The Harappan site of Mudigak is presently located in
Mundigak is an archaeological site in Kandahar province in Afghanistan. It is situated approximately 55 km northwest of Kandahar near Shāh Maqsud, on the upper drainage of the Kushk-i Nakhud River.
Which of the following can be definitely be said to be the belief and practices of the Indus people?
I. Phallic and yoni worship as evident from the discovery of stone symbols
II. Worship of trees, animals and birds
III. Worship of idols of different gods
IV. Belief in ghosts and evil spirits
Select the answer form the codes given below.
It was widely suggested that the Harappan people worshipped a Mother goddess symbolizing fertility. A few Indus valley seals displayed swastika sign which were there in many religions, especially in Indian religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Worship of the male phallus or lingam has been more extensive than worship of the yoni, and examples of its power as a fertility symbol can be seen throughout Indian culture. The worship of the yoni is the worship of the goddess, as well as the worship of women as living expressions of the goddess.
Plants, trees and animals were probably important to Indus people. The pipal or fig tree is shown on many seals, and is still a sacred tree for many Buddhists and Hindus. Hinduism also places importance on ritual bathing.
Amulets have been found in large numbers from the Indus Valley. Probably the Harappans believed that ghosts and evil forces were capable of harming them and, therefore, used amulets against them. The Atharva Veda, which is associated with non-Aryan tradition, contains many charms and spells, and recommends amulets for warding off diseases and evil forces.
Indus Civilization belongs to which of the following periods?
Proto Historic Period in India Bronze Age Indus Valley Harappan Civilisation
The earliest excavations in the Indus valley were done at Harappa in the West Punjab and Mohenjodaro in Sind. Both places are now in Pakistan. The findings in these two cities brought to light a civilization. It was first called the ‘The Indus Valley Civilization’. But this civilization was later named as the ‘Indus Civilization’ due to the discovery of more and more sites far away from the Indus valley. Also, it has come to be called the ‘Harappan Civilization’ after the name of its first discovered site.
Among the many other sites excavated, the most important are Kot Diji in Sind, Kalibangan in Rajasthan, Rupar in the Punjab, Banawali in Haryana, Lothal, Surkotada and Dholavira, all the three in Gujarat. The larger cities are approximately a hundred hectares in size. Mohenjodara is the largest of all the Indus cities and it is estimated to have spread over an area of 200 hectares.
Origin and Evolution
The archaeological findings excavated for the last eight decades reveal the gradual development of the Harappan culture. There are four important stages or phases of evolution and they are named as pre-Harappan, early-Harappan, mature-Harappan and late Harappan.
Given below are two statements — one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R) :
Assertion (A) : Harappans exported raw cotton to Mesopotamia
Reason (R) : Harappans were the first to grow cotton
In the context of the above two statements, which of the following is correct?
Farmers in the Indus valley were the first to spin and weave cotton. In 1929 archaeologists recovered fragments of cotton tetiles at Mohenjo-Daro, in what is now Pakistan, dating to between 3250 and 2750 BCE.
Match the following Indus cities with the respective rivers on which they were located
The correct option is A.
The options are correctly matched.
What is the chronological order of the discovery of the following Indus sites?
Choose the answer from the codes given below :
Chanhu Daro is situated 130 kms south of Mohenjo-Daro in Sindh and there has been found a single mound. It was discovered by N G Majumdar in 1931
Kalibangan is a part of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, located in present Hanumangarh district. The site was discovered by Luigi Pio Tessitori, an Italian Indologist and linguist. After Independence in 1952, Amlānand Ghosh identified the site as part of Harappan Civilization and marked it for excavation.
First discovered in 1954, Lothal was excavated from 1955-1960 by S R Rao of the Archaeological Survey of India.
Surkotada is a small, 3.5 acre site northeast of Bhuj, in Gujarat. "The mound has an average height of five-to-eight metres (east-to-west) and was discovered by the author during the course of his explorations in Kutch in December, 1964,
The credit of discovery of the site of Banwali goes to the Archeologists of this department in the year 1981.
Match List I and List II and select the corr ect answer from the codes given below the lists :
That men in some areas of India lived in underground pits is suggested by excavations in
Burzahom, a combination of two words-burza (birch) and home (ghar or residential house)-is located about 10 kilometers in north-east of Srinagar, the capital city of Kashmir.
It was as early as in 1935 that De Terra, heading the Yale-Cambridge Expedition, went for a trial excavation at the Burzahom site.
The excavations found revealed that the inhabitants of Burzahom lived in pits dug below ground-level with stone tools and their sides were plastered with mud to give them strength and durability. These underground pits obviously were their choice to protect themselves from the blues of severe winter. Burzahom was the ideal habitat for the Burzahomis because, being on the shores of Dal Lake it provided fish in abundance, clean drinking water and adequate hunting grounds in the forest on northern plateau at the foothills of Mahadeva mountain.
‘Sutuduri’ mentioned in the Rig Veda is
The Rig-Veda is the only source to give us an idea of the geographical expanse of the Early Vedic period. When the early Rig Vedic hymns were written, the focus of Aryan culture was the region between the Yamuna and Sutudri (Sutlej) and along the upper course of the river Sarasvati. Hence the correct answer is option C.
Consider the following hymn of the Atharva Veda Samhita
“Even Though there were ten non Brahmin previous husbands of a woman, the Brahmin alone becomes her husband if he seizes her land.’’
This is an obvious reference to which of the following marriage practices of the Vedic people?
Polyandry (/ˈpɒliˌændri, ˌpɒliˈæn-/; from Greek: πολυ- poly-, "many" and ἀνήρ anēr, "man") is a form of polygamy in which a woman takes two or more husbands at the same time. Polyandry is contrasted with polygyny, involving one male and two or more females.
Which one of the following is not true regarding the Rig Vedic god Indra?
Varuna, in the Vedic phase of Hindu mythology, the god-sovereign, the personification of divine authority was the ruler of the sky realm and the upholder of cosmic and moral law; a duty shared with the group of gods known as the Adityas , of whom he was the chief.
Match List-I and List-II and select th e answer using the codes given below the lists :
These are the several functional groups appeared as distinct castes and the social status of some of them such as tanners ,hide cleaners and the like declined.Their professions become separate castes like these.
These words were originated from Sanskrit. Vapta - Barber ( A person who cuts and style the hairs of people)
Tashta - When coming into this, it has a reference in Sun of gods book where God is an artist ,he is a carpenter and the words or names like Deva Tashta, Deva Tat.
Bishaka - Medicine man or doctor. one who treats the people and the injured soldiers in war time.
Karmara - Iron smith or Black smith ,One who makes and polish the tools and equipments.
Charmana - Tanner Persons who are involved in leather tanning works.
And it has some more professions like rathakra - maker of chariots , kulala - maker of pots,Ishukrit - maker of arrows, Dhanvakrit - maker of bows and mrigya - hunter.
Given below are two statements — one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other as Reason (R) :
Assertion (A) : Atharva Veda Samhita is said to be the work of non-Aryans
Reason (R) : Its contents deal with philosophical topics like the Universal Soul, the Absolute, etc. In the context of the above two statements, which one of the following is correct?
C is the correct option. The assertion is true but reason given for that is not. The battle of ten kings was between Sudas, a Bharata king of the Tritsu family and the confederacy of ten well-known tribes- Puru, Yadu, Turvasa, Anu, Druhyu, Alina, Paktha, Bhalanas, Shiva and Vishanin. The former five are said to be Aryan tribe while the later 5 are said to be Non-Aryan tribes.
Match List-I with List-II and select the answer from the codes given below
A B C D
a) II I IV III
b) I II III IV
c) II I III IV
d) I IV III II
The Nyāya Sūtras is an ancient Indian Sanskrit text composed by Akṣapāda Gautama, and the foundational text of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy.
Jaimini's Mimamsa is a ritualist (karma-kanda) counter-movement to the Self-knowledge (Atman) speculations of the Vedanta philosophy.
The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali are a collection of 196 Sanskrit sutras on the theory and practice of yoga. The Yoga Sutras were compiled sometime between 500 BCE and 400 CE by the sage Patanjali in India who synthesized and organized knowledge about yoga from much older traditions
Which of the following statements about the later Vedic religion is not correct?
Prajapati, (Sanskrit: “Lord of Creatures”) the great creator deity of the Vedic period of ancient India. In the post-Vedic age he came to be identified with the Hindu god Brahma.
During this period gods like Rudra, Vishnu and Prajapati were given special importance. Rudra, also known as Mahadeva, came to be known as Siva (benevolent) and Pasupati (Lord of animals).
The Vedas are synonymous with truth and represent the ultimate knowledge that is God. They collectively represent a sacred tradition wherein transcendental matters pertaining to God, atma, evil and good, sin and retribution are discussed.
Which of the following are reasons for the identification of life reflected in the later Vedic texts with the painted grey were culture?
I. Material culture of the two corresponds
II. Geographical distribution of the two corresponds
III. Chronological span of the two corresponds.
IV. Both evolved locally
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
The fertile agrarian tract in the early Tamil country is denoted by the term.
Consider the map given below
The places marked 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively are
What is the correct sequence of the following in the history of south India?
I. Expansion of the Mauryan rule
II. Beginning of the megalithic culture
III. Sangam Age
IV. Pallava ascendancy
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
In which hierarchical order does the Sangam literature describe the ‘Deva Vrinda’ as a group of five gods?
Select the correct answers from the codes given below.
Which of the following is/ are true regarding Buddhism?
I. It did not reject Varna and Jati
II. It challenged highest social ranking of Brahmin Varna
III. It regarded certain crafts as low.
Choose the correct answer from the codes given below.
The doctrine that the human personality consists of five skandhas is associated with
Match List I with List II and select the answer form the codes given below.
The correct option is Option D.
The First Buddhist Council was held soon after the Mahaparinirvan of the Buddha, around 483 BC under the patronage of King Ajatshatru. It was presided by Mahakasyapa, a monk. The council was held in the Sattapani cave at Rajgriha.
The Second Buddhist Council was held at Vaisali (or Vaishali), an ancient city in what is now the state of Bihar in northern India, bordering Nepal under the patronage of King Kalasoka while it was presided by Sabakami. This Council probably was held about a century after the first one, or about 383 BCE.
The Third Buddhist council was convened in about 250 BCE at Asokarama in Pataliputra, supposedly under the patronage of Emperor Ashoka. This is however disputed, as mention of the council never appears in the Edicts of Ashoka.
The Fourth Buddhist Council of the Sarvastivada tradition is said to have been convened by the Kushan emperor Kanishka (r. CE 127-151), perhaps at Harwan, near Srinagar, Kashmir.
Which of the following with is/are sacred to the Jainas?
Choose the correct answer from the codes given below.
Which of the following kingdoms was known for wealthy merchants professing Jainism and building Jaina temples?
Match List I with List II and select th e answer using the codes given below the lists
Which of the following were ruling powers in whose records the worship of Sakanda is found mentioned?
Choose the correct answer from the codes given below
The term Satvata Vidhi denotes
The term Satvata Vidhi denotes — (D) Bhagvata ritual.
What is the significance of Kayavarohana in the history of Saivism?
Consider the following two statements-one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R) :
Assertion (A) : The worship of the three emanations of Sankarshana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha declined from the Gupta period
Reason(R) : The concept of Vishnu's incarnations became popular and dominated Vaishnavism during the Gupta age.
In the context of the above two statements which one of the following is correct?
In the centuries before the Common Era, Vishnu became the Ishvara (supreme deity) of his worshipers, fusing with the Purusha-Prajapati figure; with Narayana, worship of whom discloses a prominent influence of ascetics; with Krishna, whom the Bhagavadgita identified with Vishnu in many forms; and with Vasudeva, who was worshipped by a group known as the Pancharatras.