The most important of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and nobility
The first and second estate included the clergy and nobility, which enjoyed certain privilages by birth.
Who wrote ‘The social contract’?
The Social Contract, originally published as On the Social Contract; or, Principles of Political Rights (French: Du contrat social; ou Principes du droit politique) by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is a 1762 book
Members of the Third Estate were led by :
The third estate was led by Mirabeau, a noble and Abbé Sieyès, a priest who assembled in the hall of an indoor tennis court in the grounds of Versailles.
The winged woman personified ?
The wings of the woman are 'The personification of law' .
It symbolizes the royal powers of the nobility, including those of making laws.
King in France at the time of the Revolution ?
Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. He was referred to as Citizen Louis Capet during the four months before he was guillotined.
The most important of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and nobility:
The important privilege enjoyed by the clergy was exemption from taxes to the state. They didn't paid the taxes. The third estate people didn't had much land and most were under the control of the clergy and the nobility but they had to pay the whole tax for the state by their little income.
Bundle of rods or fasces symbolize ?
Bundle of rods,fasces: Symbolised strength lies in unity.One rod can be easily broken, but not an entire bundle.
Society based on freedom, equal laws and opportunities was advocated by :
French Philosophers also contributed well in French revolution:
1. Society based on freedom and equal laws and opportunities for all , were put forward by philosophers such as John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau.
2. In The Spirit of the laws, Montesquieu proposed a division of power within the government and the legislature, the executive and the judiciary.
3.The ideas of the philosophers were discuused intensively in salons and coffee- houses.
National Anthem of France ?
"La Marseillaise" is the national anthem of France. The song was written in 1792 by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle in Strasbourg after the declaration of war by France against Austria, and was originally titled "Chant de guerre pour l'Armee du Rhin".
Voting in the Estates General was conducted on the principle of ?
Voting in the Estates General in the past had been conducted.
- According to the principle of having one vote per estate.
- Third Estate members requested that the assembly as a whole now hold elections, where each member will have one vote.
- This was in line with the Democratic values put forth the book, the social contract, by philosophers like Rousseau.
Which of the following believed social position must depend on merit ?
The Middle Class were educated and believed that no group in the society should be privileged by birth.Rather a person's social position must depend on his merit.
18th century French society was divided into :
The french society was divided into three estates. The first estate-clergy, the second estate- nobility and the third estate- commoners .
Storming of the Bastille
The Storming of the Bastille occurred in Paris, France, on the afternoon of 14 July 1789. The medieval armory, fortress, and political prison known as the Bastille represented royal authority in the centre of Paris. The prison contained seven inmates at the time of its storming.
Which of following fort was seized by the revolutionaries and set free the prisoners ?
On July 14, 1789, a mob of Paris stormed the fortress – the prison of Bastille – considered a symbol of oppression and despotism.
Where did the Third Estate form and announce the National Assembly ?
In Versailles, France, the deputies of the Third Estate, which represent commoners and the lower clergy, meet on the Jeu de Paume, an indoor tennis court, in defiance of King Louis XVI’s order to disperse.
A broken chain symbolize :
Chains were used to fetter slaves.
A broken chain stands for the act of becoming free.
Who among the following consisted in the Second Estate ?
The second Estate consisted of landlords, men of noble birth and the aristocrats.
The Bastille symbolized :
The Bastille represented the despotic power of king. Power can never be despotic but it's accumulation is despotic. it was built by Charles v. it was said to be holding a despotic power because all the king's used it for their own interests rather than thinking for others . Moreover, at that time Louis xvi was the despotic ruler who had been known as the responsible for empty treasury . due to the long years of war had drained France from it's financial resources and added to this was the cost of maintaining an extravagant court at the immense palace of Versailles. the government needed money to maintain the court , the army , the government offices etc. under Louis xvi , the third estate had to pay higher taxes and also pressuried them to do harvest in the bad season also . Due to the above reasons the Bastille represented despotic power.
Which of the following was a factor in the rise of Napoleon ?
France was ruled by the Directory, an executive made up of five members.
(i) However, the Directors often clashed with the Legislative Councils, who then sought to dismiss them.
(ii) The political instability of the Directory paved the way for the rise of a military dictator, Napoleon Bonaparte.
The tax paid to the church by 3rd estate was-
Peasants paid a tax called tithes to the church.
The third estate paid a direct tax called taille.
Political body of France
The political body of France was known as Estates General. In the old regime,France was divided into three estates-Clergy and nobility which were privileged classes and third estate which represent the majority of the people.
Which of the following constituted the privileged class ?
TYhe two privileged classes (clergy and nobility) were the underprivilegedcommoners known as the third estate. The third estate was subdivided into the bourgeoisie (middle class), the artisans and thepeasants. The bourgeois comprised of lawyers, physicians,teachers, merchants, bankers, manufacturers and men ofliterature.
Which of the following refuted the doctrine of divine and absolute right ?
John Locke was inspired by the humanistic and enlightened viewpoint that all humans are equal. So he refuted the doctrine of the divine and absolute right of the monarch in his book 'Two Treatises of Government'.
French legacy to the world ?
The legacy of the French Revolution for the peoples of the world during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was as follows —
(i) Ideas of equality and democratic spread from France to other European countries and feudalism was abolished.
(ii) Colonial people reworked the idea of freedom from bondage info their movements to create sovereign nation states.
(iii) It was the first movement to adopt the ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity.
Who advocated government based on Social Contract ?
Rousseau wrote a book social contract in which he told that there should be a social contract between the government and the people.
When Louis XVI ascended the throne of France ?
When Louis XVI acceded to the throne in 1774, he was nineteen years old. He had an enormous responsibility, as the government was deeply in debt, and resentment of "despotic" monarchy was on the rise. He himself felt woefully unqualified to resolve the situation.
In the context of France what was "the Convention" ?
In the summer of 1792 the members of jacobin club , the most successful political club that consisted mainly of the members of the less prosperous sections of the society , planned an insurrection . on the morning of august 10 they stormed the palace of tuileries massacred the king's guard and held the king himself as a hostage. later the national assembly voted to imprison the royal family . elections were held and from then on all men of 21 years and above regardless of wealth got the right to vote . the newly elected assembly was called the convention . on 21 september 1792 it abolished monarchy and declared france as republic . louis XVI was sentenced to death on 21 january 1793 he was executed publicly by charging treason.
What did the red cap worn by Sans Culottes in France symbolise ?
Red Cap was worn by Sans Culottes in France as an image of Liberty.
When was slavery abolished in French Colonies ?
It was in 1794 that the Convention passed a law to free all slaves in French overseas possessions. But this lasted only for 10 years because when Napoleon Bonaparte became the emperor of France in 1804, he reintroduced slavery. In 1848, Slavery was finally abolished in French colonies.
Which period in the history of France is known as Reign of Terror ?
The period from 1793 to 1794 was referred to as the ‘Reign of Terror’ because of the following reasons: