Test: Peasants And Farmers - 2


25 Questions MCQ Test History for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims | Test: Peasants And Farmers - 2


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QUESTION: 1

In 1831 mechanical reaper was invented by:

Solution:

The mechanical reaper was invented by Cyrus McCormick in 1831. This machine was used by farmers to harvest crops mechanically.

QUESTION: 2

The continuous movement of the pastoral communities helps in

Solution:

 (i) The movement of the nomads allows the pasture to regrow and recover. 
(ii) It helps to protect the ecology of the environment. 
(iii) It prevents the overuse of pastures. 
(iv) The cattle by the dung help in providing manure.  

QUESTION: 3

Before the late 18th and early 19th century common ground was in the English countryside

Solution:

 Before the 18th century in large parts of England, the countryside was open. Peasants cultivated on strips of land around the village they lived in.

At the beginning of each year, strips of varying quality were allocated to each villager.

Beyond these strips of cultivation, lay the common land. All villagers had an access to the commons.

For the poor, the common land was essential for survival. It supplemented meagre income, sustained their cattle, and helped them tide over bad times, when crops failed.

QUESTION: 4

Which practice disappeared by 1800, drastically changing the lives of the labourers ?

Solution:
QUESTION: 5

The methods used to oust the Indian Americans were :

Solution:
QUESTION: 6

Why did the white settlers want to push away the Indian Americans from their lands ?

Solution:

Seen from the eastcost, America seemed to be a land of promose. Its wilderness could be turned into cultivated fields.

Forest timber could be cut for export, animals hunted for skin, mountains mined for gold and minerals.

But this meant that the American Indians had to be cleared from the land.

QUESTION: 7

Which is the most appropriate reason that exhorted rioters to destroy the threshing machines in England during the 1830s ?

Solution:

The poor were opposed to the threshing machines because for them they were a sign of bad times.The machines reduced the dependence of landowners on labourers and led to their displacement.Many a pogr lost their jobs during the threshing season and had to tramp long distances to seek alternate employment in other villages or cities.Machines gave landowners bargaining powers and reduced the status of the poor to wage earners.The jobs of the poor became insecure, income unstable and livelihood precarious.

QUESTION: 8

Who was Captain Swing ?

Solution:

Captain Swing was the mythical leader of the laboring rural poor who rose up to destroy threshing machines in England in 1830.

QUESTION: 9

White American settlements were confined to a small narrow strip of coastal land in the east till the

Solution:

The 1780s, white American settlements were confined to a small narrow strip along the eastern coast. Most of the USA was inhabited by the Native Americans. Most of them were nomadic, while some of them were settled. Hunting, gathering and fishing was the source of livelihood for most of them. Some of them cultivated corn, beans, tobacco and pumpkin.

QUESTION: 10

Which of these reasons led to a radical transformation of the landscape by the early 20th century ?

Solution:
QUESTION: 11

When did the westward movement of White Americans take place ?

Solution:

The British Proclamation of 1763 ordered a halt to the westward movement at the Appalachians, but the decree was widely disregarded. Settlers scurried into Ohio, Tennessee, and Kentucky. After the American Revolution, a flood of people crossed the mountains into the fertile lands between the Appalachians and the Mississippi River. By 1810 Ohio, Tennessee, and Kentucky had been transformed from wilderness into a region of farms and towns.

QUESTION: 12

What were the reasons of the dust storms ?

Solution:

The Dust Bowl was a period of severe dust storms that greatly damaged the ecology and agriculture of the American and Canadian prairies during the 1930s; severe drought and a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent the aeolian processes (wind erosion) caused the phenomenon.

QUESTION: 13

What did the settlers of the Great Plains realise after the 1930s ?

Solution:

The overproductions of wheat lead to the Great Agrarian Depression of the 1930s.
4. Over-ploughing of Prairies also lead to Dust Bowl Tragedy. Because of this, the land of plenty became a Dust Bowl. 
5. After 1930s, the government and the settlers realized that they had to respect the ecological condition of each region.

QUESTION: 14

In the 19th century, the two major commercial crops India came to produce for the world market were

Solution:

In the early 19th century, indigo and opium were two of the major commercial crops.

By the end of the century, peasants were producing sugarcane, cotton, jute, wheat and several other crops for export.

These crops were produced to feed the population of urban Europe and to supply to the mills of Lancashire and Manchester in England.

QUESTION: 15

In the late 18th century, which of the following goods was bought by the English East India Company from China ?

Solution:

The British used the profits from the sale of opium to purchase such Chinese luxury goods as porcelain, silk, and tea, which were in great demand in the West.

QUESTION: 16

Why were the Confucian rulers of China, the Manchus, suspicious of all foreign merchants ?

Solution:

The Confucian rulers of China, the Manchus, were suspicious of all foreign merchants because they were apprehensive of foreign merchants meddling into local politics. Hence they were not willing to allow the entry of foreign goods. This meant an outflow of treasure from England because tea could be bought only by making payment in silver coins or bullion. The English traders wanted a community which could be easily sold in China so that the import of tea could be financed in a profitable way.

QUESTION: 17

When did the White Americans move into the Mississippi Valley ?

Solution:

The white settlers came in successive waves. By the first decade of the eighteenth century, they settled on the Appalachian plateau. Between 1820 and 1850, they moved into the Mississippi valley. They cleared the land for cultivation, put fences around large areas and began sowing corn and wheat.

QUESTION: 18

Name the US President who said “Plant more wheat, wheat will win the war.”

Solution:

US President Wilson said "Plant more wheat, wheat will win the war". 

United Kingdom, France and Russia  were Members of Allied powers and America was on the side of the Allies. During the First World War the world market boomed. Russian supplies of wheat were cut off and the USA had to feed Europe. US President Wilson called upon farmers to respond to the need of the time and support the allies to wage the wars by fulfilling their domestic demand for wheat.

QUESTION: 19

From 1910 to 1919, the land area under wheat cultivation in the USA had increased by about

Solution:

The area under wheat production increased dramatically. For example, around 45 million acres of land in the USA was under wheat production in 1910. It expanded to 74 million acres thus making an increase of about 65 per cent in 1919. The wheat barons, as the big farmers were generally called, became so prosperous that many of them had as much as two thousand to three thousand acres of land under their individual control. 

QUESTION: 20

How much land did the wheat barons possess at this time in the USA ?

Solution:

Wheat Barons were big farmers who controlled as much as 2,000 to 3,000 acres of land individually. 

QUESTION: 21

What is shillings ?           

Solution:

The shilling is a unit of currency formerly used in Austria, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, United States and other British Commonwealth countries. Currently the shilling is used as a currency in four east African countries: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Somalia.

QUESTION: 22

Who invented the first mechanical reaper ?           

Solution:

The mechanical reaper was invented by Cyrus McCormick in 1831. This machine was used by farmers to harvest crops mechanically. For hundreds of years, farmers and field workers had to harvest crops by hand using a sickle or other methods, which was an arduous task at best.

QUESTION: 23

Who gave the slogan “Plant more wheat, wheat will win the war” ?           

Solution:

The United States President Woodrow Wilson said "plant more wheat, wheat will win the war."

As we see during the second World war Russia supplies of wheat were cut off and wheat price touched the sky. As the US had to feed Europe especially her allies, Wilson encouraged the farmers to grow more wheat and thus said "plant more wheat, wheat will war" which motivated the farmers to growmore and more wheat. Wheat was very profitable during the First world War and it boomed the US export market.

  

QUESTION: 24

Which European country introduced opium into China ?           

Solution:
QUESTION: 25

When was opium introduced in China ?           

Solution:

The history of opium in China began with the use of opium for medicinal purposes during the 7th century. In the 17th century the practice of mixing opium with tobacco for smoking spread from Southeast Asia, creating a far greater demand.

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