History Full Test - 1


35 Questions MCQ Test History for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims | History Full Test - 1


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QUESTION: 1

With reference to the Stone Age culture in India, consider the following statements:
1. The lower Paleolithic tool technology is characterized by flake tool industry.
2. Middle Paleolithic tools have mostly been found in Northern India.
3. Microliths are the tools of Mesolithic age characterized by parallel-side blades.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:

• Statement 1 is incorrect: The Middle Paleolithic tool technology is characterized by flake tool industry.
•  Statement 2 is incorrect: Middle Paleolithic tools have mostly been found in Central and Deccan India.
The Stone Age Cultures
• The Old Stone Age or the Palaeolithic Culture of India developed in the Pleistocene period of Ice Age. The Palaeolithic Age in India is divided into three phases in accordance with the type of stone tools used by the people and also according to the nature of climatic change.
1. The first phase is called Early or Lower Palaeolithic. The main tool types in this phase were hand axes and cleavers, along with chopper chopping tools. Lower Palaeolithic tools have been found over a large area, virtually from all over India, except the plains of the Indus, Saraswati, Brahmaputra and Ganga where raw material in the form of stone is not available.
2. The second phase is called Middle Palaeolithic. The Middle Palaeolithic tool technology is characterized basically by the flake tool industry.
The tools are made on flakes obtained by striking them out from pebbles or cobbles. The tools show regional variations both in as shapes and sizes. Middle Palaeolithic tools have mostly been found in Central India, Deccan, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Orissa.
3. The third phase is called Upper Palaeolithic. The basic technological innovation of the Upper Palaeolithic period is the method of producing parallel sided blades from a carefully prepared core. The upper Palaeolithic tools have been found in Rajasthan, parts of the Ganga and Belan valleys, Central and Western India, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.
• In 9000 BC began an intermediate stage in Stone-Age culture, which is called the Mesolithic age or Late Stone Age. It intervened as a transitional phase between the Palaeolithic and the Neolithic or New Stone ages. The Mesolithic people lived on hunting, fishing, and food gathering; at a later stage they also domesticated animals. The characteristic tools of the Mesolithic age are microliths or tiny tools characterized by parallel-sided blades taken out from prepared cores of such fine material as chert, chalcedony, crystal, jasper, carnelian, agate, etc.
Mesolithic sites abound in Rajasthan, southern UP, central and eastern India, and also south of the river Krishna.

QUESTION: 2

Match the following:


Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:

Associations and their Founder
• The East India Association was organised by Dadabhai Naoroji in 1866 in London.
• Its aim was to discuss the Indian question and influence public men in England to promote Indian welfare.
• Later, branches of the association were started in prominent Indian cities.
• The Bombay Presidency Association was started by Badruddin Tyabji, Pherozshah Mehta and K.T. Telang in 1885.
• The Poona Sarvajanik Sabha was founded in 1867 by Mahadeo Govind Ranade, S. H. Chiplunkar and Ganesh Vasudeo Joshi.
• It had the objective of serving as a bridge between the government and the people.

QUESTION: 3

The landing of Vasco de Gama at Calicut in 1498 is generally accounted as the beginning of a new era in world history. In this context, consider the following statements:
1. A direct sea-link between Asia and Europe led to a big increase in trade between the two.
2. A direct sea-link gave a big blow to the Arabs and Turks virtual monopoly over trade in eastern goods.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:

• Both statements are correct
The advent of Portuguese into India
• The landing of Vasco da Gama at Calicut in 1498 is generally regarded as the beginning of a new era in world history, especially in the relationship between Asia and Europe.
• Although Asia and Europe had been in commercial relations with each other since antiquity, the opening of the direct sea-relations between the two presaged a big increase of trade between the two.
• This, however, was only one of the objectives of the Portuguese.
• For the Portuguese, the opening of a new sea-route to India would give a big blow to the Muslims, the Arabs and Turks, who were the traditional enemies of Christianity, and were posing a new threat to Europe by virtue of the growing military and naval power of the Turks.
• A direct sea-link with India would displace the virtual monopoly of the Arabs and Turks over the trade-in eastern goods, especially spices.
• Thus, the commercial and religious objectives supported and justified each other.

QUESTION: 4

Consider the following statements regarding the village life under Mughal rule:
1. Kamins were the landless peasants who often belonged to the untouchable class.
2. Khudkasht were the peasants who owned the land they tilled. 
3. Muzarain were the tenants who paid land revenue at higher rates as compared to other classes of peasants.
Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

Solution:

• All statements are correct
Patterns of Village Life under Mughals
• It is difficult to compute the average size of the holding of the peasant. The information available to us shows that there was a great deal of inequality in the villages.
• The peasant who did not have his own ploughs and bullocks of ten tilled the land of the zamindars or the upper castes, and could eke out a bare existence.
• The landless peasants and laborers often belonged to the class of people called ‘untouchables’ or kamin.
•  Whenever there was a famine and famines were frequent-it was this class of peasants and the village artisans who suffered the most.
• The peasants who owned the land they tilled were called khudkasht. They paid land revenue at customary rates. Some of them had many ploughs and bullocks which they let out to their poorer brethren, the tenants or muzarain who generally paid land revenue at a higher rate. 
• These two groups were the largest section among the cultivators in the village. Thus, the village society was highly unequal.

QUESTION: 5

Consider the following statements regarding ‘Doctrines of Jainism’:
1. Principle of Syadavada is also known as the doctrine of non-one-sidedness.
2. Principle of Anekantavada emphasises on the relativity of all knowledge.
3. Principle of Pancha Mahavrata deals with the 5 great vows of a Jaina.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:

• Statement 1 is incorrect: Principle of Anekantavada is also known as the doctrine of non-one-sidedness.
• Statement 2 is incorrect: Principle of Syadavada emphasises on the relativity of all knowledge.
Doctrines of Jainism
• The core of Jaina doctrine is expressed in the following principles:
1. Principle of Anekantavada or the doctrine of manifold nature of reality - It is literally the doctrine of ‘non-one-sidedness’. According to this doctrine, truth and reality are perceived differently from different points of view, and no single point of view is a complete truth.
2. Principle of Syadavada or the theory of conditioned predication - It emphasises on the relativity of all knowledge. According to this doctrine, all judgments are conditional, holding good only in certain conditions, circumstances, or senses.
3. Principle of Nayavada or the theory of partial standpoints - It signifies the system of describing reality from different points of view.

4. Principle of Triratna - A Jaina must follow the three jewels of Jaina ethics, popularly called Triratna. These are Right faith, Right knowledge and Right conduct.

5. Principle of Pancha Mahavrata or the five great vows - In order to help attain Triratna one must observe Pancha Mahavrata or the five great vows. These are Non-violence (Ahimsa), Truth (Satya), Non-stealing (Asteya), Chastity (Brahmacharya) and Nonpossession (Aparigraha)

Principle of Ahimsa or the doctrine of non-violence.

QUESTION: 6

Consider the following statements related to the Lucknow pact of 1916:
1. While the League agreed to present joint constitutional demands with the Congress to the government, the Congress accepted the Muslim League’s position on separate electorates.
2. The Muslims were also granted a fixed proportion of seats in the legislatures at all-India as well as at provincial levels
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:

• Both statements are correct
Lucknow Session of the Indian National Congress (1916)
Readmission of Extremists to Congress

• The Lucknow Session of the Indian National Congress presided over by a Moderate, Ambika Charan Majumdar, finally readmitted the Extremists led by Tilak to the Congress fold. 
Various factors facilitated the reunion of Moderates and Extremist:
• Old controversies had become meaningless now.
• Both the Moderates and the Extremists realised that the split had led to political inactivity.
• Annie Besant and Tilak had made vigorous efforts for the reunion. To allay Moderate suspicions, Tilak had
• Declared that he supported a reform of administration and not an overthrow of the government. He also denounced acts of violence.
• The death of two Moderates, Gokhale and Pherozshah Mehta, who had led the Moderate opposition to the Extremists, facilitated the reunion.
Lucknow Pact between Congress and Muslim League
• Another significant development to take place at Lucknow was the coming together of the Muslim League and the Congress and the presentation of common demands by them to the government.
• This happened at a time when the Muslim League, now dominated by the younger militant nationalists, was coming closer to the Congress objectives and turning increasingly anti-imperialist.
The Nature of the Pact
• The Lucknow Pact between the Congress and the Muslim League could be considered an important event in the course of the nationalistic struggle for freedom.
• While the League agreed to present joint constitutional demands with the Congress to the government, the Congress accepted the Muslim League’s position on separate electorates which would continue till any one community demanded joint electorates. 
• The Muslims were also granted a fixed proportion of seats in the legislatures at all-India and provincial levels.
The joint demands were
• Government should declare that it would confer self-government on Indians at an early date.
• The representative assemblies at the central as well as provincial-level should be further expanded with an elected majority and more powers given to them.
• The term of the legislative council should be five years.
• The salaries of the Secretary of State for India should be paid by the British treasury and not drawn from Indian funds.
• Half the members of the viceroy’s and provincial governors’ executive councils should be Indians.

QUESTION: 7

Match the following:


Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:

The Vedas
• Vedas are a collection of hymns, prayers, charms, litanies and sacrificial formulae.
• The Vedas formed the earliest segment of Vedic literature and amongst the Vedas, Rigveda is the oldest.
• There are four Vedas, namely:
1. Rigveda - a collection of hymns
2. Samveda - a collection of songs mostly taken from Rig Veda
3. Yajurveda - a collection of sacrificial formulae
4. Atharvaveda - a collection of spells and charms

QUESTION: 8

Consider the following statements regarding the Simon Commission:
1. It had the objective of studying the progress of governance schemes.
2. It had an equal number of Britishers and Indians as a member.
3. It proposed the abolition of DYARCHY.
Which of the above statements are correct?

Solution:

• Statement 2 is incorrect: The simon Commission was an all-white, seven membered commission.
Simon Commission
• The Government of India Act, 1919 had a provision that a commission would be appointed ten years from the date to study the progress of the government scheme and suggest new steps.
• An all-white, seven-member Indian Statutory Commission, popularly known as the Simon Commission (after the name of its chairman, Sir John Simon), was set up by the British government in 1927.
• The commission was to recommend to the British government whether India was ready for further constitutional reforms and along what lines.
• Thus there was the exclusion of Indians from the commission and the basic notion behind the exclusion that foreigners would discuss and decide upon India’s fitness for self-government.
• Recommendations of Commission:
1. It proposed the abolition of dyarchy and the establishment of representative government in the provinces which should be given autonomy.
2. It said that the governor should have discretionary power in relation to internal security and administrative powers to protect the different communities.
3. The number of members of the provincial legislative council should be increased.

QUESTION: 9

Consider the following statements:
1. Campaign against tariff protection and direct government aid for encouraging modern industry
2. Expansion and Reforms of Legislative Councils
3. Criticism of Judicial System
4. Protection of Civil Rights
Which of the above statements represents the demands of moderate nationalists?

Solution:

• Statement 1 is incorrect: To mitigate the deprivation characterizing Indian life, moderates demanded encouragement of modern industry through tariff protection and direct government aid.
Contribution of Moderate Nationalists
• Economic Critique of British Imperialism: 
1. The early nationalists, led by Dadabhai Naoroji, R.C. Dutt, Dinshaw Wacha, and others, carefully analyzed the political economy of British rule in India and put forward the “drain theory” to explain British exploitation of India.
2. They opposed the transformation of a basically self-sufficient Indian economy into a colonial economy and were able to create an all-India public opinion that British rule in India was the major cause of India’s poverty and economic backwardness.
3. To mitigate the deprivation characterizing Indian life, they demanded a reduction in land revenue, abolition of salt tax, improvement in working conditions of plantation labor, reduction in military expenditure, and encouragement to the modern industry through tariff protection and direct government aid.
• Constitutional Reforms and Propaganda in Legislature:
1. From 1885 to 1892, the nationalist demands for constitutional reforms were centered around the expansion of councils i.e., greater participation of Indians in councils and reform of councils i.e., more powers to councils, especially greater control over finances.
2. After the Indian Council Act of 1892 failed to satisfy nationalists’ demands, they demanded a majority of elected Indians and control over the budget i.e. the power to vote upon and amend the budget.
• Campaign for General Administrative Reforms:
1. Indianisation of government service
2. Call for separation of judicial from executive functions.
3. Criticism of an oppressive and tyrannical bureaucracy and an expensive and time-consuming judicial system
4. Criticism of an aggressive foreign policy which resulted in the annexation of Burma, attack on Afghanistan and suppression of tribals in the NorthWest—all costing heavily for the Indian treasury
5. Call for an increase in expenditure on welfare (i.e., health, sanitation), education, irrigation works and improvement of agriculture etc.
• Protection of Civil Rights:
1. Through an incessant campaign, the nationalists were able to spread modern democratic ideas, and soon the defense of civil rights like right to speech, thought, association and a free press became an integral part of the freedom struggle.

QUESTION: 10

‘Mohammad Bin Tughlaq was known as an ill-fated idealist’. In this context consider the following events that occurred during his reign:
1. He is known to have transferred his capital from Delhi to Devagiri.
2. He issued copper coins at par with the value of the silver tanka coins.
3. Ibn Batuta acted as a Qazi in Delhi for eight years during his reign.
4. Fort of Adilabad was built under his rule.
Which of the above statements are correct?

Solution:

• All statements are correct
Mohammad Bin Tughlaq
• Mohammad Bin Tughlaq is considered an ill-fated idealist owing to his ambitious schemes and novel experiments.
• He transferred his capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad) but the capital shifted back to Delhi after two years because of the lack of water supply in Daulatabad.
• He modeled the idea of token currency on the basis of the Chinese ruler Kublai Khan who issued paper money in China.
• He issued copper coins at par with the value of the silver tanka coins. Later on, he repealed his verdict, and all coins were redeemed in silver/gold, making the treasury empty.
• During his reign, the famous traveler Ibn Batuta came to India in 1334 CE and acted as a Qazi at Delhi for eight years.
• He was the only Delhi Sultan who had received a comprehensive literary, religious, and philosophical education and is known to have built the fort of Adilabad and the city of Jahanpanah.

QUESTION: 11

Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding Satyagraha Sabha?
1. It was formed by Gandhiji at Bombay.
2. It was launched against the Government of India Act,1935
Select the correct answer using codes given below:

Solution:

• Statement 2 is incorrect: It was launched against the Rowlatt Act, 1919.
Satyagraha Sabha
• Gandhi was aroused by the Rowlatt Act because he argued that not everyone should be punished in response to isolated political crimes.
• In February 1919, he founded the Satyagraha Sabha whose members took a pledge to disobey the Act and thus to court arrest and imprisonment.
• Gandhi did not believe that the existing institutions could handle such a noble weapon. So a separate institution named Satyagraha Sabha was formed, its headquarters were in Bombay.
• Satyagraha immediately raised the movement to a new higher level. Nationalists could now act in place of giving only verbal expression to their dissatisfaction and anger. The National Congress was now to become an organisation for political action.

QUESTION: 12

The nationalist sentiment which reached a crescendo around the INA trials developed into three violent confrontations with the authority in the winter of 1945-46. Consider the following statements in this regard:
1. These upsurges were confined to few urban centres only.
2. The congress did not officially support these upsurges.
3. Arrest of ratings for scrawling ‘Quit India’ on HMIS Talwar was one of the reasons for RIN ratings revolt.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:

• All statements are correct
Three Upsurges in winter of 1945-46
• The nationalist sentiment which reached a crescendo around the INA trials developed into violent confrontations with the authority in the winter of 1945-46. There were three major upsurges:
1. November 21, 1945—in Calcutta over the INA trials
2. February 11, 1946—in Calcutta against the seven-year sentence to INA officer Rashid Ali
3. February 18, 1946—in Bombay, strike by the Royal Indian Navy ratings
• All three upsurges showed a similar threestage pattern.
• On February 18, 1946 some 1100 Royal Indian Navy (RIN) ratings of HMIS Talwar went on a strike to protest against:
1. Racial discrimination (demanding equal pay for Indian and white soldiers)
2. Unpalatable food
3. Abuse by superior officers
4. Arrest of a rating for scrawling ‘Quit India’ on HMIS Talwar
5. INA trials
6. Use of Indian troops in Indonesia, demanding their withdrawal
• These upsurges were in the nature of direct and violent conflict with authority, which had obvious limitations. Only the more militant sections could participate.
• These upsurges were short-lived and were confined to a few urban centres while the general INA agitation reached the remotest villages.
• Communal unity witnessed was more organizational than a unity among the people. Muslim ratings went to the League to seek advice and the rest to the Congress and the Socialists.
• These upsurges were distinguishable from the earlier activity because of their form of articulation. These were violent challenges to the authority while the earlier activity was a peaceful demonstration of national solidarity.
• The Congress did not officially support these upsurges because of their tactics and timing.

QUESTION: 13

Consider the following statements regarding the later Vedic polity:
1. It was a monarchical system.
2. It gave greater stress on hereditary rulership.
3. Vidatha replaced Sabha and Samiti as the popular assembly to check the king’s authority.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:

• Statement 1 is incorrect: Later Vedic polity did not experience a monarchical system.
• Statement 3 is incorrect: Vidatha disappeared from the later vedic texts.
Later Vedic polity
• It covers the time period around 1000-600 BC.
• There was a conspicuous urge in the later Vedic texts for increasing the power of the raja through performances of elaborated sacrifices such as Vajpeya,asvamedha, etc.
• The raja’s position became more powerful than his Rigvedic counterpart.
• The polity gave greater stress on hereditary rulership, paving the way for dynastic succession as an integral feature of a monarchical polity of subsequent times.
• Despite the growth of the ruler’s power, the later Vedic period did not experience a monarchical system. It was a protostate, on the threshold of a state system.
• The absence of a regular well-defined revenue as the rate of Bali was nowhere specified indicating the absence of its proper and adequate assessment resulted in the absence of enough resources which precluded the formation of military organization.
• Tribal units were mustered in times of war and, according to one ritual, for success in war, the king had to eat along with his people (vis) from the same plate.
• In later Vedic times, the Rig Vedic tribal assemblies lost importance, and royal power increased at their cost. The vidatha completely disappeared. Sabha and Samiti appeared more prominently in later Vedic texts.
• The sabha was a smaller select body and also functioned as the lower court, while the Samiti was the larger GeneralAssembly of the people. Accordingly, the latter is referred to as expressing the voice of vis (people).

QUESTION: 14

Consider the following statements regarding Akali movement:
1. Initially, it was an independent religious reform movement and was later identified with Non-Cooperation.
2. The Movement continued till British retreat and the keys being handed over and the prisoners released by mid January 1922.
3. ‘Babbar Akali’ group adopted violent methods.
Which of the above statements are correct?

Solution:

• Statement 2 is incorrect: The Akali struggle continued till the Sikh Gurdwaras and Shrines Act of November 1925 established SGPC control over the Gurdwaras.
Akali Movement
• The Sikh-dominated central Punjab countryside was stirred to its depths, however, by the powerful Akali upsurge, initially quite an independent religious reform movement which for a time got closely identified with NonCooperation. The Akalis were fighting to wrest control over the Sikh shrines (Gurudwaras) from corrupt mohants, who had established a mutually profitable alliance with British officials.
• The coincidence in time with the peak of the Non-Cooperation movement led to a British retreat, the keys being handed over and the prisoners released by mid-January 1922. The Akali struggle continued till the Sikh Gurdwaras and Shrines Act of November 1925 established SGPC control over the Gurdwaras.
• Shromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee firmly adhered to non-violent methods, a dissident, ‘Babbar Akali’ group emerged in March 1921 in Jullundur and Hoshiarpur under Kishan Singh and Mota Singh, calling for no-revenue movements and eventually adopting terroristic methods against loyalists and (occasionally) moneylenders.

QUESTION: 15

With reference to the British Indian Government’s attitude towards the Indian National Congress, consider the following statements:
1. The government encouraged Sir Syed Ahmad Khan to form the United Indian Patriotic Association to counter Congress propaganda.
2. Lord Dufferin called Congress “a factory of sedition”.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:

• Both statements are correct
Attitude of Government towards INC
• The British Indian Government was hostile to the Congress from the beginning despite the latter’s moderate methods and emphasis on loyalty to the British Crown.
• The official attitude stiffened further after 1887 when the government failed to persuade Congress to confine itself to social issues when Congress was becoming increasingly critical of the colonial rule.
• The Government openly condemned the Congress calling the nationalists “seditious brahmins”, “disloyal babus”, etc. Dufferin called Congress “a factory of sedition”.
• Later, the government adopted a ‘divide and rule’ policy towards Congress. The officials encouraged reactionary elements like Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Raja Shiv Prasad Singh of Benaras to organize the United Indian Patriotic Association to counter Congress propaganda.
• The government also tried to divide the nationalists on the basis of religion, and, through a policy of ‘carrot and stick’, pitted the Moderates against the Extremists.

QUESTION: 16

With reference to the religious policy of Akbar, consider the following statements:
1. Akbar’s attitude towards his Hindu subjects was guided by the policy of Sulhi-kul.
2. The proceedings at Ibadat Khana were initially confined to Muslims only.
3. Akbar propounded Tauhid-i-Ilahi which combined elements from other existing religions.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:

• All statements are correct
State and Religion under Akbar
• Akbar followed a policy of broad religious toleration.
• In 1564, he abolished the Jizyah which was sometimes used by the Ulama to humiliate non-Muslims and was often considered a symbol of Muslim domination and superiority. He had earlier abolished the pilgrim tax, and the practice of forcible conversion of prisoners of war.
• The liberal principles of the empire were strengthened by bringing able Hindus into the nobility.
• Akbar’s attitude towards his Hindu subjects is closely linked with his views of how a sovereign should behave towards his subjects. According to Abul FazI, the office of a true ruler was a very responsible one which depended on divine illumination (farr-i-izadi). Hence, no one could stand between God and a true ruler. A true ruler was distinguished by a paternal love towards his subjects without distinction of sect or creed and it was his duty to maintain equilibrium in society by not allowing the dust of sectarian strife to rise. All this constituted what has been called the policy of sulh-i-kul or ‘peace to all’.
• Akbar was deeply interested in religion and philosophy. In 1575, Akbar built a hall called Ibadat Khana or the Hall of Prayer at his new capital, Fatehpur Sikri. To this he called selected theologians, mystics and those of his courtiers and nobles who were known for their scholarship and intellectual attainments. The proceedings, at first, were confined to the Muslims and were later opened to people of all religionsChristians, Zoroastrians, Hindus, Jains, even atheists.
• But Akbar was less successful in his effort to find a meeting ground between the votaries of different religions in the country. The debates in the Ibadat Khana had not led to a better understanding between different religions, but to greater bitterness, as the representatives of each religion denounced the others and tried to prove that their religion was superior to others. Hence, in 1582, Akbar discontinued the debates in the Ibadat Khana. 
• Badayuni asserts that as a result, Akbar gradually turned away from Islam and set up a new religion which was compounded of many existing religions-Hinduism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism, etc. The word used by Abul Fazl and Badayuni for the so called new path was tauhid-i-ilahi which literally means ‘Divine Monotheism’ which was later called as Din-i-ilahi or ‘Divine Faith’.

QUESTION: 17

Which of the following correctly describes the findings of Megasthenes’s Indica?
1. There were no slaves in India during the gupta period.
2. The Pandyas were first mentioned by Megasthenes.
3. The king was at the head of the government and assisted by a council of ministers.
4. The administration of the armed forces was carried on by a board of thirty officers divided into six committees.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:

• Statement 1 is incorrect: As per Indica, there were no slaves in India during the mauryan period.
Megasthenes’s Indica
• Indica is an account left by a Greek ambassador, Megasthenes, sent by Seleucus Nikator to the court of Chandragupta Maurya.
• He lived in the Maurya capital of Pataliputra and wrote an account not only of the administration of the city of Pataliputra but also of the Maurya Empire as a whole.
• According to Megasthenes, the king was at the head of the government and assisted by a council of ministers whose members were noted for wisdom. There is nothing to show that their advice was binding on him.
• The administration of the armed forces, according to Megasthenes, was carried on by a board of thirty officers divided into six committees, each committee consisting of five members. It seems that each of the six wings of the armed forces, the army, the cavalry, the elephants, the chariots, the navy, and the transport, was assigned to the care of a separate committee.
• Megasthenes states that he did not notice any slaves in India, but there is little doubt that there had been domestic slaves from Vedic times onwards. It seems that during the Maurya period slaves were engaged in agricultural work on a large scale.
• Megasthenes speaks of the wooden structure at the Maurya capital Pataliputra. Excavations show that logs of wood were also used as an important line of defence against flood and invasion.
• The Pandyas are first mentioned by Megasthenes, who says that their kingdom was celebrated for pearls. He also speaks of it being ruled by a woman, which suggests some matriarchal influence in Pandya society.
• The major faults of Megasthenes’ work were mistakes in details, the uncritical acceptance of Indian folklore, and a tendency to idealise Indian culture by the standards of Greek philosophy.
• However, Megasthenes did identify two of the most important aspects of the Indian caste system: endogamy and hereditary occupation.

QUESTION: 18

The British Government decided to send a high-powered commission of three members in February 1946 to India. Who among the following was/were the members of this commission?
1. Clement Attlee
2. Stafford Cripps
3. A.V. Alexander
4. Leo Amery
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:

Cabinet Mission Members
• The Attlee government announced in February 1946 the decision to send a high powered mission of three British cabinet members (Pethick Lawrence, Secretary of State for India; Stafford Cripps, President of the Board of Trade; and A.V. Alexander, First Lord of Admiralty) to India to find out ways and means for a negotiated, peaceful transfer of power to India. (Pethick Lawrence was the chairman of the mission.)

QUESTION: 19

Which of the following are the traits linked to Aryan culture?
1. Use of horse-drawn chariots
2. Practice of pit dwelling
3. Practice of cremating the dead
4. Horse sacrifice
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:

• All statements are correct
Aryan Culture
• Texts for Traits of Aryan Culture: The principal traits of Aryan culture are set out by Vedic, Iranian, and Greek literary texts and cognate terms found in the protoIndo-European languages. The Rig Veda is assigned to roughly 1500 BC, although the later additions might be as late as 1000 BC. The earliest parts of the Zend-Avesta are roughly attributed to 1400 BC.
• The Horse, its Domestication and Diffusion: The horse is regarded as an indispensable trait of the Aryan culture, for it plays a crucial role in the life of the early IndoEuropeans. In its various forms, the term asva (horse) occurs 215 times in the Rig Veda; no other animal is mentioned so frequently. The Indo-Europeans widely used horse-drawn chariots. Aryans succeeded everywhere because they possessed chariot driven by horses & possibly with coats of mail & better armory. They also introduced these things for the 1st time in west Asia & India.
• The pit-dwelling can also be associated with the Aryan culture, and may have originated in cold conditions.
The practice of pit-dwelling prevailed in Burzahom near Srinagar in Kashmir and also in Haryana. This may be due to the Central Asian influence on the borders of Kashmir.
• Cremation developed as an Aryan trait. Its practice is supported by the Vedic, Avestan, and Homeric texts.
• Animal sacrifice was an important Aryan ritual. However, given its almost universal practice among pastoral tribal people, it is difficult to make much of it. Animal sacrifice may have prevailed among many tribal peoples, but the horse sacrifice was typical of the Indo-Europeans, particularly of the Vedic people.
• Though two hymns are devoted to the horse sacrifice in the tenth book of the Rig Veda, the later Vedic texts transform the sacrifice into asvamedha. Animals may have been sacrificed in pre-Vedic times in the subcontinent, but despite cut marks found on the bones, it cannot be said that the horses were killed for religious purposes.

QUESTION: 20

With reference to the Swadeshi Movement, consider the following statements:
1. National education attracted the bulk of the student community.
2. Nationalist interest in labour slumped suddenly during Swadeshi movement 
3. The sudden emergence of the samitis or ‘national volunteer’ movement was one of the major achievements of this movement
Which of the above statements are correct?

Solution:

• Statement 1 is incorrect: National education with its negligible job prospects failed to attract, however, the bulk of the student community.
Swadeshi Movement
• Down to July 1905, the partition plan had been opposed through an intensive use of the conventional ‘Moderate’ methods of press campaigns, numerous meetings and petitions (particularly in Dacca and Mymensingh districts), and big conferences at the Calcutta Town Hall in March 1904 and January 1905 attended by many district delegates.
• As in other fields, a considerable variety may be noticed within the national education efforts in Swadeshi Bengal, ranging from pleas for more technical training, through advocacy of the vernacular medium (urged most powerfully by Rabindranath), to Tagore’s Santiniketan and Satis Mukherji’s somewhat eclectic Dawn Society plans to combine the traditional and the modern in a scheme for ‘higher culture’ for selected youth. National education with its negligible job prospects failed to attract the bulk of the student community.
• There were no really political strikes (unlike in Bombay during Tilak’s trial in 1908), plantation and mine labour remained unaffected, Swadeshi contacts were developed in the main only with clerks or at best Bengali jute workers (hence the importance of mills like Fort Gloster or Budge Budge, where the upcountry element was less prominent than elsewhere)—and nationalist interest in labour slumped suddenly and totally after the summer of 1908, and would not be renewed before 1919-22. 
• The sudden emergence of the samitis or ‘national volunteer’ movement was one of the major achievements of the Swadeshi age. The Calcutta-based Anti-Circular Society stood out due to its secularism (it was the only samiti with important Muslim associates, like Liakat Husain, Abul Hossain, Dedar Bux, and Abdul Gafur). 

QUESTION: 21

Consider the following statements:
1. Pitt’s act 1784 called the Company’s territories as the British Possessions in India.
2. The Act of 1786 provided that the entire burden of the expenses of the Board of control and their staff should be on the Indian revenues.
3. The Charter Act of 1793  allowed Governor-general to override the council’s decision.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?

Solution:

• Statement 2 is incorrect: The Charter Act of 1793 provided that the entire burden of the expenses of the Board of control and their staff should be on the Indian revenues.
• Statement 3 is incorrect: The Act of 1786 allowed Governor-general to override the council’s decision.
Regulation act under the Company’s rule
• The defects of the Regulating Act of 1773 and the exigencies of British politics necessitated the passing in 1784 of another important act known as Pitt’s India Act
1. This Act gave the British Government supreme control over the Company’s affairs and its administration in India.
2. It established six Commissioners for the affairs of India, popularly known as the Board of Control, including two Cabinet Ministers. The Board of Control was to guide and control the work of the Court of Directors and the Government of India.
3. The Act placed the Government of India in the hands of the Governor-General and a Council of three.
4. The Act subordinated the Bombay and Madras Presidencies to Bengal in all questions of war, diplomacy, and revenues.
5. The most notable feature of the Act was that it called the Company’s territories as the ‘British Possessions in India’ for the first time. The territories, under the company’s control, became a part of the British Empire. 
• The Act of 1786 gave a single office the powers of both the governor-general and the commander-in-chief. Also, it allowed Governor-general to override the council’s decision if he owned the responsibility for the decision.
• Charter Act of 1793 provided that the entire burden of the salaries and the expenses of the Board of control and their staff should be on the Indian revenues. That burden of revenues continued until the Act of 1919.

QUESTION: 22

Arrange the following Delhi Sultanate Dynasty in Chronological Order of their Establishment:
1.Lodi dynasty
2.Sayyid dynasty
3.khilji dynasty
4.Tuglaq dynasty
5.Mamluk dynasty
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:

Mamluk (1206-1290 AD),;
Khilji (1290-1320) (shortest);
Tuglaq (1320-1413 AD);
Sayyid (1414-1451) ;
lodi (1451-1526)

QUESTION: 23

Which of the following statements is/are correct with regard to the Henry Vivian Derozio?
1. He was the leader of Theosophical society.
2. He supported the ideas of radicalism, liberty, equality and freedom, and opposed the decadent customs and traditions.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:

• Statement 1 is incorrect:  He is the leader of the Young Bengal Movement.
Young Bengal Movement and Henry
• During the late 1820s and early 1830s, there emerged a radical, intellectual trend among the youth in Bengal, which came to be known as the ‘Young Bengal Movement’.
•  A young Anglo-Indian, Henry Vivian Derozio (1809-31), who taught at the Hindu College from 1826 to 1831, was the leader and inspirer of this progressive trend.
• Drawing inspiration from the great French Revolution, Derozio inspired his pupils to think freely and rationally, question all authority, love liberty, equality and freedom, and oppose decadent customs and traditions.
• The Derozians also supported women’s rights and education. Also, Derozio was perhaps the first nationalist poet of modern India. The Derozians, however, failed to have a long-term impact. Derozio was removed from the Hindu College in 1831 because of his radicalism.
• The main reason for their limited success was the prevailing social conditions at that time, which were not ripe for the adoption of radical ideas. Further, there was no support from any other social group or class.
• The Derozians lacked any real link with the masses; for instance, they failed to take up the peasants’ cause. In fact, their radicalism was bookish in character. But, despite their limitations, the Derozians carried forward Rammohan Roy’s tradition of public education on social, economic and political questions. For instance, they demanded induction of Indians in higher grades of services, protection of ryots from oppressive zamindars, better treatment to Indian labor abroad in British colonies, revision of the Company’s charter, freedom of press and trial by jury.

QUESTION: 24

Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding Nehru Report?
1. A subcommittee was appointed under the chairmanship of Jawaharlal Nehru to draft a constitution.
2. This was the first major attempt by the Indians to draft a constitutional framework for the country.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:

• Statement 1 is incorrect: A subcommittee was appointed under the chairmanship of Motilal Nehru to draft a constitution.
Nehru Report
• An All Parties Conference met in February 1928 and appointed a subcommittee under the chairmanship of Motilal Nehru to draft a constitution.
• This was the first major attempt by the Indians to draft a constitutional framework for the country.
• The committee included TejBahadur Sapru, Subhash Bose, M.S. Aney, Mangal Singh, Ali Imam, Shuab Qureshi and G.R. Pradhan as its members.
• The report was finalized by August 1928.
• The recommendations of the Nehru Committee were unanimous except in one respect—while the majority favored the “dominion status” as the basis of the Constitution, a section of it wanted “complete independence” as the basis, with the majority section giving the latter section liberty of action.

QUESTION: 25

Consider the following statements regarding Early Rig Vedic Period:
1. The Rig Vedic people were mainly pastoral and thus fought wars for the sake of cows.
2. Dasas and Dasyus were slaves and Shudras who were conquered by Aryans.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:

• Both statements are correct
Early Vedic Period
• Cattle Rearing and Agriculture:
1. Agriculture was well known to pre Aryans & ploughshare is 1st mentioned in early part of Rig Veda but agriculture was perhaps used to produce fodder only.
2. However, there are so many references to the cow and the bull in the Rig Veda that the Rig Vedic people can be called a predominantly pastoral people.
3. Most of the wars were fought for the sake of cows as the term for war in Rig Veda is Gavishthi i.e. search for cows (Hence cows seems to have been most important wealth).
4. The Rig Vedic people may have occasionally occupied pieces of land for grazing, cultivation, and settlement, but land did not form a well-established type of private property.
• Social Differentiation:
1. The factor that contributed most to the creation of social divisions was the conquest of the indigenous inhabitants by the Indo-Aryans.
2. The dasas and the dasyus, who were conquered by the Aryans, were treated as slaves and shudras. The Rig Veda mentions the arya Varna and dasa Varna (Varna was the term used for colour).
3. Unequal distribution of the spoils of war created social inequalities, and this aided the rise of princes and priests at the cost of the common tribal people.
4. However as the economy was mainly pastoral and not food producing, the scope for collecting regular tributes from the people was very limited. 
5. The tribal elements in society were stronger and social divisions based on the collection of taxes or accumulation of landed property did not exist, and thus the society was still tribal and egalitarian.

QUESTION: 26

Who among the following were jailed in the Kanpur Bolshevik conspiracy case in 1924?

Solution:

Muzaffar Ahmad, S.A.Dange, Shaukat Usmani, Nalini Gupta were jailed in the Kanpur Bolshevik conspiracy case in 1924.
Kanpur Bolshevik conspiracy case 1924
• In this case, newly emerged communists of India were execrated by the British Government. M N Roy, Muzaffar Ahamed, S A Dange, Shaukat Usmani, Nalini Gupta, Singaravelu Chettiar, Ghulam Hussain were caught by the Government and were trailed for conspiring against the Government.
• They were charged:
• “to deprive the King Emperor of his sovereignty of British India, by complete separation of India from imperialistic Britain by a violent revolution.”
• This case was not people movement but British movement to sack the upcoming communist leaders of the time.
• But this case, brought the communists in the lime light. The newspapers covered the matter exhaustively and this was for the first time the people of India could know the communist doctrine in details.
• So, this case was responsible for introduction of Communism to the Indian Public.
• In this case, M N Roy was charged in absentia, so he was not arrested. Ghulam Hussain turned a British informer and was pardoned. Rest all people were arrested and sent to jail for 4 years.

QUESTION: 27

Match the following:



Select the correct code using the code given below:

Solution:


Wahabi/Walliullah Movement
• The teachings of Abdul Wahab of Arabia and the preachings of Shah Walliullah (1702-1763) inspired an essential revivalist response to Western influences and the degeneration which had set in among Indian Muslims and called for a return to the true spirit of Islam.
Faraizi Movement
• The movement, also called the Fara’idi Movement because of its emphasis on the Islamic pillars of faith, was founded by Haji Shariatullah in 1818.
Ahmadiyya Movement
• The Ahmadiyya forms a sect of Islam which originated from India. It was founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in 1889. It was based on liberal principles. It described itself as the standard-bearer of Mohammedan Renaissance, and based itself, like the Brahmo Samaj, on the principles of the universal religion of all humanity, opposing jihad (sacred war against non-Muslims).
The Deoband School (Darul Uloom)
• The Deoband Movement was begun at the Darul Uloom (or Islamic academic centre), Deoband, in Saharanpur district (United Provinces) in 1866 by Mohammad Qasim Nanotavi (1832-80) and Rashid Ahmed Gangohi (1828-1905) to train religious leaders for the Muslim community.

QUESTION: 28

The customs “Sijada” and “Paibos” were introduced by which of the following ruler?

Solution:

Customs such as “Sijada” and “Paibos” were introduced by Balban.
Balban Rule 
• Balban was undoubtedly one of the main architects of the Delhi Sultanate, particularly of its form of government and institutions.
• Balban’s experience as the regent made him understand the problems of Delhi Sultanate. He knew that the real threat to the monarchy was from the nobles called the Forty.
• He was convinced that only by enhancing the power and authority of the monarchy he could solve this problem.
• He got every member of the Iltutmish family killed and gave a deadly blow to Chahalgani.
• Balban introduced rigorous court discipline and new customs such as “Sijada” (prostration) and “Paibos” (kissing the Sultan’s feet) to prove his superiority over the nobles.

QUESTION: 29

Which of the following pairs are correctly matched?

Select the correct answer using the code given below: 

Solution:

• Pairs 2 and 4 are incorrectly matched:

QUESTION: 30

Consider the following Statement
1. Indian social conference was founded by Bal Shastri Jambdekar and K. Kesava.
2.It worked as a social reform cell of the Indian national congress.
3.It merged with theosophical society later in 20th century.

Which of the following statements is/are correct?

Solution:

It was founded by M.G Ranade and Raghunath rao in 1887.
It does not merged with theosophical society.
It advocates inter caste marriage, opposed polygamy and inspired people

QUESTION: 31

Consider the following :
1.  Mother goddess (terracotta)
2.  Unicorn seals
3.  Lion capital
4.  Mural painting

Q. Which of the following art forms were from the Indus valley civilisation?

Solution:

Lion capital at sarnath was from the mauryan times and mural paintings were from ajanta caves during gupta period.

QUESTION: 32

With respect to the Nagara style of temple architecture, consider the following statements:
1. Shikhara is the crowning element of a nagara style temple.
2. Gopurams guard the entrance of the nagara temples.
Which of the following is/are incorrect?

Solution:

The main temple tower called VIMANA is like a stepped pyramid which rises up geometrically rather than curving generally found in south temples. The word Shikhara is used only for the crowning element at the top of the temple called STUPIKA or an octagonal cupola. It is the main feature of Nagara temple.
A gopuram or gopura is a monumental entrance tower, usually ornate, at the entrance of a Hindu temple, in the Dravidian architecture of the Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka, and Telangana states of Southern India.

QUESTION: 33

Consider the following

Q. Which of the following pair is/are correctly matched?

Solution:

Silpadikaram written by illango and manimekalai by chatanar. They are known as the twin tamil epics and consist of story of kovalam and courtesan madhavi and the story of their daughter of kovalan and madhavi respectively

QUESTION: 34

The famous text of Uttaradhyayana sutta is related to which of the following?

Solution:

It is a jaina literature written in prakrit language and it described how a queen named kamlavati tried to persuade her husband to renounce the world.

QUESTION: 35

Consider the following:
1. Abhigyanshakuntalam
2. Meghdoot
3. Raghuvamsa
Q. Which of the following book is/are written by Kalidasa?

Solution:

All three books are written by kalidasa.
Abhigyanshakuntalam: story of dushyant and shakuntala
Meghdoot: lyrical poems
Raghuvamsa: story of raghu dynasty

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