Spectrum Test: The Economic Impact of British Rule in India


10 Questions MCQ Test History for UPSC CSE | Spectrum Test: The Economic Impact of British Rule in India


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QUESTION: 1

Consider the following statements. 

1. Cheap and machine-made imports were reduced in the Indian market after the Charter Act of 1813 which abolished the monopoly of the company to trade with China 

2. On the other hand, Indian products found it more and more difficult to penetrate the European markets

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution: Cheap and machine-made imports flooded the Indian market after the Charter Act of 1813, allowing one-way free trade for British citizens. On the other hand, Indian products found it more and more difficult to penetrate the European markets.

QUESTION: 2

Consider the following statements. 

1. The loss of traditional livelihood was accompanied by the process of industrialization in India 

2. This happened at a time when Indian artisans and handicraftsmen were already feeling the crunch due to loss of patronage by princes and the nobility, who were now under the influence of new western tastes and values 

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:  
  • The loss of traditional livelihood was not accompanied by industrialization in India, as had happened in other rapidly industrializing countries of the time. 

  • This resulted in the deindustrialization of India at a time when Europe was witnessing a reintensified Industrial Revolution. 

  • This happened at a time when Indian artisans and handicraftsmen were already feeling the crunch due to loss of patronage by princes and the nobility, who were now under the influence of new western tastes and values.

QUESTION: 3

Consider the following statements. 

1. One feature of the Deindustrialization was the decline of many cities and a process of ruralization of India

2. As a result, farmers forced to sell their products at low prices, and they moved to cities 

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:  
  • Another feature of deindustrialization was the decline of many cities and a process of ruralization of India.

  • Many artisans, faced with diminishing returns and repressive policies in Bengal, during the Company's rule, artisans were paid low wages and forced to sell their products at low prices), abandoned their professions, moved to villages and took to agriculture. 

  • This resulted in increased pressure on land. An overburdened agriculture sector was a major cause of poverty during British rule, which upset the village economic setup.

QUESTION: 4

Consider the following statements. 

1. Transferability of land was one feature of the new settlement which caused great insecurity to the tenants who lost all their traditional rights inland 

2. There was little spending by the Government on the improvement of land productivity 

3. Zamindars, with increased powers and greed to earn more money, invested for improvement of agriculture

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:  
  • The government, only interested in the maximization of rents and in securing its share of revenue, had enforced the Permanent Settlement system in large parts. 

  • Transferability of land was one feature of the new settlement that caused great insecurity to the tenants who lost all their traditional land rights. 

  • There was little spending by the Government on the improvement of land productivity. 

  • With increased powers, the zamindars resorted to summary evictions, demanded illegal dues and begar' to maximize their share in the production, and had no incentive to invest for improvement of agriculture. 

  • The overburdened peasants had to approach the moneylenders to be able to pay their dues to the zamindars.

QUESTION: 5

Consider the following statements. 

1. The peasant turned out to be the ultimate sufferer under the triple burden of the Government, zamindar and moneylender 

2. His hardship increased at the time of famine and scarcity 

3. This was as much true for the zamindari areas as for areas under Ryotwari and Mahalwari systems

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:  
  • The overburdened peasants had to approach the moneylenders to be able to pay their dues to the zamindars. The moneylender, who was often also the village grain-merchant, forced the farmer to sell the produce at low prices to clear his dues. 

  • The powerful moneylender was also able to manipulate the judiciary and law in his favour. 

  • The peasant turned out to be the ultimate sufferer under the government's triple burden, zamindar and money- lender. His hardship increased at the time of famine and scarcity.

This was as much true for the zamindari areas as for areas under Ryotwari and Mahalwari systems.

QUESTION: 6

Why was there no introduction of modern technology in agriculture? 

1. The cultivator had neither the means nor any incentive to invest in agriculture. 

2. The zamindar had no roots in the villages

3. The Government spent more on technical or mass education rather than agriculture. 

Choose from the following options.

Solution:  
  • The cultivator had neither the means nor any incentive to invest in agriculture. The zamindar had no roots in the villages, while the Government spent little on agricultural, technical or mass education. 

  • With the fragmentation of land due to sub-infeudation, all this made it difficult to introduce modern technology which caused a perpetually low level of productivity.

QUESTION: 7

Consider the following statements. 

1. Regular recurrence of famines became of a common feature of daily existence in India 

2. These famines were not just because of food grain scarcity, but were a direct result of poverty unleashed by India's colonial forces. 

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:  
  • Regular recurrence of famines became a common feature of daily existence in India. 

  • These famines were not just because of food grain scarcity but were a direct result of poverty unleashed by India's colonial forces. Between 1850 and 1900, about 2.8 crore people died in famines.

QUESTION: 8

What were the reasons behind the new market trend of commercialization and specialization? 

1. Spread of money economy 

2. Emergence of a unified national market 

3. Growth of internal trade

Choose from the following options.

Solution:  The new market trend of commercialization and specialization was encouraged by many factors spread of money economy, replacement of custom and tradition by competition and contract, the emergence of a unified national market, growth of internal trade, improvement in communications through rail and roads and boost to international trade given by entry of British finance capital, etc.

QUESTION: 9

Consider the following statements. 

1. The Indian moneylender provided loans to hard-pressed agriculturists and thus facilitated the state collection of revenue

2. The Indian trader carried imported British products to the remotest corners and helped in the movement of Indian agricultural products for exports 

3. The indigenous bankers helped both in the process of distribution and collection 

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:  
  • Indian traders, moneylenders and bankers had amassed some wealth as junior partners of English merchant capitalists in India. Their role fitted in the British scheme of colonial exploitation. 

  • The Indian moneylender provided loans to hard-pressed agriculturists and thus facilitated the state collection of revenue. 

  • The Indian trader carried imported British products to the remotest corners and helped in Indian agricultural products for exports. The indigenous bankers helped both in the process of distribution and collection.

QUESTION: 10

Why was there a rush of foreign capital in India in the second half of the 19th century?

1. Prospects of high profits 

2. Cheap and readily available raw material 

3. Willingness of administration to provide all help 

4. Ready market in India 

Choose from the following options.

Solution:  There was a rush of foreign capital in India at this time due to prospects of high profits, availability of cheap labour, cheap and readily available raw material, the ready market in India and the neighbours, diminishing avenues for investments at home, the willingness of the administration to provide all help, and ready markets abroad for some Indian exports such as tea, jute and manganese.