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Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Class 10 MCQ


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15 Questions MCQ Test Social Studies (SST) Class 10 - Test: The Making of a Global World - 1

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Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 1

Why were Europeans attracted to Africa?

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 1

In the late 19th century, Europeans were attracted to Africa due to its vast resources of land and minerals. Europeans came to Africa hoping to establish plantations and mines to produce crops and minerals for export to Europe. They could get cheap labour also to work on lesser wages in the mines and plantation farms.

Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 2

Assertion: India played a crucial role in the late 19th-century world economy.
Reason: Britain was using trade surplus with India to balance its trade deficit with other countries. 

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 2
Assertion: India played a crucial role in the late 19th-century world economy.
Reason: Britain was using trade surplus with India to balance its trade deficit with other countries.
The given assertion and reason are related to the role of India in the late 19th-century world economy and the trade relationship between India and Britain. Let's analyze each of them separately.
Assertion: India played a crucial role in the late 19th-century world economy.
This statement implies that India had a significant impact on the global economy during this period.
Explanation:
1. India was known for its abundant resources and skilled workforce, making it an attractive destination for trade and investment.
2. The British had established colonial rule in India during this time, which allowed them to exploit the country's resources and control its economy.
3. India was a major producer of raw materials, such as cotton, jute, and indigo, which were in high demand in Europe and other parts of the world.
4. The British used India as a source of cheap labor and raw materials to fuel their industrial revolution.
5. The export of Indian goods played a crucial role in Britain's economic growth and dominance in the global market.
Reason: Britain was using trade surplus with India to balance its trade deficit with other countries.
This statement suggests that Britain used its trade surplus with India to offset its trade deficit with other nations.
Explanation:
1. Britain had a growing trade deficit with other countries due to its high imports and low exports.
2. The British East India Company, which controlled trade in India, focused on exporting Indian goods to other countries, generating a trade surplus.
3. The revenue from India's exports helped Britain balance its trade deficit by offsetting the excess imports from other nations.
4. The British used the profits from Indian trade to finance their imports and maintain a favorable balance of trade.
Conclusion:
Based on the explanations provided above, it can be concluded that:
- Both the assertion and reason are true.
- The reason provided is the correct explanation for the assertion.
- India played a crucial role in the late 19th-century world economy, and Britain utilized its trade surplus with India to balance its trade deficit with other countries.
Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 3

Which of the following statements correctly identifies the corn laws?

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 3
Statement: The corn laws were laws that restricted the import of corn to England.
Explanation:
The correct statement that identifies the corn laws is option A, which states that the corn laws restricted the import of corn to England. Here is a detailed explanation:
1. Corn Laws: The corn laws were a series of laws enacted in England in the 18th and 19th centuries.
2. Purpose: The main purpose of the corn laws was to protect domestic agriculture, specifically the corn (grain) industry, from foreign competition.
3. Import Restrictions: The corn laws placed restrictions on the import of corn into England.
4. Tariffs and Duties: These laws imposed high tariffs and import duties on foreign corn, making it more expensive and less competitive compared to domestic corn.
5. Impact: The corn laws benefited landowners and farmers who produced corn in England by ensuring high prices and limited competition. However, it resulted in higher food prices for the general population, especially the working class who relied on cheaper imported corn.
6. Repeal: The corn laws were highly controversial and faced significant opposition from those who advocated for free trade. Eventually, in 1846, the corn laws were repealed, leading to the liberalization of trade in corn and other agricultural products.
In conclusion, the correct identification of the corn laws is that they restricted the import of corn to England.
Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 4

Europeans came to _______ hoping to establish plantations and mines, but they faced the problem of labour shortage.

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 4

Correct option is A. Africa

Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 5

Assertion: There was a collapse of the system of fixed exchange rates.
Reason: From the 1960s, the rising costs of its overseas involvements weakened the US’s finances and competitive strength. It could not command confidence as the world’s principal currency.

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 5
Assertion:
- There was a collapse of the system of fixed exchange rates.
Reason:
- From the 1960s, the rising costs of its overseas involvements weakened the US's finances and competitive strength. It could not command confidence as the world's principal currency.

The correct answer is option A, where both the assertion and reason are true, and the reason is the correct explanation of the assertion. Here's a detailed explanation:
- The collapse of the system of fixed exchange rates refers to the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system in the early 1970s.
- The Bretton Woods system, established after World War II, fixed exchange rates to the US dollar, with other currencies pegged to the dollar.
- However, the rising costs of the United States' overseas involvements, particularly the Vietnam War, put a strain on its finances and weakened its competitive strength.
- As a result, the US could not maintain confidence in its currency, and other countries started doubting the value of the US dollar.
- Additionally, the US experienced inflation and balance of payments deficits, further eroding its ability to uphold fixed exchange rates.
- Ultimately, in 1971, the US government abandoned the gold standard and suspended the convertibility of the US dollar into gold, leading to the collapse of the fixed exchange rate system.
In conclusion, the assertion that there was a collapse of the system of fixed exchange rates is true, and the reason provided, i.e., the weakening of the US's finances and competitive strength, is the correct explanation for this collapse.
Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 6

Which of the following is the direct effect of the Great Depression on Indian Trade?

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 6
Direct Effect of the Great Depression on Indian Trade:
The direct effect of the Great Depression on Indian trade was that Indian exports and imports nearly halved between 1928-1934.
Explanation:
- During the Great Depression, the global economy went into a severe downturn, and international trade suffered greatly. India, as a colony of the British Empire, was heavily dependent on international trade for its economic growth.
- The collapse of global demand and trade during the Great Depression had a direct impact on Indian trade.
- Indian exports, such as raw materials like jute, cotton, and tea, were in high demand before the depression. However, with the economic crisis, the demand for these goods decreased significantly.
- Additionally, the imposition of protectionist policies by many countries further limited Indian exports.
- As a result, Indian exports and imports nearly halved between 1928-1934, leading to a significant decline in international trade for the country.
- This decline in trade had severe consequences for the Indian economy, leading to widespread unemployment and economic hardship.
- Peasants and farmers, who relied on agricultural exports, suffered greatly as their produce faced reduced demand and lower prices in the international market.
- Moreover, the decline in trade also led to increased peasant indebtedness as farmers struggled to repay their loans due to the economic downturn.
- The combination of reduced trade, increased indebtedness, and economic hardship caused widespread unrest in rural India, further exacerbating the social and economic impact of the Great Depression.
In conclusion, the direct effect of the Great Depression on Indian trade was a significant decline in exports and imports, leading to economic hardship, increased peasant indebtedness, and widespread unrest in rural India.
Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 7

The silver metal was not available in :

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 7


The silver metal was not available in:
A: Canada
- Canada did not have access to silver metal.
B: Mexico
- Mexico did not have access to silver metal.
C: Peru
- Peru did not have access to silver metal.
D: All of these
- This option is containing all above

Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 8

Assertion: The Portuguese and Spanish conquest and colonization of America was decisively underway by the mid-sixteenth century.
Reason: The most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors Was the rinderpest.

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 8
Explanation:
Assertion: The Portuguese and Spanish conquest and colonization of America was decisively underway by the mid-sixteenth century.
- The assertion states that the conquest and colonization of America by the Portuguese and Spanish was already in progress by the mid-sixteenth century.
Reason: The most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors was the rinderpest.
- The reason provided suggests that the rinderpest was the most powerful weapon used by the Spanish conquerors.
Analysis:
- The conquest and colonization of America by the Portuguese and Spanish began in the late 15th century with Christopher Columbus' voyages.
- The mid-sixteenth century refers to the 1500s, which is well within the timeframe of the Portuguese and Spanish activities in America.
- The Portuguese and Spanish used various strategies and weapons, including military force, colonization efforts, and alliances with indigenous populations, to establish their presence in America.
- The rinderpest, a highly contagious viral disease affecting cattle, was not a weapon used by the Spanish conquerors. It was a disease that affected livestock and had significant impacts on agricultural societies, but it was not deliberately used as a weapon.
Conclusion:
- The assertion is correct as the Portuguese and Spanish conquest and colonization of America was indeed underway by the mid-sixteenth century.
- The reason is incorrect as the rinderpest was not the most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors.
- Therefore, the correct answer is C: A is correct but R is wrong.
Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 9

Which of the following enabled the Europeans to conquer and control the Africans?

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 9

Factors that enabled the Europeans to conquer and control the Africans:
- Control over the scarce resource of cattle: The Europeans had superior technology and weaponry, which allowed them to easily overpower the Africans. Additionally, they had control over the scarce resource of cattle, which gave them economic power and enabled them to establish trade relationships with the Africans.
- Victory in war: The Europeans were able to defeat African tribes and kingdoms through their advanced military tactics and weapons. They utilized their superior firepower and organization to conquer and control African territories.
- Death of Africans due to rinderpest: Rinderpest, a highly contagious viral disease that affected cattle, swept through Africa in the 1890s. This led to a significant decrease in the number of cattle, which weakened African societies that heavily relied on them. The Europeans took advantage of this situation and exploited the weakened Africans.
- Lack of weapons in Africa to fight against the Europeans: African societies had limited access to firearms and other advanced weapons, which put them at a disadvantage in conflicts with the Europeans. The Europeans' superior weaponry enabled them to easily overpower African resistance and establish control.
In conclusion, the combination of superior technology, control over resources, victory in war, the devastating impact of diseases, and the lack of advanced weapons in Africa allowed the Europeans to conquer and control the Africans.
Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 10

In the 18th century, which among the following was not a rich country?

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 10
Answer:
Introduction:
In the 18th century, the economic status of countries varied greatly. While some countries experienced significant economic growth and became wealthy, others lagged behind. Among the given options, Peru was not considered a rich country during this period.
Explanation:
Here is a detailed explanation of why Peru was not a rich country in the 18th century:
1. Peru:
- Peru was a Spanish colony during the 18th century.
- The Spanish colonial rule in Peru was primarily focused on extracting valuable resources, such as silver and gold, rather than fostering economic development.
- Although Peru had significant mineral wealth, the benefits of this wealth were mostly enjoyed by the Spanish crown and a small elite, rather than being reinvested in the country's economy.
- The economic policies of the Spanish colonial administration hindered industrial development and limited Peru's economic growth.
- As a result, Peru remained relatively poor and dependent on its natural resources.
2. China:
- China was one of the richest countries in the 18th century.
- China had a strong agricultural base and a flourishing trade network.
- It had a well-developed manufacturing sector, with expertise in various industries such as silk, porcelain, and textiles.
- China had a large population and a stable economy, which contributed to its wealth.
3. India:
- India was also a wealthy country in the 18th century.
- India had a rich agricultural sector, producing valuable crops such as cotton, indigo, and spices.
- It had a well-established trade network, with Indian textiles being highly sought after in international markets.
- India's extensive cultural heritage and skilled artisans contributed to its economic prosperity.
4. None of these:
- This option is incorrect because Peru was indeed not a rich country in the 18th century, as explained above.
Conclusion:
In the 18th century, Peru was not considered a rich country compared to China and India. The Spanish colonial rule and economic policies hindered Peru's economic growth, despite its significant mineral wealth. On the other hand, China and India were wealthy countries due to their strong agricultural bases, flourishing trade networks, and well-developed industries.
Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 11

Assertion: The railways, steamships, the telegraph were important inventions which transformed the nineteenth-century world.
Reason: Colonisation stimulated new investments and improvements in transport.

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 11
Assertion: The railways, steamships, the telegraph were important inventions which transformed the nineteenth-century world.

Reason: Colonisation stimulated new investments and improvements in transport.
The given statement presents an assertion and a reason. Let's analyze each part separately:
Assertion: The railways, steamships, the telegraph were important inventions which transformed the nineteenth-century world.
This statement asserts that the inventions of railways, steamships, and the telegraph were significant in transforming the world during the nineteenth century. This assertion can be supported by the following key points:
- Railways revolutionized transportation by enabling faster and more efficient movement of goods and people over long distances. They facilitated industrialization, trade, and urbanization, contributing to economic growth and social development.
- Steamships revolutionized sea travel by replacing sailing vessels with steam-powered ships. This allowed for faster and more reliable transportation across oceans and facilitated global trade and communication.
- The telegraph revolutionized communication by enabling almost instantaneous long-distance transmission of messages. It facilitated the exchange of information, coordination of activities, and improved business, government, and military communication systems.
Reason: Colonisation stimulated new investments and improvements in transport.
This reason suggests that colonization played a role in stimulating investments and improvements in transportation, leading to the inventions mentioned in the assertion. This reason can be supported by the following key points:
- Colonization involved the establishment of colonies in distant lands, which required the transportation of people, goods, and resources over long distances.
- To facilitate colonization and maintain control over colonies, colonial powers invested in transportation infrastructure, such as railways, steamships, and telegraph lines, to improve connectivity between colonies and their home countries.
- The need for efficient transportation systems to support colonization and colonial trade incentivized the development and improvement of these inventions.
Conclusion:
Both the assertion and reason are true, and the reason is the correct explanation of the assertion. Therefore, option A is the correct answer. The inventions of railways, steamships, and the telegraph were indeed important in transforming the nineteenth-century world, and colonization played a significant role in stimulating investments and improvements in transport.
Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 12

Who discovered the vast continent, later known as America?

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 12
Who discovered the vast continent, later known as America?

The vast continent, later known as America, was discovered by Christopher Columbus.


Detailed

Christopher Columbus, an Italian explorer, is credited with discovering the vast continent that came to be known as America. Here is a detailed explanation:



  • Background: In the late 15th century, European nations were seeking new trade routes to Asia in order to bypass the Ottoman Empire and gain access to valuable goods.

  • Christopher Columbus: Christopher Columbus, sponsored by the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, embarked on a voyage in 1492 with the aim of reaching Asia by sailing west.

  • First Voyage: On October 12, 1492, Columbus made landfall in the present-day Bahamas, believing he had reached the East Indies. He called the indigenous people he encountered "Indians."

  • Subsequent Voyages: Columbus made three more voyages to the region, exploring various islands in the Caribbean and parts of Central and South America.

  • Impact: Columbus's voyages led to the European exploration and colonization of the Americas, which had significant consequences for the indigenous peoples and the subsequent history of the continent.


Therefore, based on historical records, Christopher Columbus is the one who discovered the vast continent that eventually came to be called America.

Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 13

Which out of the following was beyond the reach of the poor in 18th century Europe?

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 13
Answer:
In the 18th century Europe, the poor faced numerous challenges in accessing basic necessities due to their limited financial means. Among the options given, meat was the item that was beyond the reach of the poor during this time period. Here is a detailed explanation:
Reasons why meat was beyond the reach of the poor:
- Cost: Meat was relatively expensive compared to other food items such as bread or potatoes. The poor, who had limited income, could not afford to buy meat regularly.
- Limited availability: Meat was primarily consumed by the wealthy and upper classes, who had the means to purchase it. The poor had restricted access to meat due to its scarcity and high demand.
- Livestock ownership: The poor often did not possess livestock, making it difficult for them to produce their own meat. Livestock ownership required land and resources, which the poor lacked.
- Social hierarchy: In the rigid social structure of 18th century Europe, meat was considered a luxury and a symbol of wealth and status. The poor were excluded from enjoying such privileges.
Other options:
- Bread: Bread was a staple food for both the poor and the wealthy during this time. Although the quality and variety of bread might have differed, it was still accessible to the poor.
- Potatoes: Potatoes were introduced to Europe in the late 16th century and gradually became a significant food source for the poor due to their affordability and nutritional value. The poor could cultivate and consume potatoes as a means of sustenance.
In conclusion, while bread and potatoes were reasonably accessible to the poor in 18th century Europe, meat was a luxury that remained beyond their reach due to its high cost and limited availability.
Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 14

Assertion: Over the nineteenth century, British manufacturers flooded the Indian market.
Reason: The value of Indian exports to the British was much higher than the value of British imports to India.

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 14
Assertion: Over the nineteenth century, British manufacturers flooded the Indian market.
Reason: The value of Indian exports to the British was much higher than the value of British imports to India.
The given assertion and reason are related to the British manufacturers flooding the Indian market in the nineteenth century. Let's analyze each statement separately:
Assertion: Over the nineteenth century, British manufacturers flooded the Indian market.
This statement suggests that British manufacturers had a significant presence in the Indian market during the nineteenth century. This can be supported by historical evidence of British colonization and the establishment of British industries in India during that time. British manufacturers took advantage of India's resources and cheap labor to produce goods for both domestic consumption and export.
Reason: The value of Indian exports to the British was much higher than the value of British imports to India.
This reason suggests that the value of goods exported from India to Britain was higher than the value of goods imported from Britain to India. This trade imbalance can be attributed to British colonial policies, which aimed to exploit India's resources and market for the benefit of the British economy. The British East India Company and subsequent British rule in India facilitated the export of raw materials and finished goods from India to Britain, while restricting Indian industries and imposing high tariffs on British imports to protect their domestic industries.
Analysis:
While both the assertion and reason are true, they are not directly related or explanatory of each other. The flooding of the Indian market by British manufacturers can be attributed to various factors such as colonization, industrialization, and trade policies. The trade imbalance mentioned in the reason is one aspect of this phenomenon but does not directly explain the flooding of the market.
Conclusion:
Therefore, the correct answer is Option C: A is correct but R is wrong.
Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 15

Until the 18th century which two countries were considered the richest in the world?

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 1 - Question 15

India and China were two of the world’s wealthiest countries until the eighteenth century. The geographical location was favourable for the Indian subcontinent; it was an important point in the trade networks. The Indian Ocean provided easy transportation. India and China traded spices, silk, pottery and minerals with other countries. Industries were not established in India, but it provided raw materials to countries like England.

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