In what way did the movement by Birsa Munda prove to be a significant one?
Which one from the following options is closest in meaning to Guerilla warfare?
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which small groups of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility, to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
A sequence of events that happened in the revolt led by Birsa Munda is given below. Arrange them in the correct order.
(i) Several members of the Munda tribe gave petitions to reclaim their old ancestral right for free fuel , grazing and hunting which was rejected by the British.
(ii) Birsa Munda adopted guerrilla warfare and launched surprise attacks killing many police officials
(iii) The revolt or ulgulan was finally suppressed and Birsa Munda arrested.
(iv) Since adivasis refused to cultivate the crops demanded by the British, outsiders were brought in to cultivate the land
(v) The Munda chiefs lost their authority and a few of them were treated as farm labourers
Several members of the Munda tribe gave petitions to reclaim their old ancestral right for free fuel , grazing and hunting which was rejected by the British. Since Adivasis refused to cultivate the crops demanded by the British, outsiders were brought in to cultivate the land. The Munda chiefs lost their authority and a few of them were treated as farm labourers. Birsa Munda adopted guerrilla warfare and launched surprise attacks killing many police officials. The revolt or ulgulan was finally suppressed and Birsa Munda arrested.
What is Jhum or Jhoom Cultivation?
Jhum (Shifting) cultivation is a primitive practice of cultivation in States of North Eastern Hill Region of India and people involved in such cultivation are called Jhumia. The practice involves clearing vegetative/forest cover on land/slopes of hills, drying and burning it before onset of monsoon and cropping on it thereafter. After harvest, this land is left fallow and vegetative regeneration is allowed on it till the plot becomes reusable for the same purpose in a cycle. Meanwhile, the process is repeated in a new plot designated for Jhum cultivation during next year. Initially, when the Jhum cycle was long and ranged from 20 to 30 years, the process worked well. However, with increase in human population and increasing pressure on land, Jhum cycle reduced progressively (5-6 years) causing problem of land degradation and threat to ecology of the region at large.
Which among the following options best describe broadcasting or scattering
The jhum cultivators broadcast the seeds, that is, scattered the seeds on the field instead of ploughing the land and sowing the seeds. Once the crop was ready and harvested, they moved to another field.
Some important features of the Jhum cultivation are given below. Pick out the one that is not related to the Jhum cultivation.
Some tribal people practiced jhum cultivation also known as shifting cultivation. This was done on small cultivation. This was done on small patches of land, mostly in forests. The cultivators cleared off small patches of land. They then burnt the vegetation and spread the ash from the firing, which contained potash to fertilise the soil. They used equipment like axes and hoe for preparing the soil for cultivation. Then they scattered the seeds on the field. Once the crop was ready and harvested, they moved to another field. Shifting cultivators were found in the hilly and forested tracts of north – east and central India.
What is the literal meaning of the word fallow?
Fallow: Land that has undergone ploughing and harrowing and has been left unseeded for one or more growing seasons.
Lists of statements with respect to the tribal life are given below. Choose the one that does not pertain to the tribal life.
The correct option is D.
Tribal people in India are called adivasi. Adivasi is an umbrella term for a heterogeneous set of ethnic and tribal groups considered the aboriginal population of India. They have a permanent habitants. Forest is home for many Indian tribes. It provides them with the basic needs like food, water, shelter etc. Therefore, we need to preserve our forest for a good environment and for the people who totally depend on nature for their livelihood.
From the seeds of which tree did the tribals extract oil to cook?
Tribals extracted oil from the seed of sal to cook.
From the seeds of Sal and Mahua, the tribal extract oil to cook. What exactly is Mahua ?
The correct option is Option B.
Mahua flowers, fruits and leaves are edible and used as vegetables in India and other Southern Asian countries. The sweet, fleshy flowers are eaten fresh or dried, powdered and cooked with flour, used as a sweetener or fermented to make alcohol (Fern, 2014). The fleshy outer coat of the fruit is used as a vegetable.
Why were the Baigas of Central India reluctant to do work for others?
Since Baigas were tribal chieftains, they thought they cannot work as labourers. Since Baigas only reared cattle, they thought they cannot work as labourers. Since Baigas saw themselves as people of the forest, they thought it below their dignity to work as a labourers.
Why were the Baigas of Central India reluctant to do work for others?
The baigas of central India were reluctant to do work for others because the baigas saw themselves as people of the forest ,who could only live on the produced of the forest .It was below the dignity of a baiga to become a labourer
Why did the local weavers and leather workers turn to the Khonds for help ?
The Khonds were a community who lived in the forests of Orissa. They saw forests as essential for survival. They regularly went out on collective hunts and then divided the men amongst themselves. They ate fruits and roots collected from the forest and cooked food with the oil they extracted from seeds of the sal and mahua. They used many forest shrubs and herbs for medicinal purposes, and sold forest produce, and sold forest produce in the local markets. The local weavers and leather workers turned to the Khonds when they needed supplies of kudum and palash flowers to colour their clothes and leather.
According to the list given below, who were the Van Gujjars of the Punjab hills?
The Van Gujjars are a transhumance tribe of pastoralists belonging to the Himalayas. Their livelihood and subsistence depends primarily on their cattle. During summer they walk upto and beyond 12,500 ft in the mountains and trek down at the onset of winter.
From the given number of options, choose the one that can be best tells us about the Gaddis of Kulu.
Agriculture, animal husbandry and trade are the main occupations of these tribes. Generally, Gaddi people used to go to the tough areas with their sheep and goats, called Dhan.
What did the Bakarwals of Kashmir rear?
Which one of the following best describes the Labadis of Andhra Pradesh?
The Van Gujjars of the Punjab hills and the Labadis of Andhra Pradesh were cattle herders, the Gaddis of Kulu were shepherds, and the Bakarwals of Kashmir reared goats.
What did the Tribal groups do when they wanted to buy goods not produced in their locality?
What does the word dikus refer to in the Chhota Nagpur region?
Why did the tribals saw the moneylenders and traders as evil outsiders and the cause for their misery?
Tribals took loans from the moneylenders to meet their cash requirements. But these moneylenders charged high interest rate on these loans leading to debt and poverty of the tribal. Thus, the tribals considered the moneylenders as the cause of their misery.