The woman-saint sufi who, in her poems, preached instense love for God by uniting with God was
Sufis used musical concerts, known as sama, to induce ecstasy and stimulate emotions of love and passion. Rabia of Basra preached that Unity with God could be achieved through an intense love for God (ishq).
The sub-sect of Shiism, from which the Fatimids descended, is known as the
The Shia Ismaili Muslims are a community of ethnically and culturally diverse peoples, living in over 25 countries around the world, united in their allegiance to His Highness Prince Karim Aga Khan (known to the Ismailis as Mawlana Hazar Imam) as the 49th hereditary Imam (spiritual leader), and direct descendant of Prophet Muhammad.
What was the name given to nomadic Arab tribes?
In pre-Islamic Arabia, Bedouins used to keep moving in search of food and fodder.
After the Arabs and Iranians, the group that was rising to power on the Islamic scene was the
Turks were nomadic tribes from the Central Asian steppes of Turkistan (north-east of the Aral Sea upto the borders of China). They gradually converted to Islam.
The Caliph during whose reign the Hijri was established was:
The Hijri year is a lunar year of 354 days, 12 months (Muharram to Dhul Hijja) of 29 or 30 days. Each day begins at sunset and each month with the sighting of the crescent moon. The Hijri year is about 11 days shorter than the solar year.
Caliph Muawiya shifted his capital to
The shifting of the capital of the Islamic Empire, from Medina to Damascus, was one of the steps taken by Muawiya to consolidate Umayyad leadership.
The followers and non-followers of Ali were called
Ali was the fourth Caliph, after the death of the third Caliph, Uthman. Ali established himself at Kufa and defeated an army led by Muhammad’s wife, Aisha, in the Battle of the Camel.
The semi-histrical works sira in the Islamic history are
Other sources that help us study the history of the central Islamic lands, between 600 CE and 1200 CE, are chronicles (tawarikh) and semi-historical works, such as biographies (sira), records of the sayings and doings of the Prophet (hadith) and commentaries on the Quran (tafsir).
The Umayyad Emperor who introduced Arabic as the language of administration was
During the reign of Abd al-Malik, Arab and Islamic identities of the Islamic Empire were strongly emphasized.
Zakat was an/a
The Muslim community survived on agriculture, trade and alms tax called zakat. Apart from these taxes, the Muslims organised expeditionary raids (ghazw) on Meccan caravans and nearby oases. These raids provoked reactions from the Meccans and caused a breach with the Jews of Medina.