Which one of the following assertions is true? Galton’s notion of the ‘normal distribution’ tells us:
One of Galton’s contributions was to bring statistical understandings from the physical sciences to the study of psychology – particularly, the notion of normal distribution. Galton noted that for any of our ‘natural gifts’ (physical, temperamental or intellectual) there will be an ‘average’ amount of that feature, to which most people approximate. Then, as we consider scores increasingly higher or increasingly lower than that ‘average score’, there will be fewer and fewer people registering those scores. Those higher than the norm are those with more intelligence.
In the early stages of measuring intelligence, which type of intelligence did Spearman identify as the underlying feature that contributes to performance across a variety of different tasks?
General intelligence or the g factor was proposed by Spearman to explain the underlying feature that contributes to differences in performance across a variety of tasks. Perceptual speed and inductive reasoning are types of intelligence. Individual IQ is a measure of specific types of intelligence. Crystallized intelligence refers to the diverse skills and knowledge acquired across the life span and was identified by Horn and Cattell.
Which is the case? IQ is calculated as:
While all the other answers are estimates of intelligence, the actual calculation for IQ is the classical formula, IQ = MA/CA × 100 (where MA = Mental age, and CA = chronological age).
Evidence obtained from measures of reaction time, inspection time and physiological changes suggests that general intelligence has a ___________ basis.
The research mentioned in the question above has been used to support the hypothesis that general intelligence has a biological basis. The alternative answers have not been suggested by the accumulation of the research mentioned in the question above.
All of the following represent intelligences from Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences except for ___________.
Cultural is not one of the intelligences identified by Gardner whereas the alternative answers each refer to one of the types of intelligence.
Which model assumes that the savant syndrome represents selective brain damage by which some modules were spared whereas others were not?
Anderson’s minimal cognitive architecture model assumes that the savant syndrome represents selective brain damage in which some modules were spared whereas others were not. The alternative answers all refer to theories or models of normal intelligence.
By measuring the extent to which identical twins reared together score differently on intelligence tests, researchers can determine the influence of which factors on intelligence?
Identical twins reared together have genetic traits and a shared environment in common. Therefore, any differences observed can be attributed to their experiences in non-shared environments (birth-order, friends, teachers).
Detterman believes that:
Detterman argues that the performance of any complex task, including intelligence tests, requires a number of basic abilities. In this scheme, general intelligence represents an average of the processing of several independent components that contribute to the performance of any complex task.
The measured difference in IQ between African Americans and white Americans is most likely to be due to which one of the following factors?
For evidence that environmental or cultural differences cause such a large difference, consider the ‘Flynn effect’. Flynn (1987) has shown that there has been a standard deviation increase, per generation, in the mean level of intelligence test performance for most of this century in Western society, which equates to about three IQ points per decade.
Such a difference has to be the result of an environmental change, because gene frequencies in populations could not change so quickly. If there can be shifts of one standard deviation in IQ between generations that are environmental in origin, despite the high heritability of IQ differences, why could there not be similar environmentally mediated differences between populations within the current generation?
Estimates of heritability for intelligence range between __________.
Estimates of heritability for intelligence vary between 50% and 80%.