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Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - UPSC MCQ


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20 Questions MCQ Test History for UPSC CSE - Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures

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Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 1

Identify the following figure 

Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 2

Prithviraj was the

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 2
Pritihvi Raj was a brave ruler of all time. He is Raj put leader.
Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 3

Match the following 

Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 4

Kathak, now associated with several parts of

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 4
Introduction:
Kathak is one of the eight classical dance forms of India. It originated in North India and is now associated with several parts of the country. Let's explore the regions where Kathak is practiced.
North India:
- Kathak originated in North India, specifically in the region of Uttar Pradesh.
- It was nurtured in the royal courts of North Indian kingdoms during the Mughal era.
- North Indian states like Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Delhi have a strong influence of Kathak dance.
West India:
- Although Kathak originated in North India, it also has a significant presence in West India.
- States like Maharashtra and Gujarat have embraced Kathak and have their own unique styles and interpretations of the dance form.
East India:
- Kathak has also spread to the eastern part of India, particularly in the state of West Bengal.
- The city of Kolkata is known for its Kathak dance schools and performances.
South India:
- Unlike the other classical dance forms of India, Kathak is not traditionally practiced in South India.
- However, with the spread of cultural exchange and fusion, there are instances of Kathak being performed in South Indian states as well.
Conclusion:
Kathak, although originating in North India, has now become a dance form associated with several parts of the country. It is practiced and appreciated in North India, West India, and East India, while also making occasional appearances in South India. The cultural diversity and regional variations have enriched the art form, making it a treasured part of India's classical dance heritage.
Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 5

Kathak was developed in two traditions or gharanas:

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 5
Development of Kathak in Two Gharanas:
The development of Kathak, a classical dance form of India, can be traced back to two distinct traditions or gharanas. These gharanas were developed in the royal courts of Rajasthan and Lucknow.
Gharana 1: Rajasthan
- Kathak originated in the courts of Rajasthan, a state in northern India.
- It was nurtured and developed by the Rajput rulers and their courtesans.
- The dance form in Rajasthan was known for its vibrant footwork, rhythmic patterns, and graceful movements.
- The gharana in Rajasthan focused on storytelling through dance, incorporating elements of poetry and music.
Gharana 2: Lucknow
- Another significant gharana of Kathak was developed in the royal courts of Lucknow, which is now part of the state of Uttar Pradesh.
- It was influenced by the Mughal rulers and their refined culture.
- The Lucknow gharana emphasized expressiveness, intricate hand gestures, and subtle facial expressions.
- The dance form in Lucknow evolved to incorporate more complex footwork patterns and intricate rhythmic compositions.
The development of Kathak in these two gharanas contributed to the rich and diverse nature of the dance form. While Rajasthan gharana emphasized storytelling and vibrant footwork, the Lucknow gharana focused on expressiveness and intricate hand gestures. Today, both gharanas continue to thrive, preserving the essence of Kathak and showcasing their unique styles and techniques.
Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 6

Miniatures are

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 6
Miniatures are:

  • Small-sized paintings: Miniatures are typically small-sized paintings, usually no larger than a few inches in size. They are known for their intricate details and precision.


Explanation:
Miniatures are a form of art that originated in the medieval period and are characterized by their small size and intricate details. They are often painted on various surfaces such as parchment, ivory, or copper. Miniatures were highly popular in royal courts and were used as personal gifts, decorative items, or illustrations in manuscripts.
The small size of miniatures allowed for great attention to detail, with artists using fine brushes and pigments to create intricate designs. They often depicted scenes from religious texts, mythology, or daily life. Miniatures required a high level of skill and precision, as artists had to work with limited space.
In conclusion, miniatures are small-sized paintings that are known for their intricate details and precision. They have a rich history and continue to be appreciated as a unique form of art.
Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 7

The Mughal emperors ________ patronised highly skilled painters who primarily illustrated manuscripts containing historical accounts and poetry

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 7

The Mughal emperors who patronised highly skilled painters and primarily illustrated manuscripts containing historical accounts and poetry were Akbar, Jahangir, and Shah Jahan.
Here is a detailed explanation of each option:
Option A: Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan
- Akbar, Jahangir, and Shah Jahan were Mughal emperors who actively patronised highly skilled painters.
- These emperors promoted the art of manuscript illustration and encouraged painters to create detailed and intricate illustrations.
- The illustrated manuscripts often contained historical accounts and poetry, showcasing the rich cultural heritage of the Mughal Empire.
Option B: Akbar, Jahangir, and Aurangzeb
- While Akbar and Jahangir indeed patronised highly skilled painters, Aurangzeb, unlike his predecessors, did not have a significant interest in the arts.
- Aurangzeb focused more on military conquests and administrative matters, and his reign saw a decline in the Mughal patronage of art and culture.
Option C: Babar, Jahangir, and Aurangzeb
- Babar, the founder of the Mughal Empire, did not have the same level of patronage for painters and illustrated manuscripts as his successors.
- Jahangir, on the other hand, continued and expanded the artistic traditions established by his father, Akbar.
- Aurangzeb, as mentioned earlier, had a limited interest in the arts and did not actively patronise painters.
Option D: Babar, Jahangir, and Shah Jahan
- Babar, as the founder of the Mughal Empire, did not have a significant impact on the patronage of painters and illustrated manuscripts.
- Jahangir's reign marked a period of flourishing art and culture, with a focus on manuscript illustration.
- Shah Jahan, known for his architectural achievements, also supported the arts and commissioned many luxurious illustrated manuscripts.
Therefore, the correct answer is option A: Akbar, Jahangir, and Shah Jahan.
Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 8

The earliest miniatures were on

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 8
The earliest miniatures were on:
- Palm leaves or wood: The earliest miniatures were created on materials such as palm leaves or wood. These materials were readily available and easy to carve or paint on.
- Glass: While glass miniatures have been created throughout history, they were not the earliest form of miniatures. Glass miniatures became more popular in the 18th and 19th centuries with the development of glassblowing techniques.
- Plastic: Plastic was not available in ancient times, so it is not a plausible material for the earliest miniatures.
- Paper: Paper was not commonly used for miniatures in ancient times. While paper has been used for various forms of artwork, including origami and paper dolls, it was not the primary material for early miniatures.
In conclusion, the earliest miniatures were typically made on materials such as palm leaves or wood. These materials were easily accessible and allowed for intricate carving or painting.
Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 9

Paintings portrayed the following except

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 9
Paintings Portrayed the Following Except:
- Scenes of battle: Paintings often depicted historical battles and war scenes, capturing the intensity and drama of combat. These artworks showcased military strategies, heroic figures, and the impact of warfare on society.
- Scenes of big industries: Paintings rarely portrayed scenes of big industries. This subject matter was not commonly represented in traditional paintings, which focused more on historical events, religious themes, landscapes, portraits, and still life.
- Court scenes: Court scenes were a popular subject in paintings, particularly during the Renaissance and Baroque periods. Artists depicted royal courts, legal proceedings, and the pomp and grandeur of the judicial system.
- Hunting: Paintings often depicted hunting scenes, showcasing the aristocracy's leisure activities and their prowess in hunting wildlife. These paintings highlighted the thrill of the chase, the beauty of nature, and the social status associated with hunting.
Answer: B. Scenes of big industries
- Paintings did not commonly portray scenes of big industries. Industrialization and the rise of factories and large-scale industries occurred during the 18th and 19th centuries, which was a time when painting styles and subject matters were shifting towards more modern and experimental forms. Industrial scenes became more prevalent in other art forms, such as photography and later, in the works of modern and contemporary artists. However, traditional paintings focused on different themes and subjects.
Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 10

Nadir Shah's invasion and the conquest of Delhi in

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 10
Nadir Shah's invasion and the conquest of Delhi in 1739
Nadir Shah, the ruler of Persia, invaded India in 1739 and successfully conquered Delhi.
Background:
- Nadir Shah was a powerful ruler who aimed to expand his empire and gain wealth.
- He had already conquered several regions in Central Asia and the Middle East before turning his attention towards India.
- The Mughal Empire in India was in decline during this period, which made it an attractive target for Nadir Shah.
The Invasion:
- In 1738, Nadir Shah crossed the Indus River and entered India with a large army.
- He faced little resistance as he advanced towards Delhi, as the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah was ill-prepared to defend against the invasion.
- Nadir Shah's forces swiftly defeated the Mughal army and captured the city of Delhi.
The Conquest of Delhi:
- After capturing Delhi, Nadir Shah ordered the massacre of its citizens and looted the city of its riches.
- The invasion was marked by widespread destruction, violence, and plundering.
- Nadir Shah's forces killed thousands of people and took massive amounts of wealth, including the famous Peacock Throne and the Koh-i-Noor diamond.
Aftermath:
- The invasion of Nadir Shah deeply weakened the Mughal Empire and exposed its vulnerabilities.
- It also marked the beginning of the end of Mughal rule in India, as the empire continued to decline in the following years.
- The conquest of Delhi by Nadir Shah had a significant impact on the political and cultural landscape of India.
Conclusion:
- Nadir Shah's invasion and conquest of Delhi occurred in 1739.
- It was a brutal event that had far-reaching consequences for the Mughal Empire and the region as a whole.
Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 11

Magadha is in

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 11
Answer:

Magadha is in Bihar.


Explanation:

Magadha, an ancient kingdom in India, was located in the present-day state of Bihar. Here is a detailed explanation:



  • Introduction: Magadha was one of the most prominent and powerful kingdoms in ancient India. It played a significant role in shaping the political, cultural, and religious history of the Indian subcontinent.

  • Geographical Location: Magadha was situated in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent. It covered a large region, including parts of present-day Bihar and Jharkhand.

  • Historical Significance: Magadha was the birthplace of several important dynasties and empires, such as the Haryanka dynasty, the Maurya Empire under Emperor Ashoka, and the Gupta Empire.

  • Centers of Power: The ancient capital cities of Magadha were Rajagriha (modern-day Rajgir) and Pataliputra (modern-day Patna), which served as the political and administrative centers of the kingdom.

  • Contributions: Magadha witnessed significant developments in various fields, including politics, art, literature, and religion. It was a center of learning and attracted scholars, philosophers, and spiritual leaders.

  • Religious Significance: Magadha was associated with the birth and spread of several major religions, such as Buddhism and Jainism. It was also an important center for Hinduism.


Therefore, Magadha is historically and geographically located in the present-day state of Bihar.

Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 12

Xuan Zang was a

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 12
Answer:
Introduction:
Xuan Zang was a famous traveler and monk from ancient times. He is widely known for his epic journey to India to obtain Buddhist scriptures and spread Buddhism in China.
Explanation:
Xuan Zang was a Chinese traveler, not from any other nationality. He played a significant role in promoting Buddhism and bringing knowledge back to China. Here are some key points to support this answer:
- Chinese Traveler: Xuan Zang was born in China during the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD).
- Buddhist Monk: He became a Buddhist monk at a young age and dedicated his life to studying and propagating Buddhism.
- Journey to India: Xuan Zang embarked on a perilous journey to India in 629 AD, with the aim of obtaining authentic Buddhist scriptures.
- Travel Route: He traveled through treacherous terrains, crossed deserts, and mountains, facing numerous challenges along the way.
- Stay in India: Xuan Zang spent around 15 years in India, studying Buddhist philosophy and collecting important scriptures.
- Return to China: After successfully completing his mission, Xuan Zang returned to China with a vast collection of Buddhist texts, which greatly enriched Chinese Buddhism.
- Contributions: Xuan Zang's journey and the texts he brought back inspired the development of Buddhism in China and had a profound impact on Chinese culture and history.
Conclusion:
In conclusion, Xuan Zang was a Chinese traveler who made a remarkable journey to India to obtain Buddhist scriptures and promote Buddhism in China. His contributions are still revered and remembered today.
Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 13

The Brihaddharma Purana, a thirteenth-century Sanskrit text from Bengal, permitted the local Brahmanas to eat certain varieties of

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 13
The Brihaddharma Purana and the Permission to Eat Fish
The Brihaddharma Purana, a thirteenth-century Sanskrit text from Bengal, granted the local Brahmanas the permission to consume certain types of food. One of the items allowed for consumption was fish. Here is a detailed explanation:
The Brihaddharma Purana:
The Brihaddharma Purana is a Sanskrit text that originated in Bengal during the thirteenth century. It is a religious and philosophical scripture that contains various guidelines and regulations for Brahmanas, the priestly class of Hindu society.
Permission to Eat Fish:
According to the Brihaddharma Purana, certain varieties of fish were considered permissible for consumption by the local Brahmanas. This permission was significant because Brahmanas were generally expected to follow strict dietary restrictions.
Importance of the Brihaddharma Purana:
The Brihaddharma Purana played a crucial role in influencing the dietary practices and traditions of Brahmanas in Bengal. It provided guidance on what could be consumed and what needed to be avoided, thereby shaping the food habits of the community.
Other Permitted and Restricted Foods:
While fish was allowed for consumption, it is important to note that the Brihaddharma Purana also listed other food items that were both permitted and prohibited for Brahmanas. However, in the context of this question, the focus is on the permission granted to eat fish.
In conclusion, the Brihaddharma Purana, a thirteenth-century Sanskrit text from Bengal, permitted the local Brahmanas to consume certain varieties of fish. This permission was significant in shaping the dietary practices of the Brahmana community in Bengal during that time period.
Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 14

By the early nineteenth century, in Rumania school textbooks began to be written in _____ rather than in ____

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 14
Answer:
The correct answer is C: Rumanian, Greek.
Explanation:
During the early nineteenth century in Romania, there was a shift in the language used for school textbooks. Here's a detailed explanation of the answer:
1. Background: In Romania, the dominant language spoken by the people was Rumanian (also known as Romanian).
2. Language of school textbooks: Initially, school textbooks were written in Latin, which was the language commonly used for education and official documents during that time.
3. Change in language: However, by the early nineteenth century, there was a shift in the language used for school textbooks, and they began to be written in Rumanian instead of Latin.
4. Reasons for the change: This change can be attributed to the growing nationalistic sentiments and the desire to promote the use of the vernacular language, Rumanian, in education.
5. Alternative option: The option A, which states "Latin, Rumanian," is incorrect because Latin was replaced by Rumanian, not the other way around.
6. Conclusion: Therefore, the correct answer is C: Rumanian, Greek, as it reflects the change that occurred in Romania during the early nineteenth century regarding the language used in school textbooks.
Overall, this question highlights the linguistic and cultural developments in Romania during the early nineteenth century, specifically in the context of education and the use of the Rumanian language in school textbooks.
Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 15

Bengali is derived from

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 15
Introduction:
Bengali is an Indo-Aryan language primarily spoken in Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, and Assam. It is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world with over 200 million native speakers. Bengali, also known as Bangla, has a rich linguistic history and has evolved from various sources.
Derivation of Bengali:
Bengali is derived from Sanskrit, an ancient Indo-Aryan language. The evolution of Bengali can be traced through different stages:
1. Sanskrit:
- Sanskrit, an ancient language, is the root of many modern Indian languages.
- Bengali shares a strong linguistic connection with Sanskrit, especially in terms of vocabulary and grammar.
- Many words in Bengali are derived from Sanskrit roots.
2. Middle Indo-Aryan:
- During the Middle Ages, Bengali developed from the Apabhramsha form of Middle Indo-Aryan.
- The influence of Middle Indo-Aryan languages like Magadhi, Ardhamagadhi, and Varendra can be seen in the evolution of Bengali.
3. Magadhi Prakrit:
- Magadhi Prakrit, an earlier form of Bengali, was spoken in the Magadha region of ancient India.
- It played a significant role in shaping the Bengali language.
4. Influence of Persian and Arabic:
- During the medieval period, Bengali also assimilated vocabulary and linguistic features from Persian and Arabic, due to the influence of Muslim rulers in the region.
5. Influence of European languages:
- With the arrival of European colonizers, Bengali absorbed loanwords and linguistic elements from English, Portuguese, and Dutch.
Conclusion:
Bengali, a widely spoken Indo-Aryan language, has evolved over centuries through various influences. While it has roots in Sanskrit and Middle Indo-Aryan, it has also been shaped by Magadhi Prakrit, Persian, Arabic, and European languages. Understanding the historical development of Bengali helps us appreciate its linguistic richness and cultural significance.
Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 16

Mangalakavyas is a

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 16
Mangalakavyas is a Sanskrit Epics.
Explanation:
- Mangalakavyas are a form of Sanskrit poetry that originated in ancient India.
- The word "Mangala" means auspicious or propitious, and "Kavya" means poetry.
- These epics are known for their devotional and mythological themes and are characterized by their rich literary and poetic qualities.
- Mangalakavyas are written in the Sanskrit language, which is considered to be the ancient language of the Indian subcontinent.
- They often narrate stories from Hindu mythology and celebrate the glory of gods and goddesses.
- Some famous examples of Mangalakavyas include the Ramacharitamanasa by Tulsidas, the Mahabharata by Vyasa, and the Ramayana by Valmiki.
- These epics have had a significant influence on Indian literature, culture, and religious practices.
- They are highly regarded for their moral teachings, philosophical insights, and artistic beauty.
- Mangalakavyas continue to be studied and appreciated for their literary and cultural significance in India and around the world.
Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 17

______ is a popular regional deity, often worshipped in the form of a stone or a piece of wood

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 17
Answer:
The popular regional deity worshipped in the form of a stone or a piece of wood is Dharma Thakur.
Here is a detailed explanation:
Dharma Thakur:
- Dharma Thakur is a popular regional deity in certain parts of India, particularly in the state of West Bengal.
- The worship of Dharma Thakur is prevalent among the lower castes and rural communities.
- Dharma Thakur is often worshipped in the form of a stone or a piece of wood, which represents the deity.
- The stone or wood is considered sacred and is usually placed in a small shrine or under a tree.
- Devotees offer prayers, flowers, and food to the deity as a sign of devotion and seek blessings for their well-being.
- The worship of Dharma Thakur is believed to bring prosperity, protection, and harmony in the community.
- The rituals and practices associated with Dharma Thakur worship vary in different regions, but the core belief in the deity remains the same.
- Dharma Thakur is considered to be a guardian deity and is believed to protect the devotees from evil forces and bring justice.
- The worship of Dharma Thakur is often accompanied by folk songs, dances, and other cultural activities.
- The devotees have deep faith in the deity and consider Dharma Thakur as an integral part of their religious and cultural identity.
References:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dharma_Thakur
Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 18

A Persian word meaning a spiritual guide

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 18

Peer or Pir (Persian:'old [person]', 'elder') is a title for a Sufi master or spiritual guide. They are also referred to as a Hazrat (from Arabic:, romanized: Haḍra) and Sheikh or Shaykh, which is literally the Arabic equivalent.

Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 19

In Bengal Officials and functionaries received land and often set up ___ that served as centres for religious transformation in these areas.

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 19

The correct answer is D as In Bengal Officials and functionaries received land and often set up mosques  that served as centres for religious transformation in these areas.

Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 20

Bengal also witnessed a temple-building spree from the late ____ century, which culminated in the _____ century

Detailed Solution for Important Questions: The Making of Regional Cultures - Question 20

The correct option is A.
Bengal witnessed a temple-building spree from the late 15th century which culminated in the 19th century.

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