The worship of a single god, Allah, and the membership of a single community of believers (umma) was the origin of what?
This was the origin of Islam.
Where were the gods and goddesses worshipped?
God or Goddess was worshipped as an idol in a shrine.
What was another name for Arab nomadic tribes?
Many Arab tribes were nomadic (bedouins), moving from dry to green areas (oases) of the desert in search of food (mainly dates) and fodder for their camels.
What did tribes outside of Mecca consider holy?
Tribes outside the Mecca considered the Kaba holy and installed their own idols at this shrine, making annual pilgrimages (hajj) to the shrine.
Where was mecca located on the crossroads of a trade route between?
Mecca was located on the crossroads of a trade route between Yemen and Syria.
Who soon faced considerable opposition from affluent Meccans?
The Muslims soon faced considerable opposition from affluent Meccans who took offense to the rejection of their deities and found the new religion a threat to the status and prosperity of Mecca.
How many days is the Hijri year?
A date in the Hijri calendar is followed by the letters AH. The Hijri year is a lunar year of 354 days, 12 months (Muharram to Dhulhijja) of 29 or 30 days.
When does each day begin in the Hijri year?
Each day of Hijri year begins at sunset and each month with the sighting of the crescent moon.
How many days shorter is the Hijri year than the solar year?
The Hijri year is about 11 days shorter than the solar year.
Who established the gregorian calendar?
c) Pope Gregory Xiii
Gregorian calendar was established by Pope Gregory xiii in 1582 CE.
What was converted into a broader community under the political leadership of Muhammad?
The umma was converted into a broader community to include polytheists and the jews of medina under the political leadership of Muhammad.
When did Muhammad die?
Muhammads died in 632, after which no one could legitimately claim to be the next prophet of Islam.
Who was the first caliph?
The first caliph was Abu Bakr. He suppressed the revolts by a series of campaigns.
What religion did the byzantine empire promote?
The byzantine empire promoted Christianity, and the Sasanian empire patronised Zoroastrianism, the ancient religion of Iran.
What population retained their rights to property and religious practices on payment of taxes?
The non-muslim population retained their rights to property and religious practices on payment of taxes (Kharaj and Jizya)
Who adopted innovations that allowed the Umayyads to retain power for 90 years and the Abbasids to retain power for two?
The caliphs adopted these innovations.
What was the name of the movement that brought down the Umayyads?
A well-organised movement, called Dawa, brought down the Umayyads and replaced them with another family of Meccan origin, the Abbasids, in 750.
When did civil war break out between supporters of Amin and Mamun?
In 810, a civil war broke out between supporters of Amin and Mamun.
When did the Buyids capture Baghdad?
In 945, the Buyids, a Shiite clan from the Caspian region of Iran, captured Baghdad.
When did the Fatimids conquer Egypt?
Fatimids from their base in North Africa conquered Egypt in 969 and established the Fatimid caliphate.