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Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - UPSC MCQ


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20 Questions MCQ Test History for UPSC CSE - Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2

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Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 1

The first novel in English was :

Detailed Solution for Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 1
Introduction:
The first novel in English is a topic of debate among scholars, as it depends on how one defines a novel. However, according to general consensus and literary history, the first novel in English is considered to be Henry Fielding's "Tom Jones."
Explanation:
Here is a detailed explanation of why "Tom Jones" is considered the first novel in English:
1. Definition of a novel:
- A novel is a work of fiction that tells a story through prose narrative.
- It typically focuses on character development, plot, and explores various themes and ideas.
2. Characteristics of "Tom Jones" as a novel:
- "Tom Jones" was published in 1749 and is written in prose narrative form, which aligns with the definition of a novel.
- It tells the story of the eponymous protagonist, Tom Jones, and his adventures and misadventures.
- The novel explores various themes such as love, class, morality, and societal norms.
- It features complex and well-developed characters, with their actions and motivations driving the plot forward.
3. Fielding's contribution to the development of the novel:
- Henry Fielding is often credited as one of the pioneers of the modern novel.
- He introduced elements such as a well-structured plot, character development, and social commentary in "Tom Jones."
- Fielding's use of humor, satire, and realistic dialogue added depth and complexity to the novel.
4. Preceding works and their limitations:
- While there were earlier works that could be considered proto-novels or influential in the development of the novel form, they did not fully meet the criteria of a novel as we understand it today.
- For example, Samuel Richardson's "Pamela" (published in 1740) is often cited as an early novel, but it is written in the form of letters and lacks the narrative flow of a traditional novel.
- Similarly, other works like Walter Scott's "Rob Roy" and Charles Dickens's "Pickwick Papers" were published after "Tom Jones" and were influenced by Fielding's contributions.
Conclusion:
Considering the definition of a novel, the characteristics of "Tom Jones" as a work of fiction, and Fielding's contributions to the development of the novel form, it can be concluded that "Tom Jones" is widely regarded as the first novel in English.
Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 2

Why could the authors in the 18th century experiment with different literary styles?

Detailed Solution for Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 2
Introduction:
In the 18th century, authors had the opportunity to experiment with different literary styles. The reasons behind this were primarily the growth of readership and the changing economic conditions for writers.
Reasons why authors in the 18th century could experiment with different literary styles:
1. Growth of readership expanded the market for books:
- The 18th century witnessed a significant increase in literacy rates and a growing interest in reading among the general population.
- This expansion of readership created a larger market for books and encouraged authors to explore different styles and genres to cater to diverse readers' preferences.
- The demand for various literary works allowed authors to experiment with different writing techniques and themes.
2. Authors became free from financial dependence on aristocrats:
- In previous centuries, many authors relied on the patronage of aristocrats or wealthy individuals to support their writing endeavors.
- However, in the 18th century, there was a shift towards a more commercially driven publishing industry.
- This shift allowed authors to earn directly from their work through book sales, eliminating the need for aristocratic patronage.
- The financial independence provided authors with the freedom to explore and experiment with different literary styles without the constraints imposed by aristocratic expectations.
3. The emergence of a middle-class readership:
- With the rise of the middle class in the 18th century, there was an increase in the number of individuals with disposable income and leisure time.
- This new segment of readers, with their varied interests and preferences, created a demand for a wider range of literary styles and genres.
- Authors, recognizing this new market opportunity, were motivated to experiment with different writing styles to capture the attention and loyalty of this expanding readership.
4. The influence of intellectual movements:
- The 18th century was a time of intellectual enlightenment and the emergence of new philosophical and cultural movements such as the Enlightenment and Romanticism.
- These intellectual movements emphasized individualism, reason, and emotional expression, which led authors to experiment with new literary styles that reflected these ideals.
- Authors sought to convey their ideas and beliefs through innovative writing techniques, challenging traditional literary conventions.
Conclusion:
The authors in the 18th century were able to experiment with different literary styles due to the growth of readership, their financial independence from aristocratic patronage, the emergence of a middle-class readership, and the influence of intellectual movements. These factors provided authors with the opportunity and motivation to explore new styles and genres, contributing to the diversity and richness of 18th-century literature.
Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 3

Serialised novel is :

Detailed Solution for Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 3
Serialised novel is:
There are different possible answers to this question, but the correct answer is C: A format in which the story is published in instalments, each part in a new issue of a journal.
Here is a detailed explanation:
A: Published in a number of volumes:
- This option refers to novels that are published in multiple volumes, usually as a complete work.
- While some novels may be published in multiple volumes, this is not the definition of a serialized novel.
B: A novel published in a magazine:
- This option refers to novels that are published in magazines or periodicals.
- While some serialized novels may be published in magazines, not all novels published in magazines are serialized.
C: A format in which the story is published in instalments, each part in a new issue of a journal:
- This is the correct definition of a serialized novel.
- Serialized novels are released in parts, typically in sequential issues of a journal or publication.
- Each part of the story is published separately, leaving readers eagerly awaiting the next installment.
D: A cheap, illustrated novel:
- This option refers to a specific type of novel that is both cheap and illustrated.
- While some serialized novels may be cheap and illustrated, this is not the definition of a serialized novel.
In conclusion, a serialized novel is a format in which the story is published in installments, with each part released in a new issue of a journal or publication.
Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 4

The reasons for the novel’s popularity was/were that :

Detailed Solution for Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 4
Reasons for the Novel's Popularity:

  • Real, Absorbing, and Credible Worlds: The novels created by authors seemed real, absorbing, and credible to the readers. This made the stories captivating and engaging, drawing readers into the fictional worlds.

  • Pleasure of Private Reading: Novels provided the pleasure of reading in private, allowing individuals to immerse themselves in the story without distractions. This gave readers the freedom to explore the narrative at their own pace and in their preferred environment.

  • Opportunity for Discussion: Alongside private reading, novels also facilitated public discussions with friends and relatives. Readers could share their thoughts, insights, and emotions sparked by the story, creating a sense of community and connection through literary conversations.

  • Affordability and Accessibility: Novels were often cheaper and more easily available compared to other forms of entertainment. This made them accessible to a wider range of people, allowing more individuals to enjoy the pleasure of reading and contributing to their popularity.


Therefore, the reasons for the novel's popularity can be attributed to the combination of creating immersive worlds, allowing private reading experiences, encouraging public discussions, and being affordable and easily accessible.

Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 5

An ‘Epistolary’ novel is :

Detailed Solution for Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 5
Epistolary Novel:
An epistolary novel is a literary genre that is characterized by being written in the form of a series of letters or other written correspondence between the characters.
Explanation:
An epistolary novel is a unique form of storytelling that utilizes letters or other written documents to convey the narrative. Here is a detailed explanation of the characteristics and significance of an epistolary novel:
1. Definition:
- An epistolary novel is a work of fiction that is written in the form of letters, diary entries, newspaper articles, or other written documents.
- The term "epistolary" comes from the Latin word "epistola," which means "letter."
2. Structure:
- The story in an epistolary novel is conveyed through a series of letters, often exchanged between the characters.
- The letters may be written by one or multiple characters, offering different perspectives and voices.
- The letters are usually presented in chronological order, creating a sense of time progression.
3. Characterization:
- The use of letters allows for a deep exploration of the characters' thoughts, feelings, and motivations.
- The characters reveal themselves through their writing style, tone, and choice of words.
- The reader gets to know the characters intimately through their personal correspondence.
4. Themes and Plot Development:
- Epistolary novels often explore themes of love, friendship, identity, and personal growth.
- The letters reveal the characters' relationships, conflicts, and developments over time.
- The plot unfolds through the exchange of letters, creating suspense and anticipation.
5. Historical Significance:
- Epistolary novels have a long history, dating back to ancient times.
- They provide insights into the social, cultural, and historical contexts of the time period in which they are set.
- Examples of famous epistolary novels include "Dracula" by Bram Stoker and "Frankenstein" by Mary Shelley.
In conclusion, an epistolary novel is a literary work that is written in the form of letters or other written correspondence. This unique storytelling technique offers an intimate portrayal of characters, explores various themes, and provides historical insights.
Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 6

The novel is considered a modern form of literature because :

Detailed Solution for Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 6

The following points may help you:
a. Novels emerged as new form of literary work , that incited people's interest.

b. As middle class became prosperous, women got time to read and started writing novels.

c. Rise in literacy rate among women also contributed to such a development.

d. Novels like  Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen defined and gave new identity to women, representing  women of strength, with a powerful and independent thinking.

e. Novels  became important piece of literary work  and connected people.

f. Many novels in the 19th century focussed on the harsh conditions of the modern industrial society that divided the society between the capitalist and the working class. They focussed on the terrible conditions and plight of the workers , and how they were subjected to exploitation.

g. Novels also became an important source of leisure and recreation for people both in India and abroad. 

h. Novels depicted images of society.

i. Novels which were written in India, in hindi or any other vernacular languages became an important source of information for the British about India’s culture, society.

j. Many novels in India  served as engine of social change targetting many real life situations like caste oppression, women discrimination and encouraged modern rational thinking among the people.Novels aimed at social progress and challenged age old customs and traditions.

Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 7

The serialised stories of the 19th century (1836 onwards) are compared to television soaps. Why?

Detailed Solution for Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 7
Comparison between serialised stories of the 19th century and television soaps:

1. Suspense: Like viewers of television soaps, serialisation allowed readers to relish the suspense. Both mediums have the ability to keep the audience engaged and eagerly awaiting the next installment.


2. Character Discussion: Readers of serialised stories, just like viewers of TV soaps today, could discuss and analyze the characters of the novel. This created a sense of community and engagement among the audience.


3. Longevity: Serialised stories allowed readers to live with their favorite characters and narratives for an extended period of time, similar to how viewers today can follow TV soaps for weeks or even years. This extended engagement with the storylines creates a deeper connection and investment in the narrative.


4. Cliffhangers: Both serialised stories and television soaps often employ cliffhangers at the end of each episode or installment. This technique keeps the audience hooked and eagerly anticipating the next part of the story.


Overall, the comparison between serialised stories of the 19th century and television soaps highlights the similarities in terms of suspense, character discussion, longevity, and the use of cliffhangers. Both mediums have the ability to captivate and engage the audience, creating a sense of anticipation and excitement for the next installment.

Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 8

New readership for the novel in the 18th century consisted of :

Detailed Solution for Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 8
Readership for the novel in the 18th century:

  • Option A: The gentlemanly classes in England and France

  • Option B: Lower middle-class people such as shopkeepers and clerks

  • Option C: The traditional aristocratic and gentlemanly classes in England and France along with new groups of lower middle-class people - clerks and shopkeepers

  • Option D: Women and Children


Detailed

  • Option A: The gentlemanly classes in England and France - This option suggests that the novel's readership in the 18th century consisted only of the upper classes in these two countries.

  • Option B: Lower middle-class people such as shopkeepers and clerks - This option suggests that the novel's readership was mainly comprised of lower middle-class individuals, specifically shopkeepers and clerks.

  • Option C: The traditional aristocratic and gentlemanly classes in England and France along with new groups of lower middle-class people - clerks and shopkeepers - This option suggests that the novel's readership included both the traditional aristocratic and gentlemanly classes as well as the emerging lower middle-class groups like clerks and shopkeepers.

  • Option D: Women and Children - This option suggests that women and children were the primary readers of novels in the 18th century.


Based on the options provided, the correct answer is Option C: The traditional aristocratic and gentlemanly classes in England and France along with new groups of lower middle-class people - clerks and shopkeepers. This option recognizes that the readership for novels in the 18th century expanded beyond the traditional aristocratic classes to include the emerging lower middle-class groups.
Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 9

What actions of the hero of Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe make us see him as a typical coloniser?

Detailed Solution for Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 9
Actions of Robinson Crusoe that make him a typical colonizer:

  1. The hero, Robinson Crusoe, is an adventurer and slave trader.


    • Robinson Crusoe's involvement in the slave trade reflects the exploitative and oppressive nature of colonizers.


  2. He treats colored people as inferior creatures, even when shipwrecked on an island.


    • Robinson Crusoe's attitude towards colored people demonstrates the racist beliefs and prejudices commonly held by colonizers.


  3. He rescues a native, makes him his slave, arrogantly calls him Friday, and thinks the latter belongs to an inferior community.


    • Robinson Crusoe's actions of enslaving a native and treating him as a subordinate highlight the power dynamics and paternalistic attitude of colonizers.

    • His naming of the native as "Friday" not only strips him of his individual identity but also reinforces the notion of European superiority.



Conclusion:
Robinson Crusoe's actions as depicted in the novel make it evident that he embodies the characteristics of a typical colonizer. His involvement in the slave trade, discriminatory treatment of colored individuals, and the subjugation of a native as his slave all contribute to portraying him as a representative of the oppressive and exploitative nature of colonialism.
Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 10

The involvement of women in the writing of the novels led to :

Detailed Solution for Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 10
Explanation:
The involvement of women in the writing of novels led to several outcomes, which are represented by options B and C. Let's break it down:

Novels exploring the world of women, their emotions and identities, their experiences and problems:



  • With women being involved in the writing process, they were able to bring their unique perspectives and experiences into the novels.

  • This resulted in a focus on the world of women, allowing for exploration of their emotions, identities, experiences, and problems.

  • These novels provided a platform for women to express themselves and shed light on issues that were often overlooked or ignored.


The theme of the novels chosen was domestic, about which the women were allowed to speak with authority:



  • Women were often restricted to the domestic sphere, and their experiences within this realm were often dismissed or undervalued.

  • By involving women in the writing process, the novels began to focus on domestic themes, giving women the opportunity to speak with authority on these topics.

  • This allowed for a more nuanced and authentic portrayal of women's lives and experiences.


Therefore, the involvement of women in the writing of novels led to both the exploration of women's world and the choice of domestic themes, giving women the authority to speak on these topics. This is represented by option D: both (B) and (C).
Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 11

Give the pen-name and real name of the writer of the following lines and explain their significance. “Fiction is a department of literature in which women can alter their kind, fully equal men .... No educational restrictions can shut women from the materials of fiction, and there is no species of art that is so free from rigid requirements.”

Detailed Solution for Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 11
Pen-Name and Real Name: George Eliot - real name Mary Ann Evans
Significance:
- George Eliot, also known as Mary Ann Evans, believed that novels gave women a special opportunity to express themselves.
- She argued that women could write novels just as well as men, challenging the notion that women were inferior in the literary field.
- Eliot believed that there were no educational restrictions that could prevent women from accessing the materials of fiction and that women were fully capable of altering their kind in the realm of literature.
- She emphasized that fiction was a department of literature where women could be fully equal to men, highlighting the potential for gender equality in this artistic form.
- Eliot's belief in the freedom and lack of rigid requirements in fiction further emphasized the accessibility and inclusivity of this genre for women writers.
- Her perspective was significant in challenging societal norms and promoting the idea that women had equal creative capabilities in the realm of literature.
Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 12

The first novel to be serialised in English was :

Detailed Solution for Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 12
The first novel to be serialised in English was:
A: Charles Dickens' Pickwick Papers in 1836
Explanation:
The serialisation of novels refers to the practice of releasing a story in installments rather than as a complete book. The first novel to be serialised in English was Charles Dickens' Pickwick Papers in 1836. Here is a detailed explanation:
Background:
- Charles Dickens was a renowned English writer and social critic who lived during the 19th century.
- He is considered one of the greatest novelists of the Victorian era, known for his vivid characters and social commentary.
Pickwick Papers:
- Pickwick Papers, also known as The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, was Charles Dickens' first novel.
- It was originally published in 20 monthly installments, from March 1836 to October 1837.
- The story follows the adventures of Mr. Samuel Pickwick and his companions as they travel around England and encounter various eccentric characters.
Significance:
- The serialisation of Pickwick Papers was a significant milestone in the history of English literature.
- It popularized the practice of releasing novels in installments, which allowed for a wider readership and increased accessibility.
- The serial format also created suspense and anticipation among readers, eagerly awaiting the next installment.
Impact:
- Pickwick Papers was a huge success and established Charles Dickens as a popular and influential writer.
- The novel's success paved the way for the serialisation of many other famous novels in the future.
- Serialisation became a common practice in Victorian literature, with authors like Walter Scott, Henry Fielding, and Samuel Richardson also adopting the format.
In conclusion, the first novel to be serialised in English was Charles Dickens' Pickwick Papers in 1836. Its success revolutionized the publishing industry and set a precedent for future serialised novels.
Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 13

In his novel Mayor of Casterbridge, Thomas Hardy mourns :

Detailed Solution for Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 13
Thomas Hardy mourns the loss of traditional rural communities and the old rural culture with its independent farmers dying out in his novel Mayor of Casterbridge.

Loss of traditional rural communities:



  • Hardy portrays the decline of traditional rural communities as a cause for mourning.

  • He highlights the loss of close-knit communities where people knew each other and supported one another.

  • The disappearance of these communities is seen as a loss of a more personalized and interconnected world.


The old rural culture with its independent farmers dying out:



  • Hardy laments the fading of the old rural culture and the decline of independent farmers.

  • He depicts the encroachment of the new order, where business is run on efficient managerial lines.

  • The disappearance of independent farmers represents a loss of individuality and self-reliance.


Both (a) and (c):



  • Hardy's mourning encompasses both the loss of traditional rural communities and the dying out of the old rural culture with its independent farmers.

  • He emphasizes the impact of these changes on the social fabric and the individual's sense of identity.


In conclusion, Thomas Hardy mourns the loss of traditional rural communities and the old rural culture with its independent farmers dying out in his novel Mayor of Casterbridge. He portrays these losses as significant and laments the encroachment of the new order and the decline of a more personalized and interconnected world.
Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 14

Identify the writer and state in which book the quotation given was written, “It is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.”

Detailed Solution for Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 14
Answer:
The writer of the quotation, "It is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife," is Jane Austen. This famous line is from her novel Pride and Prejudice.
Explanation:
Here is a breakdown of the options and why option C is the correct answer:
A: George Eliot - Silly Novel by Lady Novelists
- George Eliot is the pen name of Mary Ann Evans, a 19th-century English novelist.
- "Silly Novel by Lady Novelists" is a collection of essays written by George Eliot, but the given quotation does not come from this work.
B: Charlotte Bronte in Jane Eyre
- Charlotte Bronte is the author of the famous novel "Jane Eyre."
- However, the given quotation does not appear in "Jane Eyre."
C: Jane Austen in Pride and Prejudice
- Jane Austen is a renowned English novelist from the 18th century.
- The given quotation is the opening line of her novel "Pride and Prejudice," published in 1813.
- "Pride and Prejudice" is one of Austen's most popular and beloved works.
D: Emile Zola in Wuthering Heights
- Emile Zola was a French writer and journalist, known for his influential novels.
- However, the quotation does not belong to him, and "Wuthering Heights" is not his work.
- "Wuthering Heights" is a novel written by Emily Bronte, not Emile Zola.
Therefore, the correct answer is C: Jane Austen in Pride and Prejudice.
Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 15

The novels of Jane Austen portray the world of :

Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 16

Name two novels, written for boys, which became a great hit in the late 19th century.

Detailed Solution for Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 16
Two novels written for boys that became hits in the late 19th century:

  • Treasure Island by R.L. Stevenson, 1883: This adventure novel tells the story of young Jim Hawkins, who sets sail on a quest for treasure with a crew of pirates led by the infamous Long John Silver. It is considered a classic of children's literature and has captivated readers for generations.



  • Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling, 1894: This collection of stories follows the adventures of Mowgli, a young boy raised by wolves in the Indian jungle. Filled with animal characters and exciting adventures, the book explores themes of identity, loyalty, and the balance between civilization and the wild. The Jungle Book has become a beloved classic and has been adapted into numerous films and TV shows.


Both of these novels became popular among boys in the late 19th century and continue to be cherished by readers of all ages today.

Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 17

Which of the following statements is not true about the themes of novels for young boys?

Detailed Solution for Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 17
Explanation:
The statement that is not true about the themes of novels for young boys is option A. The other three statements (B, C, D) are true about the themes of novels for young boys. Here is a detailed breakdown:
A: Novels for young boys portrayed rash, foolhardy young men, who sought aimless adventure:
This statement is not true. Novels for young boys often portrayed brave and adventurous young men, but they were not necessarily rash or foolhardy. The characters in these novels were often depicted as courageous and resourceful.
B: The novels portrayed men who were powerful, assertive, independent, and daring:
This statement is true. Novels for young boys often portrayed male characters who were strong, assertive, independent, and daring. These characters served as role models for young readers and exemplified qualities of bravery and self-reliance.
C: The novels were full of adventure set in places remote from Europe:
This statement is true. Many novels for young boys featured adventures set in exotic and remote locations. These settings added an element of excitement and mystery to the stories and allowed readers to explore different cultures and landscapes.
D: The heroic colonizer confronted 'natives', adapted to native life as well as changed and developed them:
This statement is true. Some novels for young boys depicted colonial themes, where the protagonist, often a heroic colonizer, interacted with indigenous populations. These interactions could involve adapting to native life, as well as changing and developing the native communities.
In conclusion, statement A is not true about the themes of novels for young boys, while statements B, C, and D are true.
Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 18

“People think you a good woman, but you are bad – you are deceitful. I will never call you aunt as long as I live.” From which novel are the above lines taken and why are they significant?

Detailed Solution for Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 18
Answer:
The above lines, "People think you a good woman, but you are bad – you are deceitful. I will never call you aunt as long as I live," are taken from Charlotte Bronte's novel, Jane Eyre, and they are significant for the following reasons:
1. Protest against hypocrisy: The lines depict the protagonist, Jane Eyre, expressing her strong disapproval of her aunt, Mrs. Reed. Jane Eyre confronts her aunt about her deceitful behavior and refuses to address her as "aunt." This highlights Jane's refusal to conform to societal expectations and her boldness in speaking out against the hypocrisy of her elders.
2. Breaking established norms of society: In Victorian society, it was considered improper for a young woman to openly express her discontent or criticize her elders. However, Jane Eyre defies these norms by speaking her mind and challenging the hypocrisy she witnesses. Her refusal to play the obedient and submissive role expected of her demonstrates her independence and assertiveness.
3. Emphasis on truth and authenticity: Jane Eyre values truth and honesty above societal expectations. By refusing to acknowledge her aunt's false facade of being a good woman, Jane stands up for her own principles and refuses to be deceived. This emphasizes the importance of staying true to oneself and not conforming to societal expectations blindly.
4. Character development: These lines mark a significant point in Jane Eyre's character development. They showcase her growing self-awareness, courage, and determination to challenge injustice. Jane's rebellion against her aunt sets the stage for her journey towards self-discovery and independence throughout the novel.
Overall, these lines from Jane Eyre highlight the themes of rebellion, authenticity, and the protagonist's refusal to conform to societal norms. They serve as a powerful moment in the novel, revealing Jane Eyre's strength of character and her determination to live a life true to herself.
Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 19

Ramona and What Katy Did were :

Detailed Solution for Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 19
Explanation:
Introduction:
- Ramona and What Katy Did are two popular books written for young readers.
- Both books are widely read and have been loved by many.
Detailed explanation:
- Ramona is a series of books written by American author Beverly Cleary. The main character, Ramona Quimby, is a young girl who goes through various adventures and experiences in her everyday life.
- What Katy Did is a novel written by Susan Coolidge. It tells the story of Katy Carr, a young girl who learns important life lessons through her experiences and interactions with others.
- Both books are targeted towards adolescent girls and explore themes such as friendship, family, and personal growth.
- They are not adventure stories about young boys, as mentioned in option A.
- They are not love stories written for adolescent girls by American women writers, as mentioned in option B.
- They are not novels about heroic deeds of colonizers in strange lands, as mentioned in option C.
- Therefore, the correct answer is option D: none of the above.
Conclusion:
- Ramona and What Katy Did are popular books written for adolescent girls, exploring themes of friendship, family, and personal growth. They are not adventure stories about young boys, love stories, or novels about heroic deeds of colonizers.
Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 20

Who was the first novelist to portray the darker side of colonial occupation?

Detailed Solution for Test: Novels, Society & The History - 2 - Question 20
Answer:
Joseph Conrad (1857–1924) was the first novelist to portray the darker side of colonial occupation. Here is a detailed explanation of why Conrad is considered the first novelist to do so:
Background:
- Conrad was a Polish-British writer who spent many years at sea, which allowed him to gain firsthand experience and knowledge of colonialism and its effects.
- His works often explore themes of imperialism, colonialism, and the impact of European domination on native populations.
The Darker Side of Colonial Occupation:
- Conrad's most famous novel, "Heart of Darkness," published in 1899, is a powerful critique of European colonialism in Africa.
- The novel tells the story of the protagonist, Marlow, who travels up the Congo River and witnesses the horror and brutality of the colonial enterprise.
- Conrad exposes the exploitation, violence, and dehumanization that occur under the guise of colonization, challenging the prevailing notions of the time.
Impact:
- Conrad's portrayal of the darker side of colonial occupation had a significant impact on subsequent literature and influenced many writers who followed.
- His work paved the way for a more critical examination of imperialism and raised important questions about the ethics and consequences of colonialism.
In conclusion, Joseph Conrad was the first novelist to portray the darker side of colonial occupation. His novel "Heart of Darkness" remains a seminal work in the exploration of the negative aspects of colonialism.
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