Consider the following statements:
Wind rose diagram is used for the purpose(s) of
1. runway orientation
2. estimating the runway capacity
3. geometric design of holding.apron
Which of these statements is/are correct?
The runway is usually oriented in the direction of the prevailing winds. During landing it provides breaking effect and the aircraft comes to a stop in a short length of the runway. During take off, it provides greater lift on the wings of the aircraft.
Which of the following factors are taken into account for estimating the runway length required for aircraft landing?
1. Normal maximum temperature
2. Airport elevation
3. Maximum landing weight
4. Effective runway gradient
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
The basic runway length is determined from the performance characteristics of the aircraft using the airport. The following cases are usually considered:
(i) Normal landing case requires that aircraft should come to a stop within 60% of the landing distance.
(ii) Normal takeoff case requires a clearway
(iii) Engine failure case may require either a clearway or a stopway or both.
The basic length is corrected for (in the same order):
(i) Elevation at the rate of 7% for every 300 m rise in elevation of airport above the MSL.
(ii) Temperature at the rate of 1% for every 1°C - rise in airport reference temperature above the standard atmospheric temperature at that elevation.
(iii) Gradient at the rate of 20% for every 1% of the effective aradient.
How many hectares of anchorage area will-be required by a 181 m long ship anchored by a single anchor in a harbour of 15 m depth?
Anchorage area is a place where ships may be held for quarantine inspection, await docking space or await favourable weather condition. The water area required for an anchorage depends upon number, type and size of vessels.
The anchorage area is calculated as the area of the circle having radius,
R = 4 x depth of water + length of ship + safe clearance to adjacent ship
= 4 x 15 + 161 + 12 = 253 m
In an airport, if 4 groups of 5 gates each located well-separated are considered for traffic and the future-to present traffic ratio is 3, then the total requirement of future gates will be
Gate is the parking space for an aircraft. Number of Gate positions
For the present traffic 4 x 5 = 20 gates are needed. Therefore for future traffic (three times present traffic) 60 gates will be required. In addition some aircrafts will have higher occupancy time in future as they will be very big compared to the present traffic composition. Therefore 68 gates will be the correct choice.
For a runway at an elevation of 1000 m above MSL and airport reference temperature of 16°C, the rise in temperature to be taken into account as per ICAO is
The standard temperature at the airport site can be determined by reducing the standard mean sea level temperature of 15°C at the rate of 6.5°C per thousand metre rise in elevation.
Standard temperature = 15 - 6.5 = 8.5°C
Rise in temperature = 16 - 8.5 - 7.5°C
The orientation of preferential runway In an airport is influenced by
Consider the following aircraft operations:
1. Normal landing
2. Normal takeoff with all engines
3. Engine failure at takeoff
4. Emergency landing with all engines shut
5. Landing with maximum payload with the help of ILS
Which of the above aircraft operations are taken into consideration in deciding the basic runway length required for an aircraft?
At a certain station, the mean of the average temperature is 25°C and mean of the maximum daily temperature is 40°C. What is the airport reference temperature (ART)?
Airport reference temperature
For design of a runway length, match List-I (Factor) with List-II (Correction) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the list:
A. Standard basic length
D. Effective gradient
1. 7% for every 303 metres
2. 1% per 1°
3. 20% for each 1% effective gradient
4. Depends upon aircraft and obtained from ICAO Standard Tables
The total correction percentage for altitude and temperature, in calculating the runway length from basic runway length, normally does not exceed