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Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions


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12 Questions MCQ Test Geography Class 11 | Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions

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Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions - Question 1

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer any three of the questions that follow.

In humid regions, which receive heavy rainfall running water is considered the most important of the geomorphic agents in bringing about the degradation of the land surface. There are two components of running water. One is overland flow on general land surface as a sheet. Another is linear flow as streams and rivers in valleys. Most of the erosional landforms made by running water are associated with vigorous and youthful rivers flowing over steep gradients. With time, stream channels over steep gradients turn gentler due to continued erosion, and as a consequence, lose their velocity, facilitating active deposition. There may be depositional forms associated with streams flowing over steep slopes. But these phenomena will be on a small scale compared to those associated with rivers flowing over medium to gentle slopes. The gentler the river channels in gradient or slope, the greater is the deposition. When the stream beds turn gentler due to continued erosion, downward cutting becomes less dominant and lateral erosion of banks increases and as a consequence the hills and valleys are reduced to plains.

Q. Name the two components of running water.

Detailed Solution for Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions - Question 1 There are two components of running water. One is overland flow on the general land surface as a sheet. Another is linear flow as streams and rivers in valleys. Most of the erosional landforms made by running water are associated with vigorous and youthful rivers flowing over steep gradients.
Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions - Question 2

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer any three of the questions that follow.

In humid regions, which receive heavy rainfall, running water is considered the most important of the geomorphic agents in bringing about the degradation of the land surface. There are two components of running water. One is overland flow on the general land surface as a sheet. Another is linear flow as streams and rivers in valleys. Most of the erosional landforms made by running water are associated with vigorous and youthful rivers flowing over steep gradients. With time, stream channels over steep gradients turn gentler due to continued erosion, and as a consequence, lose their velocity, facilitating active deposition. There may be depositional forms associated with streams flowing over steep slopes. But these phenomena will be on a small scale compared to those associated with rivers flowing over medium to gentle slopes. The gentler the river channels in gradient or slope, the greater is the deposition. When the stream beds turn gentler due to continued erosion, downward cutting becomes less dominant and lateral erosion of banks increases and as a consequence the hills and valleys are reduced to plains.

Q. What happens when the stream beds turn gentler due to continued erosion?

Detailed Solution for Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions - Question 2 When the stream beds turn gentler due to continued erosion, downward cutting becomes less dominant and lateral erosion of banks increases and as a consequence the hills and valleys are reduced to plains.
Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions - Question 3

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer any three of the questions that follow.

In humid regions, which receive heavy rainfall running water is considered the most important of the geomorphic agents in bringing about the degradation of the land surface. There are two components of running water. One is overland flow on general land surface as a sheet. Another is linear flow as streams and rivers in valleys. Most of the erosional landforms made by running water are associated with vigorous and youthful rivers flowing over steep gradients. With time, stream channels over steep gradients turn gentler due to continued erosion, and as a consequence, lose their velocity, facilitating active deposition. There may be depositional forms associated with streams flowing over steep slopes. But these phenomena will be on a small scale compared to those associated with rivers flowing over medium to gentle slopes. The gentler the river channels in gradient or slope, the greater is the deposition. When the stream beds turn gentler due to continued erosion, downward cutting becomes less dominant and lateral erosion of banks increases and as a consequence the hills and valleys are reduced to plains.

Q. Why do stream channels over steep gradients turn gentler with time?

Detailed Solution for Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions - Question 3 Most of the erosional landforms made by running water are associated with vigorous and youthful rivers flowing over steep gradients. With time, stream channels over steep gradients turn gentler due to continued erosion, and as a consequence, lose their velocity, facilitating active deposition.
Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions - Question 4

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer any three of the questions that follow.

In humid regions, which receive heavy rainfall running water is considered the most important of the geomorphic agents in bringing about the degradation of the land surface. There are two components of running water. One is overland flow on general land surface as a sheet. Another is linear flow as streams and rivers in valleys. Most of the erosional landforms made by running water are associated with vigorous and youthful rivers flowing over steep gradients. With time, stream channels over steep gradients turn gentler due to continued erosion, and as a consequence, lose their velocity, facilitating active deposition. There may be depositional forms associated with streams flowing over steep slopes. But these phenomena will be on a small scale compared to those associated with rivers flowing over medium to gentle slopes. The gentler the river channels in gradient or slope, the greater is the deposition. When the stream beds turn gentler due to continued erosion, downward cutting becomes less dominant and lateral erosion of banks increases and as a consequence the hills and valleys are reduced to plains.

Q. The gentler the river channels in gradient or slope, the greater is the ___________.

Detailed Solution for Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions - Question 4 The gentler the river channels in gradient or slope, the greater is the deposition. When the stream beds turn gentler due to continued erosion, downward cutting becomes less dominant and lateral erosion of banks increases and as a consequence the hills and valleys are reduced to plains.
Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions - Question 5

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer any three of the questions that follow.

Small- to medium-sized round to sub-rounded shallow depressions called swallow holes form on the surface of limestones through solution. Sink holes are very common in limestone/karst areas. A sinkhole is an opening more or less circular at the top and funnel-shaped towards the bottom with sizes varying in area from a few sq. m. to a hectare and with depth from a less than half a metre to thirty metres or more. Some of these forms solely through solution action (solution sinks) and others might start as solution forms first and if the bottom of a sinkhole forms the roof of a void or cave underground, it might collapse leaving a large hole opening into a cave or a void below (collapse sinks). Quite often, sinkholes are covered up with soil mantle and appear as shallow water pools. Anybody stepping over such pools would go down like it happens in quick sands in deserts. The term doline is sometimes used to refer the collapse sinks. Solution sinks are more common than collapse sinks. Quite often the surface runoff simply goes down swallow and sink hole sand flow as underground streams and re-emerge at a distance downstream through a cave opening. When sinkholes and do lines join together because of slumping of materials along their margins or due to roof collapse of caves, long, narrow to wide trenches called valley sinks or Uvalas form. Gradually, most of the surface of the limestone is eaten away by these pits and trenches, leaving it extremely irregular with a maze of points, grooves and ridges or lapies. Especially, these ridges or lapies form due to differential solution activity along parallel to sub-parallel joints. The lapie field may eventually turn into somewhat smooth limestone pavements.

Q. ________ form on the surface of limestones through solution.

Detailed Solution for Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions - Question 5 Swallow holes form on the surface of limestones through solution. The water passes over the limestone and erodes vertical joints to form swallow holes.
Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions - Question 6

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer any three of the questions that follow.

Small- to medium-sized round to sub-rounded shallow depressions called swallow holes form on the surface of limestones through solution. Sink holes are very common in limestone/karst areas. A sinkhole is an opening more or less circular at the top and funnel-shaped towards the bottom with sizes varying in area from a few sq. m. to a hectare and with depth from a less than half a metre to thirty metres or more. Some of these forms solely through solution action (solution sinks) and others might start as solution forms first and if the bottom of a sinkhole forms the roof of a void or cave underground, it might collapse leaving a large hole opening into a cave or a void below (collapse sinks). Quite often, sinkholes are covered up with soil mantle and appear as shallow water pools. Anybody stepping over such pools would go down like it happens in quick sands in deserts. The term doline is sometimes used to refer the collapse sinks. Solution sinks are more common than collapse sinks. Quite often the surface runoff simply goes down swallow and sink hole sand flow as underground streams and re-emerge at a distance downstream through a cave opening. When sinkholes and do lines join together because of slumping of materials along their margins or due to roof collapse of caves, long, narrow to wide trenches called valley sinks or Uvalas form. Gradually, most of the surface of the limestone is eaten away by these pits and trenches, leaving it extremely irregular with a maze of points, grooves and ridges or lapies. Especially, these ridges or lapies form due to differential solution activity along parallel to sub-parallel joints. The lapie field may eventually turn into somewhat smooth limestone pavements.

Q. Where are sinkholes commonly found?

Detailed Solution for Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions - Question 6 Sinkholes are common where the rock below the land surface is limestone, carbonate rock, salt beds, or rocks that can naturally be dissolved by groundwater circulating through them.
Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions - Question 7

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer any three of the questions that follow.

Small- to medium-sized round to sub-rounded shallow depressions called swallow holes form on the surface of limestones through solution. Sink holes are very common in limestone/karst areas. A sinkhole is an opening more or less circular at the top and funnel-shaped towards the bottom with sizes varying in area from a few sq. m. to a hectare and with depth from a less than half a metre to thirty metres or more. Some of these forms solely through solution action (solution sinks) and others might start as solution forms first and if the bottom of a sinkhole forms the roof of a void or cave underground, it might collapse leaving a large hole opening into a cave or a void below (collapse sinks). Quite often, sinkholes are covered up with soil mantle and appear as shallow water pools. Anybody stepping over such pools would go down like it happens in quick sands in deserts. The term doline is sometimes used to refer the collapse sinks. Solution sinks are more common than collapse sinks. Quite often the surface runoff simply goes down swallow and sink hole sand flow as underground streams and re-emerge at a distance downstream through a cave opening. When sinkholes and do lines join together because of slumping of materials along their margins or due to roof collapse of caves, long, narrow to wide trenches called valley sinks or Uvalas form. Gradually, most of the surface of the limestone is eaten away by these pits and trenches, leaving it extremely irregular with a maze of points, grooves and ridges or lapies. Especially, these ridges or lapies form due to differential solution activity along parallel to sub-parallel joints. The lapie field may eventually turn into somewhat smooth limestone pavements.

Q. Which term is used to refer the collapse sinks?

Detailed Solution for Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions - Question 7 A sinkhole, also known as a cenote, sink, sink-hole, swallet, swallow hole, or doline (the different terms for sinkholes are often used interchangeably), is a depression or hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer. Sinkholes may form gradually or suddenly, and are found worldwide.
Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions - Question 8

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer any three of the questions that follow.

Small- to medium-sized round to sub-rounded shallow depressions called swallow holes form on the surface of limestones through solution. Sink holes are very common in limestone/karst areas. A sinkhole is an opening more or less circular at the top and funnel-shaped towards the bottom with sizes varying in area from a few sq. m. to a hectare and with depth from a less than half a metre to thirty metres or more. Some of these forms solely through solution action (solution sinks) and others might start as solution forms first and if the bottom of a sinkhole forms the roof of a void or cave underground, it might collapse leaving a large hole opening into a cave or a void below (collapse sinks). Quite often, sinkholes are covered up with soil mantle and appear as shallow water pools. Anybody stepping over such pools would go down like it happens in quick sands in deserts. The term doline is sometimes used to refer the collapse sinks. Solution sinks are more common than collapse sinks. Quite often the surface runoff simply goes down swallow and sink hole sand flow as underground streams and re-emerge at a distance downstream through a cave opening. When sinkholes and do lines join together because of slumping of materials along their margins or due to roof collapse of caves, long, narrow to wide trenches called valley sinks or Uvalas form. Gradually, most of the surface of the limestone is eaten away by these pits and trenches, leaving it extremely irregular with a maze of points, grooves and ridges or lapies. Especially, these ridges or lapies form due to differential solution activity along parallel to sub-parallel joints. The lapie field may eventually turn into somewhat smooth limestone pavements.

Q. Quite often, sinkholes are covered up with soil mantle and appear as shallow_________.

Detailed Solution for Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions - Question 8 Quite often, sinkholes are covered up with soil mantle and appear as shallow water pools. Anybody stepping over such pools would go down like it happens in quicksands in deserts. The term doline is sometimes used to refer to the collapse sinks. Solution sinks are more common than collapse sinks.
Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions - Question 9

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer any three of the questions that follow.

Moraines are long ridges of deposits of glacial till. Terminal moraines are long ridges of debris deposited at the end (toe) of the glaciers. Lateral moraines form along the sides parallel to the glacial valleys. The lateral moraines may join a terminal moraine forming a horse-shoe shaped ridge. There can be many lateral moraines on either side in a glacial valley. These moraines partly or fully owe their origin to glacio-fluvial waters pushing up materials to the sides of glaciers. Many valley glaciers retreating rapidly leave an irregular sheet of till over their valley floors. Such deposits varying greatly in thickness and in surface topography are called ground moraines. The moraine in the centre of the glacial valley flanked by lateral moraines is called medial moraine. They are imperfectly formed as compared to lateral moraines. Sometimes medial moraines are indistinguishable from ground moraines.

Q. Where are terminal moraines found?

Detailed Solution for Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions - Question 9 Terminal moraines are found at the terminus or the furthest (end) point reached by a glacier. Lateral moraines are found deposited along the sides of the glacier. Medial moraines are found at the junction between two glaciers.
Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions - Question 10

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer any three of the questions that follow.

Moraines are long ridges of deposits of glacial till. Terminal moraines are long ridges of debris deposited at the end (toe) of the glaciers. Lateral moraines form along the sides parallel to the glacial valleys. The lateral moraines may join a terminal moraine forming a horse-shoe shaped ridge. There can be many lateral moraines on either side in a glacial valley. These moraines partly or fully owe their origin to glacio-fluvial waters pushing up materials to the sides of glaciers. Many valley glaciers retreating rapidly leave an irregular sheet of till over their valley floors. Such deposits varying greatly in thickness and in surface topography are called ground moraines. The moraine in the centre of the glacial valley flanked by lateral moraines is called medial moraine. They are imperfectly formed as compared to lateral moraines. Sometimes medial moraines are indistinguishable from ground moraines.

Q. ______ moraines are imperfectly formed as compared to lateral moraines.

Detailed Solution for Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions - Question 10 The moraine in the center of the glacial valley flanked by lateral moraines is called medial moraine. They are imperfectly formed as compared to lateral moraines. Sometimes medial moraines are indistinguishable from ground moraines.
Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions - Question 11

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer any three of the questions that follow.

Moraines are long ridges of deposits of glacial till. Terminal moraines are long ridges of debris deposited at the end (toe) of the glaciers. Lateral moraines form along the sides parallel to the glacial valleys. The lateral moraines may join a terminal moraine forming a horse-shoe shaped ridge. There can be many lateral moraines on either side in a glacial valley. These moraines partly or fully owe their origin to glacio-fluvial waters pushing up materials to the sides of glaciers. Many valley glaciers retreating rapidly leave an irregular sheet of till over their valley floors. Such deposits varying greatly in thickness and in surface topography are called ground moraines. The moraine in the centre of the glacial valley flanked by lateral moraines is called medial moraine. They are imperfectly formed as compared to lateral moraines. Sometimes medial moraines are indistinguishable from ground moraines.

Q. Where can the medial moraines be found?

Detailed Solution for Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions - Question 11 A medial moraine is found on top of and inside an existing glacier. Medial moraines are formed when two glaciers meet. Two lateral moraines from the different glaciers are pushed together. This material forms one line of rocks and dirt in the middle of the new, bigger glacier.
Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions - Question 12

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer any three of the questions that follow.

Moraines are long ridges of deposits of glacial till. Terminal moraines are long ridges of debris deposited at the end (toe) of the glaciers. Lateral moraines form along the sides parallel to the glacial valleys. The lateral moraines may join a terminal moraine forming a horse-shoe shaped ridge. There can be many lateral moraines on either side in a glacial valley. These moraines partly or fully owe their origin to glacio-fluvial waters pushing up materials to the sides of glaciers. Many valley glaciers retreating rapidly leave an irregular sheet of till over their valley floors. Such deposits varying greatly in thickness and in surface topography are called ground moraines. The moraine in the centre of the glacial valley flanked by lateral moraines is called medial moraine. They are imperfectly formed as compared to lateral moraines. Sometimes medial moraines are indistinguishable from ground moraines.

Q. Where can the lateral moraines be found?

Detailed Solution for Test: Landforms and their Evolution - Case Based Type Questions - Question 12 A lateral moraine forms along the sides of a glacier. As the glacier scrapes along, it tears off rock and soil from both sides of its path. This material is deposited as lateral moraine at the top of the glacier's edges. Lateral moraines are usually found in matching ridges on either side of the glacier.
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