Test: Important Question (Ancient India) - 1

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Which of the following causes are said to be responsible for the decline of the Indus Civilisation?
I. Frequency of floods 
II. Foreign invasions
III. Decline in the fertility of soil
IV. Onset of drought conditions

  • One theory suggested that a nomadic, Indo-European tribe, called the Aryans, invaded and conquered the Indus Valley Civilization.
  • Many scholars now believe the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilization was caused by climate change.
  • The eastward shift of monsoons may have reduced the water supply, forcing the Harappans of the Indus River Valley to migrate and establish smaller villages and isolated farms.
  • These small communities could not produce the agricultural surpluses needed to support cities, which where then abandoned.

The date of Indus Valley Civilisation was first determined with the help of     


Ancient Mesopotamian seals from the same period functioned in this manner. Numerous Indus seals have been found in ancient Mesopotamian cities. There is evidence for settlements of Indus valley traders in ancient Mesopotamia, in the form of Mesopotamian seals with Indus language characters.


For weights and measures the Harappans commonly used     

  • Harappa is located on the bank of river Ravi and Harappans knew the art of growing cereals, wheat and barley.
  • The people of Harappa were the earliest people in the world to grow cotton and rice.
  • The people of Harappa used a system of weights and measures based on 16 and its multiples.

Important structures excavated at the Indus cities include    


Most cities had similar patterns. There were two parts: a citadel and the lower town. There were granaries, 2-storied houses made of burnt bricks, etc.


Excavations in Northern India have exposed the following pottery types.
I. Harppan pottery 
II. Painted greyware
III. Ochre-coloured pottery 
IV. Northern black polished ware
The correct chronological order is:


Excavations in Northern India have exposed the following pottery types

I.Harppan pottery 
II. Painted greyware
IV. Northern black polished ware
III. Ochre-coloured pottery


Which one of the following in the opinion of Megasthanes, had exclusive control over land in India during the Mauryan times?    


D is the correct option.Mauryan empire, in ancient India, a state centered at Pataliputra (later Patna) had exclusive control over land in India during the Mauryan times. the Mauryan Empire  conquered almost all of the Indian peninsula. 


The Sangam works in Tamil are assignable to

  • The period roughly between the 3rd century B.C. and 3rd century A.D. in South India (the area lying to the south of river Krishna and Tungabhadra) is known as Sangam Period.
  • It has been named after the Sangam academies held during that period that flourished under the royal patronage of the Pandya kings of Madurai.
  • At the sangams eminent scholars assembled and functioned as the board of censors and the choicest literature was rendered in the nature of anthologies.
  • These literary works were the earliest specimens of Dravidian literature.
  • The Sangam works in Tamil are assignable to the early centuries of the Christian era.

The earliest form of Siva in religious literature is as


A god named Rudra is mentioned in the Rig Veda.The hymn 10.92 of the Rigveda states that deity Rudra has two natures, one wild and cruel (rudra), another that is kind and tranquil (shiva). The Vedic texts do not mention bull or any animal as the transport vehicle (vahana) of Rudra or other deities.


Match the following:


The correct option is D.
They are correctly matched.

  1. Kurinji : Mountains and adjoining lands. Named after the kurinji flower that blooms once in 12 years on mountain slopes. Kurinji and Kānthal flowers grow in the mountains. Murugan is the god of the Kurinji land, and bears, tigers and elephants, monkeys, wild pigs, parrots and peacocks live there. Wild rice, millet, and tubers are grown.
  2. The people inhabiting this region are known as eyeliner, maravar and kalvar who were involved in waylaying, highway robbery and soldiering. The Eyeliner (from ey – bow) were hunters who hunted with bow, the maravar (from maram – valour) were soldiers and the kalvar (from kal – robbery) were robbers. Their chiefs were known as mili, vitali and kalai. Their settlements were known as kurumbu. Korravai, the Mother goddess and goddess of war, is worshipped here.
  3. Mullai: Forest and adjoining lands. Named after the jasmine, and the plant grows wild in forest areas, especially in the rainy seasons. The god is Māyon (the dark one), and cattle, deer, rabbits, and wildfowl live there. 
  4. Neythal: Seashore and adjoining lands. Named after the blue water lily that grows near the seashore. Varunan is the god.

Which of the following could be associated with Buddhism?
I. Rejection of the authority of Vedas
II. Denial of God
III. Belief in the categories of jiva and ajiva
IV. The concept on Nirvana
V. Theory of prakirti and purusa 

  • The Buddha did not find anything in the philosophy of the Vedic Rishis. They were groping to reach the truth. He therefore rejected the philosophy of the Vedic Rishis as useless.
  • Nirvana is the goal of the Buddhist path. The literal meaning of the term is "blowing out" or "quenching". Nirvana is the ultimate spiritual goal in Buddhism and marks the soteriological release from rebirths in saṃsāra
  • There is no belief in a personal god. Buddhists believe that nothing is fixed or permanent and that change is always possible. The path to Enlightenment is through the practice and development of morality, meditation and wisdom.

The principal function of the Hota was to     


It's evident through documents available. Ashvalayana, (flourished 400 BCE?), author of the Ashvalayana-shrauta-sutra, a Vedic manual of sacrificial ceremonies composed for the use of the class of priests called hotar, or hotri, whose main function was to invoke the gods.


The Battle of Ten Kings was fought by a confederacy of Aryan and non-Aryan tribes with     


The entire territory of the Vedic Aryans was divided into a number of tribal principalities, ruled normally by the leaders. The Bharatas were the most important Aryan tribe, after whom the India came to be known as Bharata.The battle of ten kings was between Sudas, a Bharata king of the Tritsu family and the confederacy of ten well-known tribes- Puru, Yadu, Turvasa, Anu, Druhyu, Alina, Paktha, Bhalanas, Shiva and Vishanin. The former five are said to be Aryan tribe while the later 5 are said to be Non-Aryan tribes.


Videgha Mathava from the bank of Saravati to the bank of Sadanira is found in    


The Aitareya Brahmana is the Brahmana of the Shakala shakha of the Rigveda, an ancient Indian collection of sacred hymns. This work, according to the tradition, is ascribed to Mahidasa Aitareya.


The leading lady of Silappadigaram belonged to the


The Silappatikaram is set in a flourishing seaport city of the early Chola kingdom. Kannaki and Kovalan are a newly married couple, in love, and living in bliss.


Which of the following statements regarding the Sangam age is CORRECT ?
I. the use of black and red ware 
II. the use of iron
III. its association with megaliths 
IV. the penetration of Mauryan influence into Southern India


The scripts used in Mauryan inscriptions include


The inscriptions found in the central and eastern part of India were written in Magadhi Prakrit using the Brahmi script, while Prakrit using the Kharoshthi script, Greek and Aramaic were used in the northwest. These edicts were deciphered by British archaeologist and historian James Prinsep.


The earliest and best exposition of the doctrines of Bhagavatism is to be found in the     


The correct answer is C as The earliest and best exposition of the doctrines of Bhagavatism is to be found in the bhagwat gita.


The artha sastra is NOT concerned with the


The correct option is A.
All the others are concerned with the artha sastra.


Who, among the following, lived within the empire of Ashoka?    


The Andhras are listed among the tribal peoples in the Mauryan empire. Possibly they rose to being local officials and then, on the disintegration of the empire, gradually became independent rulers of the northwestern Deccan.


The earliest source for a study of Buddha's teachings is     


The Sutta Pitaka — define the essential themes of the Buddha's teachings that reappear in countless variations throughout the Canon. 


Which one of the following edicts of Ashoka mentions the canonical texts of Buddhism?    


Bhabru is located near Jaipur in Rajasthan. An article related to Ashoka has been found on a rock from Bairath. This article of Bhabru gives clear evidence of Ashoka being a Buddhist observer. In Bhabru, he has expressed his faith in Buddhism and Sangha. Some examples of Buddhist texts have also been given in Bhabru.


Which one of the following is the correct hierarchical order as described in many of  the early Buddhist Texts?


The correct answer isC as it is the accurate ascending order of early buddhist texts.


Consider the following quotation: "The living and the non-living by coming into contact with each other, forge certain energies which bring about birth, death and various experiences of life, this process could be stopped and energies already forged destroyed, by course, of discipline leading to salvation".


The correct option is C.
Jainism emphatically asserts that every soul is capable of attaining perfection if it willfully exerts in that direction. But the real situation is that from time eternal the soul is bound with matter and it is the aim of every person to get the soul rid of matter so that soul can assume its true state. This spiritual emancipation requires the knowledge of the beatific condition and of the causes which stand in the way of its attainment. To find out these causes it is necessary to understand what are the existing elements or substances of nature and mode of their interaction. Jainism believes that the whole universe can be divided into two categories, viz., Jiva, i.e., soul and Ajiva, i. e. non-soul. These two - Jiva and Ajiva - exhaust between them all that exists in the universe and Jaina philosophy is based on the nature and interaction of these two elements. It can be said in short that the living and the non-living, by coming into contact with each other, forge certain energies which bring about birth, death and various experiences of life; this process could be stopped, and the energies already forged destroyed, by a course of discipline leading to salvation.


Jain canonical literature was codified in the 5th century A.D at


The canon compiled at this council consisted of certain portions of the Purvas (ancient texts), the eleven Angas (limbs or sections), and several other texts. These were further revised and finally written down at a second council held at Valabhi in Saurashtra in the 5th century AD. 


Which one of the following was not a sect of Saivism?


Saivism is the name given to the practice of worshipping Lord Siva ( also spelled Shiva) as the highest supreme Brahman. It is one of the most popular sects of Hinduism, whose history is probably as old as the religious history of the Indian subcontinent. Siva was worshipped in prehistoric times in different forms and with different names by many ancient cultures, both in the Indian subcontinent and outside of it. There is also an argument that He was probably the prototype Father God from which emerged "the God" of all religions.


Match the following:


Match the following:


BARBARICUM was an important port in the Indus delta, receiving Chinese furs and silks through Bacteria for export to the West. It added to the growing prosperity of India in the first century A.D. 15.
Bharuch Port is Located in the region that comes under the current state of Gujarat and at the mouth of the river Narmada, Bharuch was also known as Bharukaccha and Barygaza to the merchants from around the world.
 Arikamedu, in Puducherry holds secrets to the Indo-Roman links & goes ... It refers to this site as 'Poduke', a port identified with Arikamedu, owing to its location.
Paithan, the ancient city of Pratishthan, is beautifully situated on the left bank of the river Godavari.


Details of the professions pursued during Kanishka's times are available in     


A is the correct option.When Kaniska came to the throne is uncertain. His accession has been estimated as occurring between 78 and 144 ce; his reign is believed to have lasted 23 years.Details of the professions pursued during Kanishka's times are available in Divyavandana. The Divyāvadāna or Divine narratives is a Sanskrit anthology of Buddhist avadana tales, many originating in Mūlasarvāstivādin vinaya texts. It may be dated to 2nd century CE.


Match the following:


Which one of the following is the correct definition of "bhumicchidranyaya"?    


Bhumicchidranyaya is the maxim of barren land with such right of ownership as are acquired by a man making barren land cultivate for first time free from liability is pay rest for it.

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