Test: Socialism In Europe And The Russian Revolution - 3


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QUESTION: 1

On which of the following issues did Liberals and Radicals defer ? 

Solution:

Liberals wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. They were not in favor of the dynastic rulers and they opposed their power. On the other hand the Radicals wanted the government of the country based on the country's population.

QUESTION: 2

Which of the following was the ruler of Russia during World War I ?

Solution:

Vladimir Lenin became the leader of Soviet Russia after Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown during the Russian Revolution. Lenin wanted Russia out of the war, so he made peace with Germany. The United States was never an official member of the Allies, but called itself an "Associated Power."

QUESTION: 3

Society in 18th century Europe was divided into :

Solution:

The revolution, French society was divided into three estates or orders: the First Estate (clergy), Second Estate (nobility) and Third Estate (commoners). With around 27 million people or 98 percent of the population, the Third Estate was the largest of the three by far. 

QUESTION: 4

Capitalists believed in ?

Solution:

They believed in profit and private property as they were making workers work for more time and are giving very less wages which is not enough for there livinghood in this way they make profit.

QUESTION: 5

Socialist International body 

Solution:

Second international was an international association formed in 1889 in Paris, uniting socialistic groups or parties of various countries and holding international congresses from time to time: in 1923 it joined with the Vienna International to form the Labor and Socialist International.

QUESTION: 6

The majority religion of Russia was ?

Solution:

Christianity was the religious self-identification of 47.1% of the Russian population in 2012. Orthodox Christianity is the dominant religion of the country, and, besides it, Old Believers and Lutheranism also have had a considerable role in the multiethnic history of Russia.

QUESTION: 7

Which of the following will not have a direct impact on human capital formation ?

Solution:

The human capital formation is eyeing the conversion of human resources into human assets.
The most effective way of enhancing and enlarging the productive workforce in the country is the expenditure done on strengthening the education system. It is considered as the best source of human capital formation.

Another important source of human capital formation is Health. A worker who is not well will certainly affect productivity.

To enhance labour productivity many organizations provide on-the-job training. This is another source of human capital which sometimes becomes very costly.

Hence the correct answer is option (D).

QUESTION: 8

Which of the following owned majority of the land in Russia ?  

Solution:

In the countryside, peasants cultivated most of the land. But the nobility, the crown and the Orthodox Church owned large properties. Like workers, peasants too were divided. They were also deeply religious. But except in a few cases they had no respect for the Source A nobility. Nobles got their power and position through their services to the Tsar, not through local popularity. This was unlike France where, during the French Revolution in Brittany, peasants respected nobles and fought for them.

QUESTION: 9

Leader of the Bolsheviks 

Solution:

The Bolsheviks, founded by Vladimir Lenin and Alexander Bogdanov, were by 1905 a major organization consisting primarily of workers under a democraticinternal hierarchy governed by the principle of democratic centralism, who considered themselves the leaders of the revolutionary working class of Russia.

QUESTION: 10

Which of the following groups of workers were regarded as aristocrats among workers ?

Solution:

Metal workers considered themselves aristocrats among workers as their occupations demanded more training and skill. 

QUESTION: 11

Party which fought for peasants rights in Russia ?

Solution:

During 1918 and 1919, the ‘greens’ (Socialist Revolutionaries) and ‘whites’ (pro- Tsarists) controlled most of the Russian empire. They were backed by French, American, British and Japanese troops – all those forces who were worried at the growth of socialism in Russia. As these troops and the Bolsheviks fought a civil war, looting, banditry and famine became common.

QUESTION: 12

Which of the following was not a part of the 'April Thesis' ?  

Solution:

The Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy (nimd) is a democracy assistance organisation established by political parties in the Netherlands to support political parties in young democracies. nimd specifically provides assistance to processes of dialogue between political parties in programme countries, the institutional development of parliamentary parties and networks of cooperation between political and civil society. nimd adheres to strict principles of ownership, neutrality and transparency and acknowledges that democracies are homegrown.

QUESTION: 13

Which of the following was not a feature of 19th century Europe ?

Solution:

Although higher wages and better working conditions might have encouraged more long-resident native-born workers to the industrial economy, the scale and pace of the American industrial revolution might well have slowed. The closing of the door to mass immigration in the 1920s did lead to increased recruitment of native born workers, particularly from the South, to northern industrial cities in the middle decades of the 20th century.

QUESTION: 14

In 19th century Europe, Conservatives ?

Solution:

Conservatives seek to preserve a range of institutions such as religion, parliamentary government, and property rights, with the aim of emphasizing social stability and continuity.

QUESTION: 15

Socialists 

Solution:

Socialists were against private property because they saw it as the root of all social evils of the time. 

Individuals owned the property that gave employment but the properties were concerned only with personal gain and not with the welfare of those who made the property productive. So, if society as a whole, rather than single individuals controlled property, more attention would be paid to collective social interests. 

QUESTION: 16

Which of the following were important socialists of 19th century Europe ? 

Solution:

The Communist Manifesto was written by Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels in 1848 just before the Revolutions of 1848 swept Europe, expressing what they termed "scientific socialism". In the last third of the 19th century, social democratic parties arose in Europe, drawing mainly from Marxism.

QUESTION: 17

Which of the following was not a factor in the Revolution of 1905 ? 

Solution:

Reaction from political groups was varied. Liberals were satisfied with the level of reform in the Manifesto. Kadets (rich peasants) wanted reform to go further. They wanted a written constitution and guarantees of a constituent assembly. The Social Revolutionaries (SRs) were critical of the Manifesto, as were the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks. It did not give any more power to the peasants or workers.

As a response to the 1905 Revolution, the October Manifesto succeeded in dividing the opposition, making the Tsar's grip on power more secure.

QUESTION: 18

Provisional Government in Russia was led by

Solution:
QUESTION: 19

Most significant result of the February Revolution ?

Solution:

The ‘internal popular disturbances’ were the events now known as the ‘February Revolution’ (according to the calendar then in use in Russia), in the capital city which at the time was called Petrograd (formerly and once again since 1992 St. Petersburg). Strikes by the city’s workers, protests by women over bread shortages, wider discontent among the population escalated into revolution when some army units in Petrograd mutinied and went over the side of the protesters.

QUESTION: 20

Which of the following was not a feature of the October Manifesto ? 

Solution:

The October Manifesto officially The Manifesto on the Improvement of the State Order is a document that served as a precursor to the Russian Empire's first constitution, which would be adopted the next year. The Manifesto was issued by Emperor Nicholas II, under the influence of Sergei Witte, on 30 October  1905 as a response to the Russian Revolution of 1905. Nicholas strenuously resisted these ideas, but gave in after his first choice to head a military dictatorship,Grand Duke Nicholas, threatened to shoot himself in the head if the Tsar did not accept Witte's suggestion. Nicholas reluctantly agreed, and issued what became known as the October Manifesto, promising basic civil rights and an elected parliament called the Duma, without whose approval no laws were to be enacted in Russia in the future. According to his memoirs Witte did not force the Tsar to sign the October Manifesto, which was proclaimed in all the churches.

QUESTION: 21

Whom did Karl Marx say would be ruler in a communist government ?           

Solution:

Marxism, proposed by Karl Marx, is a political and economic way of organizing society, where the workers own the means of production. Socialism is a way of organizing a society in which the means of production are owned and controlled by the proletariat.

QUESTION: 22

Which group wanted Russia to become a communist nation ?           

Solution:

A member of the radical group within the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party , which, under Vladimir I. Lenin's leadership, staged the Bolshevik Revolution . The term bol'shevik means a member of the majority and was applied to the radical members of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party after they won a majority of votes cast at a party congress in 1903. In March 1918, the Bolsheviks formed the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) and began calling themselves Communists. That party was the precursor of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

QUESTION: 23

Which leader took Russia out of the First World War ?           

Solution:

Tsar Nicolas II was the leader of Russia during WWI. He was a member of the Romanov Dynasty. However, when the Russian Revolution took place, he was dethroned and executed by the Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin. This unrest forced Russia to pull out of the war.

QUESTION: 24

When did the First five-year plan in India start?           

Solution:

The Indian economy was premised on the concept of planning. This was carried through the Five-Year Plans, developed, executed, and monitored by the Planning Commission (1951-2014) and the NITI Aayog (2015-2017). The first Indian prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, presented the First Five-Year Plan to the Parliament of India and needed urgent attention.

The First Five-year Plan was launched in 1951 which mainly focused on development of the primary sector. The First Five-Year Plan was based on the Harrod–Domar model with few modifications.

QUESTION: 25

When did the Soviet Union break up ?           

Solution:

The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on 26 December 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. It was a result of the declaration number 142-Н of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union.