appropriate answer is the option 'fourth'.

A had not been acting with reasonable care and skill, and thus had breached an implied term of their contract. A was engaged in the duty of employer- moving vehicles around to ensure the smooth running of the garage. So employer must be held liable.

Hence, this is the correct option.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 73

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Vicarious liability deals with situations in which an individual has committed a tortious act whilst acting on behalf of another. The primary situation in which the concept will arise is one in which someone is acting on behalf of an employer. An explanation for this phenomenon can be seen in Dubai Aluminium Co Ltd v Salaam [2002] 3 WLR 1913 per Lord Nicholls:

"The underlying legal policy is based on the recognition that carrying on a business enterprise necessarily involves risk to others. It involves the risk that others will be harmed by wrongful acts committed by the agents through whom the business is carried on. When those risks ripen into loss, it is just that the business should be responsible for compensating the person who has been wronged."

Vicarious liability is a way in which any of the other torts can be attributed to a particular defendant, even if that defendant was not directly involved in the tort.

Establishing vicarious liability requires three primary criteria to be met. There must be a relationship of control, a tortious act, and that act must be in the course of employment. The courts will first look for a sufficiently close relationship between tortfeasor and third party before it allows vicarious liability to be imparted.The most commonly encountered relationship is employer-employee and a number of tests to distinguish between employees and contractors-

The first is the 'control test' involving who, exactly, is in control of the individual's work. The 'organisation' or 'integration test' distinguishes between people who sign 'contracts of service' and those who 'contract to provide services'. The 'economic reality test' is sometimes referred to as the 'multiple test' or the 'pragmatic test'. It involves examining the characteristics of the subject's work arrangements against a checklist of signs of conventional employment.

Once a sufficiently close relationship has been established, it must be shown that the individual has committed a tortious act. This is because no secondary liability can be imposed on a third party before someone acting on their behalf has attracted primary liability. This means that whether vicarious liability is possible depends on whether liability exists for the relevant tort.

An employer is not responsible for all of the acts one of their employees carries out. Instead, for vicarious liability to be possible, the tortious act must occur in the course of employment. If the relevant relationship is not employer employee, then the same principle applies but in a modified form. There are several categories of employment scenarios which can arise with regard to this element of vicarious liability.

Q. Dick, a wine merchant, sent his carriage driver, George to deliver some wine. After he had finished the deliveries, George went to visit his brother-in law. During this journey he knocked down X and injured him. X sues Dick in court

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 73 This is the most appropriate answer to the given question.

Dick is not liable as George was engaged in a new and unauthorized journey. Dick is not liable because he had no knowledge about Georges's whereabouts after the delivery of wine also he did not give George directions for the journey.

Hence, this is the correct option.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 74

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Vicarious liability deals with situations in which an individual has committed a tortious act whilst acting on behalf of another. The primary situation in which the concept will arise is one in which someone is acting on behalf of an employer. An explanation for this phenomenon can be seen in Dubai Aluminium Co Ltd v Salaam [2002] 3 WLR 1913 per Lord Nicholls:

"The underlying legal policy is based on the recognition that carrying on a business enterprise necessarily involves risk to others. It involves the risk that others will be harmed by wrongful acts committed by the agents through whom the business is carried on. When those risks ripen into loss, it is just that the business should be responsible for compensating the person who has been wronged."

Vicarious liability is a way in which any of the other torts can be attributed to a particular defendant, even if that defendant was not directly involved in the tort.

Establishing vicarious liability requires three primary criteria to be met. There must be a relationship of control, a tortious act, and that act must be in the course of employment. The courts will first look for a sufficiently close relationship between tortfeasor and third party before it allows vicarious liability to be imparted.The most commonly encountered relationship is employer-employee and a number of tests to distinguish between employees and contractors-

The first is the 'control test' involving who, exactly, is in control of the individual's work. The 'organisation' or 'integration test' distinguishes between people who sign 'contracts of service' and those who 'contract to provide services'. The 'economic reality test' is sometimes referred to as the 'multiple test' or the 'pragmatic test'. It involves examining the characteristics of the subject's work arrangements against a checklist of signs of conventional employment.

Once a sufficiently close relationship has been established, it must be shown that the individual has committed a tortious act. This is because no secondary liability can be imposed on a third party before someone acting on their behalf has attracted primary liability. This means that whether vicarious liability is possible depends on whether liability exists for the relevant tort.

An employer is not responsible for all of the acts one of their employees carries out. Instead, for vicarious liability to be possible, the tortious act must occur in the course of employment. If the relevant relationship is not employer employee, then the same principle applies but in a modified form. There are several categories of employment scenarios which can arise with regard to this element of vicarious liability.

Q. Andrew was asked by Collin, his employer to deliver a truck full of logs to Hanskinton. Collin gave direction to take road X which is the long cut. In order to finish work early Andrew took the road Z which was shortcut but bumpy. While driving, one of the logs slipped the rope tying and hurt Zingo who was riding just behind Andrew's truck. Is Colin liable?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 74 This is the most appropriate answer to the given question.

It states that Collin is liable vicariously for the loss since the accident happened in the due course of employment. Employer Andrew has no role here to play and he is innocent in the whole act.

Hence, this is the correct option.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 75

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Vicarious liability deals with situations in which an individual has committed a tortious act whilst acting on behalf of another. The primary situation in which the concept will arise is one in which someone is acting on behalf of an employer. An explanation for this phenomenon can be seen in Dubai Aluminium Co Ltd v Salaam [2002] 3 WLR 1913 per Lord Nicholls:

"The underlying legal policy is based on the recognition that carrying on a business enterprise necessarily involves risk to others. It involves the risk that others will be harmed by wrongful acts committed by the agents through whom the business is carried on. When those risks ripen into loss, it is just that the business should be responsible for compensating the person who has been wronged."

Vicarious liability is a way in which any of the other torts can be attributed to a particular defendant, even if that defendant was not directly involved in the tort.

Establishing vicarious liability requires three primary criteria to be met. There must be a relationship of control, a tortious act, and that act must be in the course of employment. The courts will first look for a sufficiently close relationship between tortfeasor and third party before it allows vicarious liability to be imparted.The most commonly encountered relationship is employer-employee and a number of tests to distinguish between employees and contractors-

The first is the 'control test' involving who, exactly, is in control of the individual's work. The 'organisation' or 'integration test' distinguishes between people who sign 'contracts of service' and those who 'contract to provide services'. The 'economic reality test' is sometimes referred to as the 'multiple test' or the 'pragmatic test'. It involves examining the characteristics of the subject's work arrangements against a checklist of signs of conventional employment.

Once a sufficiently close relationship has been established, it must be shown that the individual has committed a tortious act. This is because no secondary liability can be imposed on a third party before someone acting on their behalf has attracted primary liability. This means that whether vicarious liability is possible depends on whether liability exists for the relevant tort.

An employer is not responsible for all of the acts one of their employees carries out. Instead, for vicarious liability to be possible, the tortious act must occur in the course of employment. If the relevant relationship is not employer employee, then the same principle applies but in a modified form. There are several categories of employment scenarios which can arise with regard to this element of vicarious liability.

Q. What are criteria's, which must be met before employee status, can be granted to a person?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 75 The most appropriate answer is the option 'fourth'.

The mentioned criteria's have to be filled up before employee status is granted to a person. The individual must work for an employer in return for the remuneration, Employee must follow the instructions of the employer and the circumstances must be congenial for the employee.

Hence, this is the correct option.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 76

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Both Houses of Parliament have passed a Bill making instant triple talaq a criminal offence, amidst persistent doubts whether it ought to be treated as a crime or just a civil case. It is true that the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill, 2019, is a diluted version of the Bill as it was originally conceived. Earlier, it did not specify who, could set the law in motion. Now the offence is cognizable only if the affected wife, or one related to her by blood or marriage, files a police complaint. A man arrested under this law may get bail, after the Magistrate grants a hearing to the wife. Thirdly, the offence is compoundable, that is, the parties may arrive at a compromise. The government says its main objective is to give effect to the Supreme Court's 2017 verdict declaring instant triple talaq illegal. It claims that despite the court ruling, several instances have been reported. Making it an offence, the government says, will deter further resort to triple talaq, and provide redress for women in the form of a subsistence allowance and custody of children, besides getting the erring husband arrested. However, the core question regarding the necessity to criminalise the practice of talaq-e-biddat has not been convincingly answered.

In the light of the Supreme Court ruling on its validity, there is really no need to declare instant triple talaq a) criminal offence. The practice has no approval in Islamic tenets, and is indeed considered abhorrent. Secondly, once it has been declared illegal, pronouncing talaq obviously does not have the effect of "instantaneous and irrevocable divorce" as this Bill claims in its definition of 'talaq'. The provisions that allow a woman to claim a subsistence allowance from the man and seek custody of her children can be implemented in the event of the husband abandoning her, even without the man's arrest. If triple talaq, in any form, is void, how the questions of children's custody and subsistence allowance arise while the marriage subsists, is not clear. And then, there is the practical question of how a man can provide a subsistence allowance while he is imprisoned. It has been argued by the Bill's proponents that dowry harassment and cruelty towards wives are treated as criminal offences even while the marriage subsists. It is a patently wrong comparison, as those acts involve violence and cruelty and are rightly treated as criminal offences. The same cannot be said of a man invoking a prohibited form of divorce. The BJP projects the passage of the Bill as a historic milestone in the quest for gender justice. Such a claim will be valid only if there is a non-sectarian law that addresses abandonment and desertion of spouses as a common problem instead of focusing on a practice, which is no more legally valid, among Muslims.

Q. What do you understand by the term 'Compoundable Offences'?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 76 In certain offences, the parties involved can effect a compromise while the case is under trial in the court. This is called 'compounding', further action in trial is discontinued. Cases in which this is permissible are called compoundable offences.

The talaq offence is a compoundable one, which means the complainant-wife has powers under the law to drop her charges and let the husband go on her terms.

Therefore, the correct answer is Offences which can be compromised by the parties themselves

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 77

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Both Houses of Parliament have passed a Bill making instant triple talaq a criminal offence, amidst persistent doubts whether it ought to be treated as a crime or just a civil case. It is true that the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill, 2019, is a diluted version of the Bill as it was originally conceived. Earlier, it did not specify who, could set the law in motion. Now the offence is cognizable only if the affected wife, or one related to her by blood or marriage, files a police complaint. A man arrested under this law may get bail, after the Magistrate grants a hearing to the wife. Thirdly, the offence is compoundable, that is, the parties may arrive at a compromise. The government says its main objective is to give effect to the Supreme Court's 2017 verdict declaring instant triple talaq illegal. It claims that despite the court ruling, several instances have been reported. Making it an offence, the government says, will deter further resort to triple talaq, and provide redress for women in the form of a subsistence allowance and custody of children, besides getting the erring husband arrested. However, the core question regarding the necessity to criminalise the practice of talaq-e-biddat has not been convincingly answered.

In the light of the Supreme Court ruling on its validity, there is really no need to declare instant triple talaq a) criminal offence. The practice has no approval in Islamic tenets, and is indeed considered abhorrent. Secondly, once it has been declared illegal, pronouncing talaq obviously does not have the effect of "instantaneous and irrevocable divorce" as this Bill claims in its definition of 'talaq'. The provisions that allow a woman to claim a subsistence allowance from the man and seek custody of her children can be implemented in the event of the husband abandoning her, even without the man's arrest. If triple talaq, in any form, is void, how the questions of children's custody and subsistence allowance arise while the marriage subsists, is not clear. And then, there is the practical question of how a man can provide a subsistence allowance while he is imprisoned. It has been argued by the Bill's proponents that dowry harassment and cruelty towards wives are treated as criminal offences even while the marriage subsists. It is a patently wrong comparison, as those acts involve violence and cruelty and are rightly treated as criminal offences. The same cannot be said of a man invoking a prohibited form of divorce. The BJP projects the passage of the Bill as a historic milestone in the quest for gender justice. Such a claim will be valid only if there is a non-sectarian law that addresses abandonment and desertion of spouses as a common problem instead of focusing on a practice, which is no more legally valid, among Muslims.

Q. Which of the following statements is not true in the light of the above passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 77 This is the correct option for the given question.

According to passage and question,

In the light of the Supreme Court ruling on its validity, there is really no need to declare instant triple talaq a criminal offence. The practice has no approval in Islamic tenets, and is indeed considered abhorrent. Thus, from above statements Talaq-e-biddat should not be criminalized is true.

The government says its main objective is to give effect to the Supreme Court's 2017 verdict declaring instant triple talaq illegal. It claims that despite the court ruling, several instances have been reported. Making it an offence, the government says, will deter further resort to triple talaq, and provide redress for women in the form of a subsistence allowance and custody of children, besides getting the erring husband arrested.

Thus, in context of above passage, the bill provides for gender justice and triple talaq, in any form, is void.

Therefore, the correct answer is Talaq-e-biddat has been approved in Islamic tenets.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 78

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Both Houses of Parliament have passed a Bill making instant triple talaq a criminal offence, amidst persistent doubts whether it ought to be treated as a crime or just a civil case. It is true that the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill, 2019, is a diluted version of the Bill as it was originally conceived. Earlier, it did not specify who, could set the law in motion. Now the offence is cognizable only if the affected wife, or one related to her by blood or marriage, files a police complaint. A man arrested under this law may get bail, after the Magistrate grants a hearing to the wife. Thirdly, the offence is compoundable, that is, the parties may arrive at a compromise. The government says its main objective is to give effect to the Supreme Court's 2017 verdict declaring instant triple talaq illegal. It claims that despite the court ruling, several instances have been reported. Making it an offence, the government says, will deter further resort to triple talaq, and provide redress for women in the form of a subsistence allowance and custody of children, besides getting the erring husband arrested. However, the core question regarding the necessity to criminalise the practice of talaq-e-biddat has not been convincingly answered.

In the light of the Supreme Court ruling on its validity, there is really no need to declare instant triple talaq a) criminal offence. The practice has no approval in Islamic tenets, and is indeed considered abhorrent. Secondly, once it has been declared illegal, pronouncing talaq obviously does not have the effect of "instantaneous and irrevocable divorce" as this Bill claims in its definition of 'talaq'. The provisions that allow a woman to claim a subsistence allowance from the man and seek custody of her children can be implemented in the event of the husband abandoning her, even without the man's arrest. If triple talaq, in any form, is void, how the questions of children's custody and subsistence allowance arise while the marriage subsists, is not clear. And then, there is the practical question of how a man can provide a subsistence allowance while he is imprisoned. It has been argued by the Bill's proponents that dowry harassment and cruelty towards wives are treated as criminal offences even while the marriage subsists. It is a patently wrong comparison, as those acts involve violence and cruelty and are rightly treated as criminal offences. The same cannot be said of a man invoking a prohibited form of divorce. The BJP projects the passage of the Bill as a historic milestone in the quest for gender justice. Such a claim will be valid only if there is a non-sectarian law that addresses abandonment and desertion of spouses as a common problem instead of focusing on a practice, which is no more legally valid, among Muslims.

Q. Suppose, in the mentioned case, complaint is filed by Salma herself. Then what would be the answer?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 78 This is the correct option for the given question.

Earlier, it did not specify who, could set the law in motion. Now the offence is cognizable only if the affected wife, or one related to her by blood or marriage, files a police complaint. Now, the person could be arrested immediately if complaint is filed by wife.

Therefore, the correct answer is Yes, Salim can be arrested immediately

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 79

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Both Houses of Parliament have passed a Bill making instant triple talaq a criminal offence, amidst persistent doubts whether it ought to be treated as a crime or just a civil case. It is true that the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill, 2019, is a diluted version of the Bill as it was originally conceived. Earlier, it did not specify who, could set the law in motion. Now the offence is cognizable only if the affected wife, or one related to her by blood or marriage, files a police complaint. A man arrested under this law may get bail, after the Magistrate grants a hearing to the wife. Thirdly, the offence is compoundable, that is, the parties may arrive at a compromise. The government says its main objective is to give effect to the Supreme Court's 2017 verdict declaring instant triple talaq illegal. It claims that despite the court ruling, several instances have been reported. Making it an offence, the government says, will deter further resort to triple talaq, and provide redress for women in the form of a subsistence allowance and custody of children, besides getting the erring husband arrested. However, the core question regarding the necessity to criminalise the practice of talaq-e-biddat has not been convincingly answered.

In the light of the Supreme Court ruling on its validity, there is really no need to declare instant triple talaq a) criminal offence. The practice has no approval in Islamic tenets, and is indeed considered abhorrent. Secondly, once it has been declared illegal, pronouncing talaq obviously does not have the effect of "instantaneous and irrevocable divorce" as this Bill claims in its definition of 'talaq'. The provisions that allow a woman to claim a subsistence allowance from the man and seek custody of her children can be implemented in the event of the husband abandoning her, even without the man's arrest. If triple talaq, in any form, is void, how the questions of children's custody and subsistence allowance arise while the marriage subsists, is not clear. And then, there is the practical question of how a man can provide a subsistence allowance while he is imprisoned. It has been argued by the Bill's proponents that dowry harassment and cruelty towards wives are treated as criminal offences even while the marriage subsists. It is a patently wrong comparison, as those acts involve violence and cruelty and are rightly treated as criminal offences. The same cannot be said of a man invoking a prohibited form of divorce. The BJP projects the passage of the Bill as a historic milestone in the quest for gender justice. Such a claim will be valid only if there is a non-sectarian law that addresses abandonment and desertion of spouses as a common problem instead of focusing on a practice, which is no more legally valid, among Muslims.

Q. One woman Salma, is wife of Salim. Salim pronounced instant Triple Talaq on Salma. One NGO, Nari Shakti organisation filed a police complaint against Salim and demanded his instant arrest since the offence is cognizable offence i.e.,arrest can be made without a judicial warrant. Can police arrest Salim instantly?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 79 This is the correct option for the given question.

According to passage and question, Couple is muslim, and according to muslim law the Talaq can be done instantly. The offence is cognizable only if the affected wife, or one related to her by blood or marriage, files a police complaint. A man arrested under this law may get bail, after the Magistrate grants a hearing to the wife.

Therefore, The correct answer is He can be arrested after obtaining a judicial warrant

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 80

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Both Houses of Parliament have passed a Bill making instant triple talaq a criminal offence, amidst persistent doubts whether it ought to be treated as a crime or just a civil case. It is true that the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill, 2019, is a diluted version of the Bill as it was originally conceived. Earlier, it did not specify who, could set the law in motion. Now the offence is cognizable only if the affected wife, or one related to her by blood or marriage, files a police complaint. A man arrested under this law may get bail, after the Magistrate grants a hearing to the wife. Thirdly, the offence is compoundable, that is, the parties may arrive at a compromise. The government says its main objective is to give effect to the Supreme Court's 2017 verdict declaring instant triple talaq illegal. It claims that despite the court ruling, several instances have been reported. Making it an offence, the government says, will deter further resort to triple talaq, and provide redress for women in the form of a subsistence allowance and custody of children, besides getting the erring husband arrested. However, the core question regarding the necessity to criminalise the practice of talaq-e-biddat has not been convincingly answered.

In the light of the Supreme Court ruling on its validity, there is really no need to declare instant triple talaq a) criminal offence. The practice has no approval in Islamic tenets, and is indeed considered abhorrent. Secondly, once it has been declared illegal, pronouncing talaq obviously does not have the effect of "instantaneous and irrevocable divorce" as this Bill claims in its definition of 'talaq'. The provisions that allow a woman to claim a subsistence allowance from the man and seek custody of her children can be implemented in the event of the husband abandoning her, even without the man's arrest. If triple talaq, in any form, is void, how the questions of children's custody and subsistence allowance arise while the marriage subsists, is not clear. And then, there is the practical question of how a man can provide a subsistence allowance while he is imprisoned. It has been argued by the Bill's proponents that dowry harassment and cruelty towards wives are treated as criminal offences even while the marriage subsists. It is a patently wrong comparison, as those acts involve violence and cruelty and are rightly treated as criminal offences. The same cannot be said of a man invoking a prohibited form of divorce. The BJP projects the passage of the Bill as a historic milestone in the quest for gender justice. Such a claim will be valid only if there is a non-sectarian law that addresses abandonment and desertion of spouses as a common problem instead of focusing on a practice, which is no more legally valid, among Muslims.

Q. What is author trying to emphasize in the above passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 80 This is the correct option for the given question.

According to passage, The Supreme Court ruling on its validity, there is really no need to declare instant triple talaq a criminal offence but the practice has no approval in Islamic tenets, and is indeed considered abhorrent. Also, once it has been declared illegal, pronouncing talaq obviously does not have the effect of "instantaneous and irrevocable divorce" as this Bill claims in its definition of 'talaq'. The provisions that allow a woman to claim a subsistence allowance from the man and seek custody of her children can be implemented in the event of the husband abandoning her, even without the man's arrest. If triple talaq, in any form, is void, how the questions of children's custody and subsistence allowance arise while the marriage subsists, is not clear.

Therefore, the correct answer is Triple Talaq ought not to be criminalized.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 81

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Trespass can be defined as an unjustifiable physical interference of land in possession of one party by another. Under English common law where these principles of torts emanate, trespass does not form a criminal act but in the Indian Penal Code it has been given recognition i.e. under section 441 But it defines trespass as unjustifiable physical interference with the possession of property of the claimant with requisite intention of doing so. The Intention part is present due to it being under a criminal code where in 'mens rea' is a part.

Under English Common Law the maxim that is used for trespass is 'trespass quare clausam fregit' which means "because he (the defendant) broke or entered into the close". The tort of trespass requires essentially only the possession of land by the plaintiff and encroachment by some way by the defendant. There requires no force, unlawful intention or damage nor the breaking of an enclosure. One of the most important ingredients of a tort of trespass is the fact that the land in question which has been encroached upon essentially needs to be in the direct possession of the plaintiff and not just mere physical presence on it. Another essential provision of the tort of trespass includes in the directness of the act. If the act is direct i.e. arising out of the natural consequences of the act of the defendant then it is valid. But trespass is encroachment upon property whereas nuisance is interference upon another's right to enjoy his property.

Also if a person enters upon another's land and stays on it, the act is connoted as continuing trespass. Furthermore, the owner of a land is entitled to the airspace above him but he is aerial trespass has a very important ingredient which is that the object that enters his land aerially should be at such height that it violates his right to enjoy his property and moreover violate his right of ordinary use of his land.

The subject matter for an action is a notable point. Merely walking on a land possessed by the plaintiff forms a tort as it involves encroaching upon the legal right to own property. The general principle of subject matter was prescribed in the many cases. It was held that anything associated with the soil and which is capable of being possessed individually forms the subject matter in the tort. Therefore if there is any damage incurred upon any object which is associated with the land of the plaintiff an action in trespass may be instituted.

Q. The Greater Mumbai Municipal Corporation is constructing a road and to support such infrastructure had erected buttresses on the land of Timir Sharma and had not removed them. Timir filed a suit against the authorities in the court after 6 months of the completion of the construction work.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 81 According to passage and question, The authorities were liable to pay full compensation and had a further action in continuing trespass in which they were held liable. The act of continuing trespass remains until such object or act is removed or stopped respectively.

Greater Mumbai Municipal Corporation is constructing a road and to support such infrastructure had erected buttresses on the land of Timir Sharma and had not removed them. So, the authorities were liable to pay.

Therefore, the correct answer is the authorities were liable to pay compensation for continuing trespass until such objects were removed.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 82

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Trespass can be defined as an unjustifiable physical interference of land in possession of one party by another. Under English common law where these principles of torts emanate, trespass does not form a criminal act but in the Indian Penal Code it has been given recognition i.e. under section 441 But it defines trespass as unjustifiable physical interference with the possession of property of the claimant with requisite intention of doing so. The Intention part is present due to it being under a criminal code where in 'mens rea' is a part.

Under English Common Law the maxim that is used for trespass is 'trespass quare clausam fregit' which means "because he (the defendant) broke or entered into the close". The tort of trespass requires essentially only the possession of land by the plaintiff and encroachment by some way by the defendant. There requires no force, unlawful intention or damage nor the breaking of an enclosure. One of the most important ingredients of a tort of trespass is the fact that the land in question which has been encroached upon essentially needs to be in the direct possession of the plaintiff and not just mere physical presence on it. Another essential provision of the tort of trespass includes in the directness of the act. If the act is direct i.e. arising out of the natural consequences of the act of the defendant then it is valid. But trespass is encroachment upon property whereas nuisance is interference upon another's right to enjoy his property.

Also if a person enters upon another's land and stays on it, the act is connoted as continuing trespass. Furthermore the owner of a land is entitled to the airspace above him but he is aerial trespass has a very important ingredient which is that the object that enters his land aerially should be at such height that it violates his right to enjoy his property and moreover violate his right of ordinary use of his land.

The subject matter for an action is a notable point. Merely walking on a land possessed by the plaintiff forms a tort as it involves encroaching upon the legal right to own property. The general principle of subject matter was prescribed in the many cases. It was held that anything associated with the soil and which is capable of being possessed individually forms the subject matter in the tort. Therefore if there is any damage incurred upon any object which is associated with the land of the plaintiff an action in trespass may be instituted.

Q. P has a pet dog Zambo. It has a tendency to go to Q's land which is adjacent to P′sP's. Despite knowing this P never chained Zambo and it always was let free. One day Zambo entered into the land of Q and attacked his pet kitten which died eventually. Q sued P.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 82 This is the correct option for the given question.

According to conditions given in the Question, P let his dog Zamboo free so he is responsible for the act.

Therefore, the correct answer is P is liable for trespass as there was negligence in taking care of the dog so as to enable them to enter onto land of Q.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 83

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Trespass can be defined as an unjustifiable physical interference of land in possession of one party by another. Under English common law where these principles of torts emanate, trespass does not form a criminal act but in the Indian Penal Code it has been given recognition i.e. under section 441 But it defines trespass as unjustifiable physical interference with the possession of property of the claimant with requisite intention of doing so. The Intention part is present due to it being under a criminal code where in 'mens rea' is a part.

Under English Common Law the maxim that is used for trespass is 'trespass quare clausam fregit' which means "because he (the defendant) broke or entered into the close". The tort of trespass requires essentially only the possession of land by the plaintiff and encroachment by some way by the defendant. There requires no force, unlawful intention or damage nor the breaking of an enclosure. One of the most important ingredients of a tort of trespass is the fact that the land in question which has been encroached upon essentially needs to be in the direct possession of the plaintiff and not just mere physical presence on it. Another essential provision of the tort of trespass includes in the directness of the act. If the act is direct i.e. arising out of the natural consequences of the act of the defendant then it is valid. But trespass is encroachment upon property whereas nuisance is interference upon another's right to enjoy his property.

Also if a person enters upon another's land and stays on it, the act is connoted as continuing trespass. Furthermore the owner of a land is entitled to the airspace above him but he is aerial trespass has a very important ingredient which is that the object that enters his land aerially should be at such height that it violates his right to enjoy his property and moreover violate his right of ordinary use of his land.

The subject matter for an action is a notable point. Merely walking on a land possessed by the plaintiff forms a tort as it involves encroaching upon the legal right to own property. The general principle of subject matter was prescribed in the many cases. It was held that anything associated with the soil and which is capable of being possessed individually forms the subject matter in the tort. Therefore if there is any damage incurred upon any object which is associated with the land of the plaintiff an action in trespass may be instituted.

Q. Zandu and Kandu has adjacent lands separated by a brick wall. Zandu erects up a tree which leads to growing of branches and boughs and roots onto the land of Kandu. Kandu has repeatedly told Zandu to chop off the tree as it was causing disturbance to him. Atlast Kandu filed a suit in court.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 83 This is the correct option for the given question.

If a person enters upon another's land and stays on it, the act is connoted as continuing trespass. Furthermore, the owner of a land is entitled to the airspace above him but as aerial trespass has a very important ingredient which is that the object that enters his land aerially should be at such height that it violates his right to enjoy his property and moreover violate his right of ordinary use of his land. Thus, according to condition given in the question, Zandu to chop off the tree as it was causing disturbance.

Therefore, the correct answer is Zandu is liable for nuisance as the consequences of the act are a result of a remote effect of an act.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 84

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Trespass can be defined as an unjustifiable physical interference of land in possession of one party by another. Under English common law where these principles of torts emanate, trespass does not form a criminal act but in the Indian Penal Code it has been given recognition i.e. under section 441 But it defines trespass as unjustifiable physical interference with the possession of property of the claimant with requisite intention of doing so. The Intention part is present due to it being under a criminal code where in 'mens rea' is a part.

Under English Common Law the maxim that is used for trespass is 'trespass quare clausam fregit' which means "because he (the defendant) broke or entered into the close". The tort of trespass requires essentially only the possession of land by the plaintiff and encroachment by some way by the defendant. There requires no force, unlawful intention or damage nor the breaking of an enclosure. One of the most important ingredients of a tort of trespass is the fact that the land in question which has been encroached upon essentially needs to be in the direct possession of the plaintiff and not just mere physical presence on it. Another essential provision of the tort of trespass includes in the directness of the act. If the act is direct i.e. arising out of the natural consequences of the act of the defendant then it is valid. But trespass is encroachment upon property whereas nuisance is interference upon another's right to enjoy his property.

Also if a person enters upon another's land and stays on it, the act is connoted as continuing trespass. Furthermore the owner of a land is entitled to the airspace above him but he is aerial trespass has a very important ingredient which is that the object that enters his land aerially should be at such height that it violates his right to enjoy his property and moreover violate his right of ordinary use of his land.

The subject matter for an action is a notable point. Merely walking on a land possessed by the plaintiff forms a tort as it involves encroaching upon the legal right to own property. The general principle of subject matter was prescribed in the many cases. It was held that anything associated with the soil and which is capable of being possessed individually forms the subject matter in the tort. Therefore if there is any damage incurred upon any object which is associated with the land of the plaintiff an action in trespass may be instituted.

Q. J leased out a property to S and the lease agreement contained clauses that in case the lessor enters the land and disturbs S to enjoy the property during the tenure,he will be liable for damages.Son of J continually entered into the land because he was in love with daughter of S and disturbed her continuously. S filed a suit in court.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 84 This is the correct option for the given question.

According to the condition given in the question, Since son of S is trespassing the leased land and disturbing the owner of leased land and his daughter. This act is intentional. Hence, son of J is liable to trespass.

Therefore, the correct answer is J is liable to trespass.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 85

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Trespass can be defined as an unjustifiable physical interference of land in possession of one party by another. Under English common law where these principles of torts emanate, trespass does not form a criminal act but in the Indian Penal Code it has been given recognition i.e. under section 441 But it defines trespass as unjustifiable physical interference with the possession of property of the claimant with requisite intention of doing so. The Intention part is present due to it being under a criminal code where in 'mens rea' is a part.

Under English Common Law the maxim that is used for trespass is 'trespass quare clausam fregit' which means "because he (the defendant) broke or entered into the close". The tort of trespass requires essentially only the possession of land by the plaintiff and encroachment by some way by the defendant. There requires no force, unlawful intention or damage nor the breaking of an enclosure. One of the most important ingredients of a tort of trespass is the fact that the land in question which has been encroached upon essentially needs to be in the direct possession of the plaintiff and not just mere physical presence on it. Another essential provision of the tort of trespass includes in the directness of the act. If the act is direct i.e. arising out of the natural consequences of the act of the defendant then it is valid. But trespass is encroachment upon property whereas nuisance is interference upon another's right to enjoy his property.

Also if a person enters upon another's land and stays on it, the act is connoted as continuing trespass. Furthermore the owner of a land is entitled to the airspace above him but he is aerial trespass has a very important ingredient which is that the object that enters his land aerially should be at such height that it violates his right to enjoy his property and moreover violate his right of ordinary use of his land.

The subject matter for an action is a notable point. Merely walking on a land possessed by the plaintiff forms a tort as it involves encroaching upon the legal right to own property. The general principle of subject matter was prescribed in the many cases. It was held that anything associated with the soil and which is capable of being possessed individually forms the subject matter in the tort. Therefore if there is any damage incurred upon any object which is associated with the land of the plaintiff an action in trespass may be instituted.

Q. The occupier of a premise owes a duty of care to all his invitees and visitors.

Raghu was running a poultry farm in his house. A part of his farm was used by the people as a shortcut to get into the nearby railways station. Raghu never liked it and put a board that "All trespassers will be prosecuted" But he tolerated other, because quite a few of there patronized his business. One day, a person, who was crossing the farms to get to railway station, was attacked y a bull belonging to the farm. The injured person filed a suit against Raghu.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 85 This is the correct option for the given question.

According to passage and question The law of trespass is essentially segregated into two halves i.e. the tort for criminal trespass which essentially forms assault and battery.

Therefore, the correct answer is Raghu is liable since he impliedly invited there to use his farm by not blocking the short-cut completely.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 86

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Theft is defined as the physical removal of an object that is capable of being stolen without the consent of the owner and with the intention of depriving the owner of it permanently. The thief need not intend to keep the property himself; an intention to destroy it, sell it, or abandon it in circumstances where it will not be found is sufficient. Automobile theft, for example, frequently involves selling the stolen car or its parts. In some instances, an intention to deprive the owner of the property temporarily also is sufficient, as in the case of stealing a car for a "joyride" and then abandoning it in such a way that the owner is able to reclaim it. The term extortion has been defined explicitly and how it is constituted. Section 383383 of the Indian penal code states that if a person intentionally puts another person in a position of fear or of threat to cause him injury, or deceitfully persuade him so that he may deliver the property or any other valuable goods to another person or any document which has been signed and can be turned into a valuable security.

Larceny is the trespassory taking and carrying away of personal goods from the possession of another with the intention to steal. For larceny to occur, three conditions must be met: (1)(1) the goods must be removed from the possession of another without the owner's consent; (2)(2) the goods must not only be taken but also "carried away," a requirement) that is highly formalistic and is satisfied by any movement of the entire object, however slight; and (3)(3) there must be an intention to steal, which is ordinarily defined as an intention to deprive the owner permanently of his property. The unauthorized borrowing of another's property is not larceny if there is an intent to return the property, nor is larceny committed by someone who takes goods in the mistaken belief that they are his own property.

Robbery is the commission of theft in circumstances of violence and involves the application or the threat of force in order to commit the theft or to secure escape. Robbery takes many forms, from muggings to bank robberies. The penalty for robbery is usually more severe than that for larceny. Many criminologists consider statistics on the robbery to be among the better indicators of the overall crime rate because, in comparison to larceny or burglary, victims are more likely to report it to the police and the police are more likely to record it in their official statistics.

Burglary is defined as the breaking and entering of the premises of another with an intent to commit a felony within. In English common law, burglary consisted of breaking into a dwelling at night to commit a felony, and a separate offence of housebreaking covered daytime entries. In the 20th century, however, the term burglary generally became applied to break-ins committed at any hour of the day and at any fixed structure, vehicle, or vessel. Although the motivation of most burglars is theft, the intention to commit various other offences converts a trespass into a burglary. For example, it is possible to commit burglary with the intention to rape.

Legal systems based on common law traditionally distinguished between theft (taking without consent) and fraud (obtaining with consent through deception), a distinction still preserved in many jurisdictions. The two crimes are now rarely regarded as mutually exclusive, however, and it is generally accepted that a crime may involve both theft and fraud (e.g., the theft and subsequent sale of an automobile). Theft is also usually distinguished from embezzlement, in which the offender carries away goods the possession of which had been legally entrusted to him. As with fraud, theft is a separate crime from embezzlement, but the two offences are not mutually exclusive.

Q. Riyaz threatens Raj that he will make his indecent photos public if he does not give him his new ring. Raj finally subdues and decides to give away his ring to Riyaz. When, he reaches the decided place to give the ring he thought of informing the police and does the same. Riyaz in the end pleads of his innocence but the police arrests him. Decide the guilt of Riyaz.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 86 This is the correct answer for the given question.

Extortion is an act of forcing and threatening someone to obtain benefits usually money.

In this case, Riyaz tries to extort money by blackmailing him, but before he could execute his plan Raj informs the police, and Riyaz is arrested. As he did not get any money yet, it is considered an attempt of extortion.

Therefore, this is the right option.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 87

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Theft is defined as the physical removal of an object that is capable of being stolen without the consent of the owner and with the intention of depriving the owner of it permanently. The thief need not intend to keep the property himself; an intention to destroy it, sell it, or abandon it in circumstances where it will not be found is sufficient. Automobile theft, for example, frequently involves selling the stolen car or its parts. In some instances, an intention to deprive the owner of the property temporarily also is sufficient, as in the case of stealing a car for a "joyride" and then abandoning it in such a way that the owner is able to reclaim it. The term extortion has been defined explicitly and how it is constituted. Section 383383 of the Indian penal code states that if a person intentionally puts another person in a position of fear or of threat to cause him injury, or deceitfully persuade him so that he may deliver the property or any other valuable goods to another person or any document which has been signed and can be turned into a valuable security.

Larceny is the trespassory taking and carrying away of personal goods from the possession of another with the intention to steal. For larceny to occur, three conditions must be met: (1)(1) the goods must be removed from the possession of another without the owner's consent; (2)(2) the goods must not only be taken but also "carried away," a requirement) that is highly formalistic and is satisfied by any movement of the entire object, however slight; and (3)(3) there must be an intention to steal, which is ordinarily defined as an intention to deprive the owner permanently of his property. The unauthorized borrowing of another's property is not larceny if there is an intent to return the property, nor is larceny committed by someone who takes goods in the mistaken belief that they are his own property.

Robbery is the commission of theft in circumstances of violence and involves the application or the threat of force in order to commit the theft or to secure escape. Robbery takes many forms, from muggings to bank robberies. The penalty for robbery is usually more severe than that for larceny. Many criminologists consider statistics on the robbery to be among the better indicators of the overall crime rate because, in comparison to larceny or burglary, victims are more likely to report it to the police and the police are more likely to record it in their official statistics.

Burglary is defined as the breaking and entering of the premises of another with an intent to commit a felony within. In English common law, burglary consisted of breaking into a dwelling at night to commit a felony, and a separate offence of housebreaking covered daytime entries. In the 20th century, however, the term burglary generally became applied to break-ins committed at any hour of the day and at any fixed structure, vehicle, or vessel. Although the motivation of most burglars is theft, the intention to commit various other offences converts a trespass into a burglary. For example, it is possible to commit burglary with the intention to rape.

Legal systems based on common law traditionally distinguished between theft (taking without consent) and fraud (obtaining with consent through deception), a distinction still preserved in many jurisdictions. The two crimes are now rarely regarded as mutually exclusive, however, and it is generally accepted that a crime may involve both theft and fraud (e.g., the theft and subsequent sale of an automobile). Theft is also usually distinguished from embezzlement, in which the offender carries away goods the possession of which had been legally entrusted to him. As with fraud, theft is a separate crime from embezzlement, but the two offences are not mutually exclusive.

Q. Amar and a gang of 4 people broke into house of Mr. Mishra. They carried loaded guns and tied Mrs. Mishra. They threatened Mr. Mishra to take out all the cash and jewellery keep the guns pointed out to his head.

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 87 This is the most suitable answer to the given question.

When a person breaks into an establishment or house or any vehicle to commit a felony usually to steal something is considered as burglary.

When the break-in is done by a group of armed men who threaten the people inside using guns and weapons to steal is considered dacoity. It is the term used in India to indicate violent robbery.

The given case is similar to the mentioned condition of dacoity.

Therefore, this is the right option.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 88

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Theft is defined as the physical removal of an object that is capable of being stolen without the consent of the owner and with the intention of depriving the owner of it permanently. The thief need not intend to keep the property himself; an intention to destroy it, sell it, or abandon it in circumstances where it will not be found is sufficient. Automobile theft, for example, frequently involves selling the stolen car or its parts. In some instances, an intention to deprive the owner of the property temporarily also is sufficient, as in the case of stealing a car for a "joyride" and then abandoning it in such a way that the owner is able to reclaim it. The term extortion has been defined explicitly and how it is constituted. Section 383383 of the Indian penal code states that if a person intentionally puts another person in a position of fear or of threat to cause him injury, or deceitfully persuade him so that he may deliver the property or any other valuable goods to another person or any document which has been signed and can be turned into a valuable security.

Larceny is the trespassory taking and carrying away of personal goods from the possession of another with the intention to steal. For larceny to occur, three conditions must be met: (1)(1) the goods must be removed from the possession of another without the owner's consent; (2)(2) the goods must not only be taken but also "carried away," a requirement) that is highly formalistic and is satisfied by any movement of the entire object, however slight; and (3)(3) there must be an intention to steal, which is ordinarily defined as an intention to deprive the owner permanently of his property. The unauthorized borrowing of another's property is not larceny if there is an intent to return the property, nor is larceny committed by someone who takes goods in the mistaken belief that they are his own property.

Robbery is the commission of theft in circumstances of violence and involves the application or the threat of force in order to commit the theft or to secure escape. Robbery takes many forms, from muggings to bank robberies. The penalty for robbery is usually more severe than that for larceny. Many criminologists consider statistics on the robbery to be among the better indicators of the overall crime rate because, in comparison to larceny or burglary, victims are more likely to report it to the police and the police are more likely to record it in their official statistics.

Burglary is defined as the breaking and entering of the premises of another with an intent to commit a felony within. In English common law, burglary consisted of breaking into a dwelling at night to commit a felony, and a separate offence of housebreaking covered daytime entries. In the 20th century, however, the term burglary generally became applied to break-ins committed at any hour of the day and at any fixed structure, vehicle, or vessel. Although the motivation of most burglars is theft, the intention to commit various other offences converts a trespass into a burglary. For example, it is possible to commit burglary with the intention to rape.

Legal systems based on common law traditionally distinguished between theft (taking without consent) and fraud (obtaining with consent through deception), a distinction still preserved in many jurisdictions. The two crimes are now rarely regarded as mutually exclusive, however, and it is generally accepted that a crime may involve both theft and fraud (e.g., the theft and subsequent sale of an automobile). Theft is also usually distinguished from embezzlement, in which the offender carries away goods the possession of which had been legally entrusted to him. As with fraud, theft is a separate crime from embezzlement, but the two offences are not mutually exclusive.

Q. A government employee took a file from the government office and presented it to someone else, and brought it back to the office after two days of taking it away. Does it amount to theft?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 88 This is the appropriate answer to the given question.

In this case, the person has taken the documents without informing or seeking prior permissions and does it with bad intentions which are considered as theft.

It is because even though the person has returned the documents that information and data from the file have been leaked out to outsiders.

Therefore, this is the correct option.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 89

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Theft is defined as the physical removal of an object that is capable of being stolen without the consent of the owner and with the intention of depriving the owner of it permanently. The thief need not intend to keep the property himself; an intention to destroy it, sell it, or abandon it in circumstances where it will not be found is sufficient. Automobile theft, for example, frequently involves selling the stolen car or its parts. In some instances, an intention to deprive the owner of the property temporarily also is sufficient, as in the case of stealing a car for a "joyride" and then abandoning it in such a way that the owner is able to reclaim it. The term extortion has been defined explicitly and how it is constituted. Section 383383 of the Indian penal code states that if a person intentionally puts another person in a position of fear or of threat to cause him injury, or deceitfully persuade him so that he may deliver the property or any other valuable goods to another person or any document which has been signed and can be turned into a valuable security.

Larceny is the trespassory taking and carrying away of personal goods from the possession of another with the intention to steal. For larceny to occur, three conditions must be met: (1)(1) the goods must be removed from the possession of another without the owner's consent; (2)(2) the goods must not only be taken but also "carried away," a requirement) that is highly formalistic and is satisfied by any movement of the entire object, however slight; and (3)(3) there must be an intention to steal, which is ordinarily defined as an intention to deprive the owner permanently of his property. The unauthorized borrowing of another's property is not larceny if there is an intent to return the property, nor is larceny committed by someone who takes goods in the mistaken belief that they are his own property.

Robbery is the commission of theft in circumstances of violence and involves the application or the threat of force in order to commit the theft or to secure escape. Robbery takes many forms, from muggings to bank robberies. The penalty for robbery is usually more severe than that for larceny. Many criminologists consider statistics on the robbery to be among the better indicators of the overall crime rate because, in comparison to larceny or burglary, victims are more likely to report it to the police and the police are more likely to record it in their official statistics.

Burglary is defined as the breaking and entering of the premises of another with an intent to commit a felony within. In English common law, burglary consisted of breaking into a dwelling at night to commit a felony, and a separate offence of housebreaking covered daytime entries. In the 20th century, however, the term burglary generally became applied to break-ins committed at any hour of the day and at any fixed structure, vehicle, or vessel. Although the motivation of most burglars is theft, the intention to commit various other offences converts a trespass into a burglary. For example, it is possible to commit burglary with the intention to rape.

Legal systems based on common law traditionally distinguished between theft (taking without consent) and fraud (obtaining with consent through deception), a distinction still preserved in many jurisdictions. The two crimes are now rarely regarded as mutually exclusive, however, and it is generally accepted that a crime may involve both theft and fraud (e.g., the theft and subsequent sale of an automobile). Theft is also usually distinguished from embezzlement, in which the offender carries away goods the possession of which had been legally entrusted to him. As with fraud, theft is a separate crime from embezzlement, but the two offences are not mutually exclusive.

Q. A gives his radio to B, who owns a radio repairing shop for repairs. B carries it to his shop and after it has been repaired, A defaults on the payment. B refuses to deliver back the radio, retains them lawfully as a security for the debt. A who was aware that B was retaining the radio as a security for his debt, enters the shop openly, and takes it by force out of B's possession, and takes it away. Has A committed theft?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 89 This is the right option for the given question.

Theft is the physical removal of an object without the permission of the owner. In this case, A is the owner of the radio and it is held in possession of B only as security. B does not become the owner of the radio because he has only repaired it.

Even though taking the radio without paying for the repair services might be considered an offence, it is not considered as theft.

Therefore, this is the right option.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 90

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Theft is defined as the physical removal of an object that is capable of being stolen without the consent of the owner and with the intention of depriving the owner of it permanently. The thief need not intend to keep the property himself; an intention to destroy it, sell it, or abandon it in circumstances where it will not be found is sufficient. Automobile theft, for example, frequently involves selling the stolen car or its parts. In some instances, an intention to deprive the owner of the property temporarily also is sufficient, as in the case of stealing a car for a "joyride" and then abandoning it in such a way that the owner is able to reclaim it. The term extortion has been defined explicitly and how it is constituted. Section 383383 of the Indian penal code states that if a person intentionally puts another person in a position of fear or of threat to cause him injury, or deceitfully persuade him so that he may deliver the property or any other valuable goods to another person or any document which has been signed and can be turned into a valuable security.

Larceny is the trespassory taking and carrying away of personal goods from the possession of another with the intention to steal. For larceny to occur, three conditions must be met: (1)(1) the goods must be removed from the possession of another without the owner's consent; (2)(2) the goods must not only be taken but also "carried away," a requirement) that is highly formalistic and is satisfied by any movement of the entire object, however slight; and (3)(3) there must be an intention to steal, which is ordinarily defined as an intention to deprive the owner permanently of his property. The unauthorized borrowing of another's property is not larceny if there is an intent to return the property, nor is larceny committed by someone who takes goods in the mistaken belief that they are his own property.

Robbery is the commission of theft in circumstances of violence and involves the application or the threat of force in order to commit the theft or to secure escape. Robbery takes many forms, from muggings to bank robberies. The penalty for robbery is usually more severe than that for larceny. Many criminologists consider statistics on the robbery to be among the better indicators of the overall crime rate because, in comparison to larceny or burglary, victims are more likely to report it to the police and the police are more likely to record it in their official statistics.

Burglary is defined as the breaking and entering of the premises of another with an intent to commit a felony within. In English common law, burglary consisted of breaking into a dwelling at night to commit a felony, and a separate offence of housebreaking covered daytime entries. In the 20th century, however, the term burglary generally became applied to break-ins committed at any hour of the day and at any fixed structure, vehicle, or vessel. Although the motivation of most burglars is theft, the intention to commit various other offences converts a trespass into a burglary. For example, it is possible to commit burglary with the intention to rape.

Legal systems based on common law traditionally distinguished between theft (taking without consent) and fraud (obtaining with consent through deception), a distinction still preserved in many jurisdictions. The two crimes are now rarely regarded as mutually exclusive, however, and it is generally accepted that a crime may involve both theft and fraud (e.g., the theft and subsequent sale of an automobile). Theft is also usually distinguished from embezzlement, in which the offender carries away goods the possession of which had been legally entrusted to him. As with fraud, theft is a separate crime from embezzlement, but the two offences are not mutually exclusive.

Q. Damini, had to leave her home and visit several Places for work purpose. So she entrusts her dog to Suchismita, the owner of a kennel, till Damini returns from her work-trip. Damini pays Suchismita to take care of her dog but she carries the dog to a pet-shop owner, and sells it. Has Suchismita committed theft?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 90 This is the most appropriate answer to the given question.

This is considered theft because the dog was not handed over completely but only for a period of time to be taken care of.

Damini had entrusted Suchismita with the responsibility of taking care of the dog. So, she doesn't possess the right to sell it even though the dog was in her possession.

It is a crime similar to embezzlement which is also considered a form of theft.

This is explained in the last paragraph of the passage. It is clarified how even though theft and embezzlement are not similar, they are not mutually exclusive.

Therefore, this is the right option.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 91

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

It is pertinent to understand what is meant by tortious liability or rather the nature of tort law in order to understand its utility. To throw more light, the word tort evolved, from at one time very nearly passing into literary use as a synonym for wrong but after the middle of the seventeenth century, a practice began in the courts of the common law, of distinguishing between actions in 'contract' for breaches of contract and actions for other wrongs, and of using the word 'tort' as a compendious title for the latter class of actions. Since then, it was usual to speak of 'actions in contract' and 'action in tort'. So a tort came, in law to refer to that particular class of wrongs for which action in tort was recognised by the courts of common law as a remedy and to lose the generic sense of wrong which it may have helped in popular use.

Another interesting result of this association of the word with a form of action was that it came to refer also to the liability of a person who did not commit any tort or wrong, e.g. a master who is sued for the damages by the person injured by a tort committed by his servant. This was because an 'action in tort' was the remedy against the master and in course of time and in response to new needs and conditions, the master was held liable to pay damages even though he had not committed any tort. So the law of torts is that body of law that deals with the liability of persons against whom an 'action in tort' would lie.

The punishment of crimes in these systems occupied a more prominent place than compensation for wrongs. The law of torts in India presently is mainly the English law of torts which itself is based on the principles of the common law of England. However, the Indian courts before applying any rule of English law can see whether it is suited to the Indian society and circumstances. The application of English law in India has therefore been a selective application. In this context, in M.C. Mehta vs. Union of India, Justice Bhagwati observed :

"We have to evolve new principles and lay down new norms which will adequately deal with new problems which arise in a highly industrialised economy. We cannot allow our judicial thinking to be constructed by reference to the law as it prevails in England or for the matter of that in any foreign country. We are certainly prepared to receive light from whatever source it comes, but we have to build our own jurisprudence."

During British rule, courts in India were enjoined by Acts of Parliament in the UK and by Indian enactments to act according to justice, equity and good conscience if there was no specific rule of enacted law applicable to the dispute in a suit. In regard to suits for damages for torts, courts followed the English common law insofar as it was consonant with justice, equity and good conscience. They departed from it when any of its rules appeared unreasonable and unsuitable to Indian conditions. An English statute dealing with tort law is not by its own force applicable to India but may be followed here unless it is not accepted for the reason just mentioned.

Q. During Colonial times, if there were no specific rules of the enacted law applicable to the dispute, then how did the courts decide the dispute?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 91 This is the most suitable option for the given question.

In case of no suitable law available to sort out certain disputes, the court of law followed the laws of Parliament of UK, Indian enactments and also considered the principles of justice, equity and good conscience.

In cases related to tort, they followed the English common law unless there is any unreasonable conditions.

Therefore, this is the right answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 92

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

It is pertinent to understand what is meant by tortious liability or rather the nature of tort law in order to understand its utility. To throw more light, the word tort evolved, from at one time very nearly passing into literary use as a synonym for wrong but after the middle of the seventeenth century, a practice began in the courts of the common law, of distinguishing between actions in 'contract' for breaches of contract and actions for other wrongs, and of using the word 'tort' as a compendious title for the latter class of actions. Since then, it was usual to speak of 'actions in contract' and 'action in tort'. So a tort came, in law to refer to that particular class of wrongs for which action in tort was recognised by the courts of common law as a remedy and to lose the generic sense of wrong which it may have helped in popular use.

Another interesting result of this association of the word with a form of action was that it came to refer also to the liability of a person who did not commit any tort or wrong, e.g. a master who is sued for the damages by the person injured by a tort committed by his servant. This was because an 'action in tort' was the remedy against the master and in course of time and in response to new needs and conditions, the master was held liable to pay damages even though he had not committed any tort. So the law of torts is that body of law that deals with the liability of persons against whom an 'action in tort' would lie.

The punishment of crimes in these systems occupied a more prominent place than compensation for wrongs. The law of torts in India presently is mainly the English law of torts which itself is based on the principles of the common law of England. However, the Indian courts before applying any rule of English law can see whether it is suited to the Indian society and circumstances. The application of English law in India has therefore been a selective application. In this context, in M.C. Mehta vs. Union of India, Justice Bhagwati observed :

"We have to evolve new principles and lay down new norms which will adequately deal with new problems which arise in a highly industrialised economy. We cannot allow our judicial thinking to be constructed by reference to the law as it prevails in England or for the matter of that in any foreign country. We are certainly prepared to receive light from whatever source it comes, but we have to build our own jurisprudence."

During British rule, courts in India were enjoined by Acts of Parliament in the UK and by Indian enactments to act according to justice, equity and good conscience if there was no specific rule of enacted law applicable to the dispute in a suit. In regard to suits for damages for torts, courts followed the English common law insofar as it was consonant with justice, equity and good conscience. They departed from it when any of its rules appeared unreasonable and unsuitable to Indian conditions. An English statute dealing with tort law is not by its own force applicable to India but maybe followed here unless it is not accepted for the reason just mentioned.

Q. Suppose Mr. A hires one driver, X as a driver. One day Mr. A asks X to go and drop some files at his office to his clerk. While coming back from office, X hits one woman accidentally she suffers injuries. Who will be liable for this action and why?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 92 This is a suitable answer to the given question.

It is mentioned in the second paragraph of the passage on interesting facts. There are circumstances where they are responsible for the damages even when the person does not commit any wrongs. This is because, in the law of tort, the master is liable for the action of his employees.

So, in this case, Mr. A is liable for the wrongs committed by his driver.

Therefore, this is the right option.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 93

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

It is pertinent to understand what is meant by tortious liability or rather the nature of tort law in order to understand its utility. To throw more light, the word tort evolved, from at one time very nearly passing into literary use as a synonym for wrong but after the middle of the seventeenth century, a practice began in the courts of the common law, of distinguishing between actions in 'contract' for breaches of contract and actions for other wrongs, and of using the word 'tort' as a compendious title for the latter class of actions. Since then, it was usual to speak of 'actions in contract' and 'action in tort'. So a tort came, in law to refer to that particular class of wrongs for which action in tort was recognised by the courts of common law as a remedy and to lose the generic sense of wrong which it may have helped in popular use.

Another interesting result of this association of the word with a form of action was that it came to refer also to the liability of a person who did not commit any tort or wrong, e.g. a master who is sued for the damages by the person injured by a tort committed by his servant. This was because an 'action in tort' was the remedy against the master and in course of time and in response to new needs and conditions, the master was held liable to pay damages even though he had not committed any tort. So the law of torts is that body of law that deals with the liability of persons against whom an 'action in tort' would lie.

The punishment of crimes in these systems occupied a more prominent place than compensation for wrongs. The law of torts in India presently is mainly the English law of torts which itself is based on the principles of the common law of England. However, the Indian courts before applying any rule of English law can see whether it is suited to the Indian society and circumstances. The application of English law in India has therefore been a selective application. In this context, in M.C. Mehta vs. Union of India, Justice Bhagwati observed :

"We have to evolve new principles and lay down new norms which will adequately deal with new problems which arise in a highly industrialised economy. We cannot allow our judicial thinking to be constructed by reference to the law as it prevails in England or for the matter of that in any foreign country. We are certainly prepared to receive light from whatever source it comes, but we have to build our own jurisprudence."

During British rule, courts in India were enjoined by Acts of Parliament in the UK and by Indian enactments to act according to justice, equity and good conscience if there was no specific rule of enacted law applicable to the dispute in a suit. In regard to suits for damages for torts, courts followed the English common law insofar as it was consonant with justice, equity and good conscience. They departed from it when any of its rules appeared unreasonable and unsuitable to Indian conditions. An English statute dealing with tort law is not by its own force applicable to India but may be followed here unless it is not accepted for the reason just mentioned.

Q. Which term evolved for 'actions in other wrongs'?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 93 This is the most appropriate answer to the given question.

The word tort was earlier used as a literary synonym of wrong and later in the seventeenth century, it was being used in the court of law.

It was used to differentiate between the breaches in a contract from other actions of wrongs. This led to the name Tort Law.

Therefore, this is the right option.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 94

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

It is pertinent to understand what is meant by tortious liability or rather the nature of tort law in order to understand its utility. To throw more light, the word tort evolved, from at one time very nearly passing into literary use as a synonym for wrong but after the middle of the seventeenth century, a practice began in the courts of the common law, of distinguishing between actions in 'contract' for breaches of contract and actions for other wrongs, and of using the word 'tort' as a compendious title for the latter class of actions. Since then, it was usual to speak of 'actions in contract' and 'action in tort'. So a tort came, in law to refer to that particular class of wrongs for which action in tort was recognised by the courts of common law as a remedy and to lose the generic sense of wrong which it may have helped in popular use.

Another interesting result of this association of the word with a form of action was that it came to refer also to the liability of a person who did not commit any tort or wrong, e.g. a master who is sued for the damages by the person injured by a tort committed by his servant. This was because an 'action in tort' was the remedy against the master and in course of time and in response to new needs and conditions, the master was held liable to pay damages even though he had not committed any tort. So the law of torts is that body of law that deals with the liability of persons against whom an 'action in tort' would lie.

The punishment of crimes in these systems occupied a more prominent place than compensation for wrongs. The law of torts in India presently is mainly the English law of torts which itself is based on the principles of the common law of England. However, the Indian courts before applying any rule of English law can see whether it is suited to the Indian society and circumstances. The application of English law in India has therefore been a selective application. In this context, in M.C. Mehta vs. Union of India, Justice Bhagwati observed :

"We have to evolve new principles and lay down new norms which will adequately deal with new problems which arise in a highly industrialised economy. We cannot allow our judicial thinking to be constructed by reference to the law as it prevails in England or for the matter of that in any foreign country. We are certainly prepared to receive light from whatever source it comes, but we have to build our own jurisprudence."

During British rule, courts in India were enjoined by Acts of Parliament in the UK and by Indian enactments to act according to justice, equity and good conscience if there was no specific rule of enacted law applicable to the dispute in a suit. In regard to suits for damages for torts, courts followed the English common law insofar as it was consonant with justice, equity and good conscience. They departed from it when any of its rules appeared unreasonable and unsuitable to Indian conditions. An English statute dealing with tort law is not by its own force applicable to India but may be followed here unless it is not accepted for the reason just mentioned.

Q. Why application of English law is selective in India?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 94 This is the aptest answer to the given question.

It is discussed in the passage how not all aspects of English law, suit Indian society. Therefore, the Indian courts always see if it applies to the given circumstances. This is why it is selective in India.

It is mentioned in the last paragraph that the Tort law alone is followed as such because it is consonant with justice, equity, and good conscience.

Therefore, this is the right option.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 95

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

It is pertinent to understand what is meant by tortious liability or rather the nature of tort law in order to understand its utility. To throw more light, the word tort evolved, from at one time very nearly passing into literary use as a synonym for wrong but after the middle of the seventeenth century, a practice began in the courts of the common law, of distinguishing between actions in 'contract' for breaches of contract and actions for other wrongs, and of using the word 'tort' as a compendious title for the latter class of actions. Since then, it was usual to speak of 'actions in contract' and 'action in tort'. So a tort came, in law to refer to that particular class of wrongs for which action in tort was recognised by the courts of common law as a remedy and to lose the generic sense of wrong which it may have helped in popular use.

Another interesting result of this association of the word with a form of action was that it came to refer also to the liability of a person who did not commit any tort or wrong, e.g. a master who is sued for the damages by the person injured by a tort committed by his servant. This was because an 'action in tort' was the remedy against the master and in course of time and in response to new needs and conditions, the master was held liable to pay damages even though he had not committed any tort. So the law of torts is that body of law that deals with the liability of persons against whom an 'action in tort' would lie.

The punishment of crimes in these systems occupied a more prominent place than compensation for wrongs. The law of torts in India presently is mainly the English law of torts which itself is based on the principles of the common law of England. However, the Indian courts before applying any rule of English law can see whether it is suited to the Indian society and circumstances. The application of English law in India has therefore been a selective application. In this context, in M.C. Mehta vs. Union of India, Justice Bhagwati observed :

"We have to evolve new principles and lay down new norms which will adequately deal with new problems which arise in a highly industrialised economy. We cannot allow our judicial thinking to be constructed by reference to the law as it prevails in England or for the matter of that in any foreign country. We are certainly prepared to receive light from whatever source it comes, but we have to build our own jurisprudence."

During British rule, courts in India were enjoined by Acts of Parliament in the UK and by Indian enactments to act according to justice, equity and good conscience if there was no specific rule of enacted law applicable to the dispute in a suit. In regard to suits for damages for torts, courts followed the English common law insofar as it was consonant with justice, equity and good conscience. They departed from it when any of its rules appeared unreasonable and unsuitable to Indian conditions. An English statute dealing with tort law is not by its own force applicable to India but may be followed here unless it is not accepted for the reason just mentioned.

Q. What does Justice P. N. Bhagwati observed in the case of M.C. Mehta vs. Union of India?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 95 This is the correct answer for the given question.

The judge has stated that there is a need for us to evolve new principles in this highly industrialised economy. He also points out we need not follow the laws of any foreign countries. Taking some light from those are sufficient to build our own jurisprudence.

Therefore, this is the apt answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 96

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Dowry means any valuable security given at or before the marriage by one party to a marriage to the other party to a marriage.

Dowry demand is not only limited to money demanded for the purpose of marriage, but it may also include money demanded for any purpose, the condition being, that the demand must be in connection with the marriage.

In legal parlance, the death and violence due to dowry demands constitute domestic violence. Similar to the acts of domestic violence, the acts committed in dowry-related offences generally incorporate mental, physical, economic violence as well as harassment in order to punish the victim or to compel her to meet those demands.

The State of affairs of our country is really saddening when it comes to the number of women who are being murdered, harassed in the name of Dowry, Honour, and Domestic violence.

Various legislations provide protection to the women like 498 498 A(Cruelty), 304304- B(Dowry Death) of Indian Penal Code, 113113-B of Indian Evidence Act, Dowry Prohibition Act, Protection of Women against Domestic violence.

Still, Dowry-related violence increased more than three-fold between 1990 1990 and 2000 2000 . Dowry deaths rose by 38%38% during that same time period and since then about 6,000 6,000 to 7,000 7,000 women have been murdered each year.

The most important thing nowadays is that a woman should be aware of the law and their legal rights. To constitute the offence of Cruelty, it is necessary to show that the woman was married, there was some kind of cruelty or harassment and the act was committed by the husband or his family members.

One must also satisfy the definition of Cruelty. Cruelty means:

  • "Any wilful conduct which is of such a nature as is likely to drive the woman to commit suicide or to cause grave injury or danger to life, limb or health (whether mental or physical) of the woman; or

  • Harassment of the woman where such harassment is with a view to coercing her or any person related to her to meet any unlawful demand for any property or valuable security or is on account of failure by her or any person related to her to meet such demand."

Cruelty comprises series of the act and every act of cruelty give rise to the fresh act of action.

Q. Despite so many legislations that provide protection to women, dowry relating violence is increasing day by day. Why?

Explanation This is the correct answer for the given question.

The passage discusses various legislative acts that have been implemented for the safety of women against domestic violence and cruelty.

It also provides facts on how even after taking such measures the number of cases of cruelty is being reported every year. It is important to create awareness among women about their rights and how they can fight against domestic violence.

Therefore, this is the right option.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 97

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Dowry means any valuable security given at or before the marriage by one party to a marriage to the other party to a marriage.

Dowry demand is not only limited to money demanded for the purpose of marriage, but it may also include money demanded for any purpose, the condition being, that the demand must be in connection with the marriage.

In legal parlance, the death and violence due to dowry demands constitute domestic violence. Similar to the acts of domestic violence, the acts committed in dowry-related offences generally incorporate mental, physical, economic violence as well as harassment in order to punish the victim or to compel her to meet those demands.

The State of affairs of our country is really saddening when it comes to the number of women who are being murdered, harassed in the name of Dowry, Honour, and Domestic violence.

Various legislations provide protection to the women like 498 498 A(Cruelty), 304304- B(Dowry Death) of Indian Penal Code, 113113-B of Indian Evidence Act, Dowry Prohibition Act, Protection of Women against Domestic violence.

Still, Dowry-related violence increased more than three-fold between 1990 1990 and 2000 2000 . Dowry deaths rose by 38%38% during that same time period and since then about 6,000 6,000 to 7,000 7,000 women have been murdered each year.

The most important thing nowadays is that a woman should be aware of the law and their legal rights. To constitute the offence of Cruelty, it is necessary to show that the woman was married, there was some kind of cruelty or harassment and the act was committed by the husband or his family members.

One must also satisfy the definition of Cruelty. Cruelty means:

  • "Any wilful conduct which is of such a nature as is likely to drive the woman to commit suicide or to cause grave injury or danger to life, limb or health (whether mental or physical) of the woman; or

  • Harassment of the woman where such harassment is with a view to coercing her or any person related to her to meet any unlawful demand for any property or valuable security or is on account of failure by her or any person related to her to meet such demand."

Cruelty comprises series of the act and every act of cruelty give rise to the fresh act of action.

Q. Suppose in the above case, the bride gets to know of the illicit affair before the marriage and now she wants to file a complaint of mental cruelty. Can she do so?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 97 This is the most suitable answer to the given question.

An illicit affair by the guy is considered to be cruelty against the bride only when done after marriage. When it is known before marriage and when it is stopped, a complaint cannot be filed as mental cruelty.

Therefore, this is the right option.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 98

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Dowry means any valuable security given at or before the marriage by one party to a marriage to the other party to a marriage.

Dowry demand is not only limited to money demanded for the purpose of marriage, but it may also include money demanded for any purpose, the condition being, that the demand must be in connection with the marriage.

In legal parlance, the death and violence due to dowry demands constitute domestic violence. Similar to the acts of domestic violence, the acts committed in dowry-related offences generally incorporate mental, physical, economic violence as well as harassment in order to punish the victim or to compel her to meet those demands.

The State of affairs of our country is really saddening when it comes to the number of women who are being murdered, harassed in the name of Dowry, Honour, and Domestic violence.

Various legislations provide protection to the women like 498 498 A(Cruelty), 304304- B(Dowry Death) of Indian Penal Code, 113113-B of Indian Evidence Act, Dowry Prohibition Act, Protection of Women against Domestic violence.

Still, Dowry-related violence increased more than three-fold between 1990 1990 and 2000 2000 . Dowry deaths rose by 38%38% during that same time period and since then about 6,000 6,000 to 7,000 7,000 women have been murdered each year.

The most important thing nowadays is that a woman should be aware of the law and their legal rights. To constitute the offence of Cruelty, it is necessary to show that the woman was married, there was some kind of cruelty or harassment and the act was committed by the husband or his family members.

One must also satisfy the definition of Cruelty. Cruelty means:

  • "Any wilful conduct which is of such a nature as is likely to drive the woman to commit suicide or to cause grave injury or danger to life, limb or health (whether mental or physical) of the woman; or

  • Harassment of the woman where such harassment is with a view to coercing her or any person related to her to meet any unlawful demand for any property or valuable security or is on account of failure by her or any person related to her to meet such demand."

Cruelty comprises series of the act and every act of cruelty give rise to the fresh act of action.

Q. The bride, after marriage complains of the illicit affair of his husband with another woman and thereby she has been depressed for a very long time. She tells his father that she is not happy with the marriage as there is no love in the marriage. Does this constitute cruelty?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 98 This is the most appropriate answer to the given question.

The last paragraph of the passage mentions what defines as cruelty towards women after marriage.

It is explained how anything that causes physical or mental harm to married women put them in danger.

So in this case the wife suffers from mental suffering because of the bad acts of the husband.

Therefore, this is the right option.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 99

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Dowry means any valuable security given at or before the marriage by one party to a marriage to the other party to a marriage.

Dowry demand is not only limited to money demanded for the purpose of marriage, but it may also include money demanded for any purpose, the condition being, that the demand must be in connection with the marriage.

In legal parlance, the death and violence due to dowry demands constitute domestic violence. Similar to the acts of domestic violence, the acts committed in dowry-related offences generally incorporate mental, physical, economic violence as well as harassment in order to punish the victim or to compel her to meet those demands.

The State of affairs of our country is really saddening when it comes to the number of women who are being murdered, harassed in the name of Dowry, Honour, and Domestic violence.

Various legislations provide protection to the women like 498 498 A(Cruelty), 304304- B(Dowry Death) of Indian Penal Code, 113113-B of Indian Evidence Act, Dowry Prohibition Act, Protection of Women against Domestic violence.

Still, Dowry-related violence increased more than three-fold between 1990 1990 and 2000 2000 . Dowry deaths rose by 38%38% during that same time period and since then about 6,000 6,000 to 7,000 7,000 women have been murdered each year.

The most important thing nowadays is that a woman should be aware of the law and their legal rights. To constitute the offence of Cruelty, it is necessary to show that the woman was married, there was some kind of cruelty or harassment and the act was committed by the husband or his family members.

One must also satisfy the definition of Cruelty. Cruelty means:

  • "Any wilful conduct which is of such a nature as is likely to drive the woman to commit suicide or to cause grave injury or danger to life, limb or health (whether mental or physical) of the woman; or

  • Harassment of the woman where such harassment is with a view to coercing her or any person related to her to meet any unlawful demand for any property or valuable security or is on account of failure by her or any person related to her to meet such demand."

Cruelty comprises series of the act and every act of cruelty give rise to the fresh act of action.

Q. Suppose, in the above case, shares are transferred after one month of marriage, then what would be the answer?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 99 This is the most suitable answer to the given question.

It is considered dowry only when valuable security is transferred between two parties before or during the wedding.

It is an offence only if the father was demanded to transfer his shares. Until it is done voluntarily, it cannot be considered dowry.

Therefore, this is the right option.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 100

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Dowry means any valuable security given at or before the marriage by one party to a marriage to the other party to a marriage.

Dowry demand is not only limited to money demanded for the purpose of marriage, but it may also include money demanded for any purpose, the condition being, that the demand must be in connection with the marriage.

In legal parlance, the death and violence due to dowry demands constitute domestic violence. Similar to the acts of domestic violence, the acts committed in dowry-related offences generally incorporate mental, physical, economic violence as well as harassment in order to punish the victim or to compel her to meet those demands.

The State of affairs of our country is really saddening when it comes to the number of women who are being murdered, harassed in the name of Dowry, Honour, and Domestic violence.

Various legislations provide protection to the women like 498 498 A(Cruelty), 304304- B(Dowry Death) of Indian Penal Code, 113113-B of Indian Evidence Act, Dowry Prohibition Act, Protection of Women against Domestic violence.

Still, Dowry-related violence increased more than three-fold between 1990 1990 and 2000 2000 . Dowry deaths rose by 38%38% during that same time period and since then about 6,000 6,000 to 7,000 7,000 women have been murdered each year.

The most important thing nowadays is that a woman should be aware of the law and their legal rights. To constitute the offence of Cruelty, it is necessary to show that the woman was married, there was some kind of cruelty or harassment and the act was committed by the husband or his family members.

One must also satisfy the definition of Cruelty. Cruelty means:

  • "Any wilful conduct which is of such a nature as is likely to drive the woman to commit suicide or to cause grave injury or danger to life, limb or health (whether mental or physical) of the woman; or

  • Harassment of the woman where such harassment is with a view to coercing her or any person related to her to meet any unlawful demand for any property or valuable security or is on account of failure by her or any person related to her to meet such demand."

Cruelty comprises series of the act and every act of cruelty give rise to the fresh act of action.

Q. The father of the bride transferred some shares worth of ₹10,000 to the groom at the time of the marriage. Can this transfer of shares be considered as dowry?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 100 This is the most appropriate answer to the given question.

Dowry means any valuable securities that are transferred from one party to another, before or during the wedding.

The money demanded is may or may not be used for the purpose of marriage.

In this case, the father has transferred shares to the groom which is also considered as valuable security.

Therefore, this is the right option.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 101

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

The word adoption is derived from the old French word Adoptare which means to choose for oneself. Adoption is the legal process of giving and taking of child to a non-biological parent. It is a process that creates a parent-child relationship between persons not related by blood. The adopted son is then taken as being born in the new family and acquires rights, duties, and status there only, and his tie with the old family comes to an end.

Adoption established ties of the son with his old family are severed, and he is taken being born in the new family, acquiring rights, duties, and status in the new family. It is simply the transplantation of a son from the family where he was born, to another family where he is given by the natural parents by way of gift. The adopted son is acquiring rights, duties, and status in the new family where he was given by his natural family, and his tie with the same family comes to an end.

The earlier concept of adoption is very much different from the early texts regarding adoption. For example, Manu further stated that 'An adopted son shall never take the family name and the estate of his natural father-the funeral cakes follow the family and the estate- the funeral offering of him who gives the son in adoption cease as far as that son is concerned. Whereas, the new concept of adoption mentioned under the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 19561956, is different from the old one. It stated that the adopted child is entitled to all rights and duties in his new, non-biological family as similar to the natural child of that family. According to the new law for the child given in adoption, there is a complete substitution of the child from the family of birth to the adopter's family. All such rights and privileges to which he or she is entitled in the family of his or her birth cease to exist on being given into adoption and such rights and privileges accrue to him or her in the adopter's family. He or she is deemed to be born in the adopter's family on the date of his or her being actually taken into adoption and the adoptive father or mother is treated as a real father or mother.

"No adoption which has been validly made can be cancelled by the adoptive father or mother or any other person, nor can the adopted child renounce his or her status, and return to his/her natural family".

Certain people are capable of adopting a child and some are not capable of doing so. Both males and females can adopt a child, but there should be of a certain age difference between the child and adopted father or mother. If the adoption is by a male and the person to be adopted is a female, the adopted parent is at least twenty-one years older than the person to be adopted. And if the adoption is by a female and the person to be adopted is a male, the adoptive mother is at least twenty-one years older than the person to be adopted. Another important point regarding adoption is that the same child may not be adopted simultaneously by two or more persons.

Q. What is the etymology of the word 'Adoption'?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 101 This is the correct answer for the above-given question.

The word adoption is derived from the French word "adoptare" which means to choose for oneself. In this case, the non-biological parents choose to adopt someone. It is the process of beginning a parent-child relationship between people who are not blood relatives.

Therefore, this is the right option.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 102

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

The word adoption is derived from the old French word Adoptare which means to choose for oneself. Adoption is the legal process of giving and taking of child to a non-biological parent. It is a process that creates a parent-child relationship between persons not related by blood. The adopted son is then taken as being born in the new family and acquires rights, duties, and status there only, and his tie with the old family comes to an end.

Adoption established ties of the son with his old family are severed, and he is taken being born in the new family, acquiring rights, duties, and status in the new family. It is simply the transplantation of a son from the family where he was born, to another family where he is given by the natural parents by way of gift. The adopted son is acquiring rights, duties, and status in the new family where he was given by his natural family, and his tie with the same family comes to an end.

The earlier concept of adoption is very much different from the early texts regarding adoption. For example, Manu further stated that 'An adopted son shall never take the family name and the estate of his natural father-the funeral cakes follow the family and the estate- the funeral offering of him who gives the son in adoption cease as far as that son is concerned. Whereas, the new concept of adoption mentioned under the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 19561956, is different from the old one. It stated that the adopted child is entitled to all rights and duties in his new, non-biological family as similar to the natural child of that family. According to the new law for the child given in adoption, there is a complete substitution of the child from the family of birth to the adopter's family. All such rights and privileges to which he or she is entitled in the family of his or her birth cease to exist on being given into adoption and such rights and privileges accrue to him or her in the adopter's family. He or she is deemed to be born in the adopter's family on the date of his or her being actually taken into adoption and the adoptive father or mother is treated as a real father or mother.

"No adoption which has been validly made can be cancelled by the adoptive father or mother or any other person, nor can the adopted child renounce his or her status, and return to his/her natural family".

Certain people are capable of adopting a child and some are not capable of doing so. Both males and females can adopt a child, but there should be of a certain age difference between the child and adopted father or mother. If the adoption is by a male and the person to be adopted is a female, the adopted parent is at least twenty-one years older than the person to be adopted. And if the adoption is by a female and the person to be adopted is a male, the adoptive mother is at least twenty-one years older than the person to be adopted. Another important point regarding adoption is that the same child may not be adopted simultaneously by two or more persons.

Q. Mohan, adopted son of Vishal gets to know that his real parents are in fact his uncle and aunt. He demands to severe all his ties from his adoptive father and intends to go back to his biological parents. Can he go back to his biological parents?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 102 This is the most appropriate answer to the given question.

Once a legally bound adoption is made, it is similar to a transplant where the child is severed from his birth family completely and is put in the new family where the kid takes the place of the child in the house.

This cannot be cancelled by the adopting family or the adopted child. So, in this case, even though Mohan wants to get back to his birth parents and severe his ties from Vishal, it cannot be done.

Therefore, this is the right option.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 103

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

The word adoption is derived from the old French word Adoptare which means to choose for oneself. Adoption is the legal process of giving and taking of child to a non-biological parent. It is a process that creates a parent-child relationship between persons not related by blood. The adopted son is then taken as being born in the new family and acquires rights, duties, and status there only, and his tie with the old family comes to an end.

Adoption established ties of the son with his old family are severed, and he is taken being born in the new family, acquiring rights, duties, and status in the new family. It is simply the transplantation of a son from the family where he was born, to another family where he is given by the natural parents by way of gift. The adopted son is acquiring rights, duties, and status in the new family where he was given by his natural family, and his tie with the same family comes to an end.

The earlier concept of adoption is very much different from the early texts regarding adoption. For example, Manu further stated that 'An adopted son shall never take the family name and the estate of his natural father-the funeral cakes follow the family and the estate- the funeral offering of him who gives the son in adoption cease as far as that son is concerned. Whereas, the new concept of adoption mentioned under the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 19561956, is different from the old one. It stated that the adopted child is entitled to all rights and duties in his new, non-biological family as similar to the natural child of that family. According to the new law for the child given in adoption, there is a complete substitution of the child from the family of birth to the adopter's family. All such rights and privileges to which he or she is entitled in the family of his or her birth cease to exist on being given into adoption and such rights and privileges accrue to him or her in the adopter's family. He or she is deemed to be born in the adopter's family on the date of his or her being actually taken into adoption and the adoptive father or mother is treated as a real father or mother.

"No adoption which has been validly made can be cancelled by the adoptive father or mother or any other person, nor can the adopted child renounce his or her status, and return to his/her natural family".

Certain people are capable of adopting a child and some are not capable of doing so. Both males and females can adopt a child, but there should be of a certain age difference between the child and adopted father or mother. If the adoption is by a male and the person to be adopted is a female, the adopted parent is at least twenty-one years older than the person to be adopted. And if the adoption is by a female and the person to be adopted is a male, the adoptive mother is at least twenty-one years older than the person to be adopted. Another important point regarding adoption is that the same child may not be adopted simultaneously by two or more persons.

Q. Vikas aged 30 30 years, wants to adopt Ravi. Ravi, the adopted son of Kavita, is 8 years old. Can he do so?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 103 This is the most appropriate answer to the given question.

According to the laws of adoption, when it is done validly the family cannot cancel it in the future and the child also cannot renounce his status from the adopted family.

Similarly, one person cannot be adopted simultaneously by two or more people.

So in this case Vikas cannot adopt Ravi because he is already the adopted son of Kavita.

Therefore, this is the right option.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 104

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

The word adoption is derived from the old French word Adoptare which means to choose for oneself. Adoption is the legal process of giving and taking of child to a non-biological parent. It is a process that creates a parent-child relationship between persons not related by blood. The adopted son is then taken as being born in the new family and acquires rights, duties, and status there only, and his tie with the old family comes to an end.

Adoption established ties of the son with his old family are severed, and he is taken being born in the new family, acquiring rights, duties, and status in the new family. It is simply the transplantation of a son from the family where he was born, to another family where he is given by the natural parents by way of gift. The adopted son is acquiring rights, duties, and status in the new family where he was given by his natural family, and his tie with the same family comes to an end.

The earlier concept of adoption is very much different from the early texts regarding adoption. For example, Manu further stated that 'An adopted son shall never take the family name and the estate of his natural father-the funeral cakes follow the family and the estate- the funeral offering of him who gives the son in adoption cease as far as that son is concerned. Whereas, the new concept of adoption mentioned under the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 19561956, is different from the old one. It stated that the adopted child is entitled to all rights and duties in his new, non-biological family as similar to the natural child of that family. According to the new law for the child given in adoption, there is a complete substitution of the child from the family of birth to the adopter's family. All such rights and privileges to which he or she is entitled in the family of his or her birth cease to exist on being given into adoption and such rights and privileges accrue to him or her in the adopter's family. He or she is deemed to be born in the adopter's family on the date of his or her being actually taken into adoption and the adoptive father or mother is treated as a real father or mother.

"No adoption which has been validly made can be cancelled by the adoptive father or mother or any other person, nor can the adopted child renounce his or her status, and return to his/her natural family".

Certain people are capable of adopting a child and some are not capable of doing so. Both males and females can adopt a child, but there should be of a certain age difference between the child and adopted father or mother. If the adoption is by a male and the person to be adopted is a female, the adopted parent is at least twenty-one years older than the person to be adopted. And if the adoption is by a female and the person to be adopted is a male, the adoptive mother is at least twenty-one years older than the person to be adopted. Another important point regarding adoption is that the same child may not be adopted simultaneously by two or more persons.

Q. Ramesh, aged 25 years want to adopt a girl aged 7 years, Ananya. Can he do so?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 104 Ramesh cannot adopt Ananya.

It is mentioned in the passage that there are certain criteria that allow a person to adopt. A single male parent can adopt a girl child only if the age difference between them is atleast twenty-one years.

In this case, the age difference between the two is less than twenty-one,

Therefore, this is the right option.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 105

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Venus, the hottest planet in the solar system, has not enjoyed as much recent attention as Mars, as far as space missions are concerned. With surface temperatures of above 60°60° Celsius that can melt even a metal like lead, and a heavy atmosphere of carbon dioxide, the planet was considered hostile to life. This despite its being similar in size to the Earth and rocky, so much so that it is often called the Earth's "sister planet". There was some excitement when the European Space Agency's mission, Venus Express, found signs of ozone, made of three oxygen atoms and considered a biomarker, in the upper atmosphere of Venus, in 2011 2011 . But the recent discovery of traces of phosphine, another, biomarker, in its atmosphere has just given the search for extraterrestrial life a shot in the arm. Phosphine, a compound of one phosphorous atom and three hydrogen atoms, is given out by some microbes during biochemical processes. In an atmosphere rich in carbon dioxide, it is likely to get destroyed soon. However, the researchers estimate that phosphine forms about 20 parts per billion of Venus's atmosphere. This fact, when added to the hostile conditions on its surface, yields tantalising possibilities - of phosphine's survival through extraordinary chemistry and thermodynamics or the stubborn triumph of biology and life.

This finding was the result of years of careful study by a team of international astronomers led by Jane S. Greaves of Cardiff University and was announced in a paper published in Nature Astronomy. Prof. Greaves first identified phosphine in Venus's atmosphere in 20172017, using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii. Further study and precise observations using the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array facility in Chile confirmed the suspicions of the researchers in 2019 2019 . The very caution exercised by the researchers in announcing the fact underlines the lack of knowledge about these systems and the need to make sure before celebrating the discovery of extra-terrestrial life.

Q. Which of the following statements weakens the argument that "with surface temperatures of above 460°460° Celsius that can melt even a metal like lead, and a heavy atmosphere of carbon dioxide, the Venus planet was considered hostile to life."

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 105 According to the introduction of the passage,

Venus, the hottest planet in the solar system, has not enjoyed as much recent attention as Mars, as far as space missions are concerned. With surface temperatures of above 40 degree Celsius that can melt even a metal like lead, and a heavy atmosphere of carbon dioxide, the planet was considered hostile to life. This despite its being similar in size to the Earth and rocky, so much so that it is often called the Earth's "sister planet".

None of the options supports the statement.

Hence, "None of the above" is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 106

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Venus, the hottest planet in the solar system, has not enjoyed as much recent attention as Mars, as far as space missions are concerned. With surface temperatures of above 60°60° Celsius that can melt even a metal like lead, and a heavy atmosphere of carbon dioxide, the planet was considered hostile to life. This despite its being similar in size to the Earth and rocky, so much so that it is often called the Earth's "sister planet". There was some excitement when the European Space Agency's mission, Venus Express, found signs of ozone, made of three oxygen atoms and considered a biomarker, in the upper atmosphere of Venus, in 2011 2011 . But the recent discovery of traces of phosphine, another, biomarker, in its atmosphere has just given the search for extraterrestrial life a shot in the arm. Phosphine, a compound of one phosphorous atom and three hydrogen atoms, is given out by some microbes during biochemical processes. In an atmosphere rich in carbon dioxide, it is likely to get destroyed soon. However, the researchers estimate that phosphine forms about 20 parts per billion of Venus's atmosphere. This fact, when added to the hostile conditions on its surface, yields tantalising possibilities - of phosphine's survival through extraordinary chemistry and thermodynamics or the stubborn triumph of biology and life.

This finding was the result of years of careful study by a team of international astronomers led by Jane S. Greaves of Cardiff University and was announced in a paper published in Nature Astronomy. Prof. Greaves first identified phosphine in Venus's atmosphere in 20172017, using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii. Further study and precise observations using the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array facility in Chile confirmed the suspicions of the researchers in 2019 2019 . The very caution exercised by the researchers in announcing the fact underlines the lack of knowledge about these systems and the need to make sure before celebrating the discovery of extra-terrestrial life.

Q. Which of the following is true as per the passage above?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 106 According to the passage,

Greaves first identified phosphine in Venus's atmosphere in 2017 using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii.

From the above statement, we can say that,

Hence, "Phosphine was first identified on Venus by Prof. Greaves in the year 2017" is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 107

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Venus, the hottest planet in the solar system, has not enjoyed as much recent attention as Mars, as far as space missions are concerned. With surface temperatures of above 60°60° Celsius that can melt even a metal like lead, and a heavy atmosphere of carbon dioxide, the planet was considered hostile to life. This despite its being similar in size to the Earth and rocky, so much so that it is often called the Earth's "sister planet". There was some excitement when the European Space Agency's mission, Venus Express, found signs of ozone, made of three oxygen atoms and considered a biomarker, in the upper atmosphere of Venus, in 2011 . But the recent discovery of traces of phosphine, another, biomarker, in its atmosphere has just given the search for extraterrestrial life a shot in the arm. Phosphine, a compound of one phosphorous atom and three hydrogen atoms, is given out by some microbes during biochemical processes. In an atmosphere rich in carbon dioxide, it is likely to get destroyed soon. However, the researchers estimate that phosphine forms about 20 parts per billion of Venus's atmosphere. This fact, when added to the hostile conditions on its surface, yields tantalising possibilities - of phosphine's survival through extraordinary chemistry and thermodynamics or the stubborn triumph of biology and life.

This finding was the result of years of careful study by a team of international astronomers led by Jane S. Greaves of Cardiff University and was announced in a paper published in Nature Astronomy. Prof. Greaves first identified phosphine in Venus's atmosphere in 2017, using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii. Further study and precise observations using the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array facility in Chile confirmed the suspicions of the researchers in 2019. The very caution exercised by the researchers in announcing the fact underlines the lack of knowledge about these systems and the need to make sure before celebrating the discovery of extra-terrestrial life.

Q. "This fact, when added to the hostile conditions on its surface, yields tantalising possibilities"Which fact is being mentioned in these lines of the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 107 As it is mentioned in the passage,

Phosphine, a compound of one phosphorous atom and three hydrogen atoms, is given out by some microbes during biochemical processes. In an atmosphere rich in carbon dioxide, it is likely to get destroyed soon. However, the researchers estimate that phosphine forms about 20 parts per billion of Venus's atmosphere. This fact, when added to the hostile conditions on its surface, yields tantalising possibilities - of phosphine's survival through extraordinary chemistry and thermodynamics or the stubborn triumph of biology and life.

Hence,''Phosphine forms about 20 parts per billion of Venus's atmosphere'' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 108

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Venus, the hottest planet in the solar system, has not enjoyed as much recent attention as Mars, as far as space missions are concerned. With surface temperatures of above 60°60° Celsius that can melt even a metal like lead, and a heavy atmosphere of carbon dioxide, the planet was considered hostile to life. This despite its being similar in size to the Earth and rocky, so much so that it is often called the Earth's "sister planet". There was some excitement when the European Space Agency's mission, Venus Express, found signs of ozone, made of three oxygen atoms and considered a biomarker, in the upper atmosphere of Venus, in 2011. But the recent discovery of traces of phosphine, another, biomarker, in its atmosphere has just given the search for extraterrestrial life a shot in the arm. Phosphine, a compound of one phosphorous atom and three hydrogen atoms, is given out by some microbes during biochemical processes. In an atmosphere rich in carbon dioxide, it is likely to get destroyed soon. However, the researchers estimate that phosphine forms about 20 parts per billion of Venus's atmosphere. This fact, when added to the hostile conditions on its surface, yields tantalising possibilities - of phosphine's survival through extraordinary chemistry and thermodynamics or the stubborn triumph of biology and life.

This finding was the result of years of careful study by a team of international astronomers led by Jane S. Greaves of Cardiff University and was announced in a paper published in Nature Astronomy. Prof. Greaves first identified phosphine in Venus's atmosphere in 20172017, using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii. Further study and precise observations using the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array facility in Chile confirmed the suspicions of the researchers in 2019 2019 . The very caution exercised by the researchers in announcing the fact underlines the lack of knowledge about these systems and the need to make sure before celebrating the discovery of extra-terrestrial life.

Q. Which planet is similar to the size of the Earth and is called its "sister planet"?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 108 In the first paragraph of the passage it is mentioned that Venus despite being similar in size to the Earth and rocky, so much so that it is often called the Earth's "sister planet".

So, from the above statement we can say that,

Hence,''Venus'' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 109

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Venus, the hottest planet in the solar system, has not enjoyed as much recent attention as Mars, as far as space missions are concerned. With surface temperatures of above 60°60° Celsius that can melt even a metal like lead, and a heavy atmosphere of carbon dioxide, the planet was considered hostile to life. This despite its being similar in size to the Earth and rocky, so much so that it is often called the Earth's "sister planet". There was some excitement when the European Space Agency's mission, Venus Express, found signs of ozone, made of three oxygen atoms and considered a biomarker, in the upper atmosphere of Venus, in 2011. But the recent discovery of traces of phosphine, another, biomarker, in its atmosphere has just given the search for extraterrestrial life a shot in the arm. Phosphine, a compound of one phosphorous atom and three hydrogen atoms, is given out by some microbes during biochemical processes. In an atmosphere rich in carbon dioxide, it is likely to get destroyed soon. However, the researchers estimate that phosphine forms about 20 parts per billion of Venus's atmosphere. This fact, when added to the hostile conditions on its surface, yields tantalising possibilities - of phosphine's survival through extraordinary chemistry and thermodynamics or the stubborn triumph of biology and life.

This finding was the result of years of careful study by a team of international astronomers led by Jane S. Greaves of Cardiff University and was announced in a paper published in Nature Astronomy. Prof. Greaves first identified phosphine in Venus's atmosphere in 20172017, using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii. Further study and precise observations using the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array facility in Chile confirmed the suspicions of the researchers in 2019. The very caution exercised by the researchers in announcing the fact underlines the lack of knowledge about these systems and the need to make sure before celebrating the discovery of extra-terrestrial life.

Q. "Venus is the hottest planet in the solar system", Which of the following statements serves as a plausible explanation for the same?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 109 As it is mentioned in the first paragraph of the passage,

With surface temperatures of above 460 degree Celsius that can melt even a metal like lead, and a heavy atmosphere of carbon dioxide, the planet was considered hostile to life.

Hence, ''The surface temperature of Venus can melt hard metals also.'' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 110

Direction: Read the passage and the answer the questions given below.

I'll introduce you to The Three Investigators. Jupiter Jones, Pete Crenshaw, and Bob Andrews make up this junior detective firm. They use their spare time to solve any mysteries that come their way, and I mean any. No puzzle is too bizarre or obscure for them. The boys live in Rocky Beach, California, a town on the Pacific Coasta few miles from. Hollywood. Pete and Bob live with their parents, and Jupiter lives with his aunt and uncle, Titus and Mathilda Jones, who own and operate the Jones Salvage Yard. In that rather extraordinary junkyard you can find almost anything.

One thing you can't find in this junkyard is the Headquarters of The Three Investigators. It's a thirty-foot mobile home that Titus Jones was never able to sell. So, Jupiter and his pals use it as their office and have it hidden from sight under a great mound of junk. The adults have forgotten about the trailer. Only the Three Investigators know it's there, and they keep it a mystery by using secret passage ways to enter and exit. The entrance they use most is called Tunnel Two. It's a piece of corrugated pipe that runs from their outdoor work shop, partly underground, beneath some junk, and under Headquarters. After crawling through the pipe, they enter Headquarters through a trap door.

And the inside of Headquarters is a lot more than a bare room. The boys have rigged up a small laboratory, a darkroom, and an office with a desk, typewriter, telephone, tape recorder, and a lot of reference books. All the equipment was rebuilt by The Three Investigators from junk that came into the salvage yard. But my three young friends don't spend all their time in this secret trailer. Sometimes they need to travel long distances on a case. When that happens, they can use a gold-plated Rolls-Royce -complete with chauffeur - which Jupiter won the use of in a contest. The boys have this privilege for thirty days. For local travel, they ride their bikes or sometimes get Hans and Konrad, the big Bavarian yard helpers, to give them a lift in one of the salvage-yard trucks.

Q. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage above?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 110 After reading the passage, we can see from the first and the second paragraph that the three friends love to solve mysteries whenever they have free time and also about the address of their office.

Hence, 'Both (a) and (b)' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 111

Direction: Read the passage and the answer the questions given below.

I'll introduce you to The Three Investigators. Jupiter Jones, Pete Crenshaw, and Bob Andrews make up this junior detective firm. They use their spare time to solve any mysteries that come their way, and I mean any. No puzzle is too bizarre or obscure for them. The boys live in Rocky Beach, California, a town on the Pacific Coasta few miles from. Hollywood. Pete and Bob live with their parents, and Jupiter lives with his aunt and uncle, Titus and Mathilda Jones, who own and operate the Jones Salvage Yard. In that rather extraordinary junkyard you can find almost anything.

One thing you can't find in this junkyard is the Headquarters of The Three Investigators. It's a thirty-foot mobile home that Titus Jones was never able to sell. So, Jupiter and his pals use it as their office and have it hidden from sight under a great mound of junk. The adults have forgotten about the trailer. Only the Three Investigators know it's there, and they keep it a mystery by using secret passage ways to enter and exit. The entrance they use most is called Tunnel Two. It's a piece of corrugated pipe that runs from their outdoor work shop, partly underground, beneath some junk, and under Headquarters. After crawling through the pipe, they enter Headquarters through a trap door.

And the inside of Headquarters is a lot more than a bare room. The boys have rigged up a small laboratory, a darkroom, and an office with a desk, typewriter, telephone, tape recorder, and a lot of reference books. All the equipment was rebuilt by The Three Investigators from junk that came into the salvage yard. But my three young friends don't spend all their time in this secret trailer. Sometimes they need to travel long distances on a case. When that happens, they can use a gold-plated Rolls-Royce -complete with chauffeur - which Jupiter won the use of in a contest. The boys have this privilege for thirty days. For local travel, they ride their bikes or sometimes get Hans and Konrad, the big Bavarian yard helpers, to give them a lift in one of the salvage-yard trucks.

Q. "The boys have this privilege for thirty days." What privilege is being mentioned here?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 111 After reading the passage, we can clearly see that in the second last line of the paragraph it is written that they have the privilege to use a chauffeur driven gold-plated Rolls-Royce.

Hence, 'They can use a chauffeur driven gold-plated Rolls-Royce' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 112

Direction: Read the passage and the answer the questions given below.

I'll introduce you to The Three Investigators. Jupiter Jones, Pete Crenshaw, and Bob Andrews make up this junior detective firm. They use their spare time to solve any mysteries that come their way, and I mean any. No puzzle is too bizarre or obscure for them. The boys live in Rocky Beach, California, a town on the Pacific Coasta few miles from. Hollywood. Pete and Bob live with their parents, and Jupiter lives with his aunt and uncle, Titus and Mathilda Jones, who own and operate the Jones Salvage Yard. In that rather extraordinary junkyard you can find almost anything.

One thing you can't find in this junkyard is the Headquarters of The Three Investigators. It's a thirty-foot mobile home that Titus Jones was never able to sell. So, Jupiter and his pals use it as their office and have it hidden from sight under a great mound of junk. The adults have forgotten about the trailer. Only the Three Investigators know it's there, and they keep it a mystery by using secret passage ways to enter and exit. The entrance they use most is called Tunnel Two. It's a piece of corrugated pipe that runs from their outdoor work shop, partly underground, beneath some junk, and under Headquarters. After crawling through the pipe, they enter Headquarters through a trap door.

And the inside of Headquarters is a lot more than a bare room. The boys have rigged up a small laboratory, a darkroom, and an office with a desk, typewriter, telephone, tape recorder, and a lot of reference books. All the equipment was rebuilt by The Three Investigators from junk that came into the salvage yard. But my three young friends don't spend all their time in this secret trailer. Sometimes they need to travel long distances on a case. When that happens, they can use a gold-plated Rolls-Royce -complete with chauffeur - which Jupiter won the use of in a contest. The boys have this privilege for thirty days. For local travel, they ride their bikes or sometimes get Hans and Konrad, the big Bavarian yard helpers, to give them a lift in one of the salvage-yard trucks.

Q. Which of the following statements cannot be inferred from the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 112 After reading the passage we can see that Jupiter is staying with his aunt and uncle but nowhere in the passage it is told that Jupiter's parents died in an accident. So, statement of first option cannot be inferred from the passage.

Other two statements are true and can be inferred from the passage.

Hence, 'Jupitar lost his parents in an accident so he was living with his aunt and uncle.' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 113

Direction: Read the passage and the answer the questions given below.

I'll introduce you to The Three Investigators. Jupiter Jones, Pete Crenshaw, and Bob Andrews make up this junior detective firm. They use their spare time to solve any mysteries that come their way, and I mean any. No puzzle is too bizarre or obscure for them. The boys live in Rocky Beach, California, a town on the Pacific Coasta few miles from. Hollywood. Pete and Bob live with their parents, and Jupiter lives with his aunt and uncle, Titus and Mathilda Jones, who own and operate the Jones Salvage Yard. In that rather extraordinary junkyard you can find almost anything.

One thing you can't find in this junkyard is the Headquarters of The Three Investigators. It's a thirty-foot mobile home that Titus Jones was never able to sell. So, Jupiter and his pals use it as their office and have it hidden from sight under a great mound of junk. The adults have forgotten about the trailer. Only the Three Investigators know it's there, and they keep it a mystery by using secret passage ways to enter and exit. The entrance they use most is called Tunnel Two. It's a piece of corrugated pipe that runs from their outdoor work shop, partly underground, beneath some junk, and under Headquarters. After crawling through the pipe, they enter Headquarters through a trap door.

And the inside of Headquarters is a lot more than a bare room. The boys have rigged up a small laboratory, a darkroom, and an office with a desk, typewriter, telephone, tape recorder, and a lot of reference books. All the equipment was rebuilt by The Three Investigators from junk that came into the salvage yard. But my three young friends don't spend all their time in this secret trailer. Sometimes they need to travel long distances on a case. When that happens, they can use a gold-plated Rolls-Royce -complete with chauffeur - which Jupiter won the use of in a contest. The boys have this privilege for thirty days. For local travel, they ride their bikes or sometimes get Hans and Konrad, the big Bavarian yard helpers, to give them a lift in one of the salvage-yard trucks.

Q. Consider the following statement: "No puzzle is too bizarre or obscure for the Three Investigators". Which of the following go against the Author's statement?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 113 After reading the passage we can see that both the first and the second statements go against the statement given in the question.

First option tells that the three investigators are not so apt to solve mystery cases which is completely opposite to the passage given.

Second option tells that investigators can only solve simple cases which is again opposite to the passage.

Hence, 'Both (a) and (b)' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 114

Direction: Read the passage and the answer the questions given below.

I'll introduce you to The Three Investigators. Jupiter Jones, Pete Crenshaw, and Bob Andrews make up this junior detective firm. They use their spare time to solve any mysteries that come their way, and I mean any. No puzzle is too bizarre or obscure for them. The boys live in Rocky Beach, California, a town on the Pacific Coasta few miles from. Hollywood. Pete and Bob live with their parents, and Jupiter lives with his aunt and uncle, Titus and Mathilda Jones, who own and operate the Jones Salvage Yard. In that rather extraordinary junkyard you can find almost anything.

One thing you can't find in this junkyard is the Headquarters of The Three Investigators. It's a thirty-foot mobile home that Titus Jones was never able to sell. So, Jupiter and his pals use it as their office and have it hidden from sight under a great mound of junk. The adults have forgotten about the trailer. Only the Three Investigators know it's there, and they keep it a mystery by using secret passage ways to enter and exit. The entrance they use most is called Tunnel Two. It's a piece of corrugated pipe that runs from their outdoor work shop, partly underground, beneath some junk, and under Headquarters. After crawling through the pipe, they enter Headquarters through a trap door.

And the inside of Headquarters is a lot more than a bare room. The boys have rigged up a small laboratory, a darkroom, and an office with a desk, typewriter, telephone, tape recorder, and a lot of reference books. All the equipment was rebuilt by The Three Investigators from junk that came into the salvage yard. But my three young friends don't spend all their time in this secret trailer. Sometimes they need to travel long distances on a case. When that happens, they can use a gold-plated Rolls-Royce -complete with chauffeur - which Jupiter won the use of in a contest. The boys have this privilege for thirty days. For local travel, they ride their bikes or sometimes get Hans and Konrad, the big Bavarian yard helpers, to give them a lift in one of the salvage-yard trucks.

Q. Which of the following statements is TRUE in the context of the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 114 After reading the whole passage, we can clearly see that only the first option which states that 'The three investigators have the ability to solve any kind of mysteries' is True in the context of the passage.

Other statements are not true in the context of the passage.

Hence, 'The three investigators have the ability to solve any kind of mysteries' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 115

Direction: Read the passage and answer the questions given below.

Solar power tariffs keep crashing, without an end in sight. That is good news. Media reports indicate that recent bids invited by Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) recorded tariffs of Rs 2 per unit, a marked fall from the previous low of Rs 2.362.36 per unit. The constant lowering of tariffs gels with India's ambitious plan to transition towards, increasing the incidence of renewable energy sources to power the economy. Under the umbrella of renewable energy sources, solar power is arguably the most important. It is where technological advances promise to make today's low tariffs irrelevant soon.

The Narendra Modi government signalled that increasing solar power generation is a policy priority early in its first term. It set a target of increasing installed capacity to100 GW by 2022. It was a smart move which coincided with a crash in prices of solar energy equipment. To illustrate, India's solar capacity at the end of 2019-20 was 34.62GW, of which 65% had come up in the preceding three years. The favourable global environment was supplemented by some sensible policy decisions to encourage investment in solar power.

Policies such as waiving interstate transmission charges and setting up solar parks to reduce capital costs played a part in the boom. To build on this and hasten India's transition to an energy economy less dependent on fossil fuels, we need to address challenges that lie ahead. China has played an important part in the ramp up of solar capacity as it is a large supplier of solar cells. In the last four years, China has supplied around 75% to 90% of the value of solar cells imported into India each year. For strategic reasons, the situation cannot continue.

Q. ''Media reports indicate that recent bids invited by Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) recorded tariffs of Rs 2 per unit, a marked fall from the previous low of Rs 2.36 per unit.'' Which of the following statements serves as a plausible explanation for the same?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 115 After reading the passage, we can see that the statement given in the question is in the first line of the passage which states that the price of the solar tariffs has reduced which will definitely make it easy for the companies to be able to use renewable resources easily.

Hence, 'SECI is lowering the solar power tariff to make it easier for the companies to be able to use these renewable resources easily' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 116

Direction: Read the passage and answer the questions given below.

Solar power tariffs keep crashing, without an end in sight. That is good news. Media reports indicate that recent bids invited by Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) recorded tariffs of Rs 2 per unit, a marked fall from the previous low of Rs 2.362.36 per unit. The constant lowering of tariffs gels with India's ambitious plan to transition towards, increasing the incidence of renewable energy sources to power the economy. Under the umbrella of renewable energy sources, solar power is arguably the most important. It is where technological advances promise to make today's low tariffs irrelevant soon.

The Narendra Modi government signalled that increasing solar power generation is a policy priority early in its first term. It set a target of increasing installed capacity to 100 GW by 2022. It was a smart move which coincided with a crash in prices of solar energy equipment. To illustrate, India's solar capacity at the end of 2019-20 was 34.62GW, of which 65% had come up in the preceding three years. The favourable global environment was supplemented by some sensible policy decisions to encourage investment in solar power.

Policies such as waiving interstate transmission charges and setting up solar parks to reduce capital costs played a part in the boom. To build on this and hasten India's transition to an energy economy less dependent on fossil fuels, we need to address challenges that lie ahead. China has played an important part in the ramp up of solar capacity as it is a large supplier of solar cells. In the last four years, China has supplied around 75% to 90% of the value of solar cells imported into India each year. For strategic reasons, the situation cannot continue.

Q Which statement goes against the idea given in the statement- "The Narendra Modi government signalled that increasing solar power generation is a policy priority early in its first term." ?

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 116 After reading the passage, we can see that in the first line of the second paragraph it is told that The Narendra Modi government signalled that increasing solar power generation is a priority. All the options given strengthens the statement. None of the options is against the statement.

Hence, 'None of these' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 117

Direction: Read the passage and answer the questions given below.

Solar power tariffs keep crashing, without an end in sight. That is good news. Media reports indicate that recent bids invited by Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) recorded tariffs of Rs 2 per unit, a marked fall from the previous low of Rs 2.362.36 per unit. The constant lowering of tariffs gels with India's ambitious plan to transition towards, increasing the incidence of renewable energy sources to power the economy. Under the umbrella of renewable energy sources, solar power is arguably the most important. It is where technological advances promise to make today's low tariffs irrelevant soon.

The Narendra Modi government signalled that increasing solar power generation is a policy priority early in its first term. It set a target of increasing installed capacity to100 GW by 2022. It was a smart move which coincided with a crash in prices of solar energy equipment. To illustrate, India's solar capacity at the end of 2019-20 was 34.62 GW, of which 65% had come up in the preceding three years. The favourable global environment was supplemented by some sensible policy decisions to encourage investment in solar power.

Policies such as waiving interstate transmission charges and setting up solar parks to reduce capital costs played a part in the boom. To build on this and hasten India's transition to an energy economy less dependent on fossil fuels, we need to address challenges that lie ahead. China has played an important part in the ramp up of solar capacity as it is a large supplier of solar cells. In the last four years, China has supplied around 75% to 90% of the value of solar cells imported into India each year. For strategic reasons, the situation cannot continue.

Q. What is implicit from these lines of the passage"In the last four years, China has supplied around 75% to 90% of the value of solar cells imported into India each year".

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 117 After reading the passage, we can see that in the last line of the passage it is given that China supplied maximum amount of solar cells imported into India.

We can conclude from the statement that China manufactures good quantity of solar cells. So, only the statement in the first option is implicit.

Hence, 'China is a country that manufactures good quantity of solar cells and supplies to other countries as well' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 118

Direction: Read the passage and answer the questions given below.

Solar power tariffs keep crashing, without an end in sight. That is good news. Media reports indicate that recent bids invited by Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) recorded tariffs of Rs 2 per unit, a marked fall from the previous low of Rs 2.362.36 per unit. The constant lowering of tariffs gels with India's ambitious plan to transition towards, increasing the incidence of renewable energy sources to power the economy. Under the umbrella of renewable energy sources, solar power is arguably the most important. It is where technological advances promise to make today's low tariffs irrelevant soon.

The Narendra Modi government signalled that increasing solar power generation is a policy priority early in its first term. It set a target of increasing installed capacity to 100 GW by 2022. It was a smart move which coincided with a crash in prices of solar energy equipment. To illustrate, India's solar capacity at the end of 2019-20 was 34.62GW, of which 65% had come up in the preceding three years. The favourable global environment was supplemented by some sensible policy decisions to encourage investment in solar power.

Policies such as waiving interstate transmission charges and setting up solar parks to reduce capital costs played a part in the boom. To build on this and hasten India's transition to an energy economy less dependent on fossil fuels, we need to address challenges that lie ahead. China has played an important part in the ramp up of solar capacity as it is a large supplier of solar cells. In the last four years, China has supplied around 75% to 90% of the value of solar cells imported into India each year. For strategic reasons, the situation cannot continue.

Q. Consider this statement: "The favourable global environment was supplemented by some sensible policy decisions to encourage investment in solar power"

Which of the following statements weakens the statement?

I. The government is not interested to make, any investments in the solar power policies or schemes.

II. The ozone layer depletion is making it difficult for the sun rays to reach earth.

III. The usage of solar power would boost the economy.

IV. The solar power is the one of the most

Detailed Solution for Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 118 After reading the passage, we can say that Statement I and II weakens the given statement in the question. The statement is given in the last line of the second paragraph. The statement tells about strengthening the investment in the solar power but statement I and II weakens the statement.

Hence, 'Only I and II' is the correct answer.

Test: CLAT 2023 Mock Test- 9 - Question 119

Direction: Read the passage and answer the questions given below.

Solar power tariffs keep crashing, without an end in sight. That is good news. Media reports indicate that recent bids invited by Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) recorded tariffs of Rs 2 per unit, a marked fall from the previous low of Rs 2.362.36 per unit. The constant lowering of tariffs gels with India's am