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Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 1

During the eighteenth century, as the authority of the Mughal emperors declined, which category of states emerged in different parts of the subcontinent?

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 1

C) States that were under the control of Marathas, Sikhs, and others

Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 2

Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah, the founder of

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 2
Founder of Hyderabad state

  • Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah is the founder of Hyderabad state.


Hyderabad state

  • Hyderabad state was a princely state in India during the British colonial rule.

  • It was founded in 1724 by Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah.

  • He was appointed as the first Nizam (ruler) of the state by the Mughal emperor.

  • Hyderabad state was located in the Deccan region and its capital was the city of Hyderabad.

  • The state was known for its rich cultural heritage, architecture, and strategic importance.


Contributions of Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah

  • Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah played a significant role in establishing Hyderabad state and shaping its history.

  • He brought stability and prosperity to the region through his efficient administration.

  • He encouraged trade and commerce, leading to economic growth in the state.

  • Under his rule, Hyderabad state became a center of art, literature, and education.

  • He also built several monuments and palaces, including the famous Chowmahalla Palace.

  • Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah's reign lasted for several decades and his successors continued to rule Hyderabad state until India's independence in 1947.


Overall, Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah's establishment of Hyderabad state and his contributions to its development have left a lasting legacy in the history of India.
Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 3

The state of Hyderabad was constantly engaged in a struggle against the ____ to the west

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 3
The State of Hyderabad and its Struggle

The state of Hyderabad was constantly engaged in a struggle against the Marathas to the west.


Explanation:



  • The State of Hyderabad: Hyderabad was a princely state in India, located in the southern region of the country.

  • The Struggle: The state of Hyderabad faced several challenges and conflicts throughout its history.

  • The Marathas: The Marathas were a powerful empire in western India, known for their military prowess and territorial ambitions.

  • Constant Engagement: The state of Hyderabad was in a continuous state of conflict with the Marathas.

  • Geographical Location: The Marathas were situated to the west of Hyderabad, which made them a significant threat to the state.

  • Reasons for Struggle: The struggle between Hyderabad and the Marathas could have been due to various factors like territorial disputes, control over resources, or political power.


Therefore, the state of Hyderabad was constantly engaged in a struggle against the Marathas to the west.

Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 4

Telugu warrior chiefs were called

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 4
Telugu warrior chiefs were called Nayakas.
Explanation:
- The Telugu region, located in present-day Andhra Pradesh and Telangana in southern India, had a strong warrior tradition.
- The term "Nayaka" was used to refer to the warrior chiefs or leaders who emerged during this period.
- These Nayakas were known for their military prowess, leadership skills, and ability to command armies.
- They played a significant role in regional politics and warfare, often engaging in conflicts with neighboring kingdoms.
- The Nayakas were responsible for maintaining law and order in their respective territories and protecting the interests of their people.
- They had control over land, resources, and military forces, making them influential figures in the Telugu society.
- The Nayakas were known for their bravery, valor, and strategic thinking, which earned them the respect and loyalty of their followers.
- They established their own dynasties and ruled over their territories independently.
- The Nayakas were instrumental in shaping the history and culture of the Telugu region, leaving a lasting impact on its political and social landscape.
Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 5

Burhan-ul-Mulk Saadat Khan was appointed subadar of

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 5

The founder of the Awadh dynasty was a Persian nobleman named Mohammad Amin, who came to India in 1705 A.D. and soon won the favour of the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah. He was appointed the Governor of Awadh in 1722 A.D. The Sheikhs of Lucknow were subdued by the new governor.

Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 6

Burhan-ul-Mulk also held the combined offices of

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 6

The combined offices held by Burhan-ul-Mulk are:


Subadari:
- Subadari refers to the office of a governor or viceroy in the Mughal Empire.
- Burhan-ul-Mulk held the office of Subadari, which gave him the authority to govern a province or region.
Diwani:
- Diwani refers to the office of a finance minister in the Mughal Empire.
- Burhan-ul-Mulk also held the office of Diwani, which made him responsible for managing the finances of the empire.
Faujdari:
- Faujdari refers to the office of a military commander or chief in the Mughal Empire.
- Burhan-ul-Mulk also held the office of Faujdari, which gave him control over the military forces.
Therefore, the correct answer is option D: Subadari, Diwani, and Faujdari.
Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 7

Revenue farmers were called

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 7

Ijaradars were revenue farmers during the Mughal period. During the beginning of British rule in Bengal, the East India Company arrived at the revenue settlement called the Permanent settlements with the Ijaradars. The 'Ijaradars' during the British rule, were tasked with collecting revenue from farmers and paying a fixed sum to the government. 

Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 8

_______ broke away from Mughal control under Murshid Quli Khan who was appointed as the naib, deputy to the governor of the province

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 8
Answer: C. Bengal
Explanation:
Under the Mughal Empire, different regions in India were governed by appointed officials known as naibs, who acted as deputies to the provincial governors. One such naib was Murshid Quli Khan, who was appointed as the naib of Bengal.
- Murshid Quli Khan: He was appointed as the naib of Bengal, which was a prosperous province under Mughal control.
- Bengal: The region of Bengal, which is now present-day Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, broke away from Mughal control under Murshid Quli Khan's leadership.
- Broke away from Mughal control: This means that Bengal gained independence or autonomy from the Mughal Empire and was no longer under their direct control.
- Murshid Quli Khan's role: As the naib of Bengal, Murshid Quli Khan played a significant role in the region's governance and administration. He established a successful administration system and introduced various reforms that contributed to the region's prosperity.
- Significance: The breakaway of Bengal from Mughal control under Murshid Quli Khan's leadership had a lasting impact on the region's history and set the stage for its subsequent development and political trajectory.
Overall, Bengal broke away from Mughal control under the leadership of Murshid Quli Khan, who was appointed as the naib of the province.
Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 9

The organisation of the Sikhs into a political community during the seventeenth century helped in regional state-building in the

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 9

The organisation of the Sikhs into a political community during the seventeenth century helped in regional state-building in the Punjab.


Explanation:

The Sikh community emerged as a political force in the seventeenth century under the leadership of Guru Nanak and subsequent Gurus. They organized themselves into a disciplined and militant community known as the Khalsa. This political organization played a crucial role in the state-building process in the Punjab region.


Reasons:

  • The Sikhs established their own military force, known as the Khalsa Army, which played a pivotal role in defending the Sikh community and asserting their political autonomy.

  • The Sikh Gurus and leaders, such as Guru Gobind Singh, provided strong leadership and guidance, promoting unity and resilience among the Sikh community.

  • The establishment of Sikh gurdwaras (places of worship) and langars (community kitchens) created a sense of community and solidarity among the Sikhs.

  • The Sikhs actively resisted the oppressive Mughal rule and fought for their rights and religious freedom, which contributed to the strengthening of the Sikh community and the consolidation of their political power.

  • The Sikh political organization laid the foundation for the formation of the Sikh Empire in the eighteenth century, under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.


Overall, the organization of the Sikhs into a political community during the seventeenth century played a crucial role in regional state-building in the Punjab, leading to the emergence of the Sikh Empire and the establishment of Sikh sovereignty in the region.

Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 10

In an effort to reduce Mughal influence in Bengal Khan transferred all Mughal jagirdars to

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 10
In an effort to reduce Mughal influence in Bengal, Murshid Quli Khan:
Transferred all Mughal jagirdars to Orissa.
Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 11

Under whose reign the banking house of Jagat Seth became extremely prosperous.

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 11
Under whose reign the banking house of Jagat Seth became extremely prosperous:
The banking house of Jagat Seth became extremely prosperous during the reign of Alivardi Khan. Here is a detailed explanation:
Background:
- The banking house of Jagat Seth was a prominent financial institution in Bengal during the 18th century.
- It played a significant role in the economic activities of the region, particularly in financing trade and providing loans to merchants.
Alivardi Khan's Reign:
- Alivardi Khan was the Nawab of Bengal from 1740 to 1756.
- He was known for his strong administration and efforts to stabilize the Bengal economy.
- During his reign, Alivardi Khan implemented several policies to promote trade and commerce, which contributed to the growth of the banking sector.
Factors contributing to Jagat Seth's prosperity:
- Alivardi Khan's policies created a favorable business environment, leading to increased trade and economic activities.
- The banking house of Jagat Seth capitalized on these opportunities and expanded its operations, becoming a key player in the financial landscape of Bengal.
- The Jagat Seths, a wealthy Marwari family, had established strong relationships with the ruling elites, which further enhanced their position in the banking sector.
- They provided financial services to the Nawab's government, including loans and managing revenue collections, which bolstered their wealth and influence.
Conclusion:
- Under Alivardi Khan's reign, the banking house of Jagat Seth flourished due to favorable economic policies and their close association with the ruling elites.
- Their prosperity continued even after Alivardi Khan's reign, but it was during his rule that they experienced significant growth and success.
Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 12

Many Rajput kings, had served under the Mughals with distinction particularly those belonging to

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 12

Introduction:
The question asks about which Rajput kings served under the Mughals with distinction, particularly those belonging to certain regions.
Answer:
The correct answer is B: Amber and Jodhpur. Here is a detailed explanation:
1. Rajput Kings:
- Rajputs were a prominent warrior caste in medieval India, known for their bravery and military prowess.
- Many Rajput kings established their own kingdoms and fought against various foreign invasions.
2. Mughal Empire:
- The Mughal Empire was a powerful empire in the Indian subcontinent from the 16th to the 19th century.
- The Mughals were known for their administrative skills, cultural patronage, and military might.
3. Rajput Kings Serving under the Mughals:
- Several Rajput kings formed alliances with the Mughals, serving as their trusted vassals and military commanders.
- These alliances were often established through marriage alliances and diplomatic negotiations.
4. Distinction:
- The question specifically mentions Rajput kings who served under the Mughals with distinction.
- This implies that these kings had notable achievements and contributions during their service.
5. Regions:
- The question further specifies the regions to which these Rajput kings belonged.
- The correct answer is B: Amber and Jodhpur.
6. Amber (later known as Jaipur):
- Amber was a Rajput kingdom that later became the city of Jaipur.
- The Kachwaha Rajput dynasty ruled Amber and had a close association with the Mughals.
- The Kachwahas were known for their loyalty to the Mughal Empire and served as trusted allies and military commanders.
7. Jodhpur:
- Jodhpur was another prominent Rajput kingdom in Rajasthan.
- The Rathore Rajput dynasty ruled Jodhpur and had a long-standing alliance with the Mughals.
- The Rathores were renowned for their military prowess and played a significant role in the Mughal Empire's administration and defense.
Conclusion:
In conclusion, Rajput kings from Amber (Jaipur) and Jodhpur served under the Mughals with distinction. These kings formed alliances with the Mughals, showcasing their military skills and loyalty to the empire.
Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 13

Ajit Singh, the ruler of

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 13

The correct option is D.
Ajit Singh Rathore was a ruler of the Marwar region in present-day Rajasthan and the son of Jaswant Singh Rathore.

Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 14

Sawai Raja Jai Singh founded his new capital at

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 14
Sawai Raja Jai Singh founded his new capital at Jaipur.
Some key points to support this answer include:
1. Historical Background: Sawai Raja Jai Singh was a Rajput ruler of the Kachwaha dynasty who ruled Amber (now known as Jaipur) in the early 18th century. He decided to establish a new capital due to political and strategic reasons.
2. Reasons for Establishing a New Capital: Jai Singh wanted to move the capital from Amber to a more central location in his kingdom. He chose the site of present-day Jaipur for its strategic location, fertile land, and proximity to important trade routes.
3. Planning and Construction: Jai Singh enlisted the help of architects and town planners to design and build the new capital. The city was carefully planned according to the principles of Vastu Shastra, an ancient Indian architectural science.
4. Symbolism: Jaipur was designed to reflect the principles of Hindu cosmology and astrology. The city is divided into nine rectangular sectors, representing the nine planets of the solar system. Each sector is further divided into smaller blocks, with wide streets and well-planned markets.
5. Architectural Marvels: Jaipur is renowned for its stunning architecture, including the iconic Hawa Mahal (Palace of Winds), Amer Fort, City Palace, Jantar Mantar (observatory), and many more. These grand structures showcase the rich cultural heritage of the region.
6. Legacy: Jaipur continues to be the capital of the Indian state of Rajasthan and is known as the "Pink City" due to the color of its buildings. It is a major tourist destination, attracting visitors from around the world to admire its architectural beauty and immerse in its vibrant culture.
Therefore, it is clear that Sawai Raja Jai Singh founded his new capital at Jaipur, making option A the correct answer.
Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 15

Who was given the subadari of Agra in 1722

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 15
Answer:
The subadari of Agra in 1722 was given to Raja Jai Singh. Here is a detailed explanation:
Background:
- Agra was an important city in the Mughal Empire and served as the capital during the reign of Emperor Akbar.
- The subadari of Agra was a position of authority and responsibility, overseeing the administration and governance of the region.
Raja Jai Singh:
- Raja Jai Singh, also known as Mirza Raja Jai Singh, was a prominent noble in the Mughal court.
- He belonged to the Kachwaha Rajput clan and was a trusted ally of the Mughal emperors.
- Jai Singh was known for his military prowess and diplomatic skills, which earned him various titles and positions of power.
Appointment as Subadar of Agra:
- In 1722, Raja Jai Singh was appointed as the subadar (governor) of Agra by the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah.
- This appointment reflected the emperor's trust in Jai Singh's abilities and his importance in maintaining order and stability in the region.
- As the subadar of Agra, Jai Singh was responsible for various administrative matters, including revenue collection, law and order, and defense.
Conclusion:
In 1722, the subadari of Agra was given to Raja Jai Singh, a prominent figure in the Mughal court known for his military and diplomatic skills.
Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 16

Guru Gobind Singh died in

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 16

Information:
Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru, was born on December 22, 1666. He was a spiritual master, poet, philosopher, and warrior. He played a crucial role in shaping Sikhism and defending the rights of people.
Question:
When did Guru Gobind Singh die?
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh died in 1708.
Explanation:
Guru Gobind Singh's death was a significant event in Sikh history. Here's a detailed explanation of the events leading to his demise:
1. Battle of Chamkaur (1704): Guru Gobind Singh and a small group of his followers were surrounded by a much larger Mughal army in the fortress of Chamkaur. Despite being heavily outnumbered, they fought bravely.
2. Evacuation from Chamkaur: Guru Gobind Singh, along with a few of his trusted companions, managed to escape from Chamkaur during the night.
3. Battle of Muktsar (1705): Guru Gobind Singh led his forces in the Battle of Muktsar against the pursuing Mughal army. Many Sikhs sacrificed their lives in this battle.
4. Retreat to Damdama Sahib: After the Battle of Muktsar, Guru Gobind Singh made his way to Damdama Sahib, where he spent several months teaching and writing.
5. Treaty with Aurangzeb: In 1706, Guru Gobind Singh met with Emperor Aurangzeb in Ahmednagar. They agreed upon a peace treaty, which allowed the Guru to establish a new Sikh state.
6. Death in Nanded (1708): Guru Gobind Singh settled in Nanded, where he established the Gurudwara Sachkhand Sahib. On October 7, 1708, he was assassinated by a Pathan.
It is important to note that there is a debate among historians regarding the exact date of Guru Gobind Singh's death. While some sources suggest it to be October 7, 1708, others mention 1707 or 1706. However, the majority consensus is in favor of 1708.
Therefore, the correct answer to the question "When did Guru Gobind Singh die?" is 1708.
Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 17

In 1708, the Khalsa rose in revolt against the Mughal authority under whose leadership, declared their sovereign rule.

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 17

After his death in 1708, the Khalsa rose in revolt against the Mughal authority under Banda Bahadur's leadership, declared their sovereign rule by striking coins in the name of Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh, and established their own administration between the Sutlej and the Jamuna..

Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 18

The Sikh territories in the late eighteenth century extended from the Indus to the Jamuna but they were divided under different rulers. One of them, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, reunited these groups and established his capital at

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 18

Maharaja Ranjit Singh, reunited these groups and established his capital at. Lahore

Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 19

Chauth

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 19

Chauth (from Sanskrit meaning one-fourth) was a regular tax or tribute imposed, from early 18th century, by the Maratha Empire in India. It was an annual tax nominally levied at 25% on revenue or produce, hence the name. 

Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 20

The French Revolution

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: Eighteenth Century Political Formations - Question 20

The French Revolution

 

Answer: d. 1789-1794

 

 

Explanation:

 

The French Revolution was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 to 1794. It was marked by the overthrow of the Bourbon monarchy, the rise of radical political factions, and the eventual establishment of the French Republic.

 

 

Here is a detailed breakdown of the timeline:


- 1785: This year is significant because it was the beginning of the financial crisis that would contribute to the outbreak of the revolution. King Louis XVI convened the Assembly of Notables to address the economic problems of the country.
- 1789: The revolution officially began on July 14, 1789, with the storming of the Bastille, a symbol of royal authority. This event marked the start of the French Revolution and the end of the absolute monarchy in France.
- 1791: The French Constitution of 1791 was adopted, establishing a limited constitutional monarchy and granting certain rights to the French citizens.
- 1792: France declared war on Austria and Prussia, which led to the fall of the monarchy and the establishment of the First French Republic.
- 1793: King Louis XVI was executed, and the Reign of Terror, led by the Committee of Public Safety and Maximilien Robespierre, began. This period was characterized by mass executions and repression of counter-revolutionaries.
- 1794: Robespierre was overthrown and executed, marking the end of the Reign of Terror.
extra - 1799: Napoleon Bonaparte staged a coup d'état and established the Consulate, effectively ending the revolution and beginning a new era of French history.
Therefore, the correct answer is d. 1789-1794.

 

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