Test: Logical Reasoning - 3


30 Questions MCQ Test Mock Test Series for CLAT 2021 | Test: Logical Reasoning - 3


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QUESTION: 1

Passage - 1

Griselda Blanco de Trujillo, in a plain white dress, with a rosary in her hand and a hole in her head, was laid to rest in the Jardines Montesacro, a posh cemetery on the southwestern extreme of Medellin. She was buried in a gold-finished coffin with a domed lid. Eight tough-looking young men, wearing sneakers, jeans, and sunglasses, carried it from the chapel to the grave site on their shoulders. Reporters had gathered to witness the end of La Madrina-"the Godmother"-as the Medellin newspapers had been calling Griselda since the 1970s. But they were warned, brusquely, not to approach closely or photograph the scene, even from a distance. They could only stand and marvel at the strange theatrics they were seeing. Some of the boys banged violently on the coffin, others smoked marijuana, and mourners cried "No te vayas, Tia!" and "La buena, Tia!" while a group of mariachis played and sang. 
The mourners had arrived in buses from Barrio Antioquia, the neighborhood where Griselda grew up, which remains a stubborn hive of vice and rosary in a rapidly pacifying, revitalizing city. They departed at dusk, leaving the grounds littered with their empty bottles of aguardiente, Colombia's ubiquitous anise liquor. Some three hundred feet away, in a lush family grave ringed by green marble and shaded by palms, lay Griselda's onetime friend and apprentice-and eventual mortal enemy-Pablo Escobar.

Which of the following is least likely to be true about Griselda Blanco de Trujillo?

Solution:

The given paragraph describes the death and the funeral ritual of a lady named Griselda Blanc de Trujillo, who was referred to as 'Godmother'. Option (a) is incorrect as the paragraph clearly mentions 'Barrio Antioquia, the neighborhood where Griselda grew up, which remains a stubborn hive of vice and misery'. Option (b) is also incorrect as the passage again, mentions the way she died i.e with 'a hole in her head,'. Option (d) is also incorrect as it is mentioned that the 8 men who carried the coffin to the place where it was to be buried, created a great ruckus by banging violently on the coffin, smoking marijuana, while a group of mariachis i.e street musicians, played and sang. Such things only happen when the dead person is a criminal and becomes a source of inspiration for youth looking for a life of crime.

QUESTION: 2

Passage - 1

Griselda Blanco de Trujillo, in a plain white dress, with a rosary in her hand and a hole in her head, was laid to rest in the Jardines Montesacro, a posh cemetery on the southwestern extreme of Medellin. She was buried in a gold-finished coffin with a domed lid. Eight tough-looking young men, wearing sneakers, jeans, and sunglasses, carried it from the chapel to the grave site on their shoulders. Reporters had gathered to witness the end of La Madrina-"the Godmother"-as the Medellin newspapers had been calling Griselda since the 1970s. But they were warned, brusquely, not to approach closely or photograph the scene, even from a distance. They could only stand and marvel at the strange theatrics they were seeing. Some of the boys banged violently on the coffin, others smoked marijuana, and mourners cried "No te vayas, Tia!" and "La buena, Tia!" while a group of mariachis played and sang. 
The mourners had arrived in buses from Barrio Antioquia, the neighborhood where Griselda grew up, which remains a stubborn hive of vice and rosary in a rapidly pacifying, revitalizing city. They departed at dusk, leaving the grounds littered with their empty bottles of aguardiente, Colombia's ubiquitous anise liquor. Some three hundred feet away, in a lush family grave ringed by green marble and shaded by palms, lay Griselda's onetime friend and apprentice-and eventual mortal enemy-Pablo Escobar.

Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

Solution:

The passage indicates that the lady was a revered mafia boss, therefore option (a) is incorrect. Pablo Escobar was an apprentice and hence (b) is incorrect. It’s clearly mentioned that she came from an impoverished locality, therefore option (d) is incorrect. The conduct of her cohorts and the press at the time of her funeral shows that she carries a lot of clout even now.

QUESTION: 3

Passage - 1

Griselda Blanco de Trujillo, in a plain white dress, with a rosary in her hand and a hole in her head, was laid to rest in the Jardines Montesacro, a posh cemetery on the southwestern extreme of Medellin. She was buried in a gold-finished coffin with a domed lid. Eight tough-looking young men, wearing sneakers, jeans, and sunglasses, carried it from the chapel to the grave site on their shoulders. Reporters had gathered to witness the end of La Madrina-"the Godmother"-as the Medellin newspapers had been calling Griselda since the 1970s. But they were warned, brusquely, not to approach closely or photograph the scene, even from a distance. They could only stand and marvel at the strange theatrics they were seeing. Some of the boys banged violently on the coffin, others smoked marijuana, and mourners cried "No te vayas, Tia!" and "La buena, Tia!" while a group of mariachis played and sang.
The mourners had arrived in buses from Barrio Antioquia, the neighborhood where Griselda grew up, which remains a stubborn hive of vice and rosary in a rapidly pacifying, revitalizing city. They departed at dusk, leaving the grounds littered with their empty bottles of aguardiente, Colombia's ubiquitous anise liquor. Some three hundred feet away, in a lush family grave ringed by green marble and shaded by palms, lay Griselda's onetime friend and apprentice-and eventual mortal enemy-Pablo Escobar.

Which of the following best explains the reason for the celebration at Griselda Blanco de T rujillo's death?

Solution:

Option (a) is incorrect. Option (c) cannot be adequately inferred. Options (b) and (d) are close. However uncontrollable grief will manifest as acts of despair and not celebration.

QUESTION: 4

Passage - 1

Griselda Blanco de Trujillo, in a plain white dress, with a rosary in her hand and a hole in her head, was laid to rest in the Jardines Montesacro, a posh cemetery on the southwestern extreme of Medellin. She was buried in a gold-finished coffin with a domed lid. Eight tough-looking young men, wearing sneakers, jeans, and sunglasses, carried it from the chapel to the grave site on their shoulders. Reporters had gathered to witness the end of La Madrina-"the Godmother"-as the Medellin newspapers had been calling Griselda since the 1970s. But they were warned, brusquely, not to approach closely or photograph the scene, even from a distance. They could only stand and marvel at the strange theatrics they were seeing. Some of the boys banged violently on the coffin, others smoked marijuana, and mourners cried "No te vayas, Tia!" and "La buena, Tia!" while a group of mariachis played and sang. 
The mourners had arrived in buses from Barrio Antioquia, the neighborhood where Griselda grew up, which remains a stubborn hive of vice and rosary in a rapidly pacifying, revitalizing city. They departed at dusk, leaving the grounds littered with their empty bottles of aguardiente, Colombia's ubiquitous anise liquor. Some three hundred feet away, in a lush family grave ringed by green marble and shaded by palms, lay Griselda's onetime friend and apprentice-and eventual mortal enemy-Pablo Escobar.

Which of the following is the most UNLIKELY to be the reason for the death of Griselda Blanco de Trujillo?

Solution:

She had a hole in her head. Hence, (d) is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 5

Passage - 1

Griselda Blanco de Trujillo, in a plain white dress, with a rosary in her hand and a hole in her head, was laid to rest in the Jardines Montesacro, a posh cemetery on the southwestern extreme of Medellin. She was buried in a gold-finished coffin with a domed lid. Eight tough-looking young men, wearing sneakers, jeans, and sunglasses, carried it from the chapel to the grave site on their shoulders. Reporters had gathered to witness the end of La Madrina-"the Godmother"-as the Medellin newspapers had been calling Griselda since the 1970s. But they were warned, brusquely, not to approach closely or photograph the scene, even from a distance. They could only stand and marvel at the strange theatrics they were seeing. Some of the boys banged violently on the coffin, others smoked marijuana, and mourners cried "No te vayas, Tia!" and "La buena, Tia!" while a group of mariachis played and sang. 
The mourners had arrived in buses from Barrio Antioquia, the neighborhood where Griselda grew up, which remains a stubborn hive of vice and rosary in a rapidly pacifying, revitalizing city. They departed at dusk, leaving the grounds littered with their empty bottles of aguardiente, Colombia's ubiquitous anise liquor. Some three hundred feet away, in a lush family grave ringed by green marble and shaded by palms, lay Griselda's onetime friend and apprentice-and eventual mortal enemy-Pablo Escobar.

Which of the following inferences cannot be drawn from the passage above?

Solution:

Option (a) cannot be inferred as she is the only such example mentioned.

QUESTION: 6

Passage - 2

It is no surprise that the International Energy Agency found that India’s carbon emissions grew by 4.8% during 2018, in spite of the national focus on climate change in energy policy. There is wide recognition of the fact that Indians are not historically responsible for the problem, and it is the rich nations led by the U.S. that have pumped in the stock of carbon dioxide linked to extreme climate impacts being witnessed around the globe. As the IEA points out, India’s emissions have grown, but per capita they remain less than 40% of the global average. Equity among nations is therefore at the centre of the discussion on energy emissions, and the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities is central to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Reassuring as this may be, the universal challenge of climate change has grown to such proportions that urgent action to sharply cut carbon emissions is crucial, and all countries, including India, must act quickly. Intensive measures in key sectors — scaling up renewables to raise their share in the energy mix, greening transport, updating building codes and raising energy efficiency—will help meet the national pledge under the Paris Agreement to cut energy intensity of GDP by 33-35% by 2030, over 2005 levels.

According to the passage which of the following accurately measures the contribution of a country to carbon emission?

Solution:

Option (b) is correct as the passage mentions that India’s contribution to the problem of climate change is less as its per capita carbon emission is low. The correct option only extrapolates this reasoning to make its point. People with high standards of living would cause more carbon emissions on an average, like the citizens of the United States.

QUESTION: 7

Passage - 2

It is no surprise that the International Energy Agency found that India’s carbon emissions grew by 4.8% during 2018, in spite of the national focus on climate change in energy policy. There is wide recognition of the fact that Indians are not historically responsible for the problem, and it is the rich nations led by the U.S. that have pumped in the stock of carbon dioxide linked to extreme climate impacts being witnessed around the globe. As the IEA points out, India’s emissions have grown, but per capita they remain less than 40% of the global average. Equity among nations is therefore at the centre of the discussion on energy emissions, and the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities is central to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Reassuring as this may be, the universal challenge of climate change has grown to such proportions that urgent action to sharply cut carbon emissions is crucial, and all countries, including India, must act quickly. Intensive measures in key sectors — scaling up renewables to raise their share in the energy mix, greening transport, updating building codes and raising energy efficiency—will help meet the national pledge under the Paris Agreement to cut energy intensity of GDP by 33-35% by 2030, over 2005 levels.

What can be inferred from the first line of the passage?

Solution:

Option (b) is correct as the passage ensures that India has changed it energy policy to address the issue of climate change, yet, its overall emissions are rising. This suggests that the change does not ensure a reduction in emissions.

QUESTION: 8

Passage - 2

It is no surprise that the International Energy Agency found that India’s carbon emissions grew by 4.8% during 2018, in spite of the national focus on climate change in energy policy. There is wide recognition of the fact that Indians are not historically responsible for the problem, and it is the rich nations led by the U.S. that have pumped in the stock of carbon dioxide linked to extreme climate impacts being witnessed around the globe. As the IEA points out, India’s emissions have grown, but per capita they remain less than 40% of the global average. Equity among nations is therefore at the centre of the discussion on energy emissions, and the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities is central to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Reassuring as this may be, the universal challenge of climate change has grown to such proportions that urgent action to sharply cut carbon emissions is crucial, and all countries, including India, must act quickly. Intensive measures in key sectors — scaling up renewables to raise their share in the energy mix, greening transport, updating building codes and raising energy efficiency—will help meet the national pledge under the Paris Agreement to cut energy intensity of GDP by 33-35% by 2030, over 2005 levels.

What does the author mean by “common but differentiated responsibilities”?

Solution:

Option (a) is correct as common means everyone’s responsibility while differentiated means not equal or same level of responsibility.

QUESTION: 9

Passage - 2

It is no surprise that the International Energy Agency found that India’s carbon emissions grew by 4.8% during 2018, in spite of the national focus on climate change in energy policy. There is wide recognition of the fact that Indians are not historically responsible for the problem, and it is the rich nations led by the U.S. that have pumped in the stock of carbon dioxide linked to extreme climate impacts being witnessed around the globe. As the IEA points out, India’s emissions have grown, but per capita they remain less than 40% of the global average. Equity among nations is therefore at the centre of the discussion on energy emissions, and the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities is central to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Reassuring as this may be, the universal challenge of climate change has grown to such proportions that urgent action to sharply cut carbon emissions is crucial, and all countries, including India, must act quickly. Intensive measures in key sectors — scaling up renewables to raise their share in the energy mix, greening transport, updating building codes and raising energy efficiency—will help meet the national pledge under the Paris Agreement to cut energy intensity of GDP by 33-35% by 2030, over 2005 levels.

Why would the point about differentiated responsibilities be reassuring in the Indian context?

Solution:

Option (b) is correct as the point about differentiated responsibilities suggests that India’s share of the collective global responsibility towards partaking in the fight climate change is not that high as its contribution to pollute the planet is also low.

QUESTION: 10

Passage - 2

It is no surprise that the International Energy Agency found that India’s carbon emissions grew by 4.8% during 2018, in spite of the national focus on climate change in energy policy. There is wide recognition of the fact that Indians are not historically responsible for the problem, and it is the rich nations led by the U.S. that have pumped in the stock of carbon dioxide linked to extreme climate impacts being witnessed around the globe. As the IEA points out, India’s emissions have grown, but per capita they remain less than 40% of the global average. Equity among nations is therefore at the centre of the discussion on energy emissions, and the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities is central to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Reassuring as this may be, the universal challenge of climate change has grown to such proportions that urgent action to sharply cut carbon emissions is crucial, and all countries, including India, must act quickly. Intensive measures in key sectors — scaling up renewables to raise their share in the energy mix, greening transport, updating building codes and raising energy efficiency—will help meet the national pledge under the Paris Agreement to cut energy intensity of GDP by 33-35% by 2030, over 2005 levels.

Which of the following choice most accurately lists the tone of the author in the passage?

Solution:

Option (c) is correct as the author uses multiple statistics and factual data to put forth his points. He also mentions advices which suggest a sense of authority on the part of the author. Option (d) is incorrect as there is no hint of subtlety in the passage. All the points are placed quite emphatically.

QUESTION: 11

Passage - 3

In the late nineteen-sixties, Carolyn Weisz, a four-year- old with long brown hair, was invited into a "game room" at the Bing Nursery School, on the campus of Stanford University. The room was little more than a large closet, containing a desk and a chair. Carolyn was asked to sit down in the chair and pick a treat from a tray of marshmallows, cookies, and pretzel sticks. Carolyn chose the marshmallow. Although she's now forty-four, Carolyn still has a weakness for those air-puffed balls of corn syrup and gelatine. "I know I shouldn't like them," she says. "But they're just so delicious!" A researcher then made Carolyn an offer: she could either eat one marshmallow right away or, if she was willing to wait while he stepped out for a few minutes, she could have two marshmallows when he returned. He said that if she rang a bell on the desk while he was away he would come running back, and she could eat one marshmallow but would forfeit the second. Then he left the room.

What could have been the purpose of the experiment mentioned above?

Solution:

The above paragraph shows an experiment done on a four year old girl where she chooses to eat a marshmallow, but is placed with 3 options in front of her: 1. To eat it right away; 2. To eat 2 marshmallows when the researcher returns after exiting the room. and 3. After the researcher exists, and if she can’t resist herself from gulping down the marshmallow, she can ring the bell, the researcher will enter and as a punishment, she'll be allowed only one marshmallow. So basically, the researcher is trying to see how long she can control herself for not eating her favourite treat. Hence, option (d) is correct. Option (c) is unrelated, option (a) is incorrect as merely making the girl understand the instruction wouldn't require so much of action. Option (b) is false because there is no risk involved in the above experiment.

QUESTION: 12

Passage - 3

In the late nineteen-sixties, Carolyn Weisz, a four-year- old with long brown hair, was invited into a "game room" at the Bing Nursery School, on the campus of Stanford University. The room was little more than a large closet, containing a desk and a chair. Carolyn was asked to sit down in the chair and pick a treat from a tray of marshmallows, cookies, and pretzel sticks. Carolyn chose the marshmallow. Although she's now forty-four, Carolyn still has a weakness for those air-puffed balls of corn syrup and gelatine. "I know I shouldn't like them," she says. "But they're just so delicious!" A researcher then made Carolyn an offer: she could either eat one marshmallow right away or, if she was willing to wait while he stepped out for a few minutes, she could have two marshmallows when he returned. He said that if she rang a bell on the desk while he was away he would come running back, and she could eat one marshmallow but would forfeit the second. Then he left the room.

Which of the following would be the most irrational decision taken by the child?

Solution:

The child would have wanted to have more than one marshmallow, so she would not have rung the bell.

QUESTION: 13

Passage - 3

In the late nineteen-sixties, Carolyn Weisz, a four-year- old with long brown hair, was invited into a "game room" at the Bing Nursery School, on the campus of Stanford University. The room was little more than a large closet, containing a desk and a chair. Carolyn was asked to sit down in the chair and pick a treat from a tray of marshmallows, cookies, and pretzel sticks. Carolyn chose the marshmallow. Although she's now forty-four, Carolyn still has a weakness for those air-puffed balls of corn syrup and gelatine. "I know I shouldn't like them," she says. "But they're just so delicious!" A researcher then made Carolyn an offer: she could either eat one marshmallow right away or, if she was willing to wait while he stepped out for a few minutes, she could have two marshmallows when he returned. He said that if she rang a bell on the desk while he was away he would come running back, and she could eat one marshmallow but would forfeit the second. Then he left the room.

Which of the following is NOT an assumption implicit in the research methodology to give the subject the decision making power?

Solution:

Weakness for marshmallows isn't the necessary criteria for the experiment. Children like sweets with different degrees of fondness for a particular sweet.

QUESTION: 14

Passage - 3

In the late nineteen-sixties, Carolyn Weisz, a four-year- old with long brown hair, was invited into a "game room" at the Bing Nursery School, on the campus of Stanford University. The room was little more than a large closet, containing a desk and a chair. Carolyn was asked to sit down in the chair and pick a treat from a tray of marshmallows, cookies, and pretzel sticks. Carolyn chose the marshmallow. Although she's now forty-four, Carolyn still has a weakness for those air-puffed balls of corn syrup and gelatine. "I know I shouldn't like them," she says. "But they're just so delicious!" A researcher then made Carolyn an offer: she could either eat one marshmallow right away or, if she was willing to wait while he stepped out for a few minutes, she could have two marshmallows when he returned. He said that if she rang a bell on the desk while he was away he would come running back, and she could eat one marshmallow but would forfeit the second. Then he left the room.

Which of the following cannot be a valid criticism of the experiment?

Solution:

While option (b) scientifically counters the merit of securing a rational decision from a 4 year old kid., option (c) mentions general behaviour pattern and hence is a weak option.

QUESTION: 15

Passage - 3

In the late nineteen-sixties, Carolyn Weisz, a four-year- old with long brown hair, was invited into a "game room" at the Bing Nursery School, on the campus of Stanford University. The room was little more than a large closet, containing a desk and a chair. Carolyn was asked to sit down in the chair and pick a treat from a tray of marshmallows, cookies, and pretzel sticks. Carolyn chose the marshmallow. Although she's now forty-four, Carolyn still has a weakness for those air-puffed balls of corn syrup and gelatine. "I know I shouldn't like them," she says. "But they're just so delicious!" A researcher then made Carolyn an offer: she could either eat one marshmallow right away or, if she was willing to wait while he stepped out for a few minutes, she could have two marshmallows when he returned. He said that if she rang a bell on the desk while he was away he would come running back, and she could eat one marshmallow but would forfeit the second. Then he left the room.

Which of the following is the most unlikely outcome of the experiment that was conducted on over 100 children?

Solution:

The chances of all children waiting patiently for the eventual higher reward is a very unlikely scenario.

QUESTION: 16

Passage - 4

UNRELATED THOUGHTS? NOT in America, where the health of the national economy is critically dependent on having all of us spend as much as we can to keep struggling retailers afloat, create jobs and generate capital. Consumption is such a vital part of the American economy it long ago superseded good old-fashioned manufacturing that the most closely watched economic indicator is something called consumer confidence, a vague notion that probably can't even be measured accurately. Whenever consumer confidence plunges, as it did after the great Internet bust of 2000 or after the September 11 attacks, government officials are sent scurrying to the airwaves to say there's no reason to panic so long as everyone does his patriotic duty and shops. Remember how New York's mayor, Rudolph Giuliani, responded when asked how Americans could help New York in the days just after the attacks? He didn't say, donate to the Red Cross, or Go to church and pray for our wounded city. He told them to come to New York and spend money.

What can be the appropriate title for the passage given above?

Solution:

The above paragraph shows that, peculiarly, America's economy doesn't run on manufacturing industries' profits, it runs on the consumer consumption. The more people shop, the better the economy gets. Shopping helps retailers run their show, generate employment and capital. Even during economic downturns, people are advised to shop so as to recover the economy.

QUESTION: 17

Passage - 4

UNRELATED THOUGHTS? NOT in America, where the health of the national economy is critically dependent on having all of us spend as much as we can to keep struggling retailers afloat, create jobs and generate capital. Consumption is such a vital part of the American economy it long ago superseded good old-fashioned manufacturing that the most closely watched economic indicator is something called consumer confidence, a vague notion that probably can't even be measured accurately. Whenever consumer confidence plunges, as it did after the great Internet bust of 2000 or after the September 11 attacks, government officials are sent scurrying to the airwaves to say there's no reason to panic so long as everyone does his patriotic duty and shops. Remember how New York's mayor, Rudolph Giuliani, responded when asked how Americans could help New York in the days just after the attacks? He didn't say, donate to the Red Cross, or Go to church and pray for our wounded city. He told them to come to New York and spend money.

Which of the following can be inferred from the given passage?

Solution:

The author's almost horrified criticism of lack of accuracy of economic data for consumer confidence indicates that economic indicators are supposed to have accurate data.

QUESTION: 18

Passage - 4

UNRELATED THOUGHTS? NOT in America, where the health of the national economy is critically dependent on having all of us spend as much as we can to keep struggling retailers afloat, create jobs and generate capital. Consumption is such a vital part of the American economy it long ago superseded good old-fashioned manufacturing that the most closely watched economic indicator is something called consumer confidence, a vague notion that probably can't even be measured accurately. Whenever consumer confidence plunges, as it did after the great Internet bust of 2000 or after the September 11 attacks, government officials are sent scurrying to the airwaves to say there's no reason to panic so long as everyone does his patriotic duty and shops. Remember how New York's mayor, Rudolph Giuliani, responded when asked how Americans could help New York in the days just after the attacks? He didn't say, donate to the Red Cross, or Go to church and pray for our wounded city. He told them to come to New York and spend money.

Which of the following will most weaken the author's argument?

Solution:

Option (a) reverses the cause-effect relationship, therefore incorrect. Option (b) doesn't explain the reason for the government to promote spending. Option (d) gives an example of a unique situation only.

QUESTION: 19

Passage - 4

UNRELATED THOUGHTS? NOT in America, where the health of the national economy is critically dependent on having all of us spend as much as we can to keep struggling retailers afloat, create jobs and generate capital. Consumption is such a vital part of the American economy it long ago superseded good old-fashioned manufacturing that the most closely watched economic indicator is something called consumer confidence, a vague notion that probably can't even be measured accurately. Whenever consumer confidence plunges, as it did after the great Internet bust of 2000 or after the September 11 attacks, government officials are sent scurrying to the airwaves to say there's no reason to panic so long as everyone does his patriotic duty and shops. Remember how New York's mayor, Rudolph Giuliani, responded when asked how Americans could help New York in the days just after the attacks? He didn't say, donate to the Red Cross, or Go to church and pray for our wounded city. He told them to come to New York and spend money.

Which of the following can be inferred about Rudolph Giuliani?

Solution:

None of the other options can be properly inferred except (a).

QUESTION: 20

Passage - 4

UNRELATED THOUGHTS? NOT in America, where the health of the national economy is critically dependent on having all of us spend as much as we can to keep struggling retailers afloat, create jobs and generate capital. Consumption is such a vital part of the American economy it long ago superseded good old-fashioned manufacturing that the most closely watched economic indicator is something called consumer confidence, a vague notion that probably can't even be measured accurately. Whenever consumer confidence plunges, as it did after the great Internet bust of 2000 or after the September 11 attacks, government officials are sent scurrying to the airwaves to say there's no reason to panic so long as everyone does his patriotic duty and shops. Remember how New York's mayor, Rudolph Giuliani, responded when asked how Americans could help New York in the days just after the attacks? He didn't say, donate to the Red Cross, or Go to church and pray for our wounded city. He told them to come to New York and spend money.

Which of the following best reflect author's attitude towards government propaganda to encourage shopping?

Solution:

Author is categorical in his resentment at government's attempts to coerce public to spend. However it stems from the frustration at the disproportionate importance given to spending by government rather than an outright rejection.

QUESTION: 21

Szymanski suggests that the problem of racism in football may be present even today. He begins by verifying an earlier hypothesis that clubs’ wage bills explain 90 per cent of their performance. Thus, if players’ salaries were to be only based on their abilities, clubs that spend more should finish higher. If there is pay discrimination against some group of players — fewer teams bidding for black players thus lowering the salaries for blacks with the same ability as whites — that neat relation may no longer hold. He concludes that certain clubs seem to have achieved much less than what they could have, by not recruiting black players.

Which one of the following findings would best support Szymanski’s conclusion?

Solution:

The argument states that ‘clubs that spend more should finish at a higher ranking’. This is reflected in ‘highly paid white players returned a low ranking’. (a) focuses on clubs that recruited black players, a consequence Szymanski is not immediately concerned with. (c) also throws no light on the relation ‘clubs that spend more should finish higher’. Nor does (d).

QUESTION: 22

There has been no end of attacks on this particular strategy. Naysayers have contended that the strategy is flawed, that the company will not benefit by taking such a risk, that our financial situation does not warrant the risk involved. These critics need to understand that risk is not necessarily a bad thing. It's complacency that we need to watch out for.

The argument above

Solution:

Naysayers suggest that that the company cannot adopt the recommended strategy because the financial condition of the company does not allow them to take any risk and the author responds by stating that risk is not a bad thing. He distorts the original argument and makes it seem that the company is averse to the idea of taking risk because they feel its bad whereas the company’s reason for not taking risk is its financial condition. Option (b) best encompasses the essence of the text. Option (a) is incorrect because there is no element of emotion in the argument. Option (c) is eliminated as the author does not prove anything in the argument. Option (d) can be ruled out since there is no conclusion drawn.

QUESTION: 23

Punishment seems to direct child behavior by using pain or unpleasantness. But since it stops bad behavior just for the moment, punishment does not teach your child the behavior you want him to learn.

Which of the following exhibits a pattern of reasoning similar to the one used in the argument above?

Solution:

The argument says that although punishment deters the child from behaving in a certain way, it fails to teach him the behaviour that parents want the children to learn. This momentary deterrence is because of the fear of pain. Option (c) is similar in reasoning as it states that a permanent problem is treated as a temporary one at a workplace. Consequently such process only manages to resolve the problem at hand but fails to provide permanent solutions. Options (a) and (b) are not similar in pattern to the given argument. Option (d) is incorrect because it talks about increased risks of repeating the action, which is not indicated in the main argument.

QUESTION: 24

In each question below, a statement is given followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.

Statement: Faced with the increasing cases of suicides by school students, state government has decided to ban corporal punishment in schools. The decision has been vehemently protested by by the teachers who feel that the main purpose of the school is to prepare them for the challenges of real world.

Assumptions:
I. Such punishments cause undue stress and embarrassment to students driving some of them to suicide.
II. They make the students more disciplined, preparing them for the intense competition they would face later at the workplace, in an over populated country.

Solution:

Only assumption I is implicit. Hence (a).

QUESTION: 25

In each question below, a statement is given followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.

Statement: Minority community has been strongly pushing for the ban of the latest movie by the renowned director, known for making movies on social causes.

Assumptions:
I. The movie has an underlying social message.
II. The movie makes several derogatory statements against a minority religious community which has caused deep hurt in that community.

Solution:

Neither of the assumptions is implicit. Hence (d).

QUESTION: 26

Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.

Six persons - Sameer, Manish, Keshav, Ramesh, Harish and Deepak - went for a picnic along with their wives Shalini, Monika, Kareena, Ritika, Heena and Divya (not necessarily in the same order). Exactly two couples traveled in one car. Also, husband's name cannot start with the same alphabet as that of his wife's name. It is also given that:
(i) Keshav is not married to Shalini and Ramesh is not married to Divya.
(ii) Manish is married to Kareena and Harish is married to Monika.
(iii) Manish and Heena traveled in the same car.
(iv) Ramesh and Divya traveled in the same car.
(v) Sameer and Monika traveled in the same car.

Manish and Heena traveled with whom in the same car?

Solution:

Deepak and Kareena traveled along with Manish and Heena.

QUESTION: 27

Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.

Six persons - Sameer, Manish, Keshav, Ramesh, Harish and Deepak - went for a picnic along with their wives Shalini, Monika, Kareena, Ritika, Heena and Divya (not necessarily in the same order). Exactly two couples traveled in one car. Also, husband's name cannot start with the same alphabet as that of his wife's name. It is also given that:
(i) Keshav is not married to Shalini and Ramesh is not married to Divya.
(ii) Manish is married to Kareena and Harish is married to Monika.
(iii) Manish and Heena traveled in the same car.
(iv) Ramesh and Divya traveled in the same car.
(v) Sameer and Monika traveled in the same car.

Which of the following is the correct combination of a husband and wife?

Solution:

Ramesh-Shalini is the correct combination of a husband wife couple.

QUESTION: 28

Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.

Six persons - Sameer, Manish, Keshav, Ramesh, Harish and Deepak - went for a picnic along with their wives Shalini, Monika, Kareena, Ritika, Heena and Divya (not necessarily in the same order). Exactly two couples traveled in one car. Also, husband's name cannot start with the same alphabet as that of his wife's name. It is also given that:
(i) Keshav is not married to Shalini and Ramesh is not married to Divya.
(ii) Manish is married to Kareena and Harish is married to Monika.
(iii) Manish and Heena traveled in the same car.
(iv) Ramesh and Divya traveled in the same car.
(v) Sameer and Monika traveled in the same car.

Which of the following persons traveled in the same car?

Solution:

Deepak and Manish traveled in the same car.

QUESTION: 29

Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below. Point U is 20 m to the south of point R which is 9 m to the east of point P. Point T is 15 m to the north of point P which is 20 m to the east of point S. Point V is 35 m to the north of point Q which is 21 m to the west of point U.

How far and in which direction is point V with respect to point S?

Solution:
QUESTION: 30

Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below. Point U is 20 m to the south of point R which is 9 m to the east of point P. Point T is 15 m to the north of point P which is 20 m to the east of point S. Point V is 35 m to the north of point Q which is 21 m to the west of point U.

How far and in which direction is point Q with respect to point T?

Solution:

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